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# Chapter – 4

Series compensators

Prof. B. S. Sree Shailan

Education
is
a
progressive
discovery of our own ignorance.
- Will Durant
Proverb:
• Little things are pretty.
• Good things
packages.

come

in

small

Page  2

Introduction
The series controller could be a variable
impedance or a variable source, both are
power electronics based.
In principle, all series controllers inject
voltage in series with the line.
Combined series-series controllers:
The combination could be separate series
controllers
or
unified
series-series
controller--- Interline Power Flow Controller.
Page  3

Basic Principle
Series compensation control the overall
series impedance of transmission line.
AC power transmission is primarily limited
by the series reactive impedance of
transmission line.
It can add a voltage in opposition to the
transmission line voltage drop, thereby
reducing the series line impedance.
Page  4

VC VL Vδ V0 X C = kX L Phasor Diagram Page  5 .Vδ BUS 1 C BUS 2 jXL V0 I Simplified Model Capacitance C is defined as a portion of the line reactance.

A controlled capacitor is series-connected in the transmission line with voltage addition Vinj.A simplified model of a transmission system with series compensation is shown. The transmission line is assumed lossless and represented by the reactance XL. The voltage magnitudes of the two buses are assumed equal as V and the phase angle between them is δ. Page  6 .

it can be seen that the transmitted active power increases with k. Page  7 . V2 Active power transmitted is P = sin δ (1 − k ) X L Reactive power supplied by the capacitor is calculated as: 2 V k QC = 2 1 − cos δ ) 2 ( X L (1 − k ) Thus.Overall series inductance of the transmission line is X = XL – XC = (1 – k)XL.

Drawing from or injecting current into the line. Page  8 . and ride through or bypass short circuit currents. Series connected controllers have to be designed to ride through contingency and dynamic overloads. series controller is several times more powerful than shunt controller in controlling the power flow.Relative importance of Controllers For a given MVA. the shunt controller is a good way to control voltage at and around the point of connection. Shunt controller serves bus independently of the individual lines connected to the bus.

superconducting magnet. capacitor.A combination of series and shunt controllers can provide the best of effective power/current flow and line voltage. Battery. Principle of controllers are based on dc to ac converters with bidirectional power flow capability. or any other source of energy can be added in parallel through an electronic interface to replenish the converter’s dc storage. Energy storage systems are needed when active power is involved in the power flow. Page  9 .

Page  10 .Thyristor Controlled Series Compensator Like SVC. By varying the firing angle of anti-parallel thyristors that are connected in series with a reactor in the TCR. TCSC connects a thyristor controlled reactor (TCR) in parallel with a fixed capacitor. the fundamental frequency inductive reactance of the TCR can be changed.

The basic TCSC module comprises a series capacitor C in parallel with a thyristorcontrolled reactor LS. practical TCSC module includes a metal-oxide varistor (MOV) connected across series capacitor to prevent overvoltages. Page  11 . In addition.This effects a change in the reactance of TCSC and it can be controlled to produce either inductive or capacitive reactance.

i iC(α)=i+iL(α) C VC(α) iL(α) T1 LS X C X L (α ) X T (α ) = X L (α ) − X C T2 Page  12 .TCSC is assumed to be connected between buses k and m in a transmission line where it is simplified like continuously controllable reactance (capacitive).

As the impedance of XL is varied from its maximum (infinity) toward its minimum ωL.TCSC behaves as a tunable parallel LCcircuit to the line current. TCSC increases its capacitive impedance. Page  13 .

TCSC Characteristic Impedance versus firing delay angle Page  14 .

Typical TCSC Waveforms Page  15 .

TCR Internal Control Scheme Page  16 .

Kanpur – Ballabgarh and Kanpur – Agra 400kV lines in Northern grid of UP carry about 800MW power from Singrauli and Rihand belt to western UP and Rajasthan. KanpurBallabgarh line. Page  17 . The FACTS system was to be installed on the 400kV.A “Thyristor controlled series compensator TCSC“ is planned for better utilization in India in 2000. 395km long.

a SSSC can be used for series compensation. An SSSC is an SVS with all GTO based device which contains a VSC which is driven by a dc capacitor. The output of VSC is connected to a 3-phase transformer whose other end is connected in series with the transmission line. This device work the same way as the STATCOM. Page  18 .Static Synchronous Series Compensator Alternatively.

A SSSC is able to exchange active and reactive power with the transmission system.Unlike TCSC which changes the impedance of the line. Page  19 . an SSSC injects a voltage in the line in quadrature with the line current. the SSSC can emulate the behavior of an inductance or capacitance. By making the SSSC voltage to lead or lag the line current by 90°.

But if our only aim is to balance the reactive power . Here serial injected voltage can delay or advance the line current. the energy source could be quite small. With reactive power compensation only the voltage is controllable. in the VSC working slot. because the voltage vector forms 90º with the line intensity. Thus. The injected voltage can be controlled in phase and magnitude if we have an energy source that is big enough for the purpose. SSSC can be uniformly controlled in any value. Page  20 .

as shown below: Page  21 .The Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC) uses a VSC interfaced in series to a transmission line.

A source of energy is required for providing and maintaining the DC voltage across the DC capacitor and compensation of SSSC losses. SSSC consists of a VSI connected in series through a coupling transformer to the transmission line.Basic configuration of SSSC SSSC is placed in the group of series connected FACTS devices. Page  22 .

Page  23 . This impedance represents the impedance of coupling transformer.Equivalent circuit of SSSC SSSC model consists of a series connected voltage source in series with an impedance.

Capability of SSSC to exchange both active and reactive power makes it possible to compensate for the reactive and resistive voltage drops.SSSC when operated with an appropriate DC supply (an energy source) can inject a component of voltage in anti-phase with the voltage developed across the line resistance. Page  24 . maintaining a high effective X/R ratio independently of degree of series compensation. to counteract the effect of the resistive voltage drop on the power transmission.

Main difference is that the voltage injected through SSSC is not related to the line intensity and can be controlled independently. SSSC can be used with excellent results with low loads as well as with high loads. Page  25 . SSSC can work like a controllable serial condenser and a serial reactance. Thus.Thus.

Inductive and Capacitive modes of operation Figure shows an example of a simple power transmission system with an SSSC operating both in inductive and capacitive modes. and related phasor diagrams Page  26 .

Transmission line with inductive reactance XL delivering power form the sending-end voltage source to the receiving-end voltage source. having no compensation of any kind. Voltage impressed by the effective reactance is the same with the voltage drop across uncompensated line because the degree of series compensations is zero. is said to be in a steady-state. Page  27 .

Degree of series compensation in this case is defined as: Xq % Compensation = ×100 where X L is the XL line inductive reactance and Xq is the emulated series reactance. Page  28 .Line reactance is constant and by adding variable series (capacitive/inductive) reactance. the amount of compensation can be controlled.

Thyristor-Switched Series Capacitor (TSSC) Equivalent capacitance is between 0 and C/m. Page  29 . A capacitor is inserted by turning-off and bypassed by turning-on the corresponding thyristor switch.

Page  30 .Series Static VAR Compensator(SSVC) Control strategy of SSVC is typically based on achieving an objective line power flow in addition to the capability of damping power oscillations.

This type of series compensation can provide a continuous degree of series compensation by varying |VC|. it can reverse the phase of VC. this can be desirable to limit fault current or to dampen power oscillations. Also. Page  31 .Advanced SSVC: series-connected STATCOM Series-connected STATCOM is the dual circuit of shuntconnected STATCOM. thereby increasing the overall line reactance.

Page  32 .Phase-Angle Compensator (PAC) Transforming arrangement between the excitation & series transformers ensures that Vq is always at 900 to V (called quadrature booster) The phase shifter controls the magnitude of Vq and thus the phase shift α to the sending-end voltage.

Series connected controllers Page  33 .

Combined shunt and series connected controllers Page  34 .

Other controllers Page  35 .

UPFC (Unified Power Flow Controller) .

Hence. Page  37 . as shown in the Figure. DC terminals of two underlying VSCs are coupled and this creates a path for active power exchange between the converters.UPFC combines together the features of two FACTS devices: Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM) and the Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC). active power supplied to the line by the series converter can now be supplied by the shunt converter.

Page  38 .This topology offers four degrees of freedom (two associated with each VSC) with one constraint (active powers of the VSCs must match).

Representative of the last generation of FACTS devices is UPFC.Thus. a fundamentally different range of control options is available compared to STATCOM or SSSC. Page  39 . UPFC can be used to control the flow of active and reactive power through the line and to control the amount of reactive power supplied to the line at the point of installation.

Basic components of the UPFC are two voltage source inverters (VSI's) sharing a common dc storage capacitor. and connected to the system through coupling transformers. voltage and phase angle). Page  40 .UPFC is a device which can control simultaneously all three parameters of line power flow (line impedance.

while the other is connected in series through a series transformer.One VSI is connected in shunt to the transmission system via a shunt transformer. Page  41 .

Series inverter can be used to control the real and reactive line power flow inserting an opportune voltage with controllable magnitude and phase in series with the transmission line. Page  42 .Shunt inverter is used for voltage regulation at the point of connection. injecting an opportune reactive power flow into the line and to balance the real power flow exchanged between the series inverter and the transmission line.

active and reactive series compensation and phase shifting.Thereby. Page  43 . the UPFC allows a secondary but important function such as stability control to suppress power system oscillations improving the transient stability of power system. Further. the UPFC can fulfill the functions of reactive shunt compensation.

Page  44 . 2) Explain the relative importance of controllers in power transmission system.Assignment . 3) Explain the operation of Thyristor controlled series compensator (TCSC) with the help of a typical characteristics and waveforms.4 1) Explain the basic principle of series compensation in power transmission systems.

5) Explain the inductive and capacitive modes of operation of SSSC with the help of phasor diagrams.4) Explain the working of Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC) with the help of equivalent circuit. 6) Explain the principle of operation of Thyristor Switched Series Compensator (TSSC). Page  45 .

8) Explain the operation of Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) and describe the various components of UPFC. Last date for submission: 13th April ‘13 Page  46 .7) Explain the principle of operation of Series Static VAR compensator (SSVC).