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DESIGN OF DESIGN OF

PENSTOCKS PENSTOCKS
BY BY
CGS GUNASEKARA CGS GUNASEKARA
NCP DE LIYANAGE NCP DE LIYANAGE
Introduction Introduction
From the forbay tank down to the turbine From the forbay tank down to the turbine
water is conveyed through the penstock. water is conveyed through the penstock.
Major components Major components
Forbay Forbay
Penstock value Penstock value
Vent pipe Vent pipe
Support pier Support pier
Components….. Components…..
Anchors Anchors
Drain valve Drain valve
Air bleed value Air bleed value
Bends Bends
Thrust block Thrust block
Major components ( joint types) Major components ( joint types)
flanged flanged
Socket Socket
Sleeve type Sleeve type
Components of penstock Components of penstock
Material used for Material used for
construction construction… …
Mild steel Mild steel
uPVC (unplastizied polyvinyl uPVC (unplastizied polyvinyl
chloride) chloride)
HDPE (high density polyethylene) HDPE (high density polyethylene)
Ductile iron Ductile iron
Prestressed concrete Prestressed concrete
GRP (glass reinforced plastic) GRP (glass reinforced plastic)
Important factors to be considered Important factors to be considered
when selecting material when selecting material …………….. ……………..
Design Pressure Design Pressure
Surface Roughness Surface Roughness
Weight of material Weight of material
Ease of transportation Ease of transportation
Method of jointing Method of jointing
Cost of material etc Cost of material etc
Constraints in deciding Constraints in deciding
diameter diameter
Price Price
Head loss Head loss
Compromise: Compromise: Minimum Minimum cost (smallest cost (smallest
diameter) diameter)
or or
Minimum Minimum head loss head loss ? (acceptable ? (acceptable
head loss) head loss)
Major contributions to head loss, Major contributions to head loss,
h h
f f
* * Friction Friction (due to surface roughness) (due to surface roughness)
h h
f f
= = ½½. V . V
2. 2.
L.f / g.D L.f / g.D
Darcy’s equation Darcy’s equation
V V –– flow velocity flow velocity
L L –– penstock length penstock length
D D ––diameter diameter
f f -- -- friction constant friction constant
from moody chart from moody chart
Major contributions to head Major contributions to head
loss, h loss, h
f f
Turbulence Turbulence ( ( caused by due to caused by due to
bends ,inlet, valves ,reductions bends ,inlet, valves ,reductions
etc) etc)
h h
f f
= = ∑ ∑ K K
ii
.V .V
ii
22
/ 2.g / 2.g
K K
i i
= turbulence loss coefficient = turbulence loss coefficient
Calculation of head loss & diameter Calculation of head loss & diameter
CASE STUDY CASE STUDY: :- - A steel penstock ,500 m long A steel penstock ,500 m long
has a design flow of 0.42 m has a design flow of 0.42 m
33
/s and a gross /s and a gross
head of 220 m. Calculate and diameter and head of 220 m. Calculate and diameter and
wall thickness. head loss < 2% of gross head. wall thickness. head loss < 2% of gross head.
Select diameter as , D =300 mm Select diameter as , D =300 mm
Flow velocity V = 4.Q / pi .D Flow velocity V = 4.Q / pi .D
22
= 5.9 m/s = 5.9 m/s
Renolds no = V.D x 10 Renolds no = V.D x 10
66
= 1.8x 10 = 1.8x 10
66
Surface roughness of mild steel is, f = 0.3 Surface roughness of mild steel is, f = 0.3
So , K/D = 0.3/300 = 1x 10 So , K/D = 0.3/300 = 1x 10
- -33
from Moody chart f = 0.005, from Moody chart f = 0.005,
From Darcy’s eq From Darcy’s eq
n n
,,
h h
f f
= = ½ x ½ x 5.9 5.9
22
x 500 x 0.0046 / 9.81x 0.25 x 500 x 0.0046 / 9.81x 0.25
= 15.0 m = 15.0 m
in our case gross head = 220 m in our case gross head = 220 m
H H
f f
= (15 /220 )x 100 =6.8 % = (15 /220 )x 100 =6.8 %
Calculation of diameter is an Calculation of diameter is an
iterative process , iterative process ,
increase D by 10 mm , increase D by 10 mm ,
now V = 5.5 m/s now V = 5.5 m/s
K/D = 0.3/310 = 9.6 x 10 K/D = 0.3/310 = 9.6 x 10
- -44
Re = V X D = 5.5 X .310 = 1.7 x 10 Re = V X D = 5.5 X .310 = 1.7 x 10
66
corresponding f = 0.005 corresponding f = 0.005
h h
f f
= 12.7 m = 12.7 m
h h
f f
= 5.77 % = 5.77 %
Results of 15 iterations Results of 15 iterations
iterations iterations Diameter (mm ) Diameter (mm ) hf / (m ) hf / (m ) V /(m/s) V /(m/s) %hf %hf
11 300 300 15 15 5.9 5.9 6.82 6.82
22 310 310 12.7 12.7 5.5 5.5 5.77 5.77
33 315 315 11.8 11.8 5.3 5.3 5.36 5.36
44 320 320 10.8 10.8 5.22 5.22 4.91 4.91
55 325 325 10 10 55 4.55 4.55
66 330 330 9.3 9.3 4.9 4.9 4.23 4.23
77 335 335 8.2 8.2 4.7 4.7 3.73 3.73
88 340 340 7.7 7.7 4.6 4.6 3.50 3.50
99 350 350 6.6 6.6 4.3 4.3 3.00 3.00
10 10 355 355 6.2 6.2 4.2 4.2 2.82 2.82
11 11 360 360 5.7 5.7 4.1 4.1 2.59 2.59
12 12 365 365 5.4 5.4 44 2.45 2.45
13 13 370 370 55 3.9 3.9 2.27 2.27
14 14 375 375 4.7 4.7 3.8 3.8 2.14 2.14
15 15 380 380 4.3 4.3 3.7 3.7 1.95 1.95
Constraints in deciding wall Constraints in deciding wall
thickness thickness
Cost Cost
Strength (withstanding pressure) Strength (withstanding pressure)
Compromize: Compromize: Minimum Minimum cost cost
or or
Minimum Minimum strength strength ? ?
Calculation of wall thickness Calculation of wall thickness
Wall should be thick enough to Wall should be thick enough to
withstand the maximum water withstand the maximum water
pressure pressure
Maximum pressure = static + surge Maximum pressure = static + surge
Surge pressure : Surge pressure :- - worst possible case worst possible case
(instantanious closure of (instantanious closure of
valve) valve)
Surge pressure Surge pressure , h , h
surge surge
h h
surge surge
= C .V / g = C .V / g
V V –– flow velocity flow velocity
C C –– velocity of pressure wave velocity of pressure wave
C = 1/ [ C = 1/ [ ρ ρ (1/k+D/E.t) ] (1/k+D/E.t) ]
½½
D D –– diameter diameter
t t –– Wall thickness Wall thickness
E E- - Young’s modulus of elasticity Young’s modulus of elasticity
K K –– Bulk modulus of water Bulk modulus of water
ρρ –– density of water density of water
Thickness , Thickness ,
tt
min min
= = ρ ρ.g.h .g.h
max max
.D/ (2. .D/ (2.σ σ
T T
/S) /S)
σ σ
T T
–– ultimate tensile strength ultimate tensile strength
S S - - safety factor typically 3 safety factor typically 3
Procedure: Procedure: this is an iterative process this is an iterative process
11 Estimate t Estimate t
22 Calculate C, h Calculate C, h
max max
, t , t
min min
33 Compare t with Compare t with tt
min min
44 If t < t If t < t
min min
increase t increase t
55 if t > t if t > t
min min
reduce t close to t reduce t close to t
min min
66 Repeat 2 and 3 Repeat 2 and 3
Calculation of penstock wall Calculation of penstock wall
Thickness Thickness
Let us select t as 5 mm , D = 380 mm Let us select t as 5 mm , D = 380 mm
Iteration 1 Iteration 1
Iteration 2 Iteration 2
Iteration 3 Iteration 3
Iteration 4 Iteration 4
Penstock Wall thickness
0
2
4
6
8
10
1 2 3 4 5
Iterations
T
h
i
c
k
n
e
s
s

/

m
m
Series1
References : References :
Micro hydro power Micro hydro power ––Adam Harvey Adam Harvey
,Andrew Brown , Rod Edward , VAris ,Andrew Brown , Rod Edward , VAris
Bokalders Bokalders
Thank You ! Thank You !
ok ok
Results of iterations Results of iterations
1
Wall Thickness t = 5.00
mm
Diameter D = 380
mm
Velocity V = 3.70
m/s
Surge wave velocity C = 1088.93
m/s
h serge = 410.71
m
P max =hstatic+hserge 626.41
m
t min 7.30
mm
2
Wall Thickness t = 7.30
mm
Diameter D = 380
mm
Velocity V = 3.70
m/s
Surge wave velocity C = 1172.29
m/s
h serge = 442.15
m
P max =hstatic+hserge 657.85
m
t min 7.66
mm
3
Wall Thickness t = 7.66
mm
Diameter D = 380
mm
Velocity V = 3.70
m/s
Surge wave velocity C = 1181.93
m/s
h serge = 445.78
m
P max =hstatic+hserge 661.48
m
t min 7.71
mm
4
Wall Thickness t = 7.71
mm
Diameter D = 380
mm
Velocity V = 3.70
m/s
Surge wave velocity C = 1183.21
m/s
h serge = 446.27
m
P max =hstatic+hserge 661.97
m
t min 7.71
mm