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2013-2015

Notes for School Exams
Physics XI
Simple Harmonic Motion
P. K. Bharti, B. Tech., IIT Kharagpur

© 2007 P. K. Bharti
All rights reserved.
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S.H.M. Author: Pranjal Sir (B. Tech., IIT Kharagpur) Concept,, Sec 4, J B-20, Bokaro Ph. 7488044834
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S So om me e D De ef fi in ni it ti io on ns s
• Periodic motion: A motion which repeats itself after a
regular interval of timeis called periodic motion.
• Oscillation/ Vibration: Those periodic motion which
repeats itself about equilibrium point are known as
oscillation or vibration.
Note: Equilibrium point is the point where net force
and/or net torque is zero.
• e.g., uniform circular motion is a periodic motion, but it is
not oscillatory.
• Every oscillatory motion is periodic, but every periodic
motion need not be oscillatory.
• Difference between oscillation & vibration: When the
frequency is small, we call it oscillation. e.g., the
oscillation of a pendulum. When the frequency is high,
we call it vibration. e.g., the vibration of a string of a
guitar.
• Time Period (T): The smallest interval of time after
which the periodic motion is repeated is called time
period.
S.I. unit: second (s)
• Frequency (ν or f): The number of repetitions that occur
per unit time is called frequency of the periodic motion. It
is denoted by ν (Greek nu) or f. Frequency is the
reciprocal of time period T. Therefore,

1
v f
T
= = (relation between frequency and time
period)
S.I. unit: hertz (Hz).

1 Hz =1 s
-1

• Physically, if a body repeats its motion faster, it will said
to have higher frequency.

Periodic, harmonic and non-harmonic functions
(Mathematically)
• Any function that repeats itself at regular intervals of its
argument is called a periodic function. The periodic
functions which can be represented by a sine or cosine
curve are called harmonic functions.
• All harmonic functions are necessarily periodic but all
periodic functions are not harmonic. The periodic
functions which cannot be represented by single sine or
cosine function are called non-harmonic functions. The
following sine and cosine functions are periodic with
period T:

f (t) = sin ωt =sin
2
t
T
π

and g (t) = cos ωt =cos
2 t
T
π


S Sp pr ri in ng g m ma as ss s s sy ys st te em m o on n a a f fr ri ic ct ti io on nl le es ss s s su ur rf fa ac ce e
• Let us consider a mass attached to a spring which in turn,
attached to a rigid wall. The spring-mass system lies on a
frictionless surface.
• We know that if we stretch or compress a spring, the mass
will oscillate back and forth about its equilibrium
(mean) position. Equilibrium position is the point where
net force and net torque is zero.
• The point at which the spring is fully compressed or fully
stretched is known as extreme position.
• The maximum displacement of the body oscillation on
either side of the equilibrium position is called the
amplitude. In other language, we can say that amplitude
is the distance between mean position and extreme
position. Amplitude is denoted by letter A and its SI unit
is m.













• If we observe motion of the block carefully, we find that
speed i.e., magnitude of velocity is maximum at mean
position. Similarly speed is minimum i.e., zero at extreme
positions as block stops momentarily at extreme positions.
• Since, equilibrium position is the point where net force
and net torque is zero. Therefore, acceleration of the mass
is zero at equilibrium point. Magnitude of acceleration is
maximum at extreme positions.






S.H.M. Author: Pranjal Sir (B. Tech., IIT Kharagpur) Concept,, Sec 4, J B-20, Bokaro Ph. 7488044834
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S Si im mp pl le e H Ha ar rm mo on ni ic c M Mo ot ti io on n
• Let us again consider the spring-mass system lies on a
frictionless surface. We know that if we stretch or
compress the spring, the mass will oscillate back and forth
about its equilibrium (mean) position.
• Let us displace spring by a distance x towards right.
As we displace it towards right, spring force will try to
bring mass m towards left. Thus at a displacement x, a
spring forceF develops in the spring in the left direction.
We also say this force F as restoring force as it tries to
bring back mass m towards the mean position.

• As this restoring force F is opposite to that of
displacement, therefore, we can write from Hooke’s Law
F = – kx (S.H.M.) …(A)
(negative sign because F is opposite to x)
 F ∝ – x (S.H.M.) …(B)
(because k is a constant)
• Thus, the resultant restoring force F acting on the body
is proportional to the displacement x from the equilibrium
position and is directed opposite to the displacement, i.e.,
towards the equilibrium point. This kind of motion is
known as simple harmonic motion (S. H. M.).
• Again, from Newton’s 2
nd
Law, we have
F = ma
Therefore, using (A),
kx ma − =
k
a x
m
⇒ = − …(i)
• Since k and m are constants, acceleration a of the
oscillating body is directly proportional to its
displacement from the equilibrium position and is
directed opposite to the displacement, i.e.,
a ∝ – x (S.H.M.) …(C)



• Thus, acceleration a of the body is proportional to the
displacement x from the equilibrium position and is
directed opposite to the displacement, i.e., towards the
equilibrium point. This kind of motion is known as simple
harmonic motion (S. H. M.)
Definition of SHM
• We can defineSHM as an oscillatory motion in which net
restoring force or acceleration of the oscillating body is
directly proportional to its displacement from the
equilibrium position and is directed towards the mean
position.
• The body performing SHM is known as a simple
harmonic oscillator (SHO).
• If we put
2
k
m
ω = in eqn. (i), we get

2
a x ω = − (S.H.M.) …(D)
where,

is known as angular frequency of SHM.

Relation between angular frequency () with time
period (T) and frequency (f)
• Loosely speaking, we can consider angular frequency to
be the angular velocity when a body moves in uniform
circular motion.
• Clearly, the particle covers an angular displacement 2π
rad in a time equal to its time period T. Therefore,

2
T
π
ω = (angular frequency in terms of time period)
• SI unit of ω is s
–1
.
• Since, frequency f is given by f =1/T, therefore we can
write

2
2 f
T
π
ω π = =
• Time period of spring mass oscillator,
2
T
π
ω
=
 2
m
T
k
π = (Time period of spring-mass oscillator)
• Clearly,

2 2
k
k m
m
ω ω = ⇒ =

S.H.M. Author: Pranjal Sir (B. Tech., IIT Kharagpur) Concept,, Sec 4, J B-20, Bokaro Ph. 7488044834
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S SH HM M ( (Q Qu ui ic ck k R Re ev vi is si io on n) )
• A motion is linear SHM if given conditions are satisfied:
1. Motion must be oscillatory and hence periodic.
2. Force or acceleration of the particle is directly
proportional to its displacement from the equilibrium
position.
3. Force or acceleration is always directed opposite to the
displacement i.e., towards the mean position. Expressions
of S.H.M. are
F ∝ – x
F =– kx
a ∝ – x
2
a x ω = −
2
2
with & 2
k
f
m T
π
ω ω π = = =
L Li in ne ea ar r S SH HM M
A Ap pp pl li ic ca at ti io on n m me et th ho od d

• STEP I: Find out the equilibrium position: At
equilibrium position net force and net torque is zero. For
linear SHM net force should be zero at equilibrium
position.
• STEP II: Assume x = 0 at the equilibrium position.
Displace particle at a distance x from the equilibrium
position.
• STEP III: Draw FBD of the particle when the particle is
at a distance x from the equilibrium.
• STEP IV: Write Newton’s 2
nd
law. Write this equation in
the form of
2
a x ω = − and find out.
• STEP V: Use T =2π/ to find out time period.

• • E Ex xa am mp pl le e: : A mass m is attached to a vertical spring of
spring constant k. Suppose the mass is displaced from the
equilibrium position vertically. Find the time period of
the resulting oscillation.
• Solution: Let us use step by step method to find out the
time period of the oscillation.
• STEP I: Find out the equilibrium position. Let the
elongation of the spring be y at the equilibrium position.
• We draw FBD to find out equilibrium position. Clearly
forces on the mass are: weight mg downward and spring
force ky upward . Therefore, we get,
mg – ky =0
y = mg/k …(i)


• Therefore, equilibrium position is at a distance y = mg/k
below the natural length of the spring.













• STEP II: Assume x = 0 at the equilibrium position.
Displace particle at a distance x from the equilibrium
position.
• STEP III: Draw FBD of the particle when the particle is
at a distance x from the equilibrium. Forces are:
Weight mg (downward)
Spring force k(x +y) upward.
(because net compression from natural length is (x +y) in
this case)
• STEP IV: Using Newton’s 2
nd
Law in the downward
direction, we have,
mg – k (x + y) = ma
 a = g – k (x + y)/m …(ii)
• Putting y =mg/k from eqn. (i) in eqn. (ii) we get,
a = g – k (x + y)/m = g – k (x + mg/k)/m
 a = – (k/m)x …(iii)
• Clearly, equation (iii) is in the form of
2
a x ω = −
Therefore, motion is SHM.
• Therefore, comparing
2
a x ω = − with equation (iii), we get


2
=k/m
 = √(k/m) …(iv)
STEP V: Use T = 2π/ to find out time period.
• Time period,
2
T
π
ω
=  2
m
T
k
π = (Ans).


Equilibrium
position
Normal
Length
y + x
x
y
Displaced
position
m
m
mg
ky
mg
k(y+x)
S.H.M. Author: Pranjal Sir (B. Tech., IIT Kharagpur) Concept,, Sec 4, J B-20, Bokaro Ph. 7488044834
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S SI IM MP PL LE E P PE EN ND DU UL LU UM M
• A simple pendulum is an idealized model consisting of a
point mass (which is known as bob) suspended by a
massless, unstretchable string.
• When the point mass is pulled to one side of its
equilibrium position and released, it oscillates in a
circular arc about the equilibrium position. We shall show
that, provided the angle is small (less than about 10°), the
motion is that of a simple harmonic oscillator.
• Let us consider the bob of mass m is suspended by a light
string of length L that is fixed at the upper end.
• Clearly the equilibrium position is the lowest position of
the bob. Let the bob is rotated by an angle θ from
equilibrium. We have to show net torque τ is directly
proportional to angular displacement θ and is directed
opposite to θ.











• Forces acting on the particle are:
Weight mg downward and
Tension T along the string.
• Now net torque about suspension point is given by
τ = (mg sinθ) L …(i)
• As the amplitude is small (less than about 10°),
sin θ ≈ θ
• Hence, eqn. (i) becomes
τ =– mgL θ …(ii)
(negative sign because torque is in clockwise direction,
whereas angular displacement is in anticlockwise
direction)
• Thus, from (ii),
τ ∝ –θ
• Hence, motion is SHM.
• Now, from (ii)
τ =– mgL θ
 Iα =– mgL θ
 mL
2
α= – mgL θ (∵I = mL
2
)
 –
g
L
α θ =

2
– α ω θ =
where
g
L
ω =
• Time period is given by:
2
T
π
ω
=
2
L
T
g
π ⇔ = (time period of a Simple Pendulum)


Linear SHM Kinematics
Displacement
• We know that a motion is SHM if a = – ω
2
x .
• From Kinematics we know that acceleration is given by
2
2
d x
a
dt
=
• Thus, a = – ω
2
x
2
2
2
d x
x
dt
ω ⇔ = −
which is a differential eqn. of 2
nd
order.
• Solution of this differential eqn. is given by
x = A sin (ω t + ø)
(displacement of a particle executing Linear SHM )
where,
x =displacement of particle from mean position at time t
A =amplitude
ω =angular frequency
(ω t +ø) =phase
ø =phase constant or phase difference
• Thus, any eqn., where displacement can be written in the
form of x = A sin (ω t + ø), represents SHM.

• Note & Remember:
• If you study different books you will find different
expressions for SHM, i.e., you may get
x = A cos (ω t + ø) instead of x = A sin (ω t + ø).
• You can use either of eqns. Both are correct. Thus,
displacement:
x = A sin (ω t + ø)
or x = A cos (ω t + ø)
mg cos θ
mg sin θ
L
θ
T
O
mg
θ


S.H.M. Author: Pranjal Sir (B. Tech., IIT Kharagpur) Concept,, Sec 4, J B-20, Bokaro Ph. 7488044834
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Velocity & Acceleration
• Eqn. of displacement by a particle executing SHM is
given by
x = A sin (ω t + ø) …(1)
• Differentiating this eqn. wrt. time t we get velocity:
v =dx/dt
 v =A ω cos (ω t + ø) …(2)
• Differentiating, velocity v wrt. time t, we get acceleration.
a = dv/dt
 v = – A ω
2
cos (ω t + ø) …(3)
• If you compare eqn. (1) and (3) you will get
a = – ω
2
x
which represents SHM
• Using eqns. (1) & (2) and little Trigonometry, we can find
the relation between velocity and displacement of the
particle undergoing SHM. This eqn. is given by
2 2
v A x ω = ± −
(relation between velocity & displacement in SHM)

Energy of the simple harmonic oscillator
• Let the displacement and velocity of the mass executing
SHM at a particular instant of time be x & v respectively.
• We can write x & v in SHM as:
x = A sin (ω t + ø)
and v =A ω cos (ω t + ø)
• Hence, kinetic energy of mass :
K = ½mv
2
= ½ m A
2
ω
2
cos
2
(ω t +ø) …(1)
• Similarly, potential energy of spring :
U = ½kx
2
= ½ k A
2
sin
2
(ω t + ø) …(2)
• Using, ( )
2
... 3
k
k m
m
ω ω = ⇔ =
• Thus from (1), we have


K = ½mv
2
= ½ m A
2
ω
2
cos
2
(ω t +ø)
 K = ½ k A
2
cos
2
(ω t +ø) …(4)
• Hence, Mechanical Energy of the system at that instant
ME = K+U =½kA
2
cos
2
(ωt +ø) +½kA
2
sin
2
(ωt + ø)
 ME = ½ k A
2

(Using cos
2
(ω t +ø) +sin
2
(ω t +ø) =1)
• Hence, Mechanical energy of the Simple harmonic
oscillator is given by:
ME = ½ k A
2
= ½m A
2
ω
2

(Mechanical Energy of Simple Harmonic Oscillator)

• That is, the total mechanical energy of a simple harmonic
oscillator is a constant of the motion and is proportional
to the square of the amplitude.
• Note that U is small when K is large, and vice versa,
because the sum must be constant.
• Since, K =½mv
2
=½ m A
2
w
2
cos
2
(w t +ø) and
U =½kx
2
=½ k A
2
sin
2
(w t +ø), we can plot energy
diagram as shown below:



Effective Spring Constant
• Let n ideal springs of spring constants k
1
, k
2
, k
3
, …, k
n
.
Let k
eff
be effective spring constant. Then,
• Series combination:
1 2 3
1 1 1 1 1
...
eff n
K k k k k
= + + + +
• Parallel combination:
k
eff
= k
1
+ k
2
+ k
3
+ … + k
n

• Time period spring mass system is given by:
2
eff
m
T
k
π =
• If a spring of spring constant k is broken into different
pieces then,
k x = k
1
x
1
= k
2
x
2
= k
3
x
3
= … = k
n
x
n

and x = x
1
+ x
2
+…+ x
n





S.H.M. Author: Pranjal Sir (B. Tech., IIT Kharagpur) Concept,, Sec 4, J B-20, Bokaro Ph. 7488044834
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Effective g
• Case 1: If a simple pendulum is in a carriage which is
accelerating with acceleration , then
eff
g g a = −
  

& 2
eff
l
T
g
π = 
e.g., if the acceleration a

is upward, then
and 2
eff
l
g g a T
g a
π = + =
+


If the acceleration a

is downwards, then (g >a)
and T=2
eff
l
g g a
g a
π = −



If the acceleration a

is in horizontal direction, then

2 2
eff
g a g = +


In a freely falling lift g
eff
=0 and T =∞, i.e., the
pendulum will not oscillate .
• Case 2: If in addition to gravity one additional constant
force , F

(e.g., electrostatic force
e
F

) is also acting on the
bob, then in that case,
eff
F
g g
m
= +

 

& 2
eff
l
T
g
π = 
Here, m is the mass of the bob.

Physical Pendulum
Any rigid body suspended from a fixed support
constitutes a physical pendulum . A circular ring
suspended on a nail in a wall, a heavy metallic rod
suspended through a hole in it etc. are example of
physical pendulum. for small oscillations, the motion is
nearly simple harmonic. The time period is
2
I
T
mgl
π =

(time period of a Simple Pendulum)
where I =moment of inertia about suspension point and
l =distance between point of suspension and centre of
gravity

Example: A uniform rod of length 1.00 m is suspended
through an end is set into oscillation with small amplitude
under gravity. Find the time period of oscillation.
Solution : For small amplitude the angular motion is
nearly simple harmonic and the time period is given by
2
2
3
2 2
1.00
=2 2 1.16 .
3
3 9.80
ml
I
T
mgl mgl
l m
s
m
g
s
π π
π π
| |
|
\ .
= =
= =
×


Oscillations of a liquid column in a U-tube
Suppose the U-tube of cross-section A contains liquid of
density ρ upto height h.













If the liquid in one arm is depressed by distance x, it rises by
the same amount in the other arm. If the left to itself, the liquid
begins to oscillate under the restoring force,
F =Weight of liquid column of height 2 x
F =– A × 2x × ρ × g =– 2 A ρ g x …(i)
i.e., F ∝ – x
Thus the force on the liquid is proportional to displacement
and acts in its opposite direction. Hence the liquid in the U-
tube executes SHM. Comparing equation (i) with F =– k x,
we have
k =2 A ρ g
The time-period of oscillation is
2
2 2 2
2
m A h h
T
k A g g
ρ
π π π
ρ
× ×
= = =
If l is the length of the liquid column, then
2 and 2 .
2
l
l h T
g
π = =








Equilibrium level
x
h
2x
x
S.H.M. Author: Pranjal Sir (B. Tech., IIT Kharagpur) Concept,, Sec 4, J B-20, Bokaro Ph. 7488044834
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Oscillations of a body dropped in a tunnel along the
diameter of the earth
Let us consider earth to be a sphere of radius R and centre O.
A straight tunnel is dug along the diameter of the earth. Let g
be the value of acceleration due to gravity at the surface of the
earth.









Suppose a body of mass m is dropped into the tunnel and it is
at point P at a depth d below the surface of the earth at any
instant. If g’ is acceleration due to gravity at P, then
' 1
d R d
g g g
R R
− | | | |
= − =
| |
\ . \ .

If x is distance of the body from the centre of the earth
(displacement from mean position), then
'
R d x
y
g g
R
− =
∴ =

Therefore, force acting on the body at point P is
' ...(i)
. .,
mg
F mg x
R
i e F x
= − = −
∝ −

Thus the body will execute SHM with force constant,
Comparing equation (i) with F =– k x, we have
mg
k
R
=
The period of oscillation of the body will be
2 2 2 .
/
m m R
T
k mg R g
π π π = = =

Oscillation of a floating cylinder
In equilibrium, weight of the cylinder is balanced by the
upthrust of the liquid.








Let the cylinder be slightly depressed through distance x from
the equilibrium position and left to itself. It begins to oscillate
under the restoring force,
F =Net upward force =Weight of liquid column of height x
or, F =– A x ρ
l
g =– A ρ
l
g x …(i)
i.e., F ∝ – x.
Negative sign shows that F and x are in opposite directions.
Hence the cork executes SHM with force constant, k =A ρ
l
g
Also, mass of =A ρ h
∴ Period of oscillation of the cork is
2 2 2
l l
m A h h
T
k A g g
ρ ρ
π π π
ρ ρ
= = =


Oscillation of a ball in the neck of an air chamber
Let us consider an air chamber of volume V, having a neck of
area of cross-section A and a ball of mass m fitting smoothly
in the neck. If the ball be pressed down a little and released, it
starts oscillating up and down about the equilibrium position.
If the ball be depressed by distance x, then the decrease in
volume of air in the chamber is ΔV =Ax.
∴ Volume strain
V Ax
V V

= =
If pressure P is applied to the ball,
then hydrostatic stress =P
∴ Bulk modulus of elasticity of air,
or
/ /
P P EA
E P x
V V Ax V V
= − = − = −


Restoring force,
2
...(i)
EAx EA
F PA A x
V V
= = − = −
Thus F is proportional to x and acts in its opposite direction.
Comparing equation (i) with F =– k x, we have,
2
EA
k
V
=
Period of oscillation of the ball is
2 2
2 2 2
/
m m mV
T
k EA V EA
π π π = = =
(a) If the P-V variations are isothermal, then E =P,
2
2 .
mV
T
PA
π ∴ =
(b) If the P-V variations are adiabatic, then E = γ P
2
2 .
mV
T
PA
π
γ
∴ =


R
A
O

P

d
x
ρ
ρ
l

P

h
Equilibrium
position

ρ
l

ρ
l

ρ
x
Air
x
V
m
A
S.H.M. Author: Pranjal Sir (B. Tech., IIT Kharagpur) Concept,, Sec 4, J B-20, Bokaro Ph. 7488044834
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1. Free oscillations: If a body, capable of oscillation, is
slightly displaced from its position of equilibrium and left
to itself, it starts oscillating with a frequency of its own.
Such oscillations are called free oscillations. The
frequency with which a body oscillates freely is called
natural frequency and is given by
0
1
2
k
v
m π
=
• Some important features of free oscillations are
(a) In the absence of dissipative forces, such a body vibrates
with a constant amplitude and fixed frequency, as shown
in figure. Such oscillations are also called undamped
oscillations.
(b) The amplitude of oscillation depends on the energy
supplied initially to the oscillator.
(c) The natural frequency of an oscillator depends on its
mass, dimensions and restoring force i.e., on its inertial
and elastic properties (m and k).





Examples.
(i) The vibrations of the prongs of tunning fork struck
against a rubber pad.
(ii) The vibrations of the string of a sitar when pulled aside
and released.
(iii) The oscillations of the bob of pendulum when displaced
from its mean position and released.

2. Damped oscillations: The oscillations in which the
amplitude decreases gradually with the passage of time
are called damped oscillations.
• In actual practice, most of the oscillations occur in
viscous media, such as air, water, etc. A part of the energy
of the oscillating system is lost in the form of heat, in
overcoming these resistive forces. As a result, the
amplitude of such oscillations decreases exponentially
with time. Eventually, these oscillations die out.
• In an oscillatory motion, friction produces three effects:
(i) It changes the simple harmonic motion into
periodic motion.
(ii) It decreases the amplitude of oscillation.
(iii) It slightly reduces the frequency of oscillation.











Examples.
(i) The oscillations of a swing in air.
(ii) The oscillations of the bob of a pendulum in a fluid.

Differential equation for damped oscillators and its
solution
In a real oscillator, the damping force is proportional to the
velocity v of the oscillator.
F
d
=– bv
where b is damping constant which depends on the
characteristics of the fluid and the body that oscillates in it.
The negative sign indicates that the damping force opposes the
motion.
∴ Total restoring force =– kx – bv
2
2
2
2
or
or 0
d x dx dx
m kx b v
dt dt dt
d x dx
m b kx
dt dt
(
= − − =
(
¸ ¸
+ + =

This is the differential equation for damped S.H.M.
The solution of the equation is
x(t) =A e
–bt/2m
cos (ω
d
t +ϕ)
The amplitude of the damped S.H.M. is
A’ =Ae
–bt/2m

where A is amplitude of undamped S.H.M. Clearly, A’
decreases exponentially with time.
The angular frequency of the damped oscillator is
2
2
4
d
k b
m m
ω = −
Time period,
2
2
2 2
4
d
d
T
k b
m m
π π
ω
= =


The mechanical energy of the damped oscillator at any instant
t is given by
( )
2 2 /
1 1
'
2 2
bt m
E t ka ka e

= =
Obviously, the total energy decreases exponentially with time.
As damping constant, b =F/v
∴ SI unit of
2
1
1 1
N kg ms
kg s
ms ms
b


− −
= = =
x(t)
t
–A
0
+A
Constant amplitude
Gradually falling amplitude
x(t) t
–A
0
+A
S.H.M. Author: Pranjal Sir (B. Tech., IIT Kharagpur) Concept,, Sec 4, J B-20, Bokaro Ph. 7488044834
10
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Resonance
• Figure shows the variation of the amplitude of forced
oscillations as the frequency of the driver varies from zero
to a large value. Clearly, the amplitude of force
oscillations is very small for v <<v
0
and v >>v
0
. But
when
0
, v v ≈ the amplitude of the forced oscillations
becomes very large. In this condition, the oscillator
responds most favourably to the driving force and draws
maximum energy from it. The case v = v
0
is called
resonance and the oscillations are called resonant
oscillations.









• Resonant oscillations and resonance: It is a particular
case of forced oscillations in which the frequency of the
driving force is equal to the natural frequency of the
oscillator itself and the amplitude of oscillation is very
large. Such oscillations are called resonant oscillations
and phenomenon is called resonance.
Examples.
(a) An aircraft passing near a building shatters its window
panes, if the natural frequency of the window matches the
frequency of the sound waves sent by the aircraft’s
engine.
(b) The air-column in a reasonance tube produces a loud
sound when its frequency matches the frequency of the
tuning fork.
(c) A glass tumbler or a piece of china-ware on shelf is set
into resonant vibrations when some note is sung or
played.

Principal of tuning of a radio receiver
Tuning of the radio receiver is based on the principal of
resonance. Waves from all stations are present around the
antenna. When we tune our radio to a particular station,
we produce a frequency of the radio circuit which
matches with the frequency of that station. When this
condition of resonance is achieved, the radio receives and
responds selectively to the incoming waves from that
station and thus gets tuned to that station.





































a
v v
0

S.H.M. Author: Pranjal Sir (B. Tech., IIT Kharagpur) Concept,, Sec 4, J B-20, Bokaro Ph. 7488044834
11
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Physics Classes by Pranjal Sir
(Admission Notice for XI & XII - 2014-15)
Batches for Std XIIth
Batch 1 (Board +J EE Main +Advanced): (Rs. 16000)
Batch 2 (Board +J EE Main): (Rs. 13000)
Batch 3 (Board): (Rs. 10000)
Batch 4 (Doubt Clearing batch): Rs. 8000



About P. K. Bharti Sir (Pranjal Sir)
• B. Tech., IIT Kharagpur (2009 Batch)
• H.O.D. Physics, Concept Bokaro Centre
• Visiting faculty at D. P. S. Bokaro
• Produced AIR 113, AIR 475, AIR 1013 in J EE -
Advanced
• Produced AIR 07 in AIEEE (J EE Main)

Address: Concept, J B 20, Near J itendra Cinema, Sec 4,
Bokaro Steel City
Ph: 9798007577, 7488044834
Email: pkbharti.iit@gmail.com
Website: www.vidyadrishti.org

Physics Class Schedule for Std XIIth (Session 2014-15) by Pranjal Sir
Sl. No. Main Chapter Topics Board level JEE Main Level JEE Adv Level
Basics from XIth
Vectors, FBD, Work, Energy, Rotation,
SHM
3
rd
Mar to 4
th
Apr 14
1.
Electric Charges and
Fields
Coulomb’s Law
5
th
& 6
th
Apr 5
th
& 6
th
Apr 5
th
& 6
th
Apr
Electric Field
10
th
& 12
th
Apr 10
th
& 12
th
Apr 10
th
& 12
th
Apr
Gauss’s Law
13
th
& 15
th
Apr 13
th
& 15
th
Apr 13
th
& 15
th
Apr
Competition Level
NA 17
th
& 19
th
Apr 17
th
& 19
th
Apr
2.
Electrostatic Potential
and Capacitance
Electric Potential
20
th
& 22
nd
Apr 20
th
& 22
nd
Apr 20
th
& 22
nd
Apr
Capacitors
24
th
& 26
th
Apr 24
th
& 26
th
Apr 24
th
& 26
th
Apr
Competition Level
NA 27
th
& 29
th
Apr 27
th
& 29
th
Apr, 1
st
,
3
rd
& 4
th
May
PART TEST 1
Unit 1 & 2
4
th
May NA NA
NA 11
th
May 11
th
May
3.

Current Electricity
Basic Concepts, Drift speed, Ohm’s
Law, Cells, Kirchhoff’s Laws,
Wheatstone bridge, Ammeter,
Voltmeter, Meter Bridge, Potentiometer
etc.
6
th
, 8
th
, 10
th
, 13
th

May
6
th
, 8
th
, 10
th
, 13
th

May
6
th
, 8
th
, 10
th
, 13
th
May
Competition Level
NA 15
th
& 16
th
May 15
th
, 16
th
, 17
th
, 18
th
&
19
th
May
PART TEST 2
Unit 3
18
th
May NA NA
NA 20
th
May 20
th
May
SUMMER BREAK 21
st
May 2013 to 30
th
May 2013
4.
Moving charges and
Magnetism
Force on a charged particle (Lorentz
force), Force on a current carrying
wire, Cyclotron, Torque on a current
carrying loop in magnetic field,
magnetic moment
31
st
May, 1
st
&
3
rd
J un
31
st
May, 1
st
&
3
rd
J un
31
st
May, 1
st
& 3
rd
J un
Biot Savart Law, Magnetic field due
to a circular wire, Ampere circuital
law, Solenoid, Toroid
5
th
, 7
th
& 8
th
J un 5
th
, 7
th
& 8
th
J un 5
th
, 7
th
& 8
th
J un
Competition Level
NA 10
th
& 12
th
J un 10
th
, 12
th
, 14
th
& 15
th

J un
PART TEST 3 Unit 4 15
th
Jun NA NA
NA 22
nd
Jun 22
nd
Jun
S.H.M. Author: Pranjal Sir (B. Tech., IIT Kharagpur) Concept,, Sec 4, J B-20, Bokaro Ph. 7488044834
12
www.vidyadrishti.org An education portal for future IITians by Ex-IITians

5.
Magnetism and
Matter

17
th
, 19
th
& 21
st

J un
17
th
, 19
th
& 21
st

J un
Not in J EE Advanced
Syllabus
6.

Electromagnetic
Induction
Faraday’s Laws, Lenz’s Laws, A.C.
Generator, Motional Emf, Induced Emf,
Eddy Currents, Self Induction, Mutual
Induction
24
th
, 26
th
& 28
th

J un
24
th
, 26
th
& 28
th

J un
24
th
, 26
th
& 28
th
J un
Competition Level
NA 29
th
J un & 1
st
J ul 29
th
J un, 1
st
, 3
rd
& 5
th

J ul
PART TEST 4 Unit 5 & 6 6
th
Jul NA NA
NA 13
th
Jul 13
th
Jul
7.
Alternating current
AC, AC circuit, Phasor, transformer,
resonance,
8
th
, 10
th
& 12
th

J ul
8
th
, 10
th
& 12
th

J ul
8
th
, 10
th
& 12
th
J ul
Competition Level
NA 15
th
July 15
th
& 17
th
July
8.
Electromagnetic
Waves

19
th
& 20
th
July 19
th
& 20
th
July Not in J EE Advanced
Syllabus
PART TEST 5
Unit 7 & 8
27
th
Jul 27
th
Jul 27
th
Jul
Revision Week
Upto unit 8
31
st
Jul & 2
nd

Aug
31
st
Jul & 2
nd

Aug
31
st
Jul & 2
nd
Aug
Grand Test 1
Upto Unit 8
3
rd
Aug 3
rd
Aug 3
rd
Aug
9.


Ray Optics
Reflection
5
th
& 7
th
Aug 5
th
& 7
th
Aug 5
th
& 7
th
Aug
Refraction
9
th
& 12
th
Aug 9
th
& 12
th
Aug 9
th
& 12
th
Aug
Prism
14
th
Aug 14
th
Aug 14
th
Aug
Optical Instruments
16
th
Aug 16
th
Aug Not in J EE Adv
Syllabus
Competition Level
NA 19
th
& 21
st
Aug 19
th
, 21
st
, 23
rd
, 24
th
Aug
10.



Wave Optics
Huygens Principle
26
th
Aug 26
th
Aug 26
th
Aug
Interference
28
th
& 30
th
Aug 28
th
& 30
th
Aug 28
th
& 30
th
Aug
Diffraction
31
st
Aug 31
st
Aug 31
st
Aug
Polarization
2
nd
Sep 2
nd
Sep 2
nd
Sep
Competition Level
NA 4
th
& 6
th
Sep 4
th
, 6
th
, 7
th
, 9
th
, 11
th
Sep
PART TEST 6
Unit 9 & 10
14
th
Sep 14
th
Sep 14
th
Sep
REVISION ROUND 1 (For JEE Main & JEE Advanced Level): 13
th
Sep to 27
th
Sep
Grand Test 2
Upto Unit 10
28
th
Sep 28
th
Sep 28
th
Sep
DUSSEHRA & d-ul-Zuha Holidays: 29
th
Sep to 8
th
Oct
11.

Dual Nature of
Radiation and Matter
Photoelectric effect etc
9
th
& 11
th
Oct 9
th
& 11
th
Oct 9
th
& 11
th
Oct
Grand Test 3
Upto Unit 10
12
th
Oct 12
th
Oct 12
th
Oct
12.

Atoms

14
th
& 16
th
Oct 14
th
& 16
th
Oct 14
th
& 16
th
Oct
13.
Nuclei

18
th
& 19
th
Oct 18
th
& 19
th
Oct 18
th
& 19
th
Oct
X-Rays

NA 21
st
Oct 21
st
& 25
th
Oct
PART TEST 7
Unit 11, 12 & 13
26
th
Oct NA NA
14.
Semiconductors
Basic Concepts and Diodes, transistors,
logic gates
26
th
, 28
th
, 30
th

Oct & 1
st
Nov
26
th
, 28
th
, 30
th

Oct & 1
st
Nov
Not in J EE Adv
Syllabus
15.

Communication
System

2
nd
& 4
th
Nov 2
nd
& 4
th
Nov Not in J EE Adv
Syllabus
PART TEST 8
Unit 14 & 15
9
th
Nov 9
th
Nov NA
Unit 11, 12 & 13
Competition Level
NA 8
th
, 9
th
& 11
th

Nov
8
th
, 9
th
, 11
th
, 13
th
& 15
th

Nov
PART TEST 9
Unit 11, 12, 13, X-Rays
NA 16
th
Nov 16
th
Nov
Revision Round 2
(Board Level)
Mind Maps & Back up classes for late
registered students
18
th
Nov to
Board Exams
18
th
Nov to
Board Exams
18
th
Nov to Board
Exams
Revision Round 3
(XIth portion for JEE)

18
th
Nov to JEE 18
th
Nov to JEE 18
th
Nov to JEE

30 Full Test Series
Complete Syllabus
Date will be published after Oct 2014