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SI for Managers - Summary

Probability = |E|
|S|
Experiment
1- Census to gather data from population Denoted by Eng.
Letter
- Sur!ey to gather data from Sample Denoted by "ree#
Letter
Variable
1- Categori$al %&ualitati!e'
a. 1 Category Summary (able )ar* Pie* Pareta Chat
b. Category Contingen$y table Side by Side $hart
- +umeri$al %&uantitati!e'
i. Dis$rete
ii. Continuous
b. ,rdered -rray Stem and leaf
$. Distributions
d. .re/uen$y Distributions 0istogram* Polygon* ,gi!e
Numerical Descriptive Measures
Central (enden$y Central 1alue
1-
a. 2ean -

x . fx
or

x/ n

b. 2edian 2iddle 1alue 3after arranging data in
as$ending order4 %use if outliers'
$. 2ode 2ost 5epeated 1alue
- 1ariation S$attering of 1alue
a. 5ange =
x
l
x
s
b. 1arian$e =

xu
n1
for sample* for populate
!arian$e =

2
=

xu
n
Empirical Rule
a.
u+

= 678 of the data


b.
u+

2
= 978 of the data
Types of Event
a. Probability %:-1' CD. ;ithout repla$ement
%nC<'<%#C#-<'=+Cn formula else do manually'
b. >mpossible E!ent = :
$. Possible E!ent = 1
Counting Tecni!ue
a. -ddition
b. 2ultipli$ation %)rea#-up of tas#'
T"E#RM
1- E<pe$ted 1alue of ? = E%?' =

x . fx
- 1arian$e =

2
=

x
2
. fx

( x. fx)
2

$R#$ERTIES #% ME&N ' V&RI&NCE a(b) a-b) a*b
DISTRI+,TI#N
DISCRETE CONTINIOUS
+ormal +ormal
)inomial
Poisson
1. +ormal P%?=<' = @ =
xu


. )inomial = b %<* n* p' =
b(x , n, p)=

x
n
(
n
x
)
p
x
q
nx
n A :
B. Poisson = p %
x, u
=

e
u
u
x
x !
;hen n A :
From the desk of ZA Monday, August !, "#!
Standard De!iation =

xu
n
ShoCs ris# fa$tor A if high
$. Co-eD$ient of 1arian$e = S=
u
< 1::
d. E-S$ore =
xu

for lo$ating e<treme outliers


B- Shape pattern of distribution %L-0'
a. )o< Plot "raphi$al representation of data
b. &uartile = i%nF1' = G 3after arranging data in
as$ending order4
$. De$ile H%nF1'=1: 3after arranging data in as$ending
order4
d. Per$entile = #%nF1'=1:: 3after arranging data in
as$ending order4
G. )inomial to Poisson -ppro<imation Chen P I : or 1 and
nA:
7. )inomial to +ormal Chen nA : use formula $ % n&*
=npq
6. 2a#e ne$essary $orre$tion fa$tor* it Cill be mentioned in
the /uestionJ formula C.. = to ma#e Class )oundary in
+ormal Distribution
C#M$&RIS#N #% CI VS $oint Testing
From the desk of ZA Monday, August !, "#!
From the desk of ZA Monday, August !, "#!
Con-.ence Interval
"ypotesis
Testing
Table
$op
Samp
le

1
=
2

1

2
C. R.=
o

xz

2
xu

<<x+z

2
xu

2
=
xu
/ n
@ 1 tail nAB: KnoCn

x
x
(1x
2
)+z

1
n
1
+

2
n
2
(1x
2
)z

1
n
1
+

2
n
2
<
1

2
<

x
(1x
2
)d
o

1
n
1
+

2
n
2
z

2
=
@ tail nAB: KnoCn

=
xt

2
xu
s
<<x+t

2
xu
s
t

2
=
xu
s/ n
t 1 tail nLB: Mn#noCn

x
x
(
1x
2
)+t

2
s
p

1
n
1
+
1
n
2
(1x
2
)t

2
s
p

1
n
1
+
1
n
2
<
1

2
<

;here s
p
=

(
n
1
1
)
s
1
2
+
(
n
2
1
)
s
2
2
n
1
+n
2
2
N
v=n
1
+n
2
2
x
(1x
2
)d
o
s
p

1
n
1
+
1
n
2
t

2
=
d
o
=
1

2
t tail nLB:

1
=
2
Mn#noC
n

=
x
x
(1x
2
)+t

s
1
n
1
+
s
2
n
2
(1x
2
)t

s
1
n
1
+
s
2
n
2
<
1

2
<

;here
V=
(
s
1
2
n
1
+
s
2
2
n
2
)
2
(
s
1
2
n
1
)
2
n
1
1
+
(
s
2
2
n
2
)
2
n
2
1
x
(1x
2
)d
o

s
1
2
n
1
+
s
2
2
n
2
t

2
=
t tail nLB:
Mn#noC
n

1

2

2
/ Steps in "ypotesis
i- 0o J use % s'gn
ii- 01 J De(ne % or

)))) " ta'* , + or , ))))) # ta'*


iii- (est informationJ -o&u*at'on ty&e . use of ta/*e
i!- De$ision $riteria J a*0ays (nd o +

1 Re2e3t 4o
!- (esti$ Statisti$J (nd 5 o 5 6a*ue from formu*a and 3r't'3a* 6a*ue from the ta/*e
!i- 5esultJ 3om&are resu*ts and g'6e 3on3*us'on
&N#V&
i- CSS = (..=n (iO = n# %e/ual' J (..=n (iO = + %une/ual'
ii- (SS = ?iHO (..O = n# %e/ual' J ?iHO (..O = + %une/ual'
iii- ESS = (SS CSS
i!- ;rite all a!erages
!- (est >nformation J pop type and f table for pop
!i- De$ision CriteriaJ . $al A . $riti$al J reHe$t 0o
!ii- (esti$ Statisti$J -+,1- (-)LE
Sample Mean SM D0f MMS % cal
CSS 1alue of CSS n-1 = 11 CCS= 11 = 22S1 22S1 = 22S
ESS 1alue of ESS K%n-1' = 1
+-# = 1 for
une/ual
ESS = 1 = 22S
!iii- C5>(>C-L 1-LMEJ .rom -lpha Ce Cill Pnd . $riti$al f %11*1'
i<- 5esult
<- Con$lusion
RE1RESSI#N
< = ? ? bar* y = Q Q bar
Q = )o F )1 <
;here* )1 = Summation <y = summation <O
)o = Q - )1 <
From the desk of ZA Monday, August !, "#!