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You are on page 1of 6

**surfaces of nanofiber mats
**

E. Zussman, A. L. Yarin, D. Weihs

Abstract This work deals with nonwoven permeable light

mats made of submicron-diameter nanoﬁbers. The

nanoﬁbers were obtained through electrospinning of

polymer solutions. The mats were positioned on light

pyramid-shaped frames. These platforms fell freely

through the air, apex down, at a constant velocity. The

drag of such passive airborne platforms is of signiﬁcant

interest in a number of modern aerodynamics applications

including, for example, dispersion of ‘‘smart dust’’ carry-

ing various chemical and thermal sensors, dispersion of

seeds, as well as movement of small organisms with bristle

appendages. In the present work, drag is measured using

the free fall method supplemented by extensive ﬂow vi-

sualization. The effects of platform weight, average nano-

ﬁber diameter, and porosity of the nonwoven mats on the

drag force are studied. The results are compared to data

for the corresponding impermeable structures that are

covered with plastic wrap. The data are presented in the

form of standard dependencies of drag coefﬁcient on the

Reynolds number of the structure. It was found that

permeable platforms with holes on the order of several

microns (which is about ten times the diameter of the

nanoﬁbers) are essentially impermeable for airﬂow.

List of symbols

C

1

, C

2

coefﬁcients in Eq. (6)

C

D

drag coefﬁcient

d average pore/hole diameter

d

f

average ﬁber diameter

D diameter of the platform base

g gravity acceleration

L ‘‘stamen’’ height

p porosity

Re overall Reynolds number of a platform

Re

d

local Reynolds number based on the pore size

U terminal settling velocity of a platform

W platform weight equal to the drag force acting

on it

Greek symbols

a semivertical angle

l dynamic viscosity of air

q air density

1

Introduction

Electrospinning is a straightforward and cost-effective

method for manufacturing nanoﬁbers from polymer so-

lutions. The diameters of the ﬁbers range from less than

3 nm to over 1 lm. Recent progress in the development

and understanding of the electrospinning process has

resulted in a fast method for manufacturing disordered

nonwoven mats, as well of ordered arrays of aligned

parallel nanoﬁbers (Reneker and Chun 1996; Fong and

Reneker 2000; Reneker et al. 2000; Yarin et al. 2001;

Theron et al. 2001). In the present work our primary in-

terest lies with light nonwoven mats of nanoﬁbers that are

electrospun directly onto light planar frames. These are

part of pyramidal, umbrella-shaped stable aerodynamic

decelerators. These permeable airborne structures are of

signiﬁcant interest for a number of modern aerodynamics

applications, including questions related to micro-minia-

ture artiﬁcial airborne platforms intended for delivery of

various sensors (e.g. Warneke et al. 2001). Terminal ve-

locity and drag of such permeable structures, when they

settle apex down in stagnant air, represent primary pa-

rameters that should be established for the applications.

The interﬁber spaces constitute a signiﬁcant part of their

area. This fact allows for a signiﬁcant reduction in the

weight of these structures compared to the corresponding

impermeable structures. Moreover, permeable nonwoven

nanoﬁber networks are sufﬁciently strong but have negli-

gible weight even compared to the light frames or to light

plastic wrap. Therefore, the role of the nonwoven ﬁber

mats positioned on the frames is twofold: (i) they serve

to generate drag force, while (ii) they reduce the weight.

The ultimate aim of such a construction is to reduce the

terminal settling velocity while carrying a useful payload

(e.g. a seed or a sensor).

Received: 8 October 2001 / Accepted: 11 March 2002

Published online: 8 May 2002

Ó Springer-Verlag 2002

E. Zussman, A.L. Yarin (&)

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering,

Technion–Israel Institute of Technology,

Haifa 32000, Israel

E-mail: meralya@yarin.technion.ac.il

D. Weihs

Faculty of Aerospace Engineering,

Technion–Israel Institute of Technology,

Haifa 32000, Israel

This research was partially supported by the Israel Science Founda-

tion, the Israel Academy of Science, grant 287/00–1. The help of

Y. Uri, M. Avraham, and S. Yacov in performing the experiments

is appreciated.

Experiments in Fluids 33 (2002) 315–320

DOI 10.1007/s00348-002-0435-6

315

An average pore diameter d (in the micron range) at the

mat surface is on the order of several nanoﬁber diameters.

Local airﬂow through such openings is characterized by

small values of the local Reynolds number Re

d

£ 10

–1

. In

the creeping ﬂow regimes, as Re

d

ﬁ0 the decelerating effect

of a body (a nanoﬁber) on the ﬂow extends at distances on

the order of the longest size involved (the ﬁber length

between two intersections with the neighboring nanoﬁ-

bers, cf. Happel and Brenner 1973). Since this size is def-

initely not less than the average pore size, the pores will be

effectively impermeable. As a results, a porous mat will act

as an effectively intact (impermeable) surface, albeit much

lighter than the latter. In this case airﬂow is expected to

surround the structure instead of penetrate it. These ex-

pectations are supported by the fact that the wings of some

insects are actually comb-like (Kuethe 1975), as well as by

direct ﬂuid mechanical calculations for model cases (Cheer

and Koehl 1987).

The motivation of the present work stems from a ne-

cessity to develop very light airborne platforms of weight

less than 1 g, capable of carrying relatively large payloads

up to several grams. The platforms, a ‘‘smart dust,’’ should

be capable of easily delivering various chemical, thermal,

and other sensors to locations that are otherwise difﬁcult

to reach. This is of crucial importance in the cases of

spillage or dissemination of hazardous materials and for

atmospheric studies. In spite of the fact that different

platform conﬁgurations could be imagined, their feasibil-

ity is rooted in the same question: whether or not a per-

meable (and thus very light) parachute could possess the

same drag as the corresponding intact one. The studies on

aerodynamics of permeable surfaces are rather scarce,

therefore the answer to this question is the main aim of the

present work. As a particular (but very reasonable)

platform shape, we choose the structures resembling

pappus-bearing seeds, which are common in composite

ﬂowers and can easily sail across valleys and over moun-

tain slopes (Loewer 1995).

In the experimented study, a modiﬁed method of free

falling is used. The early history of development of the

method is covered in Prandtl and Tietjens (1957).

Section 2 contains details of the experiments intended

for measurements of drag force and terminal settling

velocity. Data processing is described in Sect. 3. Results

and discussion are presented in Sect. 4, and conclusions

are drawn in Sect. 5.

2

Experiments

The permeable nonwoven surfaces covering the airborne

platforms were created by electrospinning of nanoﬁbers

(Reneker et al. 2000). A nonwoven mat of nanoﬁbers was

created on the grounded platform frames (Fig. 1). The

average diameter of the nanoﬁbers d

f

was about 200 nm,

whereas the average length was 5 cm. A relatively low

density nanoﬁber mat was obtained after 5 min of

electrospinning. The average hole area was 4·7±4 lm

2

,

and the diameter of the ﬁbers varied from about 200 to

400 nm. The corresponding porosity was p=0.86. A rela-

tively high density nanoﬁber mat obtained after 10 min

is characterized by an average hole area of 2·3±1 lm

2

,

and the porosity p=0.75.

Fig. 1. Typical SEM micro-

graphs of a permeable non-

woven mat formed by

electrospinning

Fig. 2a, b. Photograph and

sketch of a pyramid-shaped

platform covered with

nanoﬁber mat: a top view

photograph; b sketch

316

A general overview of the platforms used to perform the

experiments is shown in Fig. 2. The platform frames were

made of balsa sticks (2-mm diameter) glued together. The

structures were covered by nanoﬁbers (which created

permeable nonwoven mats), or by a plastic wrap for

comparison. The structure shapes were umbrella-like.

They settled apex down in stagnant air.

Five different pyramid-shaped platforms, called models

1 to 5, were used. They differ in their base ‘‘diameter’’ D,

semivertical angle a, weight W, and ‘‘stamen’’ length L (cf.

Table 1 and Fig. 2). Payloads between 0.1 and 1.7 g could

be attached to the end of the ‘‘stamen’’ to vary weight of

the pyramid-shaped platforms.

There are two almost geometrically similar pairs of

models between models 1 to 5. Indeed, since models 1

and 3 have almost the same semivertical angle a, whereas

the effect of the ‘‘stamen’’ length could be neglected in

the ﬁrst approximation, these two models form a similar

pair, since they differ only in the values of D. Similarly,

models 2 and 5 could be considered to be geometrically

similar.

Each airborne platform was dropped from the height of

6 m in front of a wall with marked horizontal lines (Fig. 3).

All the experiments were performed in a large hall, where

the ambient temperature was about 25 °C, and air density

q=1.18 kg/m

3

. A section of the wall with a 2-m long ruler

was imaged with an electronic camera (Redlake Imaging

MotionScope) that recorded model motion at 125 frames/s

with exposure times as short as 8 ms. The camera was

equipped with a 16-mm lens. Preliminary experiments

showed that at this section terminal velocity has already

been reached for all the models. For each platform 12

different experiments were conducted at 12 different

payloads. Each experiment was repeated four times and

arithmetical average of the terminal settling velocity was

taken for the further calculations. Two pyramid-shaped

platforms (models 1 and 3) were also covered with plastic

wrap made of PVC for comparison. The thickness of the

plastic wrap was 25 lm and its weight was 1.2 g and 0.68 g

for models 1 and 3, respectively.

3

Data Processing

Since the models were falling down at terminal velocity U

at the section where measurements were done, their weight

W was equal to the drag force imposed on them by air.

Therefore, the drag coefﬁcient is deﬁned in the present

case as

C

D

¼

W

qU

2

=2 ð Þ Á pD

2

=4 ð Þ

: ð1Þ

The terminal velocity U was measured from the video re-

cords. Its values were used to calculate the drag coefﬁcient

via Eq. (1), as well as the corresponding overall Reynolds

number of the platform Re=qUD/l, where l is the

viscosity of air.

According to the Buckingham’s p-theorem (Sedov 1993;

Barenblatt 1996) the data for the pyramid-shaped

platforms can be presented as

C

D

¼ f

p

Re; a; L=D; d=D ð Þ : ð2Þ

Here f

p

is a dimensionless function characteristic of the

pyramid-shaped platforms. Alternatively, the parameter

d/D can be replaced by porosity p.

In a particular limiting case of an extremely light im-

permeable disk-like platform, which corresponds to a=p/2,

L/D=0, d/Dﬁ0, and Reﬁ0, an analytical expression for the

drag force is available (Happel and Brenner 1973)

W ¼ 8lDU : ð3Þ

(Note that we neglect here the difference between the

pentagonal surface (a=p/2) and a disk.) Substituting

Eq. (3) in Eqs. (1) and (2), we obtain for the impermeable

disk-like platform at Reﬁ0

C

D

¼ f

p

0;

p

2

; 0; 0

¼

64

p

Á

1

Re

: ð4Þ

On the other hand, at large values of the overall Reynolds

number, when a developed ﬂow-separation zone begins

immediately at the disk edge, the pressure drop on the

impermeable disk is close to Dp=qU

2

/2, and thus

W=DpÆpD

2

/4=(qU

2

/2)Æ(pD

2

/4). Substituting this value in

Table 1. Parameters of the pyramid-shaped platforms

Model no. Diameter

D (mm)

Angle a

(deg)

Weight

W

platform

(g)

L (mm)

1 300 63 0.8 40

2 240 77 0.37 40

3 170 66 0.32 20

4 180 45 0.39 20

5 110 76 0.16 20

Fig. 3. A pyramid-shaped platform falling down in front of a ruler

attached to the wall. The distance between the horizontal lines of the

ruler is 0.5 m

317

Eq. (1), one obtains C

D

=1 (Batchelor 1994). This estimate

is, indeed, very close to the experimental value of C

D

=1.12

in the range of 10

3

£ Re £ 10

6

(Prandtl 1952; Goldstein

1965; Batchelor 1994). Therefore, in this range for the

impermeable disk

f

p

Re;

p

2

; 0; 0

1:12 : ð5Þ

We expect that the effect of the variable L/D on the

function f

p

is relatively small. Indeed, this effect is related

to air friction acting on a rod (‘‘stamen’’) in parallel ﬂow,

whereas the drag force is mainly related to the form drag

of the blunt bodies under consideration. Therefore, in light

of Eqs. (4) and (5) for the pyramid-shaped platforms, the

following expression can be suggested

C

D

¼

C

1

a;d=D ð Þ

Re

1 þC

2

a;d=D ð ÞRe

m a;d=D ð Þ

h i

: ð6Þ

The structure of this correlation is similar to the Schiller

and Naumann law for spheres (Clift et al. 1978). The

dimensionless coefﬁcients C

1

(a,d/D), C

2

(a,d/D) and the

exponent m(a,d/D) for permeable nonwoven platforms

should be established experimentally. In the particular

case of an impermeable disk-like platform it follows from

Eqs. (4), (5), and (6) that C

1

(p/2,0)=64/p=20.37, m(p/

2,0)=1, and C

2

(p/2,0)=1.12Æp/64=0.055.

For arbitrary semivertical angles a £ p/2 the results of

the calculation for impermeable cones in the framework

of the theory of potential ﬂows with separation (Re»1)

can be used to estimate the parameters involved in

Eq. (6) (cf. Table 2 taken from Gurevich 1965). These

results show that for impermeable cones m(a,0)=1 for

any a £ p/2, whereas the product C

1

ÆC

2

equals the values

of C

D

presented in Table 2. In the particular case of

a=p/2 this yields the theoretical value of C

2

(p/

2,0)=0.8053Æp/64=0.04. Comparing it with the experi-

mental value of C

2

(p/2,0)=0.055, we see that the theory

of potential ﬂows with separation underestimates

C

2

(p/2,0) by 28%.

The fact mentioned above that the drag coefﬁcient of an

impermeable disk is constant in a wide range of the

Reynolds number allows us to assume that C

D

might also

be constant in a wide range of variation of Re for all the

permeable and impermeable platforms we are dealing

with. Then from Eq. (1) it follows that

U

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

W

p

: ð7Þ

This means that if we have two similar permeable and

impermeable models of weights W

p

and W

i

, respectively,

their terminal settling velocities will be related as per

U

p

U

i

¼

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

W

p

W

i

r

: ð8Þ

This conclusion will be checked against experimental data

in the following section.

4

Results and discussion

The major objective of the present study is to measure the

drag force acting on the permeable platforms. To achieve

this goal, a series of experiments was conducted. The re-

sults obtained in this series are presented and discussed

below. The terminal velocities of the airborne platforms

were measured once they were moving downward at a

constant pace. Figure 4 demonstrates that the terminal

settling velocity is strongly dependent on the platform size,

weight, and semivertical angle.

Terminal velocities of the permeable and impermeable

model 1 were scaled as per Eq. (7), which yielded the

following results for payloads between 0.1 and 1.7 g

U

p1

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

W

p1

p ¼ 0:753 Æ0:093;

U

i1

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

W

i1

p ¼ 0:694 Æ0:048 : ð9Þ

Since the difference in the values of the ratios is about only

8%, we can state that Eqs. (7) and (8) are supported by the

experimental data and the U

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

W

p

dependence, indeed,

holds. Also, the experimental data for models 1,3, and 5

were rather accurately approximated by the square-root

dependence (cf. Fig. 5), which additionally supports the

premise.

The effect of the hole size (porosity) was studied for

model 3. Relatively large holes were obtained after a 5-

min-long deposition of electrospun nanoﬁbers (porosity

p=0.86), whereas smaller holes resulted from a 10-min-

long deposition, (porosity p=0.75). The corresponding

data are presented in Table 3. The data show that U

(10 min)

/

U

(5 min)

=0.87, and model 3 has been slowed down by 13%

by reducing the average hole area from 28 to 6 lm

2

. Note

that the mat weight was negligibly small compared to the

Table 2. Drag coefﬁcients for cones at high Reynolds numbers (the

data of Plesset and Shaffer taken from Gurevich 1965)

a 15° 30° 45° 60° 75° 90°

C

D

0.2045 0.3758 0.5181 0.6350 0.7296 0.8053

Fig. 4. Terminal velocities of the platform models versus their

weight/drag. Pyramid-shaped permeable platforms (models 1–5), and

impermeable pyramid–shaped platforms (models 1 and 3) covered by

a plastic wrap

318

frame weight in both cases. The average drag force

coefﬁcient corresponding to model 3 after deposition of

nanoﬁbers between 5 to 10 min can be estimated using the

data of Table 3 as C

D

=(0.571+0.753)/2=0.662. The

averaging takes into account, as a coarse approximation,

the effect of the variation of the dimensionless group d/D

(or porosity) in Eq. (2) on the drag force. The semivertical

angle of model 3 is a=66° (Table 1). The value of C

D

=0.662

measured for a permeable pyramid of a=66° is rather close

to the theoretical value of C

D

=0.635 for an impermeable

cone of a rather close angle a=60° presented in Table 2.

This suggests that small holes between nanoﬁbers are

actually impermeable for airﬂow.

Cumulative data on the dependencies of the drag

coefﬁcient C

D

on the Reynolds number show that for

1.2·10

4

£ Re £ 2.2·10

4

the data group near the value of

C

D

=0.5. In Fig. 6a, b we singled out the data for two pairs

of geometrically similar, and thus comparable, permeable

models: 1 and 3, and 2 and 5, respectively. The data for two

comparable models belonging to a pair is grouped

together, and can be approximated by the correlation,

Eq. (6) with C

1

=2259.7, C

2

=0.00015, m=1 for model 1, and

by C

1

=341.1, C

2

=0.00117, and m=1 for model 3 (Fig. 6a).

The approximation by Eq. (6) for Fig. 6b results in

C

1

=1995.3, C

2

=0.00020, m=1 for model 2, and C

1

=600.5,

C

2

=0.00076, m=1 for model 5. Data scattering results, most

likely, from differences in nanoﬁber deposition times,

leading to different porosity, which was not fully

controlled in these cases.

Fig. 5. Comparison of the experimental dependencies of terminal

velocity on weight/drag force for permeable models 1, 3, and 5 with

the scaling U

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

W

p

Table 3. Effect of the duration of nanoﬁber deposition and of the

average hole size on the drag coefﬁcient of model 3

Deposition

duration

(min)

Avg. hole

area (lm

2

)

Porosity p C

D

U (m/s)

5 28 0.86 0.571 0.6208

10 6 0.75 0.753 0.5408

Fig. 6a, b. Drag coefﬁcient versus Re for the pyramid-shaped

permeable models: a models 1 and 3, the semivertical angles are

a=63° and a=66°, respectively; b models 2 and 5, the semivertical

angles are a=77° and a=76°, respectively

Fig. 7. Comparison of permeable and impermeable model 3

319

The data obtained for comparable permeable, nanoﬁ-

ber-covered models and impermeable models covered

with plastic wrap are compared in Fig. 7 for model 3. It

shows that the data for the permeable and impermeable

models collapse nearly onto a single line, which addi-

tionally supports the premise that the pores are actually

impermeable for airﬂow.

5

Conclusion

Terminal settling velocities and drag coefﬁcients of a

number of permeable platforms covered by nonwoven

nanoﬁbers were measured using the method of free falling.

The platforms were pyramid-shaped bodies. They were

settling apex down. A decrease in the average hole size

between the nanoﬁbers (or porosity) achieved by their

longer deposition leads to a signiﬁcant increase of the drag

coefﬁcient C

D

. The drag coefﬁcient C

D

of permeable plat-

forms very rapidly achieves the values characteristic of

comparable impermeable platforms wrapped by a plastic

ﬁlm. The latter were also studied experimentally in the

present work, and theoretical data from literature were

used to estimate their C

D

. The main outcome is that per-

meable platforms with holes on the order of several mi-

crons (which is about ten times the nanoﬁber diameter)

are essentially impermeable for air ﬂow. For such plat-

forms carrying payloads of several grams terminal settling

velocities on the order of 0.5 to 1 m/s were recorded.

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