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# Lee Cyrelle T.

Yu
IV- Campos
In two months of studying Physics, I learned how it affects all living things here on Earth. At first, I
learned what Physics is. Physics is the study of matter, along with energy and force. We need to study
Physics because it is the most fundamental of all sciences, a foundation of all engineering and technology,
and it was an adventure. We study first who were the physicists and their contribution. Galileo Galilei, who
perform fundamental observations, experiments, and mathematical analyses in astronomy and physics
discovered mountains and craters on the moon, the phases of !enus, and the four largest satellites of
"upiter# Io, Europa, \$allisto, and Ganymede. %ir Isaac &ewton, the physicist who developed theories of
gravitation and mechanics, and he invented differential calculus. 'ichael (araday discovered
electromagnetic induction and devised first electrical transformer. Allesandro !olta invented the first electric
battery. William Gilbert hypothesi)ed that the Earth is a giant magnet. "ames Prescott "oule discovered
mechanical e*uivalent of heat. +en,amin (ran-lin was the first American physicist characteri)ed two -inds
of electric charge, which he named .P/%I0I!E1 and .&EGA0I!E1.
0he first lesson that %ir %onny discussed was the WA!E. &ow, what is wave2 Wave is rhythmic
disturbance that transfers energy through space or matter. 0here are several parts of a wave. Amplitude is
the height of the wave from the normal line or the water level. \$rest is the upper part of the wave or the
highest point of the wave. 0rough is the lower part or the valley between the two waves, the lowest part of
the wave. Wave height is the height of the wave from the trough to the crest. Wavelength or lambda is the
distance between the two crest from the two different waves. Period is the amount of time it ta-es one
wavelength to pass a point. (re*uency is the number of waves that pass a given point each second.
'edium is the ob,ect or thing where the energy of the wave travels. 0here are two main types of waves.
'echanical wave is a wave that can travel only through a medium. 0here are two types of mechanical
waves. \$ompression are particles that were pushed together. 3arefraction are paticles that were spread
apart. 0he first one was the transverse wave. It is the wave moves right angles, up and down from its own
place to another. Example is water wave and light wave. 0he second one was the compressional waves
who move in a parallel direction, going to right from left and bouncing bac- from right to left. Example of a
compressional wave is sound wave. 0he other main type of a wave is the electromagnetic wave, a wave
that not re*uire medium. When this lesson wern4t discussed yet, I thought that waves exist only in water.
0here are also waves coming from sounds, lights and so on.
0he behavior of waves. 3eflection is the change in direction of a wavefront at an interface between two
different media so that the wavefront returns into the medium from which it originated. It is the bouncing
bac- or the wave to medium after reaching the boundary. 0he 5aw of 3eflection states that .0he angle
incidence is e*ual to the angle in reflection.1 What are the incident wave and the reflected wave2 Incident
ray is a wave coming from an ob,ect or a source. While reflected ray is ray that leaves the mirror. 3efraction
is the changing of the direction of a wave passing from one medium to another. Example, waves in deep
water travel faster than in shallow. If an ocean wave approaches a beach obli*uely, the part of the wave
farther from the beach will move faster than that closer in, and so the wave will swing around until it moves
in a direction perpendicular to the shoreline.
Diffraction refers to various phenomena which occur when a wave encounters an obstacle or a slit. In
classical physics, the diffraction phenomenon is described as the interference of waves according the
6uygens (resnel principle. 0hese characteristic behaviors are exhibited when a wave encounters an
obstacle or a slit that is comparable in si)e to its wavelength. %imilar effects occur when a light wave travels
through a medium with a varying refractive index, or when a sound wave travels through a medium with
varying acoustic impedance. 7iffraction occurs with all waves, including sound waves, water waves, and
electromagnetic waves such as visible light, 89rays and radio waves. I:ve reali)ed that the waves are
affected by different phenomena that cause changes in speed, behavior, and so much more.
We:ve also tac-led the lesson about Plane 'irrors. According to 7r. 7e 5eon, plane mirror is a mirror with a
planar reflective surface. (or light rays stri-ing a plane mirror, the angle of reflection e*uals the angle of
incidence. 0he angle of incidence is the angle between the incident ray and the surface normal ;an
imaginary line perpendicular to the surface<. 0herefore the angle of reflection is the angle between the
reflected ray and the normal and a collimated beam of light does not spread out after reflection from a plane
mirror, except for diffraction effects. A plane mirror ma-es an image of ob,ects in front of it these images
appear to be behind the plane in which the mirror lies. A straight line drawn from part of an ob,ect to the
corresponding part of its image ma-es a right angle with, and is bisected by, the surface of the plane mirror.
0he image formed by a plane mirror is always virtual ;meaning that the light rays do not actually come from
the image<, upright, and of the same shape and si)e as the ob,ect it is reflecting. A virtual image is a copy of
an ob,ect formed at the location from which the light rays appear to come.
We:ve also discussed about the %pherical mirrors. A spherical mirror is a mirror which has the shape of a
piece cut out of a spherical surface. 0here are two types of spherical mirrors# concave, and convex. 0he
most commonly occurring examples of concave mirrors are shaving mirrors and ma-eup mirrors. As is well9
-nown, these types of mirrors magnify ob,ects placed close to them. 0he most commonly occurring
examples of convex mirrors are the passenger9side wing mirrors of cars. 0hese type of mirrors have wider
fields of view than e*uivalent flat mirrors, but ob,ects which appear in them generally loo- smaller ;and,
therefore, farther away< than they actually are. I:ve noticed that spherical mirrors have also several parts li-e
center of curvature, focus, principal axis, and so on. It is composed of = types of rays specifically chief ray,
parallel ray, and focal ray.
In our course Advanced physics, it will help us to understand the Physical world through gaining -nowledge,
and information about different things. We should learn this course because it is one of the most
fundamental in all the things, foundation of engineering and technology, Physics is an adventure and
challenging, sometimes frustrating, richly rewarding and satisfying. In the two months that we:ve
experienced, Physics is a sub,ect that we should focus on because before we comprehend these things, we
should wor- and study harder than we expected to get high grades and survive this sub,ect.