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As per 31.

102.4.5 Bending. The minimum wall thickness at
any point in a completed bend shall not be less than
required by Formulas (3) or (3A) of para. 10.1.!(A).
(A) Table 102.4.5 is a "uide to the desi"ner who
must speci# wall thickness for orderin" pipe. $n "eneral
it has been the e%perience that when "ood shop practices
are employed& the minimum thicknesses of strai"ht pipe
shown in Table 10!..' should be sufficient for bendin"&
and still meet the minimum thickness requirements of
para. 10.1.!(A).
(B) The bend thinnin" allowance in Table 10!..'
may be pro(ided in all parts of the cross section of
the pipe circumference without any detrimental effects
bein" produced.
TABLE 102.4.5
Min. Thickness
Recommended Prior to
Radius of Bends Bending
!i!e diameters or greater 1.0tm
4 !i!e diameters 1.14tm
" !i!e diameters 1.25tm
5 !i!e diameters #.ostm
$E%ERAL %&TE'(
)ai inter!o#ation is !ermissi*#e tor *ending to intermediate radii.
t*+ fm is determined *, -ormu#a (3) or )"A+ of !ara. 104.1.2)A+.
)c# Pi!e diameter is the nomina# diameter as ta*u#ated in A'ME
.".10/0 Ta*#es 2 and 40 and A'ME B".11M0 Ta*#e 1. -or
!i!ing 2ith a diameter not #isted in these Ta*#es0 and a#so for
tu*ing0 the nomina# diameter corres!onds 2ith the outside
3+. Method of Manufacture, Heat Treatent and Mar!ing, (a) -n completion of any
work which in(ol(es heatin"& whether for hot bendin" of the pipe or for any other similar
purpose& the pipe shall be carefully annealed.

.. (b) (i) The cold drawn seamless carbon steel pipes and welded carbon steel pipes
shall be supplied in normali/ed condition.

(ii) 0ot finished seamless carbon steel pipes shall be supplied in hot finished
condition or in normali/ed condition at the option of the manufacturer.

(iii) The seamless alloy steel pipe either cold finished or hot finished and
welded pipes shall be supplied in normali/ed and tempered condition.

(i() )y a"reement between the users and the manufacturer& the pipes may be
deli(ered in a condition
other than normali/ed and tempered condition in which case they shall be suitable for
manipulation and the user shall be informed of the heat,treatment necessary to "i(e
required properties.

(c) (i) 1ipe bendin" and formin" ((i/. reducin" 2 swa"in") operation shall be
done by any hot or cold method and to any radius which shall result in a surface
free from cracks& buckles or other defects as determined by the method of
inspection specified in the desi"n. A post bendin" or post formin" heat treatment
for carbon steel material is required with a nominal wall thickness in e%cess of 13.0
millimeters unless the bendin" or formin" operation are performed and completed
at normali/in" temperatures& where no further heat treatment is required. The heat
treatment where required shall be normali/ed or stress relie(ed& as the case may be.

(ii) A post bendin" or post formin" heat treatment shall be require for all
ferritic alloy steel material with
nominal pipe si/e 100.00 millimeters and lar"er or with a nominal thickness 13.0
millimeters or "reater.

(iii) $f hot bendin" or formin" is performed the material shall recei(ed
normali/e and temper or temperin" heat,treatment as required by the desi"n. For cold
operation& temperin" heat,treatment shall be applied.
(d) 4arkin", 4arkin" shall be carried out in accordance with re"ulation 33',F.
351. "rought Bends, (a) 1ipes of thickness determined in accordance with equation
31 with increase of 1!.'6 shall not be bent to radii less than those "i(en in the followin"
Table (7lick here to (iew the Table). 8here smaller radii are necessary& further allowance
shall be made for thinnin" at the back of the bend e%cept where it can be demonstrated to
the satisfaction of the $nspectin" Authority that the use oft b will not reduce the thickness
below y t at any point after bendin"9

t : min. thickness as per ;qn. 31&
tb : min. thickness before bendin".

(b) The thickness of the pipes& from which bends are made shall be such that the
minimum thickness required by equation (31) is maintained throu"hout after the bendin"
operation. The de(iation from circularity in percenta"e at any cross,section of a bend
shall be calculated by the followin" formula


7 : The percenta"e de(iation of circularity&
< ma%. : ma%imum e%ternal diameter of the pipe as "au"ed at the bend&
< min. : minimum e%ternal diameter of the pipe as "au"ed at the bend&
< : nominal e%ternal diameter of the pipe&
* : *adius of the bend on the central line of the bend.
.. (c) Fabricated pipe bends may be made by 8eldin" to"ether be(elled section of
strai"ht pipe& pro(ided,.
(i) the an"le between the a%is of the ad=oinin" sections does not e%ceed 30> and
(ii) the thickness is at least 9 ? , 0.' 2 ? , 1 times the minimum thickness required for
the strai"ht pipe to which the bend is =oined.


?:ratio of the radius of the bend (from center of cur(ature to center of pipe) to
the inside radius of the pipe.

@ote. Ausseted )ends shall be used for pressure not e%ceedin" !1 kilo"ramme per
square centimeter and
temperature not e%ceedin" !50 <e"ree 7enti"rade.

.. (d) For the for"ed bends& the radii shall be not less than those "i(en below9,

Bon" radii for"ed bends , * : 1.' % d
Chort radii for"ed bends , * : 1.0 % d

The thickness at any point of the bend shall not be less than +D.'6 of the nominal
thickness of the bend. The thickness at any point of the bend shall be such that the
minimum thickness required equation 31 is maintained throu"hout after finishin"