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PENSTOCKS PENSTOCKS

BY BY

CGS GUNASEKARA CGS GUNASEKARA

NCP DE LIYANAGE NCP DE LIYANAGE

Introduction Introduction

From the forbay tank down to the turbine From the forbay tank down to the turbine

water is conveyed through the penstock. water is conveyed through the penstock.

Major components Major components

Forbay Forbay

Penstock value Penstock value

Vent pipe Vent pipe

Support pier Support pier

Components….. Components…..

Anchors Anchors

Drain valve Drain valve

Air bleed value Air bleed value

Bends Bends

Thrust block Thrust block

Major components ( joint types) Major components ( joint types)

flanged flanged

Socket Socket

Sleeve type Sleeve type

Components of penstock Components of penstock

Material used for Material used for

construction construction… …

Mild steel Mild steel

uPVC (unplastizied polyvinyl uPVC (unplastizied polyvinyl

chloride) chloride)

HDPE (high density polyethylene) HDPE (high density polyethylene)

Ductile iron Ductile iron

Prestressed concrete Prestressed concrete

GRP (glass reinforced plastic) GRP (glass reinforced plastic)

Important factors to be considered Important factors to be considered

when selecting material when selecting material …………….. ……………..

Design Pressure Design Pressure

Surface Roughness Surface Roughness

Weight of material Weight of material

Ease of transportation Ease of transportation

Method of jointing Method of jointing

Cost of material etc Cost of material etc

Constraints in deciding Constraints in deciding

diameter diameter

Price Price

Head loss Head loss

Compromise: Compromise: Minimum Minimum cost (smallest cost (smallest

diameter) diameter)

or or

Minimum Minimum head loss head loss ? (acceptable ? (acceptable

head loss) head loss)

Major contributions to head loss, Major contributions to head loss,

h h

f f

* * Friction Friction (due to surface roughness) (due to surface roughness)

h h

f f

= = ½½. V . V

2. 2.

L.f / g.D L.f / g.D

Darcy’s equation Darcy’s equation

V V –– flow velocity flow velocity

L L –– penstock length penstock length

D D ––diameter diameter

f f -- -- friction constant friction constant

from moody chart from moody chart

Major contributions to head Major contributions to head

loss, h loss, h

f f

Turbulence Turbulence ( ( caused by due to caused by due to

bends ,inlet, valves ,reductions bends ,inlet, valves ,reductions

etc) etc)

h h

f f

= = ∑ ∑ K K

ii

.V .V

ii

22

/ 2.g / 2.g

K K

i i

= turbulence loss coefficient = turbulence loss coefficient

Calculation of head loss & diameter Calculation of head loss & diameter

CASE STUDY CASE STUDY: :- - A steel penstock ,500 m long A steel penstock ,500 m long

has a design flow of 0.42 m has a design flow of 0.42 m

33

/s and a gross /s and a gross

head of 220 m. Calculate and diameter and head of 220 m. Calculate and diameter and

wall thickness. head loss < 2% of gross head. wall thickness. head loss < 2% of gross head.

Select diameter as , D =300 mm Select diameter as , D =300 mm

Flow velocity V = 4.Q / pi .D Flow velocity V = 4.Q / pi .D

22

= 5.9 m/s = 5.9 m/s

Renolds no = V.D x 10 Renolds no = V.D x 10

66

= 1.8x 10 = 1.8x 10

66

Surface roughness of mild steel is, f = 0.3 Surface roughness of mild steel is, f = 0.3

So , K/D = 0.3/300 = 1x 10 So , K/D = 0.3/300 = 1x 10

- -33

from Moody chart f = 0.005, from Moody chart f = 0.005,

From Darcy’s eq From Darcy’s eq

n n

,,

h h

f f

= = ½ x ½ x 5.9 5.9

22

x 500 x 0.0046 / 9.81x 0.25 x 500 x 0.0046 / 9.81x 0.25

= 15.0 m = 15.0 m

in our case gross head = 220 m in our case gross head = 220 m

H H

f f

= (15 /220 )x 100 =6.8 % = (15 /220 )x 100 =6.8 %

Calculation of diameter is an Calculation of diameter is an

iterative process , iterative process ,

increase D by 10 mm , increase D by 10 mm ,

now V = 5.5 m/s now V = 5.5 m/s

K/D = 0.3/310 = 9.6 x 10 K/D = 0.3/310 = 9.6 x 10

- -44

Re = V X D = 5.5 X .310 = 1.7 x 10 Re = V X D = 5.5 X .310 = 1.7 x 10

66

corresponding f = 0.005 corresponding f = 0.005

h h

f f

= 12.7 m = 12.7 m

h h

f f

= 5.77 % = 5.77 %

Results of 15 iterations Results of 15 iterations

iterations iterations Diameter (mm ) Diameter (mm ) hf / (m ) hf / (m ) V /(m/s) V /(m/s) %hf %hf

11 300 300 15 15 5.9 5.9 6.82 6.82

22 310 310 12.7 12.7 5.5 5.5 5.77 5.77

33 315 315 11.8 11.8 5.3 5.3 5.36 5.36

44 320 320 10.8 10.8 5.22 5.22 4.91 4.91

55 325 325 10 10 55 4.55 4.55

66 330 330 9.3 9.3 4.9 4.9 4.23 4.23

77 335 335 8.2 8.2 4.7 4.7 3.73 3.73

88 340 340 7.7 7.7 4.6 4.6 3.50 3.50

99 350 350 6.6 6.6 4.3 4.3 3.00 3.00

10 10 355 355 6.2 6.2 4.2 4.2 2.82 2.82

11 11 360 360 5.7 5.7 4.1 4.1 2.59 2.59

12 12 365 365 5.4 5.4 44 2.45 2.45

13 13 370 370 55 3.9 3.9 2.27 2.27

14 14 375 375 4.7 4.7 3.8 3.8 2.14 2.14

15 15 380 380 4.3 4.3 3.7 3.7 1.95 1.95

Constraints in deciding wall Constraints in deciding wall

thickness thickness

Cost Cost

Strength (withstanding pressure) Strength (withstanding pressure)

Compromize: Compromize: Minimum Minimum cost cost

or or

Minimum Minimum strength strength ? ?

Calculation of wall thickness Calculation of wall thickness

Wall should be thick enough to Wall should be thick enough to

withstand the maximum water withstand the maximum water

pressure pressure

Maximum pressure = static + surge Maximum pressure = static + surge

Surge pressure : Surge pressure :- - worst possible case worst possible case

(instantanious closure of (instantanious closure of

valve) valve)

Surge pressure Surge pressure , h , h

surge surge

h h

surge surge

= C .V / g = C .V / g

V V –– flow velocity flow velocity

C C –– velocity of pressure wave velocity of pressure wave

C = 1/ [ C = 1/ [ ρ ρ (1/k+D/E.t) ] (1/k+D/E.t) ]

½½

D D –– diameter diameter

t t –– Wall thickness Wall thickness

E E- - Young’s modulus of elasticity Young’s modulus of elasticity

K K –– Bulk modulus of water Bulk modulus of water

ρρ –– density of water density of water

Thickness , Thickness ,

tt

min min

= = ρ ρ.g.h .g.h

max max

.D/ (2. .D/ (2.σ σ

T T

/S) /S)

σ σ

T T

–– ultimate tensile strength ultimate tensile strength

S S - - safety factor typically 3 safety factor typically 3

Procedure: Procedure: this is an iterative process this is an iterative process

11 Estimate t Estimate t

22 Calculate C, h Calculate C, h

max max

, t , t

min min

33 Compare t with Compare t with tt

min min

44 If t < t If t < t

min min

increase t increase t

55 if t > t if t > t

min min

reduce t close to t reduce t close to t

min min

66 Repeat 2 and 3 Repeat 2 and 3

Calculation of penstock wall Calculation of penstock wall

Thickness Thickness

Let us select t as 5 mm , D = 380 mm Let us select t as 5 mm , D = 380 mm

Iteration 1 Iteration 1

Iteration 2 Iteration 2

Iteration 3 Iteration 3

Iteration 4 Iteration 4

Penstock Wall thickness

0

2

4

6

8

10

1 2 3 4 5

Iterations

T

h

i

c

k

n

e

s

s

/

m

m

Series1

References : References :

Micro hydro power Micro hydro power ––Adam Harvey Adam Harvey

,Andrew Brown , Rod Edward , VAris ,Andrew Brown , Rod Edward , VAris

Bokalders Bokalders

Thank You ! Thank You !

ok ok

Results of iterations Results of iterations

1

Wall Thickness t = 5.00

mm

Diameter D = 380

mm

Velocity V = 3.70

m/s

Surge wave velocity C = 1088.93

m/s

h serge = 410.71

m

P max =hstatic+hserge 626.41

m

t min 7.30

mm

2

Wall Thickness t = 7.30

mm

Diameter D = 380

mm

Velocity V = 3.70

m/s

Surge wave velocity C = 1172.29

m/s

h serge = 442.15

m

P max =hstatic+hserge 657.85

m

t min 7.66

mm

3

Wall Thickness t = 7.66

mm

Diameter D = 380

mm

Velocity V = 3.70

m/s

Surge wave velocity C = 1181.93

m/s

h serge = 445.78

m

P max =hstatic+hserge 661.48

m

t min 7.71

mm

4

Wall Thickness t = 7.71

mm

Diameter D = 380

mm

Velocity V = 3.70

m/s

Surge wave velocity C = 1183.21

m/s

h serge = 446.27

m

P max =hstatic+hserge 661.97

m

t min 7.71

mm

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