You are on page 1of 24


The mango is a juicy stone fruit belonging to the genus Mangifera, consisting of numerous tropical
fruiting trees, that are cultivated mostly for edible fruit. The majority of these species are found in
nature as wild mangoes. They all belong to the flowering plant family Anacardiaceae. The mango
is native to South andSoutheast Asia, from where it has been distributed worldwide to become one
of the most cultivated fruits in the tropics. The highest concentration of Mangifera genus is situated
in western part of Malesia (Sumatra, Java and Borneo) and in Burma and India.
other Mangifera species (e.g. horse mango, M. foetida) are also grown on a more localized
basis, Mangifera indica—the "common mango" or "Indian mango"—is the only mango tree
commonly cultivated in many tropical and subtropical regions. It originated in India and Burma.
It is
the national fruit ofIndia, Pakistan, and the Philippines and the national tree of Bangladesh.
several cultures, its fruit and leaves are ritually used as floral decorations at weddings, public
celebrations and religious ceremonies.
[citation needed]

A glass of Mango Juice as served in a restaurant in Patong, Phuket, Thailand.
Mango is used to make juices, smoothies, ice cream, fruit bars, raspados, aguas frescas, pies, and
sweet chili sauce, or mixed with chamoy, a sweet and spicy chili paste. It is popular on a stick dipped
in hot chili powder and salt or as a main ingredient in fresh fruit combinations. In Central America,
mango is either eaten green mixed with salt, vinegar, black pepper and hot sauce, or ripe in various
forms. Toasted and ground pumpkin seed (called pepita) with lime and salt are the norm when
eating green mangoes.
[citation needed]
Some people
also add soy sauce or chili sauce.
Pieces of mango can be mashed and used as a topping on ice cream or blended with milk and ice
as milkshakes. Sweet glutinous rice is flavored with coconut, then served with sliced mango as a
dessert. In other parts of Southeast Asia, mangoes are pickled with fish sauce and rice vinegar.
Green mangoes can be used in mango salad with fish sauce and dried shrimp. Mango
with condensed milk may be used as a topping for shaved ice.
Nutrients and phytochemicals[edit]

A mango shown whole
and in cross section
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 250 kJ (60 kcal)
Carbohydrates 15 g
Sugars 13.7
Dietary fiber 1.6 g
Fat 0.38 g
Protein 0.82 g
Vitamin A equiv.
lutein zeaxanthin
54 μg
640 μg
23 μg
Thiamine (B1) (2%)
0.028 mg
Riboflavin (B2) (3%)
0.038 mg
Niacin (B3) (4%)
0.669 mg
Pantothenic acid (B5) (4%)
0.197 mg
Vitamin B6 (9%)
0.119 mg
Folate (B9) (11%)
43 μg
Choline (2%)
7.6 mg
Vitamin C (44%)
36.4 mg
Vitamin E (6%)
0.9 mg
Vitamin K (4%)
4.2 μg
Trace metals
Calcium (1%)
11 mg
Iron (1%)
0.16 mg
Magnesium (3%)
10 mg
Manganese (3%)
0.063 mg
Phosphorus (2%)
14 mg
Potassium (4%)
168 mg
Sodium (0%)
1 mg
Zinc (1%)
0.09 mg

Link to USDA Database entry
 Units
 μg = micrograms • mg = milligrams
 IU = International units
Percentages are roughly approximated usingUS recommendations for
Source: USDA Nutrient Database
The energy value per 100 g (3.5 oz) is 250 kJ (60 kcal), and that of the apple mango is slightly
higher (79 kcal per 100g). Mango contains a variety ofphytochemicals
and nutrients.

Mango peel and pulp contain other compounds, such as pigment carotenoidsand polyphenols,
and omega-3 and -6 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

Although not confirmed scientifically, mango peel pigments may have biological
including carotenoids, such as the provitamin A compound, beta-
carotene, lutein and alpha-carotene,
such as quercetin,kaempferol, gallic
acid, caffeic acid, catechins, tannins, and the unique mangoxanthonoid, mangiferin,
which are
under preliminary research for their potential to counteract various disease
Phytochemical and nutrient content appears to vary across mango cultivars.
to 25 different carotenoids have been isolated from mango pulp, the densest of which was beta-
carotene, which accounts for the yellow-orange pigmentation of most mango cultivars.
Peel and
leaves also have significant polyphenol content, including xanthonoids, mangiferin and gallic acid.

The mango triterpene, lupeol,
is an effective inhibitor in laboratory models of prostate and skin
An extract of mango branch bark calledVimang, isolated by Cuban scientists,
contains numerous polyphenols with antioxidant properties in vitro
and on blood parameters of
elderly humans.

The pigment euxanthin, known as Indian yellow, is often thought to be produced from the urine of
cattle fed mango leaves; the practice is described as having been outlawed in 1908 due to
malnutrition of the cows and possibleurushiol poisoning.
This supposed origin of euxanthin
appears to rely on a single, anecdotal source, and Indian legal records do not outlaw such a


Major flavor chemicals of "Alphonso" mango from India
The flavor of mango fruits is constituted by several volatile organic chemicals mainly belonging
to terpenes, furanones, lactones and ester classes. Different varieties or cultivars of mangoes can
have flavor made up of different volatile chemicals or same volatile chemicals in different
In general,New World mango cultivars are characterized by the dominance of δ-3-
carene, a monoterpene flavorant; whereas, high concentration of other monoterepnes such as (Z)-
ocimene and myrcene as well as the presence of lactones and furanones is the unique feature
of Old World cultivars.
In India, the country of origin and diversification of mango, Alphonso
(mango) is one of the most popular cultivars. In Alphonso mango, the lactones and furanones are
sysnthesized during ripening; whereas, terpenes and the other flavorants are present in both the
developing (immature) as well as ripening fruits.
Ethylene, a ripening-related hormone well
known to be involved in ripening of mango fruits, causes changes in the flavor composition of mango
fruits upon exogenous application as well.
In contrast to the huge amount of information
available on the chemical composition of mango flavor, the biosynthesis of these chemicals has not
been studied in depth; only a handful of genes encoding the enzymes of flavor biosynthetic
pathways have been characterized to date.

Potential for contact dermatitis[edit]
Contact with oils in mango leaves, stems, sap, and skin can cause dermatitis andanaphylaxis in
susceptible individuals.
It contains mangiferen, resinous acid, mangiferic acid, and the resinol
called mangiferol. Those with a history of contact dermatitis induced by urushiol (an allergen found
in poison ivy, poison oak, andpoison sumac) may be most at risk for mango contact
Cross-reactions between mango allergens and urushiol have been
Urushiol is also present in mango leaves and stems. During its primary ripening
season, it is the most common cause of plant dermatitis in Hawaii.
After contacting it, reactions
may not be immediate. Eyelids, face, or other parts of the body may even swell because of this. It
irritates the skin and may even blister the skin. Also, burning of the mango wood, leaves, etc. should
be avoided because fumes could be dangerous.
[citation needed]

Cultural significance[edit]

An image of Ambika under a mango tree in Cave 34 of the Ellora Caves
The mango is the national fruit of India
and the Philippines. It is also the national tree of
In India, harvest and sale of mangoes is during March–May and this is annually
covered by news agencies. "Frooti" is an Indian mango drink and the Coca-Cola company started
their own drink, called "Maaza", in order to compete with it.

The Mughal emperor Akbar (1556-1605 AD) is said to have planted a mango orchard having
100,000 trees in Darbhanga, eastern India.
The Jain goddessAmbika is traditionally represented
as sitting under a mango tree.
In Hinduism, the perfectly ripe mango is often held by
Lord Ganesha as a symbol of attainment, regarding the devotees potential perfection. Mango
blossoms are also used in the worship of the goddess Saraswati. No Telugu/Kannada New Year's
Day called Ugadi passes without eating ugadi pachadi made with mango pieces as one of the
Dried mango skin and its seeds are also used in Ayurvedic medicines.
Mango leaves are used to
decorate archways and doors in Indian houses and during weddings and celebrations like Ganesh
Chaturthi. Mango motifs and paisleys are widely used in different Indian embroidery styles, and are
found in Kashmiri shawls,Kanchipuram silk sarees, etc. Paisleys are also common to Iranian art,
because of its pre-Islamic Zoroastrian past.
In Tamil Nadu, the mango is referred to as one of the three royal fruits along
with banana and jackfruit for their sweetness and flavor.
This triad of fruits is also referred to as
Urdu poet Mirza Asadullah Khan Ghalib provided many anecdotes concerning his love for
Rabindranath Tagore was fond of mangoes and wrote poems about its flowers- aamer
In the West Indies, the expression "to go mango walk" means to steal another person's mango fruits.
This is celebrated in the famous song, The Mango Walk.
In Australia, the first tray of mangoes of the season is traditionally sold at an auction for charity.

The Classical Sanskrit poet Kālidāsa sang the praises of mangoes.

Production and consumption[edit]
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations estimates worldwide production at
nearly 38,600,000 tonnes (42,500,000 short tons) in 2011 (table below). India is the biggest
producer of mangoes with nearly 40% of world's production. Controlling attacks of mango
mealybugs on fruiting mango trees, however, is a major challenge.

A basket of ripe mangoes
from Bangladesh

Ripe Sindhri mangoes
from Sindh, Pakistan

Banganpalli mangoes being sold
in Guntur, India

Ripe mangoes being sold in a market in the Philippines
Top producers of mangoes, mangosteens,
guavas, 2011
Production inmillions
of tons
India ~ 15.19
People's Republic of
~ 4.35
Thailand ~ 2.60
Indonesia ~ 2.13
Pakistan ~ 1.89
Mexico ~ 1.83
Brazil ~ 1.19
Bangladesh ~ 0.89
Nigeria ~ 0.85
Philippines ~ 0.80
World total ~ 38.95

Main article: List of mango cultivars

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this
article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and
removed. (May 2013)

Alphonso mangoes named afterAfonso de Albuquerque, who introduced the fruit to the Goa region, western coast of

Close-up of the inflorescence and immature fruits of an Alphonso mango tree
Many hundreds of named mango cultivarsexist. In mango orchards, several cultivars are often
crossed to improve pollination. Many desired cultivars are monoembryonicand must be propagated
by grafting or they do not breed true. A common mono-embryonic cultivar is Alphonso, an important
export product, considered as "the king of mangoes".

Cultivars that excel in one climate may fail elsewhere. For example, Indian cultivars such as Julie, a
prolific cultivar in Jamaica, require annual fungicide treatment to escape a lethal fungal
disease known as anthracnose in Florida. Asian mangoes are resistant to anthracnose.
The current world market is dominated by the cultivar Tommy Atkins, a seedling ofHaden that first
fruited in 1940 in southern Florida, U.S. It was initially rejected commercially by Florida
For example, 80% of mangoes in UK supermarkets are Tommy Atkins. Despite its
fibrous flesh and only fair taste,
[citation needed]
growers worldwide have embraced the cultivar for its
exceptional productivity and disease resistance, shelf life, transportability, size and appealing color.
Alphonso, Benishaan and Kesar mango varieties are popular varieties in India's southern states,
while the Chaunsa variety, among others, is popular in the northern states and Pakistan.
Guatemala markets sell a variety called 'mango de leche' which is more resinous outside and inside.
Generally, ripe mangoes have an orange-yellow or reddish peel and are juicy for eating, while
exported fruit are often picked while underripe with green peels. Although producing ethylene while
ripening, unripened exported mangoes do not have the same juiciness or flavor as fresh fruit.
Like other drupaceous fruits, mangoes come in both freestone and clingstone varieties.

Mangoes for sale at a supermarket

Unripe mangoes on a mango tree

Mango tree with flowers

Mature Mangifera indicaafter annual flowering, note the budding fruits and
residual flowers.

Immature fruit ofMangifera, approximately six weeks after annual flowering

A view of Mangifera indica in Southern India

Freshly harvested mangoes and bananas at a fruit stand on the island
of Maui, Hawaii

A mango stand in Merritt Island, Florida

A nearly ripened purple mango, Israel

Mangoes being sold in the Philippines

Green mangoes of thePhilippines

Green mango of Bangladesh

A mango grown inBangladesh

Mango roundabout,Rajshahi, Bangladesh

Saigon mangoes on display at the 15th Annual International Mango
Festival at theFairchild Tropical Botanic Garden, Florida, United States


Sidur Mango of Bangladesh

Sindur Mango of Bangladesh

Ripe Mango

Mango Close View
See also[edit]
 Aavakaaya South India pickled mango
 Achaar, South Asian pickles, commonly containing mango and lime
 Amchoor, mango powder
 Mangosteen, an unrelated fruit with a similar name
 Mango mealybug
1. Jump up^ , Morton J, 1987. Fruits of warm climates.
2. Jump up^ , Kostermans AJHG, Bompard JM, 1993. The
Mangoes: Their Botany, Nomenclature, Horticulture and Utilization.
3. Jump up^ "Mango tree, national tree". 2010-11-15. Retrieved
4. Jump up^ "Mango (MANGIFERA INDICA)
varieties" Retrieved 2 January 2014.
5. Jump up^ Mango Merriam Webster Dictionary.
"Origin of mango: Portuguese manga, probably from Malayalam
māṅga. First Known Use: 1582"
6. Jump up^ "Definition for mango - Oxford Dictionaries Online
(World English)". Retrieved 2012-06-17.
7. Jump up^ OED Online entry mango, n. 1. (Draft revision Sept.
2010, retrieved 13/10/2010)
8. Jump
9. Jump up^ Creed, Richard (2010-09-05). "Relative Obscurity:
Variations of antigodlin grow". Winston-Salem Journal. Retrieved
[dead link]

10. ^ Jump up to:


Ensminger 1994: 1373
11. Jump up^ Watson, Andrew J. (1983). Agricultural innovation in the
early Islamic world: the diffusion of crops and farming techniques,
700–1100. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. 72–
3. ISBN 0-521-24711-X.
12. Jump up^ Jedele, S.; Hau, A.M.; von Oppen, M. "An analysis of
the world market for mangoes and its importance for developing
countries. Conference on International Agricultural Research for
Development, 2003" (PDF).
13. Jump up^ "India world's largest producer of mangoes, Rediff India
Abroad, April 21, 2004". 2004-12-31. Retrieved 2013-
14. Jump up^ "Mad About mangoes: As exports to the U.S. resume, a
juicy business opportunity ripens, India Knowledge@Wharton
Network, June 14, 2007". 2007-
06-14. Retrieved 2013-01-31.
15. Jump up^ USAID helps Indian mango farmers access new
markets, USAID-India, May 3, 2006
[dead link]

16. Jump up^ "". Retrieved 2013-01-31.
17. Jump up^ According to the 'Oxford Companion to Food'
18. ^ Jump up to:

D.Devika Bal (8 May 1995). "Mango's wide
influence in Indian culture". New Strait Times. Retrieved 4
September 2013.
19. Jump up^ "Vah Chef talking about Mango Lassi's popularity and
showing how to make the drink".
20. ^ Jump up to:

Ajila CM, Prasada Rao UJ (2008). "Protection
against hydrogen peroxide induced oxidative damage in rat
erythrocytes by Mangifera indica L. peel extract". Food Chem
Toxicol 46 (1): 303–
9.doi:10.1016/j.fct.2007.08.024. PMID 17919803.
21. Jump up^ "Nutrient profile for mango from USDA SR-21". Retrieved 2013-01-31.
22. Jump up^ "USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard
Reference, SR-23, Fruit Reports-09, Mango, raw (page 449),
2010". USDA.
23. Jump up^ Berardini N, Fezer R, Conrad J, Beifuss U, Carle R,
Schieber A (2005). "Screening of mango (Mangifera indicaL.)
cultivars for their contents of flavonol O – and xanthoneC-
glycosides, anthocyanins, and pectin". J Agric Food Chem 53 (5):
1563–70. doi:10.1021/jf0484069.PMID 15740041.
24. Jump up^ Gouado I, Schweigert FJ, Ejoh RA, Tchouanguep MF,
Camp JV (2007). "Systemic levels of carotenoids from mangoes
and papaya consumed in three forms (juice, fresh and dry
slice)". Eur J Clin Nutr 61 (10): 1180–
8.doi:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602841. PMID 17637601.
25. Jump up^ Mahattanatawee K, Manthey JA, Luzio G, Talcott ST,
Goodner K, Baldwin EA (2006). "Total antioxidant activity and fiber
content of select Florida-grown tropical fruits". J Agric Food
Chem 54 (19): 7355–63.doi:10.1021/jf060566s. PMID 16968105.
26. Jump up^ Singh UP, Singh DP, Singh M, et al. (2004).
"Characterization of phenolic compounds in some Indian mango
cultivars". Int J Food Sci Nutr 55 (2): 163–
9.doi:10.1080/09637480410001666441. PMID 14985189.
27. Jump up^ Andreu GL, Delgado R, Velho JA, Curti C, Vercesi AE
(2005). "Mangiferin, a natural occurring glucosyl xanthone,
increases susceptibility of rat liver mitochondria to calcium-induced
permeability transition". Arch Biochem Biophys439 (2): 184–
93. doi:10.1016/ 15979560.
28. Jump up^ Percival SS, Talcott ST, Chin ST, Mallak AC, Lounds-
Singleton A, Pettit-Moore J (2006). "Neoplastic transformation of
BALB/3T3 cells and cell cycle of HL-60 cells are inhibited by
mango (Mangifera indica L.) juice and mango juice extracts". J
Nutr 136 (5): 1300–4.PMID 16614420.
29. Jump up^ Rodríguez J, Di Pierro D, Gioia M, et al. (2006). "Effects
of a natural extract from Mangifera indica L, and its active
compound, mangiferin, on energy state and lipid peroxidation of
red blood cells". Biochim Biophys Acta1760 (9): 1333–
42. doi:10.1016/j.bbagen.2006.04.005.PMID 16860486.
30. Jump up^ Rocha Ribeiro SM, Queiroz JH, Lopes Ribeiro de
Queiroz ME, Campos FM, Pinheiro Sant'ana HM (2007).
"Antioxidant in mango (Mangifera indica L.) pulp". Plant Foods
Hum Nutr 62 (1): 13–7. doi:10.1007/s11130-006-0035-
3. PMID 17243011.
31. Jump up^ Chen JP, Tai CY, Chen BH (2004). "Improved liquid
chromatographic method for determination of carotenoids in
Taiwanese mango (Mangifera indica L.)". J Chromatogr A1054 (1–
2): 261–8. PMID 15553152.
32. Jump up^ Barreto JC, Trevisan MT, Hull WE, et al. (2008).
"Characterization and quantitation of polyphenolic compounds in
bark, kernel, leaves, and peel of mango (Mangifera indica L.)". J
Agric Food Chem 56 (14): 5599–
610. doi:10.1021/jf800738r. PMID 18558692.
33. Jump up^ Chaturvedi PK, Bhui K, Shukla Y (2008). "Lupeol:
connotations for chemoprevention". Cancer Lett 263 (1): 1–
13. doi:10.1016/j.canlet.2008.01.047. PMID 18359153.
34. Jump up^ Prasad S, Kalra N, Singh M, Shukla Y
(2008). "Protective effects of lupeol and mango extract against
androgen induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino
mice" (PDF).Asian J Androl 10 (2): 313–8. doi:10.1111/j.1745-
7262.2008.00313.x. PMID 18097535.
35. Jump up^ Nigam N, Prasad S, Shukla Y (2007). "Preventive
effects of lupeol on DMBA induced DNA alkylation damage in
mouse skin". Food Chem Toxicol 45 (11): 2331–
5.doi:10.1016/j.fct.2007.06.002. PMID 17637493.
36. Jump up^ Saleem M, Afaq F, Adhami VM, Mukhtar H (2004).
"Lupeol modulates NF-kappaB and PI3K/Akt pathways and inhibits
skin cancer in CD-1 mice". Oncogene 23 (30): 5203–
14. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1207641.PMID 15122342.
37. Jump up^ Rodeiro I, Cancino L, González JE, et al. (2006).
"Evaluation of the genotoxic potential of Mangifera indica L. extract
(Vimang), a new natural product with antioxidant activity". Food
Chem Toxicol 44 (10): 1707–
13.doi:10.1016/j.fct.2006.05.009. PMID 16857303.
38. Jump up^ Pardo-Andreu GL, Philip SJ, Riaño A, et al. (2006).
"Mangifera indica L. (Vimang) protection against serum oxidative
stress in elderly humans". Arch Med Res 37 (1): 158–
64. doi:10.1016/j.arcmed.2005.04.017.PMID 16314203.
39. Jump up^ Source: Kühn. "History of Indian yellow, Pigments
Through the Ages". Retrieved 2013-01-31.
40. Jump up^ Finlay, Victoria (2003). Color: A Natural History of the
Palette. New York: Random House Trade Paperbacks.ISBN 0-
41. Jump up^ Macleod AJ, Pieris NM, 1984. Comparison of the
volatile components of some mango cultivars. Phytochemistry 23,
42. ^ Jump up to:

Pandit SS, Chidley HG, Kulkarni RS, Pujari KH,
Giri AP, Gupta VS, 2009, Cultivar relationships in mango based on
fruit volatile profiles, Food Chemistry, 144, 363–372.
43. Jump up^ Narain N, Bora PS, Narain R and Shaw PE (1998).
Mango, In: Tropical and Subtropical Fruits, Ed. by Shaw PE, Chan
HT and Nagy S. Agscience, Auburndale, FL, USA, pp. 1-77.
44. Jump up^ Kulkarni RS, Chidley HG, Pujari KH, Giri AP and Gupta
VS, 2012, Flavor of mango: A pleasant but complex blend of
compounds, In Mango Vol. 1: Production and Processing
Technology (Eds. Sudha G Valavi, K Rajmohan, JN Govil, KV
Peter and George Thottappilly) Studium Press LLC.
45. Jump up^ Pandit SS, Kulkarni RS, Chidley HG, Giri AP, Köllner
TG, Degenhardt J, Gershenzon J, Gupta VS, 2009,Changes in
volatile composition during fruit development and ripening of
‘Alphonso’ mango. Journal of Science of Food and Agriculture, 89,
46. Jump up^ Gholap, A. S., Bandyopadhyay, C., 1977.
Characterization of green aroma of raw mango (Mangifera indica
L.). Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 28, 885-888
47. Jump up^ Idstein, H., Schreier, P., 1985. Volatile constituents of
Alphonso mango (Mangifera indica). Phytochemistry 24, 2313-
48. Jump up^ Kulkarni RS, Chidley HG, Pujari KH, Giri AP and Gupta
VS, 2012, Geographic variation in the flavour volatiles of Alphonso
mango. Food Chemistry, 130, 58–66.
49. Jump up^ Lalel HJD, Singh Z, Tan S, 2003, The role of ethylene
in mango fruit aroma volatiles biosynthesis, Journal of Horticultural
Science and Biotechnology, 78, 485-496.
50. Jump up^ Chidley HG, Kulkarni RS, Pujari KH, Giri AP and Gupta
VS, 2013, Spatial and temporal changes in the volatile profile of
Alphonso mango upon exogenous ethylene treatment. Food
Chemistry, 136, 585-594.
51. Jump up^ Pandit SS, Kulkarni RS, Giri AP, Köllner TG,
Degenhardt J, Gershenzon J, Gupta VS, 2010, Expression profiling
of various genes during the development and ripening of Alphonso
mango, Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 48, 426–433.
52. Jump up^ Singh RK, Sane VA, Misra A, Ali SA, Nath P,
2010,Differential expression of the mango alcohol dehydrogenase
gene family during ripening , Phytochemistry , 71, 1485–1494.
53. Jump up^ Kulkarni RS, Pandit SS, Chidley HG, Nagel R, Schmidt
A, Gershenzon J, Pujari KH, Giri AP and Gupta VS,
2013,Characterization of three novel isoprenyl diphosphate
synthases from the terpenoid rich mango fruit. Plant Physiology
and Biochemistry, 71, 121–131.
54. Jump up^ Kulkarni RS, Chidley HG, Deshpande A, Schmidt A,
Pujari KH, Giri AP and Gershenzon J, Gupta VS, 2013, An
oxidoreductase from ‘Alphonso’ mango catalyzing biosynthesis of
furaneol and reduction of reactive carbonyls, SpringerPlus, 2, 494.
55. Jump up^ Miell J, Papouchado M, Marshall A.
(1988)."Anaphylactic reaction after eating a mango". British
Medical Journal 297 (6664): 1639–
40.doi:10.1136/bmj.297.6664.1639. PMC 1838873.PMID 3147776.
56. Jump up^ Hershko K, Weinberg I, Ingber A (2005). "Exploring the
mango – poison ivy connection: the riddle of discriminative plant
dermatitis". Contact Dermatitis 52 (1): 3–5.doi:10.1111/j.0105-
1873.2005.00454.x.PMID 15701120.
57. Jump up^ Oka K, Saito F, Yasuhara T, Sugimoto A. (2004). "A
study of cross-reactions between mango contact allergens and
urushiol". Contact Dermatitis 51 (5–6): 292–6.doi:10.1111/j.0105-
1873.2004.00451.x.PMID 15606656.
58. Jump up^ McGovern TW, LaWarre S (2001). "Botanical briefs: the
mango tree—Mangifera indica L.". Cutis 67 (5): 365–6.
59. Jump up^ "National Fruit". Know India. Government of India.
Retrieved 2010-08-17.
60. Jump up^ "Mango tree, national tree". Retrieved
61. ^ Jump up to:

Jonathan Allen (10 May 2006). "Mango Mania in
India". New York Times. Retrieved 4 September 2013.
62. Jump up^ Curtis Morgan (18 June 1995). "Mango has a long
history as a culinary treat in India". The Milwaukee Journal.
Retrieved 4 September 2013.
63. Jump up^ Tiwari, M.N.P. (1989). Ambika in Jaina arts and
literature, New Delhi: Bharatiya Jnanpith.
64. Jump up^ Subrahmanian N, Hikosaka S, Samuel GJ
(1997). Tamil social history. p. 88. Retrieved March 23, 2010.
65. Jump up^ "36_09". Retrieved 2013-06-14.
66. Jump up^ First tray of mangoes sells for $30,000, Australian
Associated Press via The Sydney Morning Herald, September 8,
67. Jump up^ "His highness, Mango maharaja: An endless obsession
- Yahoo! Lifestyle India". 2012-05-29.
Retrieved 2013-06-14.
68. Jump up^ "Statistics from: Food And Agricultural Organization of
United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical
Division". UN Food and Agriculture Organization Corporate
Statistical Database.
69. Jump up^ Susser, Allen (2001). The Great Mango Book. New
York: Ten Speed Press. ISBN 1-58008-204-1.
Further reading[edit]
 Ensminger, Audrey H.; et al. (1995). The Concise Encyclopedia of
Foods & Nutrition. CRC Press. p. 651. ISBN 0-8493-4455-7.
 Litz, Richard E. (editor, 2009). The Mango: Botany, Production and
Uses. 2nd edition. CABI. ISBN 978-1-84593-489-7
 Susser, Allen (2001). The Great Mango Book: A Guide with
Recipes. Ten Speed Press. ISBN 978-1-58008-204-4
External links[edit]

Wikispecies has
information related
to: Mangifera

Wikimedia Commons has
media related to:
Mango (category)
 Common Mango
 Mango
 Mango Nutrition Information from USDA SR 22 database
 Mango-related dermatitis
 Sorting Mangifera species
 Pine Island Nursery's Mango Variety viewer
 V
 T
 E
 V
 T
 E
National symbols of Bangladesh
 V
 T
 E
National symbols of India
 V
 T
 E
National symbols of the Philippines
 V
 T
 E
Lists of countries by agricultural output rankings
 Mangoes
 Trees of Bangladesh
 Flora of Florida
 Trees of India
 Trees of Nepal
 Fruits originating in Asia
 Trees of Pakistan
 Medicinal plants
Navigation menu
 Create account
 Log in
 Article
 Talk
 Read
 Edit
 View history

 Main page
 Contents
 Featured content
 Current events
 Random article
 Donate to Wikipedia
 Wikimedia Shop
 Help
 About Wikipedia
 Community portal
 Recent changes
 Contact page
 What links here
 Related changes
 Upload file
 Special pages
 Permanent link
 Page information
 Wikidata item
 Cite this page
 Create a book
 Download as PDF
 Printable version
 Acèh
 ةي برع لا
 অসমীয়
 Aymar aru
 Bamanankan
 ব়াল়

 Brezhoneg
 Čeština
 Dansk
 Deutsch

 Diné bizaad

 Esperanto
 Euskara
 Eʋegbe
 یس را ف
 Français
 Gaeilge
 Gaelg
 Galego
 客家語/Hak-kâ-ngî
 हिनदी
 Ido
 Ilokano
 Ирон
 Kinyarwanda
 Kreyòl ayisyen
 Кырык мары
 Лакку
 Latviešu
 Lëtzebuergesch
 Malagasy
 മലയാളം
 मराठी
 Bahasa Melayu
 မမမမမမမမမမ
 Nederlands

 Oʻzbekcha
 ਪੰਜਾਬੀ
 ی باجن پ
 Papiamentu
 Перем Коми
 Português
 Русский
 संसक

 Sicilianu
 Simple English
 Slovenčina
 Soomaaliga
 Svenska
 தமிழ
 Türkçe
 Українська
 ەچرۇغ يۇ ئ / Uyghurche
 Winaray
 粵語
 中文
Edit links
 This version of the page has been revised.
Besides normal editing, the reason for revision may have been that this version contains
factual inaccuracies, vandalism, or material not compatible with theCreative Commons
Attribution-ShareAlike License.
 Privacy policy
 About Wikipedia
 Disclaimers
 Contact Wikipedia
 Developers
 Mobile view