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Mango

The mango is a juicy stone fruit belonging to the genus Mangifera, consisting of numerous tropical
fruiting trees, that are cultivated mostly for edible fruit. The majority of these species are found in
nature as wild mangoes. They all belong to the flowering plant family Anacardiaceae. The mango
is native to South andSoutheast Asia, from where it has been distributed worldwide to become one
of the most cultivated fruits in the tropics. The highest concentration of Mangifera genus is situated
in western part of Malesia (Sumatra, Java and Borneo) and in Burma and India.
[1]
While
other Mangifera species (e.g. horse mango, M. foetida) are also grown on a more localized
basis, Mangifera indica—the "common mango" or "Indian mango"—is the only mango tree
commonly cultivated in many tropical and subtropical regions. It originated in India and Burma.
[2]
It is
the national fruit ofIndia, Pakistan, and the Philippines and the national tree of Bangladesh.
[3]
In
several cultures, its fruit and leaves are ritually used as floral decorations at weddings, public
celebrations and religious ceremonies.
[citation needed]







A glass of Mango Juice as served in a restaurant in Patong, Phuket, Thailand.
Mango is used to make juices, smoothies, ice cream, fruit bars, raspados, aguas frescas, pies, and
sweet chili sauce, or mixed with chamoy, a sweet and spicy chili paste. It is popular on a stick dipped
in hot chili powder and salt or as a main ingredient in fresh fruit combinations. In Central America,
mango is either eaten green mixed with salt, vinegar, black pepper and hot sauce, or ripe in various
forms. Toasted and ground pumpkin seed (called pepita) with lime and salt are the norm when
eating green mangoes.
[citation needed]
Some people
[who?]
also add soy sauce or chili sauce.
Pieces of mango can be mashed and used as a topping on ice cream or blended with milk and ice
as milkshakes. Sweet glutinous rice is flavored with coconut, then served with sliced mango as a
dessert. In other parts of Southeast Asia, mangoes are pickled with fish sauce and rice vinegar.
Green mangoes can be used in mango salad with fish sauce and dried shrimp. Mango
with condensed milk may be used as a topping for shaved ice.
Nutrients and phytochemicals[edit]
Mango


A mango shown whole
and in cross section
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 250 kJ (60 kcal)
Carbohydrates 15 g
Sugars 13.7
Dietary fiber 1.6 g
Fat 0.38 g
Protein 0.82 g
Vitamins
Vitamin A equiv.
beta-carotene
lutein zeaxanthin
(7%)
54 μg
(6%)
640 μg
23 μg
Thiamine (B1) (2%)
0.028 mg
Riboflavin (B2) (3%)
0.038 mg
Niacin (B3) (4%)
0.669 mg
Pantothenic acid (B5) (4%)
0.197 mg
Vitamin B6 (9%)
0.119 mg
Folate (B9) (11%)
43 μg
Choline (2%)
7.6 mg
Vitamin C (44%)
36.4 mg
Vitamin E (6%)
0.9 mg
Vitamin K (4%)
4.2 μg
Trace metals
Calcium (1%)
11 mg
Iron (1%)
0.16 mg
Magnesium (3%)
10 mg
Manganese (3%)
0.063 mg
Phosphorus (2%)
14 mg
Potassium (4%)
168 mg
Sodium (0%)
1 mg
Zinc (1%)
0.09 mg

Link to USDA Database entry
 Units
 μg = micrograms • mg = milligrams
 IU = International units
Percentages are roughly approximated usingUS recommendations for
adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database
The energy value per 100 g (3.5 oz) is 250 kJ (60 kcal), and that of the apple mango is slightly
higher (79 kcal per 100g). Mango contains a variety ofphytochemicals
[20]
and nutrients.
[21]

Mango peel and pulp contain other compounds, such as pigment carotenoidsand polyphenols,
and omega-3 and -6 polyunsaturated fatty acids.
[22]

Although not confirmed scientifically, mango peel pigments may have biological
effects,
[20][23]
including carotenoids, such as the provitamin A compound, beta-
carotene, lutein and alpha-carotene,
[24]
polyphenols
[25][26]
such as quercetin,kaempferol, gallic
acid, caffeic acid, catechins, tannins, and the unique mangoxanthonoid, mangiferin,
[27]
which are
under preliminary research for their potential to counteract various disease
processes.
[28][29]
Phytochemical and nutrient content appears to vary across mango cultivars.
[30]
Up
to 25 different carotenoids have been isolated from mango pulp, the densest of which was beta-
carotene, which accounts for the yellow-orange pigmentation of most mango cultivars.
[31]
Peel and
leaves also have significant polyphenol content, including xanthonoids, mangiferin and gallic acid.
[32]

The mango triterpene, lupeol,
[33]
is an effective inhibitor in laboratory models of prostate and skin
cancers.
[34][35][36]
An extract of mango branch bark calledVimang, isolated by Cuban scientists,
contains numerous polyphenols with antioxidant properties in vitro
[37]
and on blood parameters of
elderly humans.
[38]

The pigment euxanthin, known as Indian yellow, is often thought to be produced from the urine of
cattle fed mango leaves; the practice is described as having been outlawed in 1908 due to
malnutrition of the cows and possibleurushiol poisoning.
[39]
This supposed origin of euxanthin
appears to rely on a single, anecdotal source, and Indian legal records do not outlaw such a
practice.
[40]

Flavor[edit]


Major flavor chemicals of "Alphonso" mango from India
The flavor of mango fruits is constituted by several volatile organic chemicals mainly belonging
to terpenes, furanones, lactones and ester classes. Different varieties or cultivars of mangoes can
have flavor made up of different volatile chemicals or same volatile chemicals in different
quantities.
[41][42]
In general,New World mango cultivars are characterized by the dominance of δ-3-
carene, a monoterpene flavorant; whereas, high concentration of other monoterepnes such as (Z)-
ocimene and myrcene as well as the presence of lactones and furanones is the unique feature
of Old World cultivars.
[42][43][44]
In India, the country of origin and diversification of mango, Alphonso
(mango) is one of the most popular cultivars. In Alphonso mango, the lactones and furanones are
sysnthesized during ripening; whereas, terpenes and the other flavorants are present in both the
developing (immature) as well as ripening fruits.
[45][46][47][48]
Ethylene, a ripening-related hormone well
known to be involved in ripening of mango fruits, causes changes in the flavor composition of mango
fruits upon exogenous application as well.
[49][50]
In contrast to the huge amount of information
available on the chemical composition of mango flavor, the biosynthesis of these chemicals has not
been studied in depth; only a handful of genes encoding the enzymes of flavor biosynthetic
pathways have been characterized to date.
[51][52][53][54]

Potential for contact dermatitis[edit]
Contact with oils in mango leaves, stems, sap, and skin can cause dermatitis andanaphylaxis in
susceptible individuals.
[55]
It contains mangiferen, resinous acid, mangiferic acid, and the resinol
called mangiferol. Those with a history of contact dermatitis induced by urushiol (an allergen found
in poison ivy, poison oak, andpoison sumac) may be most at risk for mango contact
dermatitis.
[56]
Cross-reactions between mango allergens and urushiol have been
observed.
[57]
Urushiol is also present in mango leaves and stems. During its primary ripening
season, it is the most common cause of plant dermatitis in Hawaii.
[58]
After contacting it, reactions
may not be immediate. Eyelids, face, or other parts of the body may even swell because of this. It
irritates the skin and may even blister the skin. Also, burning of the mango wood, leaves, etc. should
be avoided because fumes could be dangerous.
[citation needed]

Cultural significance[edit]


An image of Ambika under a mango tree in Cave 34 of the Ellora Caves
The mango is the national fruit of India
[59]
and the Philippines. It is also the national tree of
Bangladesh.
[60]
In India, harvest and sale of mangoes is during March–May and this is annually
covered by news agencies. "Frooti" is an Indian mango drink and the Coca-Cola company started
their own drink, called "Maaza", in order to compete with it.
[61]

The Mughal emperor Akbar (1556-1605 AD) is said to have planted a mango orchard having
100,000 trees in Darbhanga, eastern India.
[62]
The Jain goddessAmbika is traditionally represented
as sitting under a mango tree.
[63]
In Hinduism, the perfectly ripe mango is often held by
Lord Ganesha as a symbol of attainment, regarding the devotees potential perfection. Mango
blossoms are also used in the worship of the goddess Saraswati. No Telugu/Kannada New Year's
Day called Ugadi passes without eating ugadi pachadi made with mango pieces as one of the
ingredients.
Dried mango skin and its seeds are also used in Ayurvedic medicines.
[18]
Mango leaves are used to
decorate archways and doors in Indian houses and during weddings and celebrations like Ganesh
Chaturthi. Mango motifs and paisleys are widely used in different Indian embroidery styles, and are
found in Kashmiri shawls,Kanchipuram silk sarees, etc. Paisleys are also common to Iranian art,
because of its pre-Islamic Zoroastrian past.
In Tamil Nadu, the mango is referred to as one of the three royal fruits along
with banana and jackfruit for their sweetness and flavor.
[64]
This triad of fruits is also referred to as
Ma-pala-vazhai.
Urdu poet Mirza Asadullah Khan Ghalib provided many anecdotes concerning his love for
mangoes.
[65]
Rabindranath Tagore was fond of mangoes and wrote poems about its flowers- aamer
monjori.
In the West Indies, the expression "to go mango walk" means to steal another person's mango fruits.
This is celebrated in the famous song, The Mango Walk.
In Australia, the first tray of mangoes of the season is traditionally sold at an auction for charity.
[66]

The Classical Sanskrit poet Kālidāsa sang the praises of mangoes.
[67]

Production and consumption[edit]
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations estimates worldwide production at
nearly 38,600,000 tonnes (42,500,000 short tons) in 2011 (table below). India is the biggest
producer of mangoes with nearly 40% of world's production. Controlling attacks of mango
mealybugs on fruiting mango trees, however, is a major challenge.



A basket of ripe mangoes
from Bangladesh



Ripe Sindhri mangoes
from Sindh, Pakistan



Banganpalli mangoes being sold
in Guntur, India



Ripe mangoes being sold in a market in the Philippines
Top producers of mangoes, mangosteens,
guavas, 2011
Country/State
Production inmillions
of tons
India ~ 15.19
People's Republic of
China
~ 4.35
Thailand ~ 2.60
Indonesia ~ 2.13
Pakistan ~ 1.89
Mexico ~ 1.83
Brazil ~ 1.19
Bangladesh ~ 0.89
Nigeria ~ 0.85
Philippines ~ 0.80
World total ~ 38.95
Source: UN FAOSTAT
[68]




Cultivars[edit]
Main article: List of mango cultivars

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this
article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and
removed. (May 2013)


Alphonso mangoes named afterAfonso de Albuquerque, who introduced the fruit to the Goa region, western coast of
India.


Close-up of the inflorescence and immature fruits of an Alphonso mango tree
Many hundreds of named mango cultivarsexist. In mango orchards, several cultivars are often
crossed to improve pollination. Many desired cultivars are monoembryonicand must be propagated
by grafting or they do not breed true. A common mono-embryonic cultivar is Alphonso, an important
export product, considered as "the king of mangoes".
[61]

Cultivars that excel in one climate may fail elsewhere. For example, Indian cultivars such as Julie, a
prolific cultivar in Jamaica, require annual fungicide treatment to escape a lethal fungal
disease known as anthracnose in Florida. Asian mangoes are resistant to anthracnose.
The current world market is dominated by the cultivar Tommy Atkins, a seedling ofHaden that first
fruited in 1940 in southern Florida, U.S. It was initially rejected commercially by Florida
researchers.
[69]
For example, 80% of mangoes in UK supermarkets are Tommy Atkins. Despite its
fibrous flesh and only fair taste,
[citation needed]
growers worldwide have embraced the cultivar for its
exceptional productivity and disease resistance, shelf life, transportability, size and appealing color.
Alphonso, Benishaan and Kesar mango varieties are popular varieties in India's southern states,
while the Chaunsa variety, among others, is popular in the northern states and Pakistan.
Guatemala markets sell a variety called 'mango de leche' which is more resinous outside and inside.
Generally, ripe mangoes have an orange-yellow or reddish peel and are juicy for eating, while
exported fruit are often picked while underripe with green peels. Although producing ethylene while
ripening, unripened exported mangoes do not have the same juiciness or flavor as fresh fruit.
Like other drupaceous fruits, mangoes come in both freestone and clingstone varieties.
Gallery[edit]


Mangoes for sale at a supermarket



Unripe mangoes on a mango tree



Mango tree with flowers



Mature Mangifera indicaafter annual flowering, note the budding fruits and
residual flowers.



Immature fruit ofMangifera, approximately six weeks after annual flowering



A view of Mangifera indica in Southern India



Freshly harvested mangoes and bananas at a fruit stand on the island
of Maui, Hawaii



A mango stand in Merritt Island, Florida



A nearly ripened purple mango, Israel



Mangoes being sold in the Philippines



Green mangoes of thePhilippines



Green mango of Bangladesh



A mango grown inBangladesh



Mango roundabout,Rajshahi, Bangladesh



Saigon mangoes on display at the 15th Annual International Mango
Festival at theFairchild Tropical Botanic Garden, Florida, United States



Mango-Slice



Sidur Mango of Bangladesh



Sindur Mango of Bangladesh



Ripe Mango



Mango Close View
See also[edit]
 Aavakaaya South India pickled mango
 Achaar, South Asian pickles, commonly containing mango and lime
 Amchoor, mango powder
 Mangosteen, an unrelated fruit with a similar name
 Mango mealybug
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60. Jump up^ "Mango tree, national tree". BDnews24.com. Retrieved
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Jonathan Allen (10 May 2006). "Mango Mania in
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62. Jump up^ Curtis Morgan (18 June 1995). "Mango has a long
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63. Jump up^ Tiwari, M.N.P. (1989). Ambika in Jaina arts and
literature, New Delhi: Bharatiya Jnanpith.
64. Jump up^ Subrahmanian N, Hikosaka S, Samuel GJ
(1997). Tamil social history. p. 88. Retrieved March 23, 2010.
65. Jump up^ "36_09". Columbia.edu. Retrieved 2013-06-14.
66. Jump up^ First tray of mangoes sells for $30,000, Australian
Associated Press via The Sydney Morning Herald, September 8,
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67. Jump up^ "His highness, Mango maharaja: An endless obsession
- Yahoo! Lifestyle India". In.lifestyle.yahoo.com. 2012-05-29.
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68. Jump up^ "Statistics from: Food And Agricultural Organization of
United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical
Division". UN Food and Agriculture Organization Corporate
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69. Jump up^ Susser, Allen (2001). The Great Mango Book. New
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Further reading[edit]
 Ensminger, Audrey H.; et al. (1995). The Concise Encyclopedia of
Foods & Nutrition. CRC Press. p. 651. ISBN 0-8493-4455-7.
 Litz, Richard E. (editor, 2009). The Mango: Botany, Production and
Uses. 2nd edition. CABI. ISBN 978-1-84593-489-7
 Susser, Allen (2001). The Great Mango Book: A Guide with
Recipes. Ten Speed Press. ISBN 978-1-58008-204-4
External links[edit]

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