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Improved and Hybrid PV/Wind Energy System

C. Ravi Chandran
1
, S. Vasanth Kumar
2


1
IV Year, EEE University College of Engineering, Anna University, Tuticorin campus, Chennai.
2
IV Year, EEE, University College of Engineering, Anna University, Tuticorin campus, Chennai.
Email: ravichandrankcrc@gmail.com, vasanthbe.ds@gmail.com.

Abstract - This Paper presents an improved and hybrid PV/Wind
energy system along with a new three-input DC - DC boost
converter. Renewable energy sources such as photovoltaic source,
wind sources are used for hybridization of the DC-DC boost
converter. The excessive power demand problems can be solved by
this method. A unidirectional port for the input power sources, a
bidirectional port for a storage element, and an output port for load
are interfaced along with the converter. The method has several
advantages such as bidirectional power flow at the storage port,
simple structure, low-power components, centralized control,
eliminating the need of transformer, low weight, high-stability
working point, independent operation of input power sources, and
high level of boosting. The results and the output are verified by
simulation in MATLAB/SIMLINK for different load condition.
I ndex Terms – Photovoltaic source, wind sources,MPPT, DC – DC
boost converter, MATLAB/Simulation software

I. INTRODUCTION

The photovoltaic (PV) has properties such as noiseless, non-
pollutant and little maintenance. But this PV energy depends
on unpredictable shadows, sun irradiation level and ambient
temperature. So, Wind Energy is used as an additional source
which has the advantage of cleanness, high efficiency and
high reliability. Batteries are used for storage purposes and
improves the output power capacity. This forms the Hybrid
system.

Wind and photovoltaic energy are unreliable as they are
inrtermittent. By introducing maximum power point tracking
(MPPT) algorithms and combining them, the above
disadvantage can be overcome. the system’s power transfer
efficiency and reliability can be improved significantly. When
any source is unavailable or insufficient in meeting the load
demands, the other energy source can compensate.

The main shortcomings of these traditional integrating
methods are complex system topology, high count of devices,
high power losses, expensive cost, and large size. In recent
years, several power conversion stages used in traditional
hybrid systems are replaced by multi-input converters
(MICs), which combine different power sources in a single
power structure. These converters have received more
attention in the literature because of providing simple circuit
topology, centralized control, bidirectional power flow for the
storage element, high reliability, and low manufacturing cost
and size. In general, the systematic approach of generating
MICs is introduced, in which the concept of the pulsating
voltage source cells and the pulsating current source cells is
proposed for deriving MICs. One of the samples of these
MICs is utilized to hybridize PV and wind power sources in a
unified structure. Besides, a systematic method to synthesize
MICs is proposed in [15]. This paper deals with two types of
MICs: in the first type, only one power source is allowed to
transfer energy to the load at a time, and in the second type,
all the input sources can deliver power to the load either
individually or simultaneously.

Two multiple-input converters based on flux additively in a
multiwinding transformer are reported in [17] and [18].
Because there was no possibility of bidirectional operating of
the converter in [17], and complexity of driving circuits and
output power limitation in [18], they are not suitable for
hybrid systems. In [19], a three-port bidirectional converter
with three active full bridges, two series-resonant tanks, and a
threewinding high-frequency transformer are proposed. In
comparison with three-port circuits with only inductors and
diode bridge at the load side, it gives higher boost gain and
reduced switching losses due to soft-switching operation. A
family of multiport converters based on combination of dc
link and magnetic coupling by utilizing half-bridge boost
converter system features minimum number of conversion
steps, low cost, and compact packaging. In [21], the input–
output feedback control linearization for a dc– ac
bidirectional MIC composing a high-frequency isolating link
transformer, two half-bridge boost converters at the input
ports and a bidirectional cycloconverter at the output port is
proposed. In [22]–[24], three MICs are proposed based on
structure of the dc–dc boost converter. The dc–dc boost
converter in [22] is useful for combining several energy
sources whose power capacity or voltage levels are different.
The multi-input dc–dc converter has the capability of
operating in different converter topologies (buck, boost, and
buck–boost) in addition to its bidirectional operation and
positive output voltage without any additional transformer. A
three-input dc–dc boost converter can combine a PV, an FC,
and a battery in a simple unified structure. A comprehensive
power management algorithm is realized in order to achieve
maximum power point tracking (MPPT) of the PV source and
set the FC in its optimal power operation range. A three-port
isolated full bridge topology is proposed in [3] for hybrid
FC/battery system, which its aim is feeding a small
autonomous load. This topology gains the advantage of
bidirectional power flow due to the active full-bridges in each
port.

II. DESCRIPTION OF IMPROVED SYSTEM

The given block diagram consists of two Input stage solar,
Wind and Bidirectional storage Battery, Multi input DC- DC
Boost converter, MOSFET /IGBT driver stage, Logic Stage,
Inverter and load. The solar panel acts as one of source to the
DC-DC converter. The DC output from the solar panel is
given at one port of the integrated four port DC-DC converter.
By switching ON and OFF the power devices the DC input is
transferred to the inverter.



Fig 1.Functional Block diagram of Hybrid System

The system has 4 ports. The first port is solar power acts as an
port and the second port is DC output from the rectifier
supplied form the wind mill act as another port. Battery acts
as an another port and also act as storage port. All this port
supply the power to the DC-DC converter. Load port act as an
fourth port. The bi-directional storage port battery is used to
supply power as well as act as storage and save excess power.

The DC-DC converter integrates all the power and
synchronizes the supply to the output via inverter. Th DC-DC
converter is an half bridge converter with two diodes and two
switches. According to the MPPT algorithm and PWM pulses
the switching sequences is depend on the power switch ON
and OFF. The output of the DC-DC converter is connected to
an inverter.

The power switches are turned ON and OFF depending on the
switching sequence developed under different source
conditions with different independent duty ratios and the
output DC boosts up the input and the boosted up voltage is
supplied to the inverter. The inverter inverts the supplied DC
power to AC power. The AC power is supplied to the AC
load. The AC load can be for any AC utilities.

The inverter is made of four power switches in which PWM
signals are developed and switching sequences decide ON
and OFF states of power switches in different timing
sequence and these control the power switches and invert the
DC output from the DC-DC converter to AC output and
supplied to the load. The output of the inverter is AC and this
can supply power to utilities with AC supply.

III. CONVERTER OPERATION



Fig 2.Circuit for DC – DC Boost Converter and Load

The above circuit shows the representation of three input DC-
DC converter. From the figure, the converter interfaces two
input power sources v
1
and v
2
, and a battery as the storage
element. Therefore, v
1
and v
2
are shown as two independent
power sources that their output characteristics are determined
by the type of input power sources.

The RL is the load resistance, which can represent the
equivalent power feeding an inverter. Four power switches S
1
,
S
2
, S
3
, and S
4
in the converter structure are the main
controllable elements that control the power flow of the
hybrid power system. The circuit enables the switches to be
independently controlled through four independent duty ratios
d
1
, d
2
, d
3
, and d
4
respectively.

The converter switches S
3
and S
4
are turned ON, their
corresponding diodes D
3
and D
4
are reversely biased by the
battery voltage and then blocked. On the other hand, turn –
OFF state of these switches makes diodes D
3
and D
4
able to
conduct input currents i
L1
and i
L2
. In the improved power
system applications, the input power sources should be
explored in continuous current mode (CCM).The current
ripple of the input sources should be minimized to make an
exact power balance among the input powers and the load.

Assuming the same saw tooth wave form to all the switches
and d
3
, d
4
<min (d
1
, d
2
) in battery charge or discharge mode.
Although exceeding duty ratios d
3
and d
4
from d
1
or d
2
does
not cause converter malfunction, it results in setting the
battery power on the possible maximum values. In order to
simplify the investigations, it is assumed that duty ratio d
1
is
less than duty ratio d
2
. Further, with the assumption of ideal
switches, the steady-state equations are obtained in each
operation mode.

First power operation mode

Fig 3. Switching state 1: 0< t< d
1
T.

In this operation mode, two input power sources v
1
and v
2
are
responsible for supplying the load, and battery charging/
discharging is not done. This operation mode is considered as
the basic operation mode of the converter. As clearly seen
from the converter structure, there are two options to conduct
input power sources currents i
L1
and i
L2
without passing
through the battery path 1: S
4
–D
3
, path 2: S
3
–D
4
. In this
operation mode, the first path is chosen therefore, switch S
3
is
turned OFF while switch S
4
is turned ON entirely

Fig 4.Switching state 2: d
1
T< t < d
2
T.

Fig 5.Switching state 3 (d
2
T < t < T)
in the switching period (d
4
= 1 and d
3
= 0). Thus, three
different switching states of the converter are achieved in one
switching period.

Fig 6.Steady-state waveform of converter in first
operation mode
Second power operation
In this operation mode, two input power sources V
1

and V
2
along with the battery are responsible for supplying

Fig 7.Switching state 1: 0 < t < d
4
T.
the load. Therefore, discharging state of the battery should be
provided in this operation mode. Referring to the converter
topology, when switches S
3
and S
4
are turned ON
simultaneously, currents i
L1
and i
L2
are conducted through the
path of switch S
4
, the battery, and switch S
3
which results in
battery discharging. However, discharging operations of the
battery can only last until switches S
1
and/or S
2
are
conducting. As a result, the maximum discharge power of the
battery depends on duty ratios of d
1
and d
2
as well as currents
i
L1
and i
L2
.


Fig 8.Switching state 2: d
4
T< t < d
1
T

Fig 9. Switching state 3: d
1
T < t < d
2
T.
Therefore, in order to acquire a desired maximum discharging
power of the battery, the input power sources is designed in
proper current and voltage values. On the other hand,
regulating the discharging power of the battery below

Fig 10.Switching state 4: d
2
T < t <T

Fig 11. Steady state waveform for second operation
mode
P
max
bat.dis
can be made by changing the state of only one of
switches S
3
and S
4
before switches S
1
and S
2
are turned OFF
(according to the assumption d
3
,d
4
< min (d
1
,d
2
)). The duty
ratio d
4
is controlled to regulate the discharging power of the
battery regarding the facts that when S
4
is turned ON, it
results in passing the currents of input power sources through
the battery hence, the battery discharge mode is started, and
its turn-off state starts conducting through diode D
4
and stops
discharging the battery. There are four different switching
states for the converter in one switching period.
Third power operation mode
In this operation mode, two input power sources V
1

and V
2
are responsible for supplying the load while the
battery charging performance is accomplished. Therefore, the
charging state of the battery should be provided in this

Fig 12.Switching state 1 (0 < t < d
3
T)

Fig 13. Switching state 2 (d
3
T < t < d
1
T)

Fig 14. Switching state 3 (d
1
T < t < d
2
T)

Fig 15 Switching state 4 (d
2
T < t < T))
operation mode. As per the converter topology, when
switches S
3
and S
4
are turned OFF, by turning ON switches S
1

and S
2
, currents i
L1
and i
L2
are conducted through the path of
diode D
4
, the battery, and diode D
3
, therefore, the condition
of battery charging is provided. The charging operation of the
battery can only last until switches S
1
and/or S
2
are
conducting. As a result, the maximum charge power of the
battery depends on duty ratios d
1
and d
2
as well as currents i
L1

and i
L2
OFF.

Therefore, in order to acquire a desired maximum
charge power of the battery, the input power sources should
be designed in proper current and voltage values. On the other
hand, regulating the charging power of the battery below the
P
max bat.ch
can be made by changing the state of only one of
switches S
3
and S
4
before switches S
1
and S
2
are turned OFF
(according to the assumption d
3
,d
4
< min (d
1
,d
2
)). In order to
regulate the charging power of the battery, switch S
3
is
controlled by regarding the fact that when switch S
3
is turned
ON, the charging power of the battery is not accomplished
while its turn-off state make the battery to be charged with
currents i
L1
and i
L2
through the path of D
3
.

VI. Test Results
A. Test Results for Output Voltage



B.Test Result for Output Current



C. Test Result for battery output



D. Test Result for Solar Energy

E. Test Result for Wind Energy

VII. Experimental verification

The Graph had shown the output voltage and output
current of the proposed hybrid system. Thus verify the
MATLAB simulation block diagram used in this investigation
is valid for the system used.

IX. Conclusion and future scope

This project multi input DC-DC boost converter is
most efficient with renewable energy resources to meet the
present prevailing energy demand. The output of wind and
solar given to DC – DC boost converter improves the quality
of output obtained and also eliminates the requirement of
filter and transformer section. Another advantage of this
project is that if any input source is removed off the system
can operate as a stand-alone system providing a continuous
output.
This project will be more suitable to meet the energy
demand in residential and industrial sectors. The size of the
wind turbine can be increased for higher power production.
Similarly the MPPT can also be changed for maximum
power. With Suitable improvement in wind energy generation
and solar power generation the output power can be directly
connected with the grid to meet the energy demand. By also
suitable improvement in the hardware design can also lead to
improved efficiency

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