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NURSING RESEARCH

Instruction: Choose the correct answer from the choices below. Erasure means
wrong
1. The major reason for conducting research is to:
a. improve nursing care for clients c. promote the growth of the
nursing profession
b. document the cost-efectiveness of care d. ensure accountabilit for
nursing practice
!. The plan for how a stud will be conducted is called:
a. design b. data collection method c. hpothesis d. research
process
". To obtain the desired data in a stud# which of the following tpes of de$nition
is mot essential%
a. theoretical b. conceptual c. dictionar d. operational
&. Collecting data from a sample to determine the characteristics of a population
is the purpose of what tpe of research%
a. correlational b. e'perimental c. surve d.
historical
(. )hich of the following methods is appropriate for the presentation of research
$ndings
a. narrative presentations c. tabular presentations
b. graphical presentations d. all of the above
*. )hat communication medium is most li+el to reach the largest percentage of
nurses%
a. dissertation defense c. journal article
b. conference oral presentation d. poster presentation
,. - communit health nurse of a maternit clinic decides to conduct a stud to
determine the number of clients seen during the previous ear who became
anemic at some time during their pregnanc. The nurse.s research is classi$ed
as which tpe of stud%
a. -naltic b. Cohort c. /escriptive d. E'perimental
0. - graduate nursing student is collecting data for a research stud and
approaches the assigned nurse for permission to see a patient.s chart. The
nurse.s $rst most appropriate steps is to determine:
a. if informed consent has been obtained c. the purpose of the
stud
b. If the supervisor has approved the stud d. the speci$c data
re1uested
2. )hich statement about informed consent in nursing research is true%
a. 3nce participants have signed consent# the are e'pected to complete the
stud
b. 4articipants are informed of the sampling method used.
c. 4articipants receive a full e'planation of the stud# validit testing and
hpotheses
d. The consent form states the researchers names# addresses# and telephone
number
15. The three essential elements are informed consent are:
a. accountabilit# bene$cence# and paternalism
b. con$dentialit# truthfulness# and advocac
c. $nancial ris+# rule of utilit# and protection of privac
d. information# comprehension# and freedom from coercion
11. )hen writing a grant proposal for a domestic violence prevention program#
the author addresses characteristics of the target population that are related
to:
a. current health care need c. ris+ factors prevalent among
its members
b. recent utili6ation of health care services d. speci$c health conditions
1!. 7urveing clients. +nowledge of resources# identifing resource eligibilit
criteria# and comparing income levels with agenc fee structures are steps in
which part of the grant proposal processes%
a. 8udgeting b. Evaluation c. 9eeds assessment d. program
design
1". The diabetes clinician designs a stud to e'amine how a consistent and
structured educational interaction between diabetes educators and
hospitali6ed diabetes patients would afect the patients. an'iet levels. Two
groups of patients# ages "5 to 05 ears# are studied. The $rst group receives
dail visits from the same educator. The second group receives one visit of
basic s+ills teaching. - standardi6ed an'iet scale is administered to both
groups on admission and again after at least " das of hospitali6ation. :ort
patients admitted between 7eptember 1 and 7eptember "5 serve as subject
for the $rst group# and &5 admitted between 3ctober 1 and 3ctober "5 serve
as subjects for the second group. )hat are the independent and dependent
variables in this stud%
a. Independent variable: dail interaction; /ependent variable; patient an'iet
level
b. Independent variable: one visit of basic s+ills teaching; /ependent variable; dail
interaction
c. Independent variable; patient an'iet level; dependent variable; dail
interaction
d. Independent variable; patient an'iet level; dependent variable; visit of
basic s+ills teaching
1&. In the discussion section of a research article# the author states that the lac+
of statistical signi$cance ma have been caused b the small sample si6e and
suggests the need for replication of the stud with a large sample. In
evaluating the author.s statement# which statement is appropriate to
consider%
a. -n e'act replication ma produce the same results
b. If the stud was otherwise well designed# replication ma be advisable
c. 7ample si6e is not related to statistical signi$cance# so the author.s
suggestion is illogical
d. 7ample si6e is not important if the appropriate statistical techni1ues are
applied.
1(. The primar consideration when evaluating a research sample is its:
a. generali6abilitb. probabilit c. randomi6ation d.
representativeness
1*. 7tatistical sources for population age distributions# and socioeconomic
characteristics include:
a. census data b. morbidit data c. service utili6ation data d. vital
statistics
1,. The most efective wa to asses the health care needs of older persons in a
communit is to:
a. Conduct personal interviews with local health care professionals and social
services staf.
b. <el on intuitive impressions obtained from wor+ing with older persons
c. <eview demographic data from the most recent census
d. 7urve a random sample of adult children who do not reside in the
communit
=an nurses left the countr for better wor+ing conditions. >ospital and nursing
school administrators are 1uestioning the commitment of professional nurses to
their organi6ation. 9urse Carmencita was commissioned to conduct research amid
this nursing crisis.
10. )hich of the following will be the priorit action of 9urse Carmencita%
a. :ormulate and delimit the research problem
b. :ormulate research hpothesis
c. /evelop a conceptual framewor+ of the stud
d. Conduct literature search on the topic
12. - basic characteristic of a research problem is that it is researchable# which
means that:
a. It can be investigated through the collection and analsis of data
b. It can ma+e great topics for debate
c. It deals with philosophical or ethical issues
d. It has no practical signi$cance
!5. -fter the research problem and purpose increase in clarit and conciseness#
9urse Carmencita has greater direction in determining the feasibilit of the
stud which include:
a. 1#!#" 1. Time and mone commitment
b. 1#!#& !. <esearcher.s e'pertise
c. 1#"#& ". -vailabilit of subjectis# facilit and e1uipment
d. 1#!#"#& &. 7tud.s ethical considerations
!1. -fter the problem has been carefull delineated and clearl stated# 9urse
Carmencita is now read to conduct a literature review. The review of related
literature involves which of the following:
a. 7stematic identi$cation of literature sources
b. ?ocating documents
c. -ll of the above
!!. The major purpose of reviewing the literature is to:
a. :amiliari6e oneself with diferent tpes of research studies
b. :ind a similar stud and replicate
c. :amiliari6e oneseft with research formats used b diferent authors
d. To determine what has alread been done that relates to our problem
!". -fter having ac1uainted herself with the librar# 9urse Carmencita should
ma+e a list of +e words to guide her in the literature search. 4ossible +e
words that she can use in the search would include:
a. 1#! 1. Commitment
b. 1#" !. 3rgani6ational commitment
c. 1#"#& ". 9urses
d. 1#!#"#& &. 9ursing crisis
!&. 7he considers accessing electronic database for her literature search. )hich
of the following is the most appropriate database for nurses%
a. E<IC b. 4schI9:3 c =E/?I9E d. CI9->?
!(. )hen reading a journal article she $rst started reading the brief summar of
the article placed at the beginning of the journal report. This is referred to as
the:
a. Introduction b. bac+ground c. abstract
!*. 7he noted that the researcher himself who conducted the stud wrote the
journal article she is reading. This refers to the:
a. 8ibliograph b. 7econdar source c. 4rimar source
!,. )hich of the following research design is most appropriate for this stud%
a. /escriptive b. >istorical c. Case 7tud d.
4henomenological
!0. 9urse Carmencita plans to collect data from nurses b using a 1uestionnaire.
4rior to administering the 1uestionnaire# she should $rst determine the degree
to which the test consistentl measures what it measures. This is called.
a. @alidit b. normalit c. reliabilit d.
sensitivit
!2. 7he should also conduct a small-scale trial run of her research stud which is
referred to as:
a. <ehearsal b. sampling c. >awthorne studies d. pilot stud
"5. 7he should also consider ethical considerations involved in all research studies
that include:
a. 1#! 1. 7ubjects should not be harmed in an wa
b. 1#!#" !. Inform subjects concerning the nature of ris+
involved
c. 1#!#& ". 7ubject.s right to privac should be considered
d. 1#!#"#& &. <espect for the dignit and welfare of the
participant
"1. - 1uestionnaire was distributed b mail bearing an I/ number in one corner.
<espondents are assured their responses will not be individuall divulged. This
is called:
a. informed consent b. anonmit c. con$dentialit
"!. 7election of sample in this stud is an important step in doing research. -
good sample is:
a. 3ne that includes both male and female nurses
b. 3ne that shows a balance in the number of nurses from hospital and
school
c. 3ne that is representative of the population from which it was selected
d. 3ne that can be manipulated and controlled
"". The actual population of stud participants selected from a larger population
is +nown as:
a. 4opulation b. Cluster c. Target population d. accessible
population
"&. 7ampling criteria ma be used b 9urse Carmencita to develop the desired
sample. Characteristics that must be present for a subject to be included in
the sample is called:
a. Inclusion criteria b. e'clusion criteria c. representativeness
"(. :rom a sampling theor point of view# each individual in the population should
have an e1ual and independent chance of being selected for the sample. This
is don through:
a. 4urposive sampling b. 1uota sampling c. random
sampling
"*. 9urse Carmencita develops a sampling frame that involves random selection
of provinces in the diferent regions of the countr and randoml selecting
nurses in the selected provinces. This is an e'ample of which tpe of random
sampling%
a. 7imple random sampling b. strati$ed random sampling c. cluster
sampling
",. )hen data of nurses in the sample are categori6ed into gender and
emploment status# what level of measurement is used%
a. 9ominal scale b. ordinal scale c. interval scale
d. ratio-scale
"0. The nurse.s level of education in this stud is classi$ed in which level of
measurement%
a. 9ominal-scale b. ordinal scale c. interval scale
d. ratio-scale
"2. )hen 9ruse Carmencita organi6es her data using fre1uenc distributions and
computation of means# she is using which approach to data analsis%
a. /escriptive statistics b. Inferential statistics c. parametric
statistics
&5. 9urse Carmencita is now done with anal6ing the data. >er challenge is to
reach the $nal stage of the research process which is:
a. Conduct post-surve b. )rite the $nal draft c.
communicate results
&1. The following are possible was b which 9urse Carmencita.s stud could be
shared to others for dissemination purposes# EACE4T:
a. 3ral presentation at conferencesBconventions
b. 4ublication in research journals
c. Civing poster presentation at conventions
d. Deeping it in her personal journal
&!. The process of disseminating and using research-generated information to
ma+e an impact on or change in the e'isting practices in nursing is called:
a. Dnowledge management b. +nowledge utili6ation c. research
criti1ue
&". 9urse Carmencita is interested in conducting another stud. 7he was as+ed b
her superior to submit a written plan identifing the major elements of the
stud. This is referred to as:
a. 4roposition b. 4ilot 7tud c. research proposal d. Thesis
&&. - well written plan would include the following# EACE4T
a. <esearch problem
b. <eview of <elated ?iterature and TheoreticalBConceptual :ramewor+
c. =ethods and 4rocedures
d. <esearch :indings
&(. The following should be included in the methods and procedure section of her
plan# which projects e'penses and facilitates completion of the project on
schedule.
a. 8udget b. timetable c. a and b d. b onl
<esearch is the +e to +eep our +nowledge base and our practice in nursing
current. It provides a solid foundation on which to base our practice. 8ecause of
this it is important that nurses directl or indirectl participate in research
activities in order to add +nowledge in the profession.
&*. )hich of the following is the $rst step in the conceptual phase of the research
process%
a. :ormulation and delimiting the problem c. developing a
theoretical framewor+
b. <eview of <elated ?iterature d. :ormulation of hpothesis
&,. )hich of the following characteristics do 93T describe scienti$c investigation%
a. 4lanned and conducted in sstematic and orderl manner
b. 8ased on empirical data that have been subjected to repeated
investigation
c. Conducted to develop theories and stud advance +nowledge
d. 3bservations are made and veri$ed not necessaril on the basis of actual
observation
&0. )hich of the following isBare sourceBs of research problem%
a. ?iterature b. e'perience c. theor d. all
&2. This research approach uses numerical data to obtain information about the
world:
a. E'perimental b. surve c. 1ualitative d. 1uantitative
(5. In which of the following tpe of research does a researcher control the
independent variable but has no wa of assigning subjects to treatment
conditions in a random manner%
a. E'perimental c. e'plorator
b. Euasi-e'perimental d. Correlational
(1. )hich of the following is T<FE in an e'perimental stud%
a. 7ubjects who are li+el to perform better are assigned under e'perimental
group
b. The control group is given the theor being tested
c. -ssigning subjects to both the e'perimental and control groups are done
randoml
d. Conditions afecting the subjects are not controlled to allow generali6ation
of $ndings
Civen the following e'amples of hpothesis# answer the following 1uestions:
Cancer patients receiving preparator patient education G44EH intervention
e'perience lower levels of an'iet that those who receive outline
information. G4oroch# 122(H
(!. The statement above is an e'ample of which tpe of hpothesis%
a. 1#! 1. -ssociative
b. 1#" !. Causal
c. !#" ". 9ull
d. !#& &. 7imple
(". In this hpothesis# the independent variable is:
a. Cancer patients b. 44E intervention c. an'iet level
(&. In causal relationships# the variable that is manipulated b the researcher is
the:
a. Independent variable b. dependent variable c. active
variable
((. The hpothesis that is used for statistical testing and interpreting statistical
outcomes in research is referred to as:
a. <esearch hpothesis b. null hpothesis c. directional hpothesis
(*. This tpe of variable e'ists in all studies an can afect measurement of stud
variables and the relationships among these variables.
a. Independent variables b. /ependent variable c.
e'traneous variable
(,. In research# the variables that is the presumed cause is the:
a. Independent variables b. /ependent variable c.
e'traneous variable
(0. Characteristics or attitudes of the subjects that are collected to describe the
sample li+e age# educational level# gender# income# etc are referred to as:
a. Environmental variables b. confounding variables c.
demographic variables
Fnder <- 21," 7ection !0e# one of the duties of a nurse is research. 8ecause
nursing is a profession# nurses should contribute to the generation of nursing.
4rofessional nurses therefore should be e1uipped with +nowledge of the research
process and be able to appl it.
(2. )hich of the following is the correct se1uence of steps in doing 1uantitative
research%
a. 1#!#"#&#( 1. :ormulating research problem and purpose
b. 1#&#(#!#" !. /eveloping plan for data collection and analsis
c. 1#&#"#(#! ". :ormulating research 1uestions and hpothesis
d. 1#"#&#(#! &. <eview of relevant literature an developing a
framewor+
*5. Common sources of research problems in nursing are:
a. 1#! 1. 9ursing practice
b. !#" !. 4atterns trends
c. 1#!#" ". 7omebod else.s completed research
d. 1#!#"#& &. <esearcher.s intellectual and scienti$c interests
*1. <esearchers have been e'ploring alternative design strategies that might
increase validit of studies. =ost recent interest is the combined use of two or
more theories# methods# data sources# or methods of analsis in a stud. This
is referred to as:
a. <esearch Combo b. 7trati$cation c. Traingulation
*!. The following are the characteristics of 1uantitative research EACE4T:
a. 3bjective c. Element of analsis number
b. /evelops theor d. basic is +nowing: cause-and-efect
relationship
*". )hich of the following is not a 1ualitative research method%
a. Correlational b. 4hemoenological c. Ethnographic
*&. In order for a stud to be considered a true e'periment# it must have three
essential characteristics. )hich of the following is 93T a characteristic of an
e'perimental stud:
a. Independent variable must be manipulated b the e'perimenter
b. /ependent variable must be manipulated b the e'perimenter
c. 7ubjects must be randoml assigned to groups
d. - control group must be incorporated within the design
*(. )hich of the following is an e'ample of manipulation of variables in
e'perimental research:
a. -ssigning subjects in a random manner
b. Civing the control group a standard treatment as basis for comparison
c. Creating more groups
d. 8 assigning subjects to varied conditions# giving intervention to one
group and withholding it from another group.
**. In e'perimental studies# the researcher should control biases. The bias that
occurs when subjects +now that the are being involved in a stud is called:
a. >awthorne efect b. >awthorne studies c. >alo efect
*,. - descriptive stud design that e'amines changes in the same subjects over
an e'tended period of time is called:
a. Cross-sectional design b. ?ongitudinal design c.
Trend design
*0. )hich of the following studies that e'amine relationships between variables
do not establish causalit%
a. E'perimental b. Euasi-e'perimental c. Correlational
*2. In e'perimental studies where two or more independent variables# with
independent groups of subjects randoml assigned to various combination of
levels of the two variables# the design is called
a. 4retest-posttest control group design c. :actorial design
b. 4osttest-onl design
,5. )hen an e'periment lac+s randomi6ation or comparison groups it becomes
which of the following:
a. True e'perimental c. Euasi-e'perimental
b. 4seudo-e'perimental d. descriptive correlational
,1. )hich of the following is not true about sample si6e determination in
research%
a. The larger the sample# the more representative it is li+el to be
b. The more representative a sample is# the more generali6able the results
would be.
c. ?arge samples can lead to erroneous results when not well selected
d. The more generali6able the sample is# the more representative will be the
results

,!. In a population of !#555 nurses in the list of professional nurses in the region#
ou plan to have 05 as the desired sample si6e. Fsing sstematic sampling
techni1ue# what will be our Dth factor%
a. !5 b. 1( c. ( d. !&
,". )hat does this statement refer to% The level of educational attainment of the
mothers is not correlated with their degree of compliance to the treatment
regimen.
a. ?imitation of the stud b. hpothesis c. assumptions
,&. )hen a subject of a research verbali6es her intention to withdraw her
participation in the stud# which is considered an ethical action on the part of
the research%
a. -dvise him to put it in writing c. -llow him to withdraw
antime
b. <emind him of his dut as a participant d. Tell him his withdrawal has
legal implications
,(. )hich of the following is 93T one of those groups who are vulnerable to
coercion and deception due to inabilit to give informed consent in research%
a. ChildrenBminors b. =entall impaired adults c. new <9
,*. If a researcher studies the efect of a scheduling assignment on nurses.
morale# the scheduling assignment would be referred to as the:
a. Independent variableb. dependent variable c. population
,,. )hat ethical principle is violated when a researcher do not consider freedom
to participate or not participate in research
a. 4rinciple of respect for persons b. bene$cence c.
justice
,0. Cuasalit in research means:
a. There must be no correlation between variables
b. The cause ma not alwas be present whenever the efect occurs
c. Things have causes and that causes lead to efects
,2. =easures of Central Tendenc and variabilit are e'amples of
a. /escriptive statistics b. inferential statistics c. @ital
statistics
05. E'tending the implications of the $ndings from the sample studies to a larger
population is called:
a. Cenerali6ation b. Conclusion c. ?imitation
01. )hich of the following tpes of research ma+es use of past events to answer a
problem%
a. E'post-facto analsis c. Case stud
b. :ield e'periment d. >istorical
0!. )hich of the following actions of a researcher ensures anonmit%
a. 3btain informed consent
b. 4rovide e1ual treatment to all the subjects of the stud
c. <elease the $ndings of the stud to the subjects onl
d. Deep the identi$es of the subjects secret
0". -fter the analsis of the data# which of the following steps will the researcher
do ne't%
a. Interpret the data
b. )rite the conclusion and recommendation
c. 3rgani6e the data using fre1uenc distributions
d. /isseminate the results of the stud
0&. If variable A increases as variable I increase in a speci$ed population# this
reJects which of the f%
a. 4redicts a positive relationship c. 4redicts no relationship
b. 4redicts a negative relationship
0(. )hen a researcher would li+e to stud the lived e'periences of patients with
prostate cancer con$ned in their homes# most li+el the tpe of research that
he will design is:
a. True e'perimental b. ethnographic c.
phenomenological
0*. The sampling techni1ue used in this +ind of stud would be
a. Cluster sampling b. 1uota sampling c. purposive
sampling
0,. The tpe of setting that is appropriate for this +ind of stud would be:
a. 9atural setting b. clinical setting c.
controlled setting
00. The outcome that the investigator is interested in understanding e'plaining#
or predicting is described as:
a. /ependent variable b. independent variable c. e'traneous
variable
02. In a certain stud# the researcher was as+ed to consider the variable pain.
4ain is classi$ed in what scale of measurement%
a. 9ominal b. 3rdinal c. Interval d. <atio
25. )hat part of the research report contains the bac+ground of the problem%
a. Introduction b. ?iterature <eview c. =ethodolog d. <esults
K /iscussion
21. )hen a researcher gives a description of how variables or concepts in the
stud will be measured or manipulated in the stud she is actuall giving
which tpe of de$nition%
a. conceptual de$nition b. operational de$nition c.
personal de$nition
The following are e'amples of sampling methods ta+en from studies. Identif
which tpes of sampling method the researcher used:
2!. :ive hundred nurses were randoml selected using table of random numbers
from a list of all registered nurse in the 4hilippines
a. simple random b. strati$ed random c. sstematic random
2". Cender was used to stratif a sample of 155 randoml selected subjects.
a. 7imple random b. strati$ed random c. sstematic random
2&. - sample of (5 adolescents was obtained at a fast-food restaurant
a. Convenience sampling b. purposive sampling c. cluster
sampling
2(. Identif the tpe of stud in the following research purpose: To e'amine the
health practices of Ibanag woman and the impact of these practices to their
families.
a. 4henomenological b. ethnographic c. historical
2*. Identif the independent variable in the following e'ample of hpothesis.
3'gen inhalation b nasal cannula of up to * litersBminute does not afect
oral temperature measurement with an electronic thermometer.
a. 3'gen inhalation b cannula c. Electronic thermometer
b. 3ral temperature measurement d. * liters per minutes
2,. - special tpe of observation where researchers immerse themselves in the
setting so the can e'perience the realit as the participants do is:
a. 9atural observation b. participant-as-observer c. observer-as-
participant
20. Two nurse practitioners are as+ed to combine their researcher $ndings with
those of some colleagues who are studing the same group of patients. The
nurse practitioners. response is to:
a. agree because combining the $ndings will ma+e for some statisticall
relevant research
b. agree on condition that proper credit is given to the institution where it was
conducted
c. refuse because of incongruence between stud purposes
d. refuse because the did not obtain the proper patient consent to share their
$ndings
22. -fter reading a research article that describes a tool for measuring parental
an'iet# a pediatric clinical nurse specialist uses the tool in a replication stud
on the unit. The repealed uses of the tool provide inconsistent and inaccurate
results. In criti1uing the tool# the clinical specialist concludes that it is :
a. not reliable and not li+el to be valid c. reliable but not valid
b. reliable but not consistent d. valid but not reliable
155.The subjects of a research project have been informed that onl summar
group data will be released. Two staf members re1uest their patients. test
results. The principal investigator.s response is to:
a. E'plain wh onl aggregate results can be shared
b. =eet with the staf members individuall to determine wh the need the
information
c. 7et up a meeting to discuss the stud
d. Tell the staf members that onl data projections are available on their
patients
C33/ ?FCD -9/ C3/ 8?E77L
9F<7I9C <E7E-<C>
Purpose of Nursing Research: -nswer if its 8asic <esearch# -pplied <esearch#
Eualitative <esearch# Euantitative <esearch# E'planator <esearch or E'plorator
<esearch
ME'ploratorMMM1. To describe an e'isting problem situation and e'amine the
underling factors that contribute to the emergence of the problem
a. 8asic <esearch
b. -pplied <esearch
c. Eualitative <esearch
d. Euantitative <esearch
e. E'planator <esearch
f. E'plorator <esearch
ME'planatorMM!. To understand or e'plain a prevailing situation; to e'plain a
relationship between factors which ma have alread been identi$ed in
e'plorator studies and wh the relationship e'ists
a. 8asic <esearch
b. -pplied <esearch
c. Eualitative <esearch
d. Euantitative <esearch
e. E'planator <esearch
f. E'plorator <esearch
MEualitativeMMM". Ta+es place in the $eld# gathers information# uses subjectivit#
uses inductive process# investigates phenomena# associated with 9aturalistic
in1uir
a. 8asic <esearch
b. -pplied <esearch
c. Eualitative <esearch
d. Euantitative <esearch
e. E'planator <esearch
f. E'plorator <esearch
MEuantitativeM&. Ta+es place both in natural as well as in contrived laborator
setting# gathers empirical evidence# uses control# uses deductive reasoning;
investigates concepts# constructs# variables; associated with positivist theor
a. 8asic <esearch
b. -pplied <esearch
c. Eualitative <esearch
d. Euantitative <esearch
e. E'planator <esearch
f. E'plorator <esearch
M-ppliedMMMMMM(. :or solving problems# focuses on factors which can be
changed b intervention to achieve a desired goal# to $nd solutions to e'isting
problems
a. 8asic <esearch
b. -pplied <esearch
c. Eualitative <esearch
d. Euantitative <esearch
e. E'planator <esearch
f. E'plorator <esearch
M8asicMMMMMMMMM*. To e'tend the base +nowledge# formulation or re$nement of
theor# for discover of general principles
a. 8asic <esearch
b. -pplied <esearch
c. Eualitative <esearch
d. Euantitative <esearch
e. E'planator <esearch
f. E'plorator <esearch
Research Process: -nswers will be Conceptual 4hase# /issemination 4hase#
Implementation 4hase# /esign 4hase# K -nalsis and Interpretation 4hase
MImplementation 4haseMM,. Collecting and managing data
a. Conceptual 4hase
b. /issemination 4hase
c. Implementation 4hase
d. /esign 4hase
e. -nalsis and Interpretation 4hase
M-nalsis and Interpretation 4haseMM0. Evaluating the data
a. Conceptual 4hase
b. /issemination 4hase
c. Implementation 4hase
d. /esign 4hase
e. -nalsis and Interpretation 4hase
M-nalsis and Interpretation 4haseMM2. -nal6ing the data
a. Conceptual 4hase
b. /issemination 4hase
c. Implementation 4hase
d. /esign 4hase
e. -nalsis and Interpretation 4hase
M/issemination 4haseMM15. Fsing research $ndings
a. Conceptual 4hase
b. /issemination 4hase
c. Implementation 4hase
d. /esign 4hase
e. -nalsis and Interpretation 4hase
/issemination 4haseMM11. Communicating the $ndings Conceptual 4hase
f. /issemination 4hase
g. Implementation 4hase
h. /esign 4hase
i. -nalsis and Interpretation 4hase

M/esign 4haseMM1!. Conducting a pilot stud
a. Conceptual 4hase
b. /issemination 4hase
c. Implementation 4hase
d. /esign 4hase
e. -nalsis and Interpretation 4hase
MImplementation 4haseMM1". /eveloping a budget and see+ing fund
a. Conceptual 4hase
b. /issemination 4hase
c. Implementation 4hase
d. /esign 4hase
e. -nalsis and Interpretation 4hase
MConceptual 4hase MM1&. Ethical considerations
a. Conceptual 4hase
b. /issemination 4hase
c. Implementation 4hase
d. /esign 4hase
e. -nalsis and Interpretation 4hase
M/esign 4haseMM1(. /etermining sampling plan
a. Conceptual 4hase
b. /issemination 4hase
c. Implementation 4hase
d. /esign 4hase
e. -nalsis and Interpretation 4hase
MConceptual 4haseMM1*. 7pecifing assumption and limitation
a. Conceptual 4hase
b. /issemination 4hase
c. Implementation 4hase
d. /esign 4hase
e. -nalsis and Interpretation 4hase
MConceptual 4haseMM1,. :ormulating <esearch 1uestion
a. Conceptual 4hase
b. /issemination 4hase
c. Implementation 4hase
d. /esign 4hase
e. -nalsis and Interpretation 4hase
Variables: -nswers are Independent# Intervening Ge'traneous or confoundingH
and dependent variables
MdependentMM10. presumed efect Goutput or outcomeH
a. Independent
b. Intervening Ge'traneous or confoundingH
c. dependent variables
MinterveningMM12. clouds the internal and e'ternal validit of the stud
a. Independent
b. Intervening Ge'traneous or confoundingH
c. dependent variables
MindependentMM!5. antecedent
a. Independent
b. Intervening Ge'traneous or confoundingH
c. dependent variables
Hypothesis: -nswers the f. with 9ull hpothesis# /irectional hpothesis#
-lternative hpothesis# 9on /irectional hpothesis
M9ondirectionalMM!1. merel states the presence or absence of a relationship
a. 9ull hpothesis
b. /irectional hpothesis
c. -lternative hpothesis
d. 9on /irectional hpothesis
M/irectionalMM!!. NComatose patients placed on an air bed will have a lower
incidence of s+in brea+down than those who are not.O
a. 9ull hpothesis
b. /irectional hpothesis
c. -lternative hpothesis
d. 9on /irectional hpothesis
M9ullMM!". NThere is no diference in incidence of s+in brea+down between
patients who are and who are not placed on air bed.O
a. 9ull hpothesis
b. /irectional hpothesis
c. -lternative hpothesis
d. 9on /irectional hpothesis

M-lternativeMM!&. NThere is a diference in incidence of s+in brea+down between
patients who are and who are not placed on air bed.O
a. 9ull hpothesis
b. /irectional hpothesis
c. -lternative hpothesis
d. 9on /irectional hpothesis

4?7. =-TC>
Criteria to assess the quality of a stuy
M>M!(. The e'tent to which results can be applied to other groups
MCM!*. /istorting or clouding inJuence that ma come from
research participants# subjective inJuences of researcher# sample and
sampling techni1ue# fault data collection and design. 8iases are
controlled.
MIM!,. The e'tent to which $ndings can be transferred to other
settings.
MEM!0. Con$dence in truth and interpretations GbelievabilitH of the
data
M/M!2. 3bjectivit
M:M"5. Fse of multiple sources for conclusions
M8M"1. The soundness of the evidence# measuring what it intends
to measure
M-M"!. The accurac and consistenc of information obtained in the
stud
MCM"". Consistenc and stabilit of evidence over time and over
conditions
-. <eliabilit
8. @alidit
C.
/ependabilit
/.
Con$rmabilit
E. Credibilit
:.
Triangulation
C. 8ias
>.
Cenerali6abilit
I.
Transferabilit
Probability Sa!pling:-nswers are 7imple <andom 7ampling# 7trati$ed
<andom 7ampling# Cluster GmultitstageH 7ampling# 7stematic 7ampling
M7stematicMM"&. researcher selects Dth case from a list Gwhere# + P population
divided b desired sample si6eH# where D is the sampling interval Gstandard
distance between the elementsH
a. 7imple <andom 7ampling
b. 7trati$ed <andom 7ampling
c. Cluster GmultitstageH 7ampling
d. 7stematic 7ampling
M7imple <andomMM"(. researcher establishes sampling frame Glisting of
elementsH# then numbering all elements# then selecting sample elements
a. 7imple <andom 7ampling
b. 7trati$ed <andom 7ampling
c. Cluster GmultitstageH 7ampling
d. 7stematic 7ampling
MCluster GmultistageHMM"*. researcher selects random samples successivel# from
larger to smaller units b either simple or strati$ed random methods
a. 7imple <andom 7ampling
b. 7trati$ed <andom 7ampling
c. Cluster GmultitstageH 7ampling
d. 7stematic 7ampling
M7trati$ed 7amplingMM",. researcher divides the population into homogenous
subgroups from which elements are selected at random
a. 7imple <andom 7ampling
b. 7trati$ed <andom 7ampling
c. Cluster GmultitstageH 7ampling
d. 7stematic 7ampling
Nonprobability Sa!pling: -nswers will be Convenience 7ampling# 7nowballing
7ampling# Euota 7ampling# 4urposive 7ampling
M7nowballingMM"0. a+a 9etwor+ or Chain 7ampling
a. Convenience 7ampling
b. 7nowballing 7ampling
c. Euota 7ampling
d. 4urposive 7ampling
M4urposive MM"2. a+a Qudgmental 7ampling
a. Convenience 7ampling
b. 7nowballing 7ampling
c. Euota 7ampling
d. 4urposive 7ampling
MConvenience MM&5. a+a -ccidental 7ampling
a. Convenience 7ampling
b. 7nowballing 7ampling
c. Euota 7ampling
d. 4urposive 7ampling
MEuotaMM&1. researcher identi$es population strata GsubpopulationH and
determines how man participants are needed from each stratum
a. Convenience 7ampling
b. 7nowballing 7ampling
c. Euota 7ampling
d. 4urposive 7ampling
M4urposiveMM&!. researcher decides to purposel select subjects who are judged
to be tpical of the population or particularl +nowledgeable about the issues
under stud
a. Convenience 7ampling
b. 7nowballing 7ampling
c. Euota 7ampling
d. 4urposive 7ampling
M7nowballingMM&". ever sample identi$es and refers other persons who meet the
inclusion GeligibilitH criteria
a. Convenience 7ampling
b. 7nowballing 7ampling
c. Euota 7ampling
d. 4urposive 7ampling

MConvenienceMM&&. using most convenientl available people as participants
a. Convenience 7ampling
b. 7nowballing 7ampling
c. Euota 7ampling
d. 4urposive 7ampling
Collection of "ata: )rite G-H for Euestionnaire# G8H for Interview# GCH
3bservation G/H <ecords
<ecords &(. provides a readil available and valuable source of data
a. Euestionnaire
b. Interview
c. 3bservation
d. <ecords
3bservation &*. the most direct means of studing the subjects when the
researcher is interested in their behavior
a. Euestionnaire
b. Interview
c. 3bservation
d. <ecords
Euestionnaire &,. the most common tpe of research instrument
a. Euestionnaire
b. Interview
c. 3bservation
d. <ecords
Interview &0. the second most common method for data collection
a. Euestionnaire
b. Interview
c. 3bservation
d. <ecords
Ethical Principles in Research: -nswer G1H for 8ene$cence# G!H for Qustice and
G"H for <espect for >uman /ignit
<espect for >uman /ignit &2. <ight of 7elf-/isclosure
a. for 8ene$cence
b. for Qustice
c. for <espect for >uman /ignit
8ene$cence (5. protection of participants from e'ploitation
a. for 8ene$cence
b. for Qustice
c. for <espect for >uman /ignit
"escripti#e Research Approach: Iou ma answer G1H 7urve# G!H -nalsis
7tud# G"H Causal Comparative# G&H <elationship 7tud# G(H 4rediction 7tud
G<elationship 7tud H(1. concerned with gaining a better understanding of
comple' behavioral patterns and phenomena b studing the relationship
between variables that are hpothesi6ed to be related. This techni1ue is
particularl useful for e'plorator studies in areas where little or no previous
research is available.
-. 7urve
8. -nalsis 7tud
C. Causal Comparative
/. <elationship 7tud
E. 4rediction 7tud
G<elationship 7tud H(!. NIn the stud of good clinical instructors# a +nowledge
between relationships between abilit to teach# intelligence# motivations# etc.# is
necessar.O 7urve
:. -nalsis 7tud
C. Causal Comparative
>. <elationship 7tud
I. 4rediction 7tud
G4rediction 7tud H(". usuall carried out in areas where +nowledge
has alread been established.
-. 7urve
8. -nalsis 7tud
C. Causal Comparative
/. <elationship 7tud
E. 4rediction 7tud
GCausal Comparative H(&. N7tuding the 1ualities of merit possessed b efective
and inefective Clinical Instructors re1uires a +nowledge of antecedents that
developed these instructors.O
-. 7urve
8. -nalsis 7tud
C. Causal Comparative
/. <elationship 7tud
E. 4rediction 7tud
GCausal Comparative H((. N)hen comparing the cost of nursing education in the
provinces with that in =etro =anila# not onl are the actual e'penses of nursing
students ta+en into consideration but also the circumstances regarding the
observed facts.O
-. 7urve
8. -nalsis 7tud
C. Causal Comparative
/. <elationship 7tud
E. 4rediction 7tud
G7urve H(*. N-nthropometric 7tud of :ilipino Children and
Iouth.O
-. 7urve
8. -nalsis 7tud
C. Causal Comparative
/. <elationship 7tud
E. 4rediction 7tud
G7urve H(,. NIn an urban area in the 4hilippines# QC
investigated the attitude of a sample of public health nurses and a sample of
public health nurses and a sample of social wor+ers toward practitioners in the
professions of public health nursing and social wor+.O
-. 7urve
8. -nalsis 7tud
C. Causal Comparative
/. <elationship 7tud
E. 4rediction 7tud
G-nalsis 7tud H(0. N- research project conducted b =ontes
attested to determine the adoption practices and procedures in ( selected welfare
agencies. The records of the agencies were carefull studied to establish the
pattern followed b each adoption series.O
-. 7urve
8. -nalsis 7tud
C. Causal Comparative
/. <elationship 7tud
E. 4rediction 7tud
G<elationship stud H(2. are e'plorator and partiall e'perimental in design
-. 7urve
8. -nalsis 7tud
C. Causal Comparative
/. <elationship 7tud
E. 4rediction 7tud
G7urve H*5. This is a tpe of descriptive stud in which data
are gathered from a relativel large number of cases at a particular time
-. 7urve
8. -nalsis 7tud
C. Causal Comparative
/. <elationship 7tud
E. 4rediction 7tud
A#antages of E$peri!ental "esign%Research an Non&e$peri!ental
"esign%Research: )rite N if it is an advantage of 9on-e'perimental <esearch.
)rite E if it is an advantage of E'perimental <esearch.
G E H*1. It establishes causal relationships.
a. N if it is an advantage of 9on-e'perimental <esearch
b. E if it is an advantage of E'perimental <esearch.
G E H*!. It can ield a higher degree of purit on observation b providing a
controlled environment.
a. N if it is an advantage of 9on-e'perimental <esearch
b. E if it is an advantage of E'perimental <esearch.
G E H*". It is possible to create conditions within a short period that might ta+e
ears to occur naturall.
a. N if it is an advantage of 9on-e'perimental <esearch
b. E if it is an advantage of E'perimental <esearch.
G E H*&. It is possible to create situations in an e'perimental setting that are not
found otherwise
a. N if it is an advantage of 9on-e'perimental <esearch
b. E if it is an advantage of E'perimental <esearch.
G E H*(. 4ressures and problems of real life situations are eliminated.
a. N if it is an advantage of 9on-e'perimental <esearch
b. E if it is an advantage of E'perimental <esearch.
G 9 H**. is less e'pensive
a. N if it is an advantage of 9on-e'perimental <esearch
b. E if it is an advantage of E'perimental <esearch.
G 9 H*,. It can be completed in a short span of time
a. N if it is an advantage of 9on-e'perimental <esearch
b. E if it is an advantage of E'perimental <esearch.
G 9 H*0. It is easier to gain the cooperation of stud subjects. 7tud subjects are
not subjected to unpleasant# unusual or even burdensome conditions.
a. N if it is an advantage of 9on-e'perimental <esearch
b. E if it is an advantage of E'perimental <esearch.
G 9 H*2. This is the method of choice where there is a considerable interval
between the application of the independent variable and the appearance of
response in the dependent variable.
a. N if it is an advantage of 9on-e'perimental <esearch
b. E if it is an advantage of E'perimental <esearch.
G 9 H,5. Translation of $ndings is more acceptable to consumers of research.
a' N if it is an advantage of 9on-e'perimental <esearch
b' E if it is an advantage of E'perimental <esearch.