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Royal Palm/Bottle Palm

Type: Palm, Outdoor Palm, specimen; residential
street tree avenue, driveway border planting.
Exposure: Full Sun to partial shade
Conditions: Semi hard
Flowering Time: spring flowering , yellow, pleasant
fragrance; showy;
Habit: medium growing
Foliage: fronds of symmetrical canopy of lanceolate
type of leaves
Drought Tolerance: moderate
Salt tolerance: moderate
Light: tree grows in part shade/part sun; tree grows
in full sun
Temperature: 7-50 ° C
Sensitive to: extreme cold weather.
Watering: Plant Bottle Palms in sunny locations that receive regular watering. The plant should be
fertilized in the spring, summer and fall for best results.
Problems: over watering of royal palm can make the fronds collapse and result in death of a plant.
Field grown trees go into shock transplant shock to another location and needs some time to re-
acclimate.
Max.Height: 50 to 80 feet.



Family: Arecaceae
Subfamily: Arecoideae
Tribe: Roystoneae
Genus: Roystonea
Species: R. regia
Description
Roystonea regia is a large palm which reaches a height of 20–30 metres (66–98 ft) tall, (with heights
up to 34.5 m (113 ft) reported) and a stem diameter of about 47 centimetres (19 in). (K. F. Connor
reports a maximum stem diameter of 61 cm (24 in).) The trunk is stout, very smooth and grey-white
in colour with a characteristic bulge below a distinctive green crownshaft. Trees have about 15
leaves which can be up to 4 m (13 ft) long. The flowers are white with pinkish anthers. The fruit
are spheroid to ellipsoid in shape, 8.9–15 millimetres (0.35–0.59 in) long and 7–10.9 mm (0.28–
0.43 in) wide. They are green when immature, turning red and eventually purplish-black as they
mature.
Taxonomy
Roystonea is placed in the subfamily Arecoideae and the tribe Roystoneae. The
placement Roystonea within the Arecoideae is uncertain; a phylogenybased on plastid DNA failed to
resolve the position of the genus within the Arecoideae. As of 2008, there appear to be no
molecular phylogenetic studies of Roystonea and the relationship between R. regia and the rest of
the genus is uncertain.
Common names
In cultivation, Roystonea regia is called the Cuban royal palm or simply the royal palm. Populations
native to Florida are called Florida royal palms. In Cuba, the tree is called the palma real orpalma
criolla. In India, where it is widely cultivated, it is called vakka.
Reproduction and growth
Roystonea regia produces unisexual flowers that are pollinated by animals.European honey
bees and bats are reported pollinators. Seeds are dispersed by birds and bats that feed upon the
fruit.
Distribution
Roystonea regia is found in southern Florida, north-central and south-east
Mexico, Belize, Honduras, Cuba, the Cayman Islands and The Bahamas.
[1]
It has been planted
throughout the tropics and subtropics as an ornamental tree.
Ecology
The leaves of Roystonea regia are used as roosting sites by Eumops floridanus, the Florida bonneted
bat, and is used as a retreat for Cuban tree frogs, a non-native species, in
Florida. In Panama (where R. regia is introduced), its trunks are used as nesting sites by Yellow-
crowned parrots.The flowers of R. regia are visited by pollen-collecting bees and are considered a
good source of nectar. Its pollen was also found in the stomachs of Phyllonycteris poeyi, the Cuban
Flower Bat and Monophyllus redmani, Leach's Single Leaf Bat. Artibeus jamaicensis, the Jamaican
fruit bat, and Myiozetetes similis, the Social Flycatcher, feed on the fruit.
Roystonea regia is the host plant for the royal palm bug, Xylastodoris luteolus, in Florida. It also
serves as a larval host plant for the butterfliesPyrrhocalles antiqua orientis and Asbolis capucinus in
Cuba, and Brassolis astyra and B. sophorae in Brazil. It is susceptible to bud rot caused by
the oomycete Phytophthora palmivora and by the fungus Thielaviopsis paradoxa.
Uses
Roystonea regia has been planted throughout the tropics and subtropics as an ornamental. The
seed is used as a source of oil and for livestock feed. Leaves are used for thatching and the wood for
construction. The roots are used as a diuretic, and for that reason they are added to tifey,
a Haitiandrink, by Cubans of Haitian origin. They are also used as a treatment for diabetes. Fibres
extracted from the leaf sheath of R. regia have been found to be comparable
with sisal and banana fibres, but lower in density, making it a potentially useful source for the use in
lightweight composite materials.
Indian Context
The `Royal Palm Tree` tree has been imported to India in the very recent times. The scientists of the
world know this tree as `Oreodoxa Regia`. The name `Oreodoxa` originated from two Greek words
that mean "mountain`` and "glory" and the word `Regia` means "regal". It belongs to the family of
`Arecaceae`. The other names of this tree in English are `Mountain Glory, and `Bottle Palm`.

The tree is really a graceful one and it is extensively cultivated in India. Almost all the parts of the
tree can be used in some way. People normally plant the `Royal Palm Tree` in the parks and in their
gardens. The tree possess a lot of assets. One of the major assets is that the tree is defiant to the
wind and it has salt drench. It can achieve the height of about 20 m in general. The tree can easily
decorate the avenues very nicely if you plant them there. The stem of the tree is straight and it does
not contain any branches. It distinctively thickens towards the top. However, this is not habitual to
the tree and hence cannot be described as a definite characteristic of the tree. You can see this very
characteristic in most of the young trees.

The bark of the tree is silky and of palest grey in colour. It is ringed very evenly as well. A polished,
green coloured column formed by the leaf sheaths rises from this sharply divided grey bole. After
enlarging at its base, from the summit emerges a bunch that is consist of a large number of long and
arched leaves. The leaves of the `Royal Palm Tree` are jam-packed with some narrow leaflets that
are normally 75 cm in length. These leaflets are inserted alternately in opposite ways. This suggests
that they lie in two different planes. They remain almost in one plane towards the tip and this time
they have similarity with a coconut leaf. The new leaves also remain like this. A large number of the
leaflets are rounded or folded and the whole thing presents a delightfully shaggy appearance. The
flower sprays are enclosed in sheaths. They spring from the top of the trunk and below the green
column.

The spathes are erect before they open. After opening, they lie horizontal and the sprays that
contain many branches burst forth. The male and female flowers stay on the same `Royal Palm
Tree`. The male flowers are larger than the female ones and open first. Both the flowers are of straw
yellow in colour and they appear during the Summer and the Rainy season. The fruits of this nice
tree are small in size and round shaped. They are light purple in colour when they become mature
and normally appear in clusters. As this tree has not been grown long enough in India, it does not
have the extensive uses. People cook and eat the tender top segment of the tree as a vegetable. The
leaf-sheaths are also flattened out and are used as sleeping mats.





Hibiscus Rosa-Sinensis
Order: Malvales
Family: Malvaceae
Genus: Hibiscus
Botanical Name: Hibiscus rosa-sinensis
L.
Kingdom: Plantae
Subkingdom: Tracheobionta –
(Vascular plants)
Super division: Spermatophyta – (Seed
plants)
Division: Magnoliophyta –(Flowering
plants)
Class: Magnoliopsida – (Dicotyledons)
Subclass: Dilleniidae
Order: Malvales
Family: Malvaceae
Genus: Hibiscus
Species: Hibiscus rosa-sinensis
Common name: Hibiscus
Latin name: Hibiscus rosa-sinensis
Other names: China Rose, Chinese hibiscus, Shoe Flower
Family: Malvaceae
Habitat: Hibiscus is native to the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Grows in wet and
swampy areas.
Description: Hibiscus is an n evergreen, herbaceous plant. It has ornamental, large, dark-red
flowers. They are firm, trumpet-shaped and odorless, with single and double set of petals.
Parts used: Whole plant
Medicinal use: Hibiscus flowers, roots and leaves, are anodyne and emmenagogue. They regulate
menstruation and stimulate blood circulation. Flower extract has been traditionally used for liver
disorders, high blood pressure and as an aphrodisiac. Young leaves and flowers are used in case of
headache. Decoction of leaves, root and fruits are helpful in treatments of arthritis, boils and
coughs, and the fruit is used externally in cases of sprains, wounds and ulcers. Hibiscus tea is rich in
Vitamin C.
Safety: Some herbs could react with certain medication. Therefore, it is advisable to consult your
doctor before consumption of any herb.



Description
Hibiscus Rosa-Sinensis a well known member of the family Malvaceae, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis grows
as an evergreen herbaceous plant. A native to tropical and sub-tropical regions, this plant is
extensively cultivated as an ornamental plant. It bears large flowers on the bushy hedges. These
enormous flowers are usually dark red in color and are not usually fragrant. Grown in different
regions of Asian continent, these beautiful flowers are denoted by several other names such as
China rose. The huge size and the reddish color and hues attract humming birds and the gardens
growing these flowers are regularly visited by the humming birds. Vigour, attractive foliage, strong
root system, longevity, easy to maintain, good flowering characteristics, etc. are some of the
characteristics which are needed to be kept in mind while cross breeding the hibiscus plant. Today,
various new varieties have been cultivated and developed through cross breeding. These new
varieties bear all the blended characteristics and are increasing in popularity as well. Different
cultivars and hybrids have been produced and developed with flowers ranging in colors and other
features. Prominent colors that have been promoted in the recent past are white, yellow, orange,
scarlet and different shades of pink.
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is a bushy, evergreen shrub or small tree growing 2.5–5 m (8–16 ft) tall and
1.5–3 m (5–10 ft) wide, with glossy leaves and solitary, brilliant red flowers in summer and autumn.
The 5-petaled flowers are 10 cm (4 in) in diameter, with prominent orange-tipped red anthers.
Cultivation
It is widely grown as an ornamental plant throughout the tropics and subtropics. As it does not
tolerate temperatures below 10 °C (50 °F), in temperate regions it is best grown under glass.
However, plants in containers may be placed outside during the summer months or moved into
shelter during the winter months. Numerous varieties, cultivars, and hybrids are available, with
flower colors ranging from white through yellow and orange to scarlet and shades of pink, with both
single and double sets of petals. The cultivar 'Cooperi' has gained the Royal Horticultural
Society's Award of Garden Merit.
Vernacular Names
Sanskrit- japa, Hindi- jasum, Gulhar, Bengali- jaba,
English- Chinese hibiscus, Shoe flower, China rose,
Malayalam- Bunga Raya, Tamil- Sembaruthi,
Telugu- Dasananu.
Tribal name: HinduMa-pangi (Marma),
Raktajaba(Chakma).

Description of the Plant
Roots: Cylindrical of 5-15 cm length and 2 cm in diameter, off white in colour light brown transverse
lenticies. Its fracture is fibrous. Roots taste sweet and mucilaginous.

Leaves: Leaves are simple ovate or ovate- lanceolate. Leaves are entire at the base and coarsely
toothed at the apex. Taste is mucilaginous.

Flowers: Flowers are pedicillate, actinomorphic, pentamerous and complete’. Corolla consists of 5
petals, red in colour and about 3 inches in diameter.

Fruit: The fruit (very rarely formed) is a capsule about 3 cm long.

Varieties: Many varieties exist differing in size and colour, in single (or) double forms. The important
colours include Red, White, Yellow, and Light Red.

Ecology
Despite its size and red hues, which are attractive to nectarivore birds, it is not visited regularly
by hummingbirds when grown in the Neotropics.Generalist and specialist species, like the Sapphire-
spangled Emerald, Amazilia lactea, or long-billed species, like the Stripe-breasted
Starthroat,Heliomaster squamosus, are occasionally seen to visit it, however. In the subtropical and
temperate Americas, hummingbirds are regularly attracted to it.
Uses
The flowers of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis are edible and are used in salads in the Pacific Islands. The
flower is additionally used in hair care as a preparation. It is also used to shine shoes in certain parts
of India. It can also be used as a pH indicator. When used, the flower turns acidic solutions to a dark
pink or magenta color and basic solutions to green. It is also used for the worship of Devi, and the
red variety is especially prominent, having an important part in tantra. In Indonesia, these flowers
are called "kembang sepatu", which literally means "shoe flower".
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is considered to have a number of medical uses in Chinese herbology.
[9]
It may
have some potential in cosmetic skin care; for example, an extract from the flowers of Hibiscus rosa-
sinensis has been shown to function as an anti-solar agent by absorbing ultraviolet radiation.
Genetics
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is one of many plant species with a genetic characteristic known as polyploidy,
in which there are more than two complete sets of chromosomes, unlike most other species. A side
effect of polyploidy is a condition where the phenotype of the offspring may be quite different from
the parent, or indeed any ancestor, essentially allowing possibly random expression of all (or any) of
the characteristics of all the generations that have gone before. Because of this characteristic, H.
rosa-sinensis has become popular with hobbyists who cross and recross varieties, creating new
named varieties and holding competitions to exhibit and judge the many resulting new seedlings
and often strikingly unique flowers. To add to the genetic opportunities, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis has
been successfully hybridized with the cold-resistant Hibiscus moscheutos and several other North
American hibiscus species, producing cold-hardy hybrids.
Often the progeny of these crosses are sterile, but some are fertile, further increasing the
complexity of variability and the possibility of a virtually unlimited number of eventual Hibiscus
rosa-sinensis varieties. This further attracts the hobbyists, who have created local and international
associations, societies, publications, and manuals to further this hobby, which is practiced with
these tropical plants worldwide, including indoors in cold climates.
National symbol
On 28 July 1960, it was declared by the government of Malaysia that Hibiscus rosa-sinensis would be the
national flower.
The word bunga in Malay means "flower", while raya in Malay means "big" or "grand". The Hibiscus rosa-
sinensis is literally known as the "big flower" in Malay. The red of the petals symbolizes the courage, life, and
rapid growth of the Malaysian, and the five petals represent the five Rukun Negara of Malaysia. The flower can
be found imprinted on the notes and coins of the Malaysian ringgit.