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Research Methods and Skills

Module
Dr. Mussaret Anwar Sheikh
mussaret@hotmail.com
Shaista Bibi
shaista_edu@yahoo.com
Table of content
A. Introduction.......................................................................................................................1
B. Aim.....................................................................................................................................2
C. Module Objectives.............................................................................................................2
Theme One !erce"tion o# research ty"es...............................................................................$
%ession I Introduction o# &esearch..........................................................................................$
1. %ession 'earnin( Outcomes...............................................................................................$
2. )ey Conce"ts and Content................................................................................................$
2.1 )ey Conce"t &esearch...............................................................................................$
$. Teachin( A""roaches........................................................................................................*
+. 'earnin( Activities..............................................................................................................*
,. %ummary and transition....................................................................................................-
*. Assessment........................................................................................................................-
Theme T.o !lannin( and /esi(nin( a &esearch %tudy...........................................................0
%ession II 'iterature revie. 1hy and 2o..............................................................................0
1. %ession 'earnin( Outcomes...............................................................................................0
2. )ey Conce"ts and Content................................................................................................0
2.1 )ey Conce"t 'iterature &evie..................................................................................0
$. Teachin( A""roaches......................................................................................................1*
+. 'earnin( Activities............................................................................................................1*
,. %ummary and transition..................................................................................................13
*. Assessment......................................................................................................................13
%ession III Identi#yin( and 4ormulatin( a &esearch !roblem................................................1-
1. %ession 'earnin( Outcomes.............................................................................................1-
2. )ey Conce"ts and Content..............................................................................................1-
2.2 )ey Conce"t 5ariables.............................................................................................1-
$. Teachin( A""roaches......................................................................................................26
+. 'earnin( Activities............................................................................................................26
,. %ummary and transition..................................................................................................26
*. Assessment......................................................................................................................21
%ession I5 &esearch %tudy /esi(n.........................................................................................22
1. %ession 'earnin( Outcomes.............................................................................................22
2. )ey Conce"ts and Content..............................................................................................22
2.1 )ey Conce"t &esearch /esi(n.................................................................................22
$. Teachin( A""roaches......................................................................................................2,
+. 'earnin( Activities............................................................................................................2,
,. %ummary and transition..................................................................................................2*
*. Assessment......................................................................................................................2*
%ession 5 &esearch tools.......................................................................................................2-
1. %ession 'earnin( Outcomes.............................................................................................2-
2. )ey Conce"ts and Content..............................................................................................2-
2.1 )ey Conce"t 1 &esearch Tools #or /ata Collection.................................................2-
2.2 )ey Conce"t 2 The 7uestionnaire...........................................................................20
2.$ )ey Conce"t $ The Intervie....................................................................................20
2.+ )ey Conce"t + The Observation..............................................................................$6
2., )ey Conce"t , Observational Chec8list...................................................................$6
2.* )ey Conce"t * %cales...............................................................................................$1
2.3 )ey Conce"t 3 Tests.................................................................................................$1
$. Teachin( A""roaches......................................................................................................$$
+. 'earnin( Activities............................................................................................................$$
,. %ummary and transition..................................................................................................$$
*. Assessment......................................................................................................................$+
%ession 5I %electin( %am"les.................................................................................................$,
1. %ession 'earnin( Outcomes.............................................................................................$,
2. )ey Conce"ts and Content..............................................................................................$,
2.1 )ey Conce"t 1 !o"ulation.......................................................................................$,
2.2 )ey Conce"t 2 %am"le.............................................................................................$*
$. Teachin( A""roaches......................................................................................................$3
+. 'earnin( Activities............................................................................................................$3
,. %ummary and transition..................................................................................................$-
*. Assessment......................................................................................................................$0
%ession 5II 1ritin( a &esearch !ro"osal...............................................................................+6
1. %ession 'earnin( Outcomes.............................................................................................+6
2. )ey Conce"ts and Content..............................................................................................+6
2.1 )ey Conce"t &esearch !ro"osal..............................................................................+6
$. Teachin( A""roaches......................................................................................................++
+. 'earnin( Activities............................................................................................................+,
,. %ummary and transition..................................................................................................+,
*. Assessment......................................................................................................................+,
Theme Three Conductin( a &esearch %tudy..........................................................................+-
%ession 5III &esearch 9thics...................................................................................................+-
1. %ession 'earnin( Outcomes.............................................................................................+-
2. )ey Conce"ts and Content..............................................................................................+-
2.1 )ey Conce"t 9thics Concernin( &esearch !artici"ants in the !rocedure o# /ata
Collection:4ield.or8........................................................................................................+-
$. Teachin( A""roaches......................................................................................................+0
+. 'earnin( Activities............................................................................................................,6
,. %ummary and transition..................................................................................................,6
*. Assessment......................................................................................................................,6
%ession I; !rocessin( and Analy<in( /ata.............................................................................,1
1. %ession 'earnin( Outcomes.............................................................................................,1
2. )ey Conce"ts and Content..............................................................................................,1
2.1 )ey Conce"t 1 /ata Analysis...................................................................................,1
2.2 )ey Conce"t 2 7uantitative and 7ualitative &esearch...........................................,1
2.$ )ey Conce"t $ %tatistical Analysis...........................................................................,2
2.+ )ey Conce"t + /escri"tive %tatistics.......................................................................,2
2., )ey Conce"t , Cate(orical /ata..............................................................................,$
2.* )ey Conce"t * 4re=uency /istribution....................................................................,$
2.3 )ey Conce"t 3 >ra"hs.............................................................................................,+
2.- )ey Conce"t - ?umerical /ata................................................................................,,
2.0 )ey Conce"t 0 In#erential %tatistics.........................................................................,*
$. Teachin( A""roaches......................................................................................................,*
+. 'earnin( Activities............................................................................................................,3
,. %ummary and transition..................................................................................................,3
*. Assessment......................................................................................................................,-
%ession ; !rocessin( and Analy<in( 7ualitative /ata...........................................................,0
1. %ession 'earnin( Outcomes.............................................................................................,0
2. )ey Conce"ts and Content..............................................................................................,0
2.1 )ey Conce"t 7ualitative /ata Analysis...................................................................,0
$. Teachin( A""roaches......................................................................................................*2
+. 'earnin( Activities............................................................................................................*2
,. %ummary and transition..................................................................................................*$
*. Assessment......................................................................................................................*$
Theme 4our &esearch 1ritin(...............................................................................................*+
%ession ;I Academic &esearch 1ritin(..................................................................................*+
1. %ession 'earnin( Outcomes.............................................................................................*+
2. )ey Conce"ts and Content..............................................................................................*+
2.1.1 )ey Conce"t 1 !la(iarism......................................................................................*+
2.1.$ )ey Conce"t 2 9thics o# &esearch..........................................................................**
2.1.+ )ey Conce"t $ Intellectual !ro"erty &i(hts...........................................................**
$. Teachin( A""roaches......................................................................................................32
+. 'earnin( Activities............................................................................................................32
,. %ummary and transition..................................................................................................32
*. Assessment......................................................................................................................3$
Theme 4ive %u"ervisin( Academic &esearch.........................................................................3+
%ession ;II Academic %u"ervision..........................................................................................3+
1. %ession 'earnin( Outcomes.............................................................................................3+
2. )ey Conce"ts and Content..............................................................................................3+
2.1 )ey Conce"t 1 The &ole o# the %u"ervisor..............................................................3+
2.2 )ey Conce"t 2 The &ole o# the %u"ervisees............................................................33
2.$ )ey Conce"t $ The 5iva:Thesis /e#ense.................................................................3-
2., )ey Conce"t + !ublication.......................................................................................30
$. Teachin( A""roaches......................................................................................................-2
+. 'earnin( Activities............................................................................................................-2
,. %ummary and transition..................................................................................................-2
*. Assessment......................................................................................................................-2
/. Materials..........................................................................................................................-+
9. &e#erences and Biblio(ra"hy.........................................................................................126
A. Introduction
&esearch in our universities has become an indis"ensable com"onent o# eli(ibility #or
a de(ree. The education "ro(rammes in the universities in social sciences and natural
sciences may vary@ but "ractically in all such "ro(rams there is a re=uirement o# research.
In the .orld o# academia@ there are some ne. terms used .ith 8no.led(e@ such as@
8no.led(e economy@ 8no.led(e arts@ etc. &esearch also comes under 8no.led(e.
There#ore@ masterin( 8no.led(e o# research methods or basics o# research is not only a
necessity@ but also very essential and use#ul #or universities.
The &esearch Methods and %8ills Module is .ritten "rimarily #or you to teach your
(raduate students. At this level they .ill@ "robably #or the #irst time@ encounter #ormal
trainin( in conductin( research.
In this module@ you are #irst introduced to the concept of research alon( .ith
de#initions o#@ the reasons for conducting research@ .here it is conducted@ ho. it is done@
and by .hom. It is #ollo.ed by an im"ortant =uestion Awhy researchA and #inally it addresses
the attributes of quality research. 4urthermore@ you .ill have an overvie. o# the 8inds o#
research under the qualitative and quantitative paradigm. Additionally@ the research
"rocess has to adhere to some ethics that you have to 8ee" in mind.
Bou cannot underta8e research until you have read and revie.ed literature. A
thorou(h readin( o# related literature hel"s you select a research
problem. Based on the literature@ you #ormulate your research
question/problem #or buildin( your lo(ical #rame.or8. 2ere you are
also brie#ed as to ho. to access resources and use them #or your
research .ith "ro"er citations and references.
The research outcomes have to be measured #or .hich you need reliable and valid
tools #or collectin( data #rom your sample selected #rom the population. A#ter your data
collection you are ready #or its analysis usin( either descriptive or inferential statistics .ith
or .ithout the statistical "ac8a(e o# SPSS. In the course o# data collection you .ill need to
.rite various letters #or .hich .e (ive you eC"osure to #orms o# academic writing. !uttin(
everythin( to(ether is the #inal activity o# research .here you learn to "re"are the research
re"ort:manuscri"t. The #inale session o# the module is ho. to "er#orm your role as a
supervisor.
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B. Aim
The "rimary aim o# this module is to introduce the #aculty "artici"ants to the
conce"t o# research and 8ey elements involved in the research "rocess.
C. Module Objectives
!artici"ants .ill demonstrate 8no.led(e o#
the conce"t o# research
the reasons #or conductin( research@ .here it is conducted@ ho. it is done@
and by .hom.
.hy research
the attributes o# =uality research.
=ualitative and =uantitative research.
ethics o# research
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T!"! #$! P!%C!PT&#$ #' %!S!A%C T(P!S
Session I: Introduction of Research (1.5 hours
1. Session !earnin" Outcomes
A#ter the com"letion o# this session the "artici"ants .ill be able to
eC"lain the meanin(s o# research and its #unctions
com"are ty"es o# research #rom di##erent vie. "oints
em"loy the a""ro"riate research ty"e to their res"ective disci"line
#. $e% &once'ts and &ontent
2.1 Key Concept: Research
&esearch has di##erent meanin(s to di##erent "eo"le. I# you understand the conce"t
o# research at an early sta(e@ it .ould be easy #or you to deal .ith more conce"ts in the
research "rocess. The #ollo.in( de#initions .ill hel" you in understandin( the research
conce"t.
Accordin( to OC#ord 9n(lish /ictionary D2662E@ research is de#ined as Fthe systematic
study o# materials and sources in order to establish #acts and reach ne. conclusions.G
McMillan and %chumacher D1003E de#ine research as Fa systematic "rocess o#
collectin( and analysin( in#ormation DdataE #or some "ur"ose.G
)erlin(er D10-*E de#ines scienti#ic research as@ F%ystematic@ controlled@ em"irical@ and
critical investi(ation o# natural "henomena (uided by theory and hy"otheses about the
"resumed relations amon( such "henomena.G
2.1.1 (h% do research)
1e conduct research because .e .ant to eC"lore ideas
and #ind solutions that ma8e sense. In doin( so a "erson thin8s@
constantly assesses@ reassesses and ma8es decisions about the
best "ossible means o# obtainin( in#ormation that is trust.orthy.
1e may li8e to call this "rocess a "ersonHs thin8in( (ame or
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.hole brain activity and the "sycholo(ists call it ri(ht and le#t brain attributes DCherry et.al.
100$E.
2.1.2 (here does research occur)
&esearch is conducted in many settin(s educational institutes@ laboratories@
classrooms@ libraries@ the city streets@ #orei(n cultures@ etc. %ome research is o# short
duration. Other research is s"read over a lon( "eriod o# time. &esearch is usually done at
universities at (raduate or under(raduate levels as a re=uired course. It can be done in
various #ormats .hich #all under the cate(ories o# =ualitative and =uantitative research@ the
details o# .hich .ill #ollo. later in the module. &esearch is done by researchers@ .ho are
"ro#essors #rom education@ natural sciences or social sciences@ eC"erts@ and students o#
(raduate or under(raduate "ro(rammes #rom related and multi"le disci"lines.
2.1.3 (hat do researchers use)
The in#ormation (athered throu(h research recommendations "rovides an insi(ht to
the researchers #or #uture course o# action to be ta8en #or better im"lementation and
a""lication. %ome businesses@ industry and /e"artments o# 9ducation s"end vast amounts
o# money #or research activity #or im"rovement and advancement in their "ro(rams.
2.2 Research Types
1hen carryin( out research@ our "ur"oses are di##erent. There#ore research ty"es
.ill vary accordin( to our "ur"oses. The major research ty"es .ill #all under a""lication@
objectives@ in=uiry mode@ and sometimes .e may use miCed method research.
2.2.1 A''lication (*ure and a''lied research
A""lied research is IhandsJonI@ .hich means that the researcher is actually .or8in(
.ith the to"ic:subjects .hile conductin( the research. >enerally@ a""lied research #ocuses
on I"ractical "roblemsI such as climate chan(e in order to come u" .ith solutions to better
or im"rove an eCistin( condition.
Basic research is o#ten considered researchin( #or the sa8e o# increasin( 8no.led(e
as o""osed to a""lied .here the research truly is intended to solve a "roblem. Basic
&esearch is o#ten called I"ureI research and is considered the #oundation #or a""lied
research.
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2.2.2 Objectives (+escri'tive, &o-relational, ./'lorator% and ./'lanator%
Descriptive research is also called statistical research. The main (oal o# this ty"e o#
research is to describe the data and characteristics about .hat is bein( studied. The idea
behind this ty"e o# research is to study #re=uencies@ avera(es@ and other statistical
calculations. Althou(h this research is hi(hly accurate@ it does not (ather the causes behind
a situation.
Correlation research measures the relationshi" bet.een t.o or more variables or
(ives an indication o# ho. one variable may "redict another.
Exploratory research is a ty"e o# research conducted because a "roblem has not
been clearly de#ined. 9C"loratory research hel"s determine the best research desi(n@ data
collection methods@ and selection o# subjects. >iven that it is #undamental in nature@
eC"loratory research o#ten concludes that a "erceived "roblem does not actually eCist.
Explanatory research eC"lores I.hy@I and attem"ts to eC"lain as the "ur"oses o#
eC"lanatory research. It builds on eC"loratory and descri"tive research and #urther identi#ies
the reasons #or somethin( that occurs. It loo8s #or causes and reasons.
#.#.0 In1uir% mode (1ualitative and 1uantitative
The in=uiry mode o# research can be cate(ori<ed as =ualitative and =uantitative
Qualitative research is research underta8en to (ain insi(hts concernin( attitudes@
belie#s@ motivations and behaviours o# individuals@ to eC"lore a social or human "roblem.
7ualitative research methods include #ocus (rou"s@ inJde"th intervie.s@ observation
research@ and case studies. Bou can use qualitative research to study "ast events or current
events. 1hen you use it #or "ast events@ it is s"eci#ically called historical research. The
salient #eatures o# =ualitative research are
Conducted to have an insi(ht and better understandin( o# not only about the
current situation is but also .hy it is so.
More o"en and res"onsive to the research "artici"ants.
Kses a variety o# methods and data collection strate(ies@
O##ers o""ortunities #or descri"tive and eC"loratory studies.
Quantitative research is research concerned .ith the measurement o# attitudes@
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behaviours and "erce"tions. It includes intervie.in( methods such as tele"hone@ interce"t@
and doorJtoJdoor intervie.s@ as .ell as sel#Jcom"letion methods such as mail outs and
online surveys. 7uantitative research
Means the data is analy<ed in terms o# numbers.
Involves the collection o# numerical data.
!redicts and eC"lains data in the #orm o# statistical analysis.
Kses the numerical method to analysis and inter"ret the results.
4inds out the relationshi" amon( =uanti#iable variables and the results are
in#erred.
0. 2eachin" A''roaches
The introductory "art o# &esearch Methods and %8ills .ill be delivered throu(h
Ice brea8in( activity@ .hich en(a(es the "artici"ants
'ectures based on !o.er!oint "resentations desi(ned on 8ey "oints o# the
content
!artici"ant discussions and activity based .or8sheets
3. !earnin" Activities
4.1 Activity 1: Ice-breaking Activity
Objectives o# the activity
The activity aims at ma8in( "artici"ants #eel com#ortable about research in
!a8istan in (eneral. Introduction to research is an entry into an alien .orld.
The activity .ill also enable the "artici"ants to see ho. they can relate
research to their daily livesL and .ill hel" them understand that it is a systematic
"rocess that involves certain ste"s.
As an iceJbrea8in( activity@ the #acilitator can as8 the "artici"ants to thin8 and
"lan #or buyin( somethin( such as a car@ a dress or a television. 'et us su""ose
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that the #acilitator as8s "artici"ants to "lan #or buyin( a car@ the #acilitator .ould
(ive directions and set the limits #or this "lannin(. 4or eCam"le
Bou have , lacs to buy a car
Bou can buy only one carL and have to s"end all the money but can not over
s"end.
Bou may buy a ne. or an old car.
?o. as8 the "artici"ants to thin8 o# their "ersonal and social conteCt@ "ersonal and
#amily needs@ li8in(s :choices@ limitations etc. and as8 them to rationally "lan the "rocess.
>ive them ten minutes to "lan.
?o. as8 them ho. they "lanned it. As some o# the "artici"ants share ho. they
"lanned it@ throu(h this discussion establish that the "lannin( involves a com"lete research
"rocess. One has to see the "roblem and needs. One has to do literature revie. by
(atherin( in#ormation #rom relatives@ #riends@ or #amily .ho have already bou(ht car. The
"rocess also involves research methodolo(y. 4or instance@ some "artici"ants .ill directly (o
to the mar8et and surveyL some .ould contact a dealer in carsL and some .ould (o #or the
ne.s"a"er advertisements.
As8 them in the same .ay ho. they .ould analy<e (athered in#ormation and share
that it is their data analysis that leads to their conclusions and decision ma8in(.
4.2 Activity 2: Identify the Research Types from the o!!o"ing
A#ter the introductory lecture on ty"es o# research@ the #acilitator .ill "rovide the
"artici"ants .ith a .or8sheet .hich contains the #ollo.in( statements
1. I# you are (oin( to study the relationshi" bet.een job satis#action and career
develo"ment o# secondary school teachers@ this is an eCam"le o#
_________________________________.
2. I# you are (oin( to #ind out causes o# dro"outs in "rimary schools o# &a.al"indi@
this is an eCam"le o# ____________________________.
The #acilitator .ill as8 the "artici"ants to #ill in the blan8s .ith a""ro"riate
statements about the ty"es o# research.
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5. Summar% and 2ransition
In this introductory session o# the module@ you have learned about the di##erent
de#initions o# research@ .hy research is done@ .here it is conducted and .hat researchers
use. At the end o# the section@ you have ac=uired basic 8no.led(e about research methods
and s8ills based on your educational bac8(round and "ro#essional eC"eriences. Bou can
easily di##erentiate amon( "ers"ectives on and a""roaches #or classi#yin( di##erent research
ty"es. The classi#ication .ill hel" you understand di##erent conce"ts related to research
described in later sessions.
4. Assessment
"atch the research types with the descriptions.
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A""lied
research
to describe the data and characteristics
about .hat is bein( studied
Basic
research
loo8in( at the "ast events
/escri"tive
research
to (ain insi(hts concernin( attitudes@ belie#s
Correlational
research
"redicts and eC"lains data in the #orm o#
statistical analysis
9C"loratory
research
hel"s determine the best research desi(n
and data collection method
is "ure research
earch
o#ten concludes that a "erceived "roblem
does not actually eCist
2istorical
research
7ualitative
research
7uantitative
research
researchin( #or the sa8e o# 8no.led(e as
o""osed to a""lied
T!"! T)# P*A$$&$+ A$, ,!S&+$&$+ A %!S!A%C
ST-,(
Session II: !iterature Revie5: (h% and 6o5 (1.5 hours
1. Session !earnin" Outcomes
A#ter the com"letion o# this session@ the "artici"ants .ill be able to
identi#y and #ormulate a research "roblem usin( literature revie. as sources
o# in#ormation
construct research hy"otheses on the basis o# 8no.led(e o# the research
area throu(h literature revie.
access resources and use the "ro"er citations and re#erences
construct reliable research tools #or data collection on the basis o# ho. other
researchers in the #ield .or8ed
#. $e% &once't and &ontent
2.1 Key Concept: #iterat$re Revie"
'iterature revie. is an im"ortant "art o# any research. It "rovides an under"innin(
#or the research by enli(htenin( the researcher about the "rocess.
#.1.1 !iterature revie5 as sources of information and its 'rocedure
Any research@ no matter at .hat scale@ re=uires readin( about .hat other "eo"le
have done in the area o# your interest@ ho. they have done it@ and .hat are the (a"s in the
research in that area. Any ne. "roduction o# 8no.led(e is necessarily based on "revious
and eCistin( 8no.led(e. Bou need in#ormation to su""ort or re#ute your ar(uments and
.rite about your #indin(s. Bou need to "rovide evidence that you are a.are o# the current
trends and issues in your area o# interest and are co(nisant o# the current state o#
8no.led(e on the subject.
Ideally this readin( should #orm the basis #or choosin( your research methodolo(y.
2o.ever@ this is usually not "ossible in "ractice. A#ter some "reliminary readin(@ the
research to"ic is #inali<ed. &eadin( continues and s"ills over into the sta(e o# data collection
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and analysis. %ome readin( is naturally re=uired at the sta(e o# inter"retation o# the
=ualitative or =uantitative data to embed your research in its milieu. Moreover@ every ne.
article:boo8 you read .ill have a cumulative e##ect on the eCistin( body o# 8no.led(e in
your mind@ "ushin( to you reinter"ret or rethin8 some o# your "revious assum"tions or
ideas. But there is a limit to the chan(es you can ma8e in your literature revie.. The best
.ay is to "re"are a #irst dra#t and then "olish it at the sta(e o# data inter"retation .hen you
.ill be readin( your literature revie. a(ain to "resent your analysis in a coherent manner
.ith crossJre#erences related to your literature revie..
2.1.2 (h% revie5 literature)
%ome reasons #or includin( a literature revie. in your research "a"er:thesis are
1. The basic reason #or literature revie. is to conteCtuali<e your research. 9very
academic research "roject is related to a "articular area and is a lin8 in a chain o#
similar research ta8in( "lace in the area. This conteCtuali<ation sho.s your
a.areness o# the .or8 (oin( on in your #ield and also identi#ies the niche you
.ish to occu"y.
2. It (ives you ideas about ho. to classi#y and "resent your data. 1hen you read
critically@ you can sees ho. .riters eC"lore the relationshi"s bet.een #acts and
ho. #acts and relationshi"s are eC"lained. Methods used by other .riters may
not be suitable #or your "ur"oses@ but they may (ive you ideas about ho. you
mi(ht cate(ori<e your data.
3. 'iterature revie. hel"s you to distin(uish .hat has been done #rom .hat needs
to be done and ho. it should be done. &eadin(s in an area reveal (a"s in the
literature and this #ine tunes your research =uestion and subse=uent research
methods.
4. 'iterature revie. assists you to synthesi<e your ideas and (ain "ers"ectives to
loo8 at your research "roblem .ith di##erent lens. Other researchers may have
loo8ed at a similar issue but #rom di##erent an(les. This 8no.led(e can #orti#y you
to #ind your o.n an(le.
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2.1.3 Sources of literature revie5
One im"ortant =uestion that ne. researchers al.ays as8 is F1here do .e #ind the
material #or doin( a literature revie.MG The #ollo.in( are the "rimary and secondary
sources #or #indin( the material that you need to read
Articles in Nournals
Boo8s
Internet
&esearch &e"orts
>overnment /ocuments
Abstracts
&evie.s
Kn"ublished Theses
9lectronic &esearch In#ormation Center:%ocial %ciences Citation
IndeC:/issertation Abstracts IndeC
Most o# this material is no. available on the Internet. 'ibraries in established hi(her
education institutions are another rich resource #or locatin( the re=uired materials.
2.1.4 Mana"in" the literature
The biblio(ra"hy at the end o# a recent article or boo8 can "rovide you .ith an
ade=uate readin( list o# most o# the relevant material related to that to"ic. Once the
relevant literature has been located and #ound throu(h the sources su((ested@ the neCt
ste" is to mana(e it. This re=uires e##icient and selective readin(. Once you try locatin( the
relevant literature@ you .ill discover that it is available in vast =uantities. ?o. the "rimary
tas8 is to "ic8 out the material that is actually related and relevant to your research area.
This re=uires you to be a "ro#icient reader .ho can (et the (ist o# thin(s =uic8ly as you .ill
have to (o throu(h a lot o# readin(.
In an article "ublished in a journal@ the #irst thin( to do is loo8 at the abstract or
summary o# the article. This .ill (ive you an idea .hether it is relevant #or you. In the case
o# a boo8 you should loo8 at the list o# contents@ the blurb@ the summaries usually (iven at
11
the end o# the cha"ters and the introduction. This .ill tell you =uic8ly i# any "art is "ertinent
#or you.
The neCt ste" is to #ollo. a clear system o# 8ee"in( trac8 o# your readin( re#erences.
Bou need to create a mana(ement system that .ill incor"orate your sources .ith all
relevant details includin( a note about .here you #ound that article or boo8. This means
that you "ut do.n that the article:boo8 .as on the shel# o# your su"ervisor or in the library
o# the Institute o# Business Administration. This .ill save a lot o# hassle and #utile #in(erJ
bitin( at the end .hen you des"erately need a "a(e number #or a =uote and cannot
remember .here you had #ound the material. The convenient traditional .ay .as to .rite
do.n the com"lete biblio(ra"hical re#erence Dbased on the style you .ill #ollo.E on a *C+
inch IndeC Card. These cards are much better than "a"ers as they are hardier@ .ill not #ly
a.ay under the #an@ can be stored al"habetically in shoe boCes@ and can be s"read li8e dec8
o# cards .ith res"ect to the notes that are .ritten. Today@ a number o# com"uter "ro(rams
li8e 9ndnote@ !rocite@ or &e#erence Mana(er are available to 8ee" trac8 o# your re#erences.
These "ro(rams can automatically #ormat re#erences in any number o# styles once the basic
details have been entered.
It is also use#ul to annotate your re#erences. Bou can .rite brie# notes on the IndeC
Cards. This .ill "rovide you .ith a methodical and or(ani<ed revie. o# materials that you
have read. It is a record o# the accuracy@ relevance@ and =uality o# the sources you have
consulted. Bour critical comment@ that is your in#ormed and considered evaluation@ can also
be added. These annotations can be varyin( in len(th and content de"endin( on the
"ertinence o# the material revie.ed. It .ill minimi<e the time .hen you have to incor"orate
them in your .ritin(.
#.1.5 7rief Sam'le Annotation
%am"le #rom OH'eary@ 266+ 3,
#.*eary/ 0 123345 6Conversations in the 7itchen./ &n A.
Bartiett and +. "ercer 1eds5. Postgraduate %esearch Supervision8
Transforming %elations. $ew (or98 Peter *ang.
Citation
1arvard
reference5
The author is a senior lecturer at the -niversity of )estern
Sydney who has written a chapter in a boo9 targeting
postgraduate research students and supervisors.
Author /
Audience
This is basically an anecdote that discusses/ and attempts to Summary
12
normali:e the emotional and intellectual hardships many research
students can go through when trying to ;uggle family obligations
and study.
The anecdote is quite short and written in a warm and
personal style that ma9es it very easy to relate to. &t is not/
however/ a research study bac9ed up by any data/rigour and
therefore does not allow one to assess the e<tent of the issues
raised to whether the concerns she raises are widespread. That
said it does not seem to relate well to the more rigorous research
studies conducted by 'ield and oward 123325 and ,reic9er 1233=5
on similar issues.
Critical
Comment
This relates quite well to my chapter on 6coping
mechanisms and strategies for managing roles and wor9loads. and
may be good for a quote or two especially if & feel my te<t is too
dry.
%elevance
2.2 %resenting the #iterat$re Revie"
The #ormal literature revie. is a very s"eci#ic "iece o# .ritin(
desi(ned to in#orm your readers o# your to"ic@ establish your credibility
as a researcher@ and ar(ue the need #or@ and relevance o#@ your .or8.
Most #ind it di##icult tas8 that ta8es "atience@ "ractice@ dra#ts@ and
redra#ts. (OLeary, 2004:84)
OH 'earyHs =uote enca"sulates the essence o# the literature revie.. Bou have to be
certain that the revie. is ade=uate and su##icient. It should not be a sho""in( list or a
catalo(ue o# boo8s and articles that you have read@ but should hel" in ma8in( a case #or
your study.
Clarity is essential in "resentin( your ideas. The literature revie. should have a
de#inite structure based on the ar(uments that you .ant to ma8e or the tas8 that you .ant
to accom"lish throu(h it. !re"are a blue "rint o# the structure o# your research. This can be
revised as your thin8in( evolves but a basic outline .ould hel" you to be(in .ritin(. Bou can
also use it to #ill in the bits and "ieces as your readin( advances or your theoretical
"ers"ectives develo".
Kse em"irical evidence to substantiate your ar(ument D>ay@ 2666E. This .ill
authenticate your stance. Citin( o"inions only can .ea8en the revie.. Moreover@ be care#ul
13
to be recent and u" to date in citin(. 1ith the Internet revolution@ the "ace o# 8no.led(e
(eneration and meanin( ma8in( has multi"lied mani#old and access to the Internet is also
.ithin reach. Be judicious in the selection o# relevant literature and avoid the tem"tation to
include every sin(le source that you have accessed.
One valid su((estion #or .ritin( a (ood literature revie. is to read a #e. .ellJ
.ritten literature revie.s. This .ill (ive you an idea about ho. to (o about it. At the end@ I
.ould li8e to say a(ain .hat .as said earlierL let the literature revie. be an on(oin( "rocess
that overla"s other sta(es o# your research. It .ill then su""ort your ar(uments and
contribute to your analysis and inter"retation o# the data.
In social sciences@ literature revie. is usually a se"arate cha"ter. %ometimes it is
built into the introduction and cha"ters related to methodolo(y and analysis. 2o.ever@ in
sciences@ the literature revie. is usually "art o# the introduction. The role o# literature
remains the same both in sciences and social sciences.
A note o# caution Be valiant and (et #eedbac8 #rom your "eers and su"ervisor. Be
"re"ared to redra#t and revise.
2.3 &amp!e of #iterat$re Revie"
I# you are doin( action research@ a (ood .ay to be(in your literature revie. .ould be
to de#ine .hat it is.
Action Research
Action research can be de#ined as the "rocess o# studyin( a
real school or classroom situation to understand and im"rove the
=uality o# actions or instructionO. It is a systematic and orderly .ay
#or teachers to observe their "ractice or to eC"lore a "roblem and a
"ossible course o# actionO. Action research is also a ty"e o# in=uiry
that is "reJ"lanned@ or(ani<ed@ and can be shared .ith others.
DNohnson@ 266, 21E
Action research in #ields other than education involves studyin( a real "roblem in its
authentic settin( such as in industry@ in a(riculture in a community settin(. 9tc. ?unan D1002
1-E su((ests that #or P)emmis and McTa((art the essential im"etus #or carryin( out action
research is to chan(e the systemH. Cohen and Manion D10-, 210E@ ho.ever@ su((est that
action research may in #act be Pconcerned .ith innovation and chan(e and the .ay in .hich
these may be im"lemented in on(oin( systemsH DauthorsA italicsE. They have a more
14
inte(rative a""roach com"ared to the more revolutionary one o# )emmis and McTa((art.
This a""roach is more a""ro"riate #or our indi(enous locale.
'ieberman D10-*E has de#ined collaborative action research as a tool #or sta##
develo"ment and an o""ortunity #or teachers and university researchers to .or8 to(ether to
investi(ate and solve school and classroom challen(es. This research "ractice is encoura(ed
in the de"artments o# education in the universities in !a8istan.
4innan D1002E states that interventions can succeed i# they are desi(ned to hel"
members o# the school community DcultureE ma8e the chan(es they have identi#ied as
im"ortant. As most o# their school teachers are trained in research@ academics #rom 2i(her
9ducation Institutions collaborate .ith them to "lan success#ul interventions #or #acilitatin(
teachin( and learnin(. This is not our scenario. 1e have eCternally "re"ared curriculaI
im"osed on us. All that .e can do is may be (ra#t an innovation onto an Aon(oin( system
.hich normally inhibits innovation and chan(eA DCohen and Manion@ 266$@ ". 226E to
#acilitate learnin( across the curriculum. This is a "rocess that can be initiated and "racticed
by classroom "ractitioners individually and collectively.
McCarthy and &iner D100*E ar(ue that the obvious stren(th o# action research is that
it creates an environment .here assum"tions are o"ened #or =uestionin(. They reiterate Oja
and !ine D10-0 as cited in 1ebb@ 1006E by statin( that teachers "artici"atin( in action
research become more critical and re#lective about their o.n "ractice and attend more
care#ully to their methods@ their "erce"tions and their a""roach to teachin( "rocess. The
research o# 7adir D100*E is a "roo# o# this.
It is a "artici"atory "rocess in .hich teachers are O Pcreatin( ne. data and ne.
inter"retations as they stru((led to understand each otherH DNohnston@ 1006 1-6E. Teachers
involved in collaborative action research Pusually #eel em"o.ered both "ro#essionally and
"ersonally and there is a decrease in their #eelin( o# #rustration and isolation. O These
outcomes are ty"ically attributed to the collaborative nature o# teacher researchH D2enson@
2661 -21E. 4irestone and !ennell D100$E also reiterate that collaboration becomes an
intrinsically rein#orcin( activity that builds commitment to teachin(. It is there#ore a
"re#erred mode o# research at school and tertiary level #or classroom "ractitioners.
0. 2eachin" A''roaches
The session on literature revie. .ill be delivered throu(h
15
'ectures based on !o.er!oint "resentations DThe #acilitator should use all
the headin(s in 2. 7ey Concepts and Content o# this session and should .rite
the main "oints under each headin( by usin( bullets.E
2andouts are to be used. !rovide ABrief Sample AnnotationA (iven in 2. 7ey
Concepts and Content to the "artici"ants as a handout.
ASample of *iterature %eviewA (iven in 2. 7ey Concepts and Content can also
be "rovided as a handout that "artici"ants can carry as a #uture re#erence. Or@
sho. this sam"le on the !o.er!oint and (enerate a discussion based on it.
>rou" .or8 o# the !artici"ants
3. !earnin" Activities
'.1 (b)ective of the Activity
To (ive the "artici"ants a "ractical eC"erience o# ho. to do a literature revie..
'.2 Activity
A#ter the #acilitator has delivered the lecture@ i# "ossible@ ta8e the "artici"ants to the
libraryL i# not "ossible@ arran(e #or almost $6 boo8s. Ma8e ,J* sets o# these boo8sL each set
o# boo8s should be related to one (eneral theme. Kse ,J* themes such as hi(her education
in !a8istan@ (ender issues@ "rimary education@ and teachin( o# 9n(lish etc.. >ive these sets
to di##erent (rou"s. As8 each "artici"ant to develo" a research to"ic #or himsel#:hersel# and
then do a brie# literature revie. usin( the set o# boo8s "rovided to his or her (rou".
I# they are usin( a library@ they can use journals and Internet as .ell. As8 them to
consult , to 3 sources to .rite their literature revie.. Content o# the session .ill serve as
the resource.
16
5. Summar% and 2ransition
In the literature revie. session o# the module@ you have learned .hat a literature
revie. is@ and .hy revie. o# literature is necessary #or any research. Bou have also been
introduced to various sources #or conductin( literature revie.. It is also discussed ho.
literature revie. can be mana(ed .ell. To #acilitate learnin(@ a brie# sam"le o# annotation
and a sam"le literature revie. are also "rovided.
4. Assessment
Assessment .ould be done throu(h the outcome o# the activity o# .ritin( literature
revie. as "rovided in >?. *earning Activities>.
17
Session III: Identif%in" and 8ormulatin" a Research *roblem
(1.5 hours
1. Session !earnin" Outcomes
A#ter the com"letion o# this session@ the "artici"ants .ill be able to
identi#y and #ormulate a research "roblem usin( literature revie. as sources
o# in#ormation
identi#y research variables
construct research hy"otheses
.rite a statement o# the research "roblem
#ormulate research =uestions
#. $e% &once'ts and &ontent
2.1 *efine a Research %rob!em
This is a #act that research starts #rom some "roblem. The research journey starts
#rom the identi#ication o# the "roblem. To .or8 on that s"eci#ic "roblem only the
identi#ication is not su##icient. It is necessary #or the researcher to de#ine that "roblem in
more "ractical terms. 'iterature revie. hel"s the researcher in de#inin( the research
"roblem so that it can be measured in its true sense.
2.2 Key Concept: +ariab!es
A variable is a characteristic that ta8es on di##erent values or conditions #or di##erent
individuals. 5ariables are o# di##erent ty"es
,ependent variables are the variables that .e measure to determine i# the
inde"endent variable has an e##ect@ such as science achievement. The dependent variable is
what is affected by the independent variable.
&ndependent variables o#ten sim"ly are classi#yin( variables@ classi#yin( the
individuals o# the research study. 4or eCam"le@ i# .e are loo8in( at the studentHs
achievements in science usin( some ne. teachin( methods@ then the teachin( method
.ould be an inde"endent variable and the achievement o# the student is an inde"endent
variable.
18
Controlled variables are inde"endent variables. They are controlled variables only i#
their e##ects are determined@ i.e.@ controlled. In the eCam"le o# science achievement@ the
learnin( style o# the students is an or(anismic variable@ as it .ould "robably a""ear as an
intervenin( variable. 4or eCam"le a treatment o# "ro(ram or cause.
!<traneous variable is related to the de"endent or inde"endent variable@ but is not
"art o# the eC"eriment.
"oderator variable is related to the inde"endent and de"endent variable and has
an im"act on de"endent variable. In such a situation@ it becomes an interactin( variable
also.
2.3 Constr$cting ,ypothesis
A hy"othesis is a s"eci#ic statement o# "rediction@ .hich is also called an academic
(uess. It describes in concrete Drather than theoreticalE terms .hat you eC"ect .ill ha""en
in the research. ?ot all studies have hy"otheses. %ometimes research is desi(ned to be
eC"loratory. In such a case@ there is no #ormal hy"othesis. A sin(le study may have one or
many hy"otheses
$ull hypothesis is the hy"othesis in .hich there is no relationshi" bet.een t.o or
more variables. It is symboli<ed as 26.
%esearch hypothesis or the alternate hypothesis "ro"oses a relationshi" bet.een
t.o or more variables and is symboli<ed as 21.
,irectional hypothesis is one tailed. Bou assume that by mani"ulatin( the
inde"endent variable the de"endent variable .ill chan(e in a s"eci#ic direction. Bou can
"redict i# this chan(e .ill be "ositive or ne(ative.
$on@directional research hypothesis is t.o tailed. Bou assume that by mani"ulatin(
the independent variable there .ill be a chan(e in the de"endent variable. Bou cannot
"redict i# this chan(e .ill be "ositive or ne(ative.
2.4 -riting a &tatement of Research %rob!em
A (ood research statement ma8es clear to the reader .hat issue the research
is dealin( .ith.
Ideally a research statement should be "resented in one sentence.
A research "roblem statement is to the "oint@ #ocused@ and measurableL it is
not ambi(uous and abstract.
19
?o. select a research to"ic and try to .rite the research "roblem.
0. 2eachin" A''roaches
The session on identi#yin( and #ormulatin( a research "roblem .ill be delivered
throu(h
'ectures based on !o.er!oint "resentations
!artici"atory activities
/iscussion
!ractical eC"erience throu(h eCercises
3. !earnin" Activities
To introduce the to"ic and deliver the contents@ the #acilitator should use all
the headin(s in 2. 7ey Concepts and Content o# this session and should .rite
the main "oints under each headin( by usin( bullets. Mainly it .ould be lecture
based. 2o.ever@ as8in( =uestions@ sharin( eCam"les@ and (ivin( comments can
hel" en(a(e "artici"ants.
1hile the "artici"ants are introduced to .hat a research "roblem is@ .hat
variables are@ ho. a (ood hy"othesis can be constructed@ and ho. a research
"roblem is stated@ the #acilitator should (ive the "artici"ants t.o to three
eCam"les o# each to"ic at di##erent sta(es in researchL and should as8 the
"artici"ants to a""ly this 8no.led(e to "ractical instances.
The content o# the session .ill serve as resources.
5. Summar% and 2ransition
In this session o# the module@ you have learned .hat a research "roblem is@ .hat is
the de#inition o# a variable@ .hat are di##erent ty"es o# variables@ and ho. the research
"roblem is stated@ .hat is a hy"othesis@ and .hat are the characteristics o# a (ood
hy"othesis.
20
4. Assessment
Assessment .ould be activity based. !re"are a handout o# the #ollo.in( to use it #or
assessment
Activity 4
&dentify the independent and dependant variables in the following situation8
A university teacher is interested in determinin( the best .ay to teach introductory
technolo(y course@ and ensure that her students have learned the material.
Activity 2
'ormulate hypotheses for the following two situations8
%ituation 1
1hat e##ects does vie.in( violence on television have on boysM
%ituation 2
A sanitation de"artment is nearby and the smell is comin( #rom the same direction.
The sanitation de"artment does a series o# ste"s to "rocess the se.a(e and .aste.ater.
ypothesis8 I# __________________________then___________________________.
21
Session I9: Research Stud% +esi"ns (1.5 hours
1. Session !earnin" Outcomes
A#ter the com"letion o# this session@ the "artici"ants .ill be able to
de#ine di##erent research desi(ns and their #unctions
ado"t a""ro"riate a""roach #or selectin( a study desi(n
di##erentiate amon( di##erent study desi(ns accordin( to the characteristics
#. $e% &once't and &ontent
2.1 Key Concept: Research *esign
1e cannot conce"tuali<e a research desi(n until .e are sure .hat .e .ant to do.
There#ore it is very im"ortant that .e eCactly 8no. .hat .e mean by the terms and
lan(ua(e .e use. It should not be va(ue or uns"eci#ied. Conce"tuali<ation is to s"eci#y
eCactly .hat .e mean and donHt mean by the terms .e use in our research.
Bou may call the research desi(n a "lan #or addressin( the research =uestion you
have "osed. Bour =uestion "oints to a "articular ty"e o# study Is it (oin( to be an
eC"loratory or eC"lanatory studyM Bour =uestion "oints to the tar(et "o"ulation The (rou"
o# "eo"le you .ould study #or your =uestion. Bour =uestion also "oints to the 8inds o#
=uestions you .ould as8 and ho. you .ould (o about as8in( the =uestions.
2.2 *ifferent &t$dy *esigns
The research is not restricted to one sin(le desi(n. The researcher can ado"t any o#
the desi(n accordin( to the re=uirements o# the research. 4ollo.in( are most commonly
used research desi(ns
#.#.1 7ased on the number of contacts
Based on the number o# contacts #ollo.in( are the most commonly used research
study desi(ns
the lon(itudinal study desi(n
the crossJsectional study desi(n
22
#.#.# 2he lon"itudinal stud% desi"n
The lon(itudinal research desi(n em"loys the #ollo.in( characteristics
'on(itudinal research desi(n is to trac8 "artici"ants over an eCtended
amount o# time D, years@ 16 years@ 1, years etcE.
%ame "eo"le are studied at more than one time to record the develo"ments
in (ro.th etc.
!eo"le hesitate to become the sam"le o# these studies due to the lon(
duration.
2.2.3 &ross sectional stud% desi"n
The cross sectional research desi(n em"loys the #ollo.in( characteristics
Involves studyin( many "eo"le at one "oint in time.
Involves less time "eriod and cost as com"ared to the lon(itudinal method.
/escribes the linear relationshi" D"ositive or ne(ativeE bet.een the variables.
#.#.3 7ased on the reference 'eriod
The historical study desi(n is a commonly used desi(n under the cate(ory o#
re#erence "eriod
#.#.5 6istorical stud% desi"n
4ollo.in( are its main #eatures
2istorical research@ also 8no.n as F2istorio(ra"hyG@ is related to the
inter"retation o# the events .hich can be in the #orm o# issues or the
movements that have occurred in the "ast and #actual analysis.
It is lon(er than other ty"es o# research because the researcher has to search
#or the documents and has to do a dee" analysis o# these documents.
A#ter the identi#ication o# issue@ data is collected throu(h
o primary sources .hich can be the ori(inal documents or the "eo"le .ho
have themselves eC"erienced that "articular event.
23
o secondary sources .hich can be the secondJhand documents or the "eo"le@
.ho did not eC"erience themselves but they 8no. about that event.
Material is studied@ in#ormation is synthesi<ed@ #acts are analy<ed@ and the
results are dra.n.
The researcher is more res"onsible in selectin( the documents as the
accuracy o# these documents counts a lot in "roducin( the authentic results.
#.#.4 7ased on the nature of investi"ation
Accordin( to the nature o# the investi(ation@ research desi(ns have #ollo.in(
cate(ories
the eC"erimental study desi(n
the nonJeC"erimental study desi(n
the =uasiJeC"erimental desi(n
#.#.: 2he e/'erimental stud% desi"n
9C"erimental desi(ns involve the control and the treatment (rou"s to chec8 the
cause and e##ect relationshi". In eC"erimental desi(n@ the researcher chooses some element
to try it out and to chec8 its e##ect on somethin( else. Both the treatment techni=ue and its
e##ect on the s"eci#ic subjects on .hich the treatment is a""lied are termed as the
Inde"endent and de"endent variables res"ectively.
#.#.; 2he non- e/'erimental stud% desi"n
?onJeC"erimental research includes a variety o# di##erent methods that describe
relationshi"s bet.een variables. They do not set out or test@ any causal relationshi"
bet.een variables.
?onJeC"erimental research methods are descri"tive@ historical@ or correlational.
#.#.< 2he 1uasi-e/'erimental stud% desi"n
In the =uasiJeC"erimental research you assi(n the "artici"ants to (rou"s based on
some characteristics or =uality that these "eo"le brin( to the study. It is also called "ost hoc
research or a#ter the #act research.
24
2.2.10 &ase stud%
The study o# an individual or an institution in a uni=ue settin( or situation in
an intense and detailed manner #or lon( "eriod o# time.
%everal techni=ues can be used .ithin a case study i.e. Intervie.s@
Observations or 9C"eriments
/ata collected throu(h case studies lead to the #ormation o# the theories.
The results may be a##ected by researcherHs o.n "erce"tions and the results
cannot be (enerali<ed.
2.2.11 Action research
Action research is a methodolo(y that combines action and research to eCamine
s"eci#ic =uestions@ issues or "henomena throu(h observation and re#lection@ and deliberate
intervention to im"rove the "ractice.
0. 2eachin" A''roaches
The content o# the session .ill be delivered usin( the #ollo.in( a""roaches
'ectures on each o# the research desi(ns clari#y the meanin( o#
conce"tuali<ation. !o.er!oint "resentations can be desi(ned to hi(hli(ht the
bullet "oints
/iscussion o# "artici"ants on di##erences and similarities amon( research
desi(ns
Involve the "artici"ants throu(h activity based tas8s
3. !earnin" Activities
'.1 Activity 1
The ML will present n interactive lecture on the content of this session noted
above.
'.2 Activity
25
The objective o# this activity is o enable the "artici"ants to identi#y the research
study desi(n used in research articles. In this activity@ the #acilitator .ill brin( some research
articles accordin( to the #ield o# s"eciali<ation o# the "artici"ants or ta8e the "artici"ants to
the library. Accordin( to the number o# available research articles the (rou"s o# the
"artici"ants .ill be made. The "artici"ants .ill be as8ed to
&ead these research articles
Identi#y the research study desi(n used in the research
/e#ine the "rocedure o# study desi(n used in the research study
%hare .ith other (rou"s
5. Summar% and 2ransition
In this session@ you have learned about di##erent research desi(ns and im"ortant
#unctions involved in each research desi(n. A""roaches #or selectin( the research desi(ns
.ill hel" you select a""ro"riate research desi(n #or conductin( research in the social settin(.
The conce"ts described here .ill hel" you in your "ro#essional li#e .hile conductin( your
o.n research or as resource "ersons #or teachin( research methods and s8ills as a subject.
4. Assessment
The learnin( o# the "artici"ants .ill be assessed throu(h the #ollo.in( activity
Carefully read the statements given below and answer the following questions8
1hat is the desi(n used in the research studyM
1hat do you say to su""ort your ar(umentM
Statements
1. I# you .ere to test a (rou" .or8in( .omen to assess co"in( strate(ies in
their .or8"lace in 100, a(ain the same (rou" in 2666 and a(ain in 266,@ this is an
eCam"le o# ________________________________.
Austification/Argument for your answer
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
26
2. 9##ectiveness o# co(nitive behaviour thera"y #or the treatment o# a((ression
in adolescents@ this is an eCam"le o# ______________________.
Austification/Argument for your answer
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
$. The s"eech "roblem o# a hearin( im"aired child in school@ this is an eCam"le
o# ________________________________.
Austification/Argument for your answer
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
27
Session 9: Research 2ools (# hours
1. Session !earnin" Outcomes
A#ter the com"letion o# this session@ the "artici"ants .ill be able to
understand the characteristics o# the valid and reliable research tools
de#ine the "rocedure #or the construction o# di##erent research tools
construct reliable research tools #or data collection
#. $e% &once'ts and &ontent
2.1 Key Concept 1: Research Too!s for *ata Co!!ection
Tools o# research are basically used #or data collection. These tools vary #rom one
research ty"e to another. 7ualitative and =uantitative researchers use di##erent tools o#
measurement accordin( to the "ur"oses. Be#ore "roceedin( #urther@ let us loo8 at the term
FdataG and understand its a""lication in research.
/ata include
4acts and "rinci"les used in #indin( the ans.ers.
Characteristics o# "eo"le i.e. a(es and income etc.
%cores in tests and anecdotal records o# the students.
Ans.ers to =uestions .hether in =uestionnaires or in intervie.s etc.
Measures o# scales and statements o# the belie#s and o"inions.
'a.s and descri"tions o# the social setJu" in .hich the research is bein(
conducted etc.
The #ollo.in( are the most commonly used tools #or the collection o# data
7uestionnaires
Intervie.s
Observations
Tests Dachievement@ a"titude@ "ersonality@ vocational and "ersonality etc.E
28
%cales Dnominal@ ordinal@ interval@ ratio@ li8ert etc.E
2.2 Key Concept 2:The .$estionnaire
7uestionnaires are the most commonly used tool #or the collection o# data@ .hich
involve the #ollo.in( details
7uestionnaire a .ritten document based on di##erent o"en and closeJended
=uestions .ith di##erent "ur"oses@ si<es and a""earances.
It is used #or descri"tive research studies to (et in#ormation #rom the
research "artici"ants or tar(et "o"ulation.
It is used .hen the strai(ht#or.ard in#ormation is re=uired and the
res"ondents o# the study are lar(e in number.
Time and cost is involved in (ettin( the "rint and "osta(e.
Can be (rou" administered Di# the res"ondents are illiterate@ the research can
as8 the =uestions directly #rom the res"ondents and record their ans.ersE and it
can be sel#Jadministered D.hen the res"ondents themselves ans.er the
=uestionsE.
2.3 Key Concept /: The Intervie"
A less technical tool #or the collection o# data in the #orm o# #ormal
conversation i.e. in surveys.
Can be structured@ unstructured and semiJstructured
o Structured8 ti(ht control over the =uestions and ans.ers.
o -nstructured8 Intervie.ee is #ree to share his:her thou(hts and the
intervie.er can chan(e the neCt =uestion in the li(ht o# .hat has ans.ered
the intervie.ee.
o Semi@Structured8 Althou(h ti(htly controlled yet a bit o# #leCibility #or the
intervie.ee in ans.erin( the =uestions.
Can be
o #ne to #ne8 meetin( bet.een one researcher and one res"ondent.
29
o +roup &nterviews8 meetin( bet.een one researcher and more than one
res"ondent.
o 'ocus +roup8 collection o# in#ormation on nonJsensitive issues by arran(in(
a discussion o# eC"erts.
Can be conducted #ace to #ace@ or throu(h tele"honic or other electronic
sources i.e. eJmail etc.
?ote"ad@ ta"e recorder@ video recorder are the e=ui"ment used to record
and save the data.
2.4 Key Concept ': The observation
Observation is the recordin( o# the behaviour o# the sam"le.
&elies on .hat the researcher has .itnessed rather than on .hat "eo"le say
or thin8 about issues.
Observation can be o# t.o ty"es
o !artici"ant Observation 1hen you as a researcher become "art o# some
social setJu" and "eo"le 8no. that they are bein( observed.
o ?onJ"artici"ant or %ystematic Observation 1hen you do not inter#ere in
the social setJu"@ or do not disturb the natural settin(s o# the sam"le to be
observed.
Behaviour is recorded throu(h observational chec8list.
2.5 Key Concept 0: (bservationa! Check!ist
There are a lot o# techni=ues@ .hich can be used #or observin( the behavior o# the
sam"le i.e. #ield notes@ ta"e and video recordin(@ and the observation chec8lists.
Observational chec8list is "re"ared by the researcher. Observation chec8list is based on
rating scales and the codin( systems. /i##erent #orms o# ratin( scales are "resent in
observation chec8lists and you must 8no. the "ro"er codin( system. There can be di##erent
techni=ues #or "re"arin( the observation chec8list accordin( to the re=uirement o# the to"ic
and the "erce"tion o# the observer. But most observational chec8list can be based on
#ollo.in( cate(ories
30
Duration Recoring! len(th o# time involved in occurrence o# some
behaviour.
"re#uency Recoing! number o# occurrence o# behaviour.
$nterval Recoring! observation o# one subject durin( a #iCed "eriod o# time.
Continuous Recoring! each and every ha""enin( is recorded.
2.6 Key Concept 1: &ca!es
Measurement scales are used to collect the di##erent #orms o# data and =uanti#y the
res"onse o# the res"ondents to measure the variables. The ty"e o# measurement scale .ill
de"end u"on the ty"e o# data i.e. nominal@ ordinal@ interval and ratio. %cales can also be "art
o# a =uestionnaire.
D%ee *earning "aterial for Session B #or /etailsE
2.7 Key Concept 2: Tests
Test is a measurement tool@ .hich is used to measure the "er#ormance o# an
individual in some s"eci#ic areas o# interest. There are t.o main ty"es o# tests
$orm %eferenced or Standardi:ed Tests and Criterion %eferenced Tests.
In norm referenced tests@ the norms are used relatively to measure the
"er#ormance o# some individuals. ?orms are basically the standard .ith .hich
the "er#ormance is com"ared. 4ollo.in( are the most commonly used ty"es o#
norm re#erenced tests
o Achievement Tests8 to measure the "er#ormance o# an individual in
di##erent subjects .hich they have learned and inter"retin( this
"er#ormance in the #orm o# (rades to com"are .ith the "er#ormance and
learnin( o# others.
o Aptitude Tests8 to measure the "otential o# some individual in learnin(
about .hat s:he can learn not about .hat s:he has already learned.
o &ntelligence Tests8 to measure the mental abilities i.e. to analy<e the
situations@ to create meanin( and to or(ani<e the ideas and to measure the
abstract intelli(ence o# an individual.
31
o Personality Tests8 to measure the ty"e or the characteristics o# the
"ersonality and to measure the human behaviours@ their s8ills and their
needs etc.
o Bocational/Career Tests8 to measure the ability and suitability o# some
"erson in ado"tin( some "ro#ession and career.
o Sensory "otor Tests8 to measure an individualHs sensory ca"abilities and
motor abilities and to measure the sensory coordination.
Criterion %eferenced Tests
o 1hen the "er#ormance o# an individual is inter"reted on the basis o# some
criterion@ .hich is absolute@ but not the relative one is re#erred to as
criterion re#erenced test.
o Criterion is basically some s"eci#ic subject or s8ill.
o Main "ur"ose o# this test is to measure some s"eci#ic objectives@ .hich are
"reJde#ined o"erationally and behaviourally.
o Content validity o# these tests are re=uired.
o There is no restriction about the number o# individuals #allin( in "ass mar8s
criterion.
o The cut o## or the "assin( mar8s criteria is set by either the subject teacher
or by the researcher.
2.3 Constr$cting the Too!s
4ollo.in( are some common rules@ .hich are #ollo.ed in construction o# all the
tools
%election o# to"ic
Identi#ication o# the variables to be measured
Considerin( the audience
/eterminin( the objectives
Constructin( the items more than the re=uired
32
%electin( o# the most a""ro"riate items
/evelo"ment o# )eys DI# necessaryE
Assi(nin( Codes DI# necessaryE
!ilot testin( o# the tools
/eterminin( the 5alidity and the &eliability o# the tests
o %eliability8 Consistency o# the results o# the test
o Balidity8 /oes the test measure .hat it is actually su""osed to measureM
0. 2eachin" A''roaches
The content o# the session can be delivered throu(h #ollo.in( a""roaches
'ectures on the characteristics o# each tool and ho. to desi(n these tools
throu(h !o.er!oint "resentations based on im"ortant "oints
>rou" .or8 o# the "artici"ants in "er#ormin( activities
3. !earnin" Activities
The #acilitator is re=uired to "er#orm any one or t.o o# the three activities in ,4.
*earning "aterial of Session B by involvin( the "artici"ants a#ter the content is delivered.
The objective is to enable the students to .or8 on already desi(ned tools and (et a better
understandin( o# the construction o# these tools.
5. Summar% and 2ransition
Collection o# data is the most im"ortant "art o# all the studies@ .hether =ualitative or
=uantitative. /ata cannot be collected .ithout a measurement tool. I# you are usin( any
standardi<ed or "reJestablished tool@ it .ill (uide you in the "rocess o# administerin( the
tool and codin( the data. I# you are usin( the tool constructed by yoursel#@ you have to have
a thorou(h study o# the details about the tools (iven in this section. Bou have leaned about
di##erent tools@ their "ur"oses@ and their uses. It can be certainly said that all the tools are
similar to a (reat eCtent. Bou can combine t.o or more than t.o tools #or the collection o#
33
data. Bou can include di##erent scales into your =uestionnaires and intervie.s as .ell. %o i#
you are able to desi(n a (ood research tool@ you .ill collect authentic data based on it.
34
4. Assessment
The #acilitator .ill as8 the "artici"ants to do the #ollo.in( activities in the li(ht o# the
learned materials
'ist the ty"es o# measurement tools.
Com"are the use o# measurement scales.
/i##erentiate bet.een the norm re#erenced and criterion re#erenced tests.
Consult the recommended readin(s and #ind out ho. to determine the
validity and the reliability o# the tools.
35
Example of Population:
All the private schools of Rawalpindi
All the seventh grade students of Islamabad
All the primary school teachers
All the slum areas of the city
Session 9I: Selectin" Sam'les (1 hour
1. Session !earnin" Outcomes
A#ter the com"letion o# this session@ the "artici"ants .ill be able to
de#ine the "o"ulation and sam"le
di##erentiate bet.een the "robability and non "robability sam"lin(
a""ly "rocedures involved in di##erent sam"lin( techni=ues
#. $e% &once'ts and &ontent
2.1 Key Concept 1: %op$!ation
!o"ulation is a lar(e (rou" o# "eo"le@ .hich you s"eci#y to conduct the research and
to ans.er the research =uestion. !o"ulation is the area .here the results o# the study are
(enerali<ed. !o"ulation is the .hole or the entire (rou"L the research study is bein(
conducted to (et in#ormation about the "o"ulation@ .hose "ro"erties are analy<ed to #ind
the ans.er or the solution to the research =uestion and the results are dra.n #rom the
analysis. !o"ulation is re#erred to as F1holeG or FAllG.
36
Example of Sample:
Fifty students of fifth grade
Sixty primary school teachers
Hundred students studying in private school
2.2 Key Concept 2: &amp!e
%am"le is a smaller (rou"@ .hich is selected #rom the "o"ulation to be observed and
included in the research. &esults are dra.n #rom the sam"le and (enerali<ed to the entire
"o"ulation. %am"le si<e de"ends u"on the re=uirement o# the research. To (et the conce"t
o# the sam"le@ loo8 at the #ollo.in( eCam"le
2.3 4eed for &amp!ing
A =uestion may arise in your mind@ F.hy to select the sam"le i# the "o"ulation is
there to be studied and to (et in#ormationMG There can be many ans.ers to this =uestion
Im"ossibility o# studyin( each and every individual in the .hole "o"ulation.
%tudyin( the .hole "o"ulation re=uires more time and e##orts o# the
researcher.
'ar(e amount o# money is involved in studyin( the .hole "o"ulation
2.4 &teps invo!ved in &e!ecting the Appropriate &amp!e
4ollo.in( are the ste"s involved in the selection o# an a""ro"riate sam"le
/e#inin( the "o"ulation
%election o# s"eci#ied (rou" #rom "o"ulation re#erred to as accessible
"o"ulation D%al8ind@ 1003E.
%election o# the sam"le #rom that accessible "o"ulation.
2.5 Types of &amp!ing
?o. .hat .ill you do to (et a re"resentative and unbiased sam"leM %o the research
o##ers #ollo.in( t.o sam"lin( techni=ues to select the sam"le #or the study
!robability %am"lin(
?onJ!robability %am"lin(
37
2.5.1 *robabilit% sam'lin"
In "robability sam"lin(@ every individual in the "o"ulation has a nonJ<ero chance to
be included in the sam"le o# the study. It "rovides the researcher .ith a more
re"resentative sam"le@ so it is a more reliable sam"lin( "rocedure.
There are #our ty"es o# "robability sam"lin(
1. %im"le &andom %am"lin(
2. %trati#ied %am"lin(
$. Cluster %am"lin(
+. %ystematic %am"lin(
2.5.2 =on-'robabilit% sam'lin"
In non "robability sam"lin( the sam"le is not selected randomly. It is used .here the
"o"ulation is .idely s"read and it is di##icult to use any sam"lin( #rame #or such a (reat
"o"ulation.
4ollo.in( are the most commonly used techni=ues o# nonJ"robability sam"lin(
1. !ur"osive %am"lin(
2. 7uota %am"lin(
$. Convenience %am"lin(
+. %no.ball %am"lin(
D%ee *earning "aterial for Session B& #or /etailsE
0. 2eachin" A''roaches
The content in this session .ill be tau(ht throu(h the #ollo.in( a""roaches
'ectures based on !o.er!oint "resentations
>rou" .or8 based on activities a#ter the lecture
3. !earnin" Activities
A#ter the com"letion o# lecture@ the #acilitator .ill arran(e some research articles or
ta8e the "artici"ants to the library. Then the (rou"s o# +J, members .ill be #ormulated. 2
articles .ill be (iven to each (rou". The (rou" members .ill be as8ed to do the #ollo.in(
Identi#y the "o"ulation and sam"le o# the researches in article
38
_________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
I# you conduct a research and select a sam"le@ .hat .ill you use in the
#ollo.in( situationsM
o I# you use the sim"le random sam"lin(@ .hat .ill be the "rocedureM
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
o I# you use the systematic sam"lin(@ .hat .ill be the "rocedureM
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
o I# you use the cluster sam"lin(@ .hat .ill be the "rocedureM
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
o I# you use the strati#ied sam"lin(@ .hat .ill be the "rocedureM
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
&esources D%ee *earning "aterial for Session B& #or /etailsE
5. Summar% and 2ransition
&esults o# a research are (enerali<ed i# they have been ta8en #rom a re"resentative
sam"le. The .hole "rocess o# identi#yin( the "o"ulation and selectin( the sam"le #rom this
"o"ulation has been eC"lained in this section. /i##erent sam"lin( "rocedures have been
hi(hli(hted in this section. I# you a""ly these "rocedures to your o.n researches@ you .ill be
able to "roduce the authentic and more (enerali<able results #rom the sam"le o# your
research.
39
4. Assessment
Based on the .or8 done in lecture and the activities@ the assessment .ill be done
throu(h the #ollo.in( activity.
The #acilitator .ill as8 the "artici"ants to ans.er the #ollo.in( =uestions8
/i##erentiate bet.een the "o"ulation and sam"le.
Brie#ly discuss the need #or sam"lin(.
1rite do.n the "rocedure #or selectin( the a""ro"riate sam"le.
I# you conduct a research@ .hich sam"lin( ty"e you .ill use@ "robability or
non "robabilityM 1hy .ill you select this ty"e@ discussM
40
Session 9II: (ritin" a Research *ro'osal (1.5 hours
1. Session !earnin" Outcomes
A#ter the com"letion o# this session@ the "artici"ants .ill be able to
understand .hat the im"ortant com"onents o# a research "ro"osal are
.rite a research "ro"osal
#. $e% &once't and &ontent
2.1 Key Concept: Research %roposa!
1ritin( a research "ro"osal is a di##erent eC"erience than any other ty"es o# .ritin(.
It involves more clarity o# mind as .ell as a more systematic a""roach to.ards the .ritin(
"rocess itsel#. A research "ro"osal is an outline@ a s8etch@ or a blue"rint o# a buildin( that
you .ant to build. In #act you can divide your .hole research .or8 into three sta(es
%ta(e i J Thin8in( About the &esearch
%ta(e ii J !re"arin( the &esearch !ro"osal
%ta(e iii J Conductin( the &esearch
This cha"ter mainly deals .ith the #irst t.o sta(es. It addresses the issues o# thin8in(
systematically@ identi#yin( a research "roblem@ de#inin( the to"ic@ "re"arin( a title@ #ormin(
a hy"othesis@ and ma8in( research =uestions.
2.1.1 (here to start from)
/o not abru"tly start .ritin( your research "ro"osalL thin8 .ell be#ore you .rite.
Thorou(h and detailed thin8in( .ould reduce the number o# attem"ts to revise the
"ro"osal. At the PThin8in( about it %ta(eH it can be hel"#ul i# you
are inclusive .ith your thin8in(
.rite do.n your ideas
are not overly in#luenced by othersJ itHs your research
try and set a realistic (oal
set a""ro"riate time lines
41
Once you start thin8in(@ your line o# thou(ht should be in the #ollo.in( se=uence
Idea Q
To"ic Q
!roblem statement Q
2y"othesis Q
2.1.2 +efinin" the to'ic
A .ellJde#ined research to"ic (ives #ocus@ sets boundaries@ and "rovides direction. It
1. /e#ines and identi#ies the #ocus o# the research.
2. /e#ines the nature o# the research endeavourJ .hether the aim is to discover@
eC"lore@ eC"lain@ describe@ or com"are.
3. /e#ines the areas o# interestJ .hether the interest is .hy@ .hen@ .here@ .hat@
or ho..
+. Indicates i# a relationshi" is #oreseen bet.een conce"ts bein( eC"loredJ .hether
loo8in( #or im"acts@ decreases@ causes@ correlations@ etc.
2.1.3 Includin" a title on %our 'ro'osal
Title o# your research is the #irst introduction o# the reader to your .or8 .hich
im"lies it should clearly convey the intended messa(e. !re"arin( a (ood title means
havin( the most im"ortant .ords a""ear to.ard the be(innin( o# your title
limitin( the use o# ambi(uous or con#usin( .ords
loo8in( #or unnecessary .ords .hen you have too many .ords@ and
includin( 8ey .ords that .ill hel" researchers in the #uture.
2.1.4 Selection of a research 'roblem
At the outset o# your research@ ma8e sure you have identi#ied a .orth.hile "roblem
.hich has not been "reviously ans.ered. %ince research is al.ays about some "roblem:s@
identi#ication and selection o# this "roblem is most crucial in desi(nin( a research "ro"osal.
Accordin( to Tuc8man D100+E@ FAlthou(h selectin( the research "roblem is one o# the most
di##icult ste"s in the research "rocess@ it is un#ortunately the one #or .hich the least
42
(uidance can be (ivenG. 2o.ever@ Accordin( to Tuc8man D100+E@ a "roblem statement must
have the #ollo.in( characteristics
It should as8 about a relationshi" bet.een t.o or more variables.
It should be clearly and unambi(uously stated.
It should be stated in =uestion #orm Dor@ alternatively@ in the #orm o# an
im"licit =uestion such as@ the "ur"ose o# this study .as to determine
.hetherOE.
It should be testable by em"irical methodsL that is@ it should be "ossible to
collect data to ans.er the =uestionDsE as8ed.
It should not re"resent a moral or ethical "osition.
A"art #rom these (uidelines "rovided by Tuc8man D100+E@ it can also be use#ul i#
ensure that the "roblem that you have identi#ied is o# some theoretical or "ractical
si(ni#icance. It can also be hel"#ul i# #rom the .ide ran(e o# "otential "roblems #or study@ at
the initial sta(e@ you narro. the ran(e to "roblems that are relevant to your academic:
"ro#essional interest and current level o# research s8ills. 'ater on@ considerin( other #actors
such as available resources@ time etc. you can select a "roblem #or your research. Tuc8man
D100+E has "resented various models that can be hel"#ul in the selection o# a "roblemL #or
instance@ the #ollo.in( threeJdimensional model
43
2.1.5 Statement of the 'roblem: e/am'les
A "roblem can be stated in the #orm o# an eC"licit or an im"licit =uestion. 4or
eCam"le
The study eCamined .hether students tau(ht by direct method achieved hi(her
readin( scores than those tau(ht by the communicative a""roach. DIm"licit =uestionE
Or@ 1hat is the relationshi" bet.een motivation and achievementM D9C"licit
=uestionE
2.1.6 (hat is a h%'othesis)
Once you have identi#ied and stated a "roblem@ the neCt ste" is to create a
hy"othesis. !uttin( it in a sim"le .ay@ a hy"othesis is a .ise or educated (uess. It is an
assumed ans.er to the =uestion "osed in a research "roblem statement. 2o.ever@ it is only
an PassumedH ans.er or an eC"ectation that is tested in the study later on. Bou must bear in
mind that a hy"othesis di##ers #rom an observation@ .hich re"resents outcomes actually
#ound.
44
2.1.7 6o5 to form a h%'othesis)
4ocusin( on your research "roblem@ you can create the hy"othesis. %im"ly try to (ive
a direct ans.er to the =uestion "osed in the "roblem statement. 4or eCam"le
&esearch 71 1hat is the relationshi" bet.een motivation and achievementM
2y"othesis1a Motivation and achievement are "ositively related.
2o.ever@ this is not the only "ossible (uess you can ma8e. Bou may assume that
2y"othesis 1b Motivation and achievement are ne(atively related.
Thus@ a hy"othesis sho.s some D"ositive or a ne(ativeE relationshi" bet.een the
variables. As #ar as the =uestion o# structurin( a hy"othesis is concerned@ there can be
varieties o# .ays #or instance
&esearch 72 /o students learn more #rom a directive or nondirective teacherM
2y"othesis 2 /irective teachers (ive more e##ective instruction than nonJdirective
teachers.
It is also im"ortant here to introduce you to the P?ull 2y"othesisH. It is a small little
creature .ho says PI re"resent no relationshi" bet.een the variables that you are studyin(H.
9Cam"le There is no relationshi" bet.een motivation and achievement.
2.1.8 (here do h%'otheses come from)
>iven a "roblem statementJ Are A and B relatedM A researcher can construct three
"ossible hy"otheses
1. Bes@ as A increases@ so does B.
2. Bes@ as A increases@ B decreases.
$. ?o@ A and B are unrelated.
The number o# "ossible hy"otheses may "ossibly increase as the number o# variables
increases.
0. 2eachin" A''roaches
This session .ill be delivered throu(h
'ectures based on !o.er!oint "resentations .hich .ill be desi(ned on the
8ey "oints o# the content
Activity based tas8s
45
3. !earnin" Activities
To introduce ho. to .rite research "ro"osal@ the #acilitator needs to ma8e a
!o.er!oint "resentation #rom the contents@ es"ecially usin( the "oints that are
(iven in the #orm o# bullets under various headin(s in the contents.
The #acilitator .ill ta8e the "artici"ants throu(h
o Idea Q
o To"ic Q
o !roblem statement Q
o 2y"othesis
At every sta(e o# delivery@ as8 "artici"ants to "ractically do it that is as8 each
"artici"ant to choose an idea@ then to develo" a to"ic out o# it@ and #inally .rite
the "roblem statement and #inally ma8e the hy"othesis.
&esources The content .ill serve as resource.
5. Summar% and 2ransition
In this session o# the module@ you have learnt the im"ortant com"onents o# a
research "ro"osal "roblem statement@ research =uestion@ and hy"othesis.
4. Assessment
1.1 56ercise 1: &e!f Test Items
4. )hich of the following statements is phrased as a research problemC
The purpose of this study is to determine
a. .hether the "romotion "olicy should be chan(ed.
b. the truth o# the "ro"osition that American education has encoura(ed a social class
system in the Knited %tates.
c. ho. students can overcome test anCiety.
d. .hether there is a di##erence in the mean (ain scores in readin( achievement
bet.een com"arable students tau(ht .ord attac8 s8ills and those tau(ht com"rehension
s8ills.
46
2. The statement of the research problem provides
a. the educational conteCt o# the study.
b. the #rame.or8 #or re"ortin( the results.
c. the im"ortance o# the study.
d. All o# the above are correct.
=. Duantitative problem formulation requires
a. the use o# deductive lo(ic #or the "roblem.
b. selection o# a construct@ variables@ and o"erational de#initions.
c. selection o# a "o"ulation and:or sam"le.
d. All o# the above are correct.
?. Duantitative research questions may be phrased to indicate
a. a descri"tive study o# current status o# a (rou".
b. a relationshi" study "redictin( the in#luence o# one variable on another variable.
c. a com"arative study bet.een t.o or more data sets.
d. All o# the above are correct.
E. A statement of the e<pected relationship or difference between two or more
variables is called a
a. conce"t.
b. hy"othesis.
c. de#inition.
d. construct.
F. )hich is an incorrect statement regarding a research hypothesisC A research
hypothesis
a. is su""orted or not su""orted.
b. relates variables that can be measured@ mani"ulated@ or cate(ori<ed.
c. is more s"eci#ic than the "roblem statement.
d. is the same as a statistical hy"othesis.
G. )hich of the following criteria for a good research hypothesis is violated most in
the following hypothesis8 Students in an e<ploratory vocational educational program will
ma9e more contributions to society than those not enrolled in the program.
a. A hy"othesis is concise.
b. A hy"othesis is .orthy o# testin(.
47
c. A hy"othesis can be stated o"erationally.
d. A hy"othesis is lo(ically "recise.
1.2 56ercise 2: App!ication %rob!ems
Answer the questions for each research problem.
4. The following are e<amples of research topics. &ndicate the decisions necessary
in order to conduct the study/ and restate each as a useful research question.
a. e##ects o# di##erent .ays o# learnin( social studies
b. e##ects o# coo"erative versus com"etitive instruction on attitudes to.ard learnin(
c. o"inions o# "arents to.ard education
d. #amily characteristics and school attendance
e. validity o# 1I%e #or school "er#ormance
2. )rite a directional hypothesis for the following problem statement/ and identify
the type of variables in the hypothesis. H*ow@achieving students frequently respond
positively to behaviour modification programs. &s there any relationship between the type
of reward 1tangible or intangible5 and the amount of learningCH
=. State a hypothesis based on each of the research questions listed below8
a. 1hat is the e##ect o# individuali<ed and structured social studies on hi(h school
studentsM
b. Is there any di##erence in studentsA en(a(ement in tas8s .hen a teacher uses a
"ositive introduction and .hen a teacher uses a neutral introduction to tas8sM
c. /oes nonJ"romotion o# elementary "u"ils im"rove their "ersonal adjustmentM
d. /o middle school children "roduce more narratives .hen tau(ht in an academic
teacherAs class or .hen tau(ht in a co(nitiveJdevelo"ment teacherAs classM
e. /o teachersA "erce"tions o# job stress di##er amon( teachers o# mildly retarded@
moderately retarded@ and nonJretarded childrenM
48
T!"! T%!! C#$,-CT&$+ A %!S!A%C ST-,(
Session 9III: Research .thics (1 hour
1. Session !earnin" Outcomes
A#ter the com"letion o# this session@ the "artici"ants .ill be able to
understand the ethics involved in conductin( research
reco(ni<e the three research ethics concernin( the research "artici"ants
#. $e% &once't and &ontent
2.1 Key Concept: 5thics Concerning Research %articipants in the
%roced$re of *ata Co!!ection7ie!d"ork
&eco(ni<e the three main research ethics related to research "artici"ants. In
research ethics@ you have to #ollo. the a""lication o# #undamental ethical "rinci"les to a
variety o# to"ics in scienti#ic research. /i##erent disci"lines and "ro#essions have norms #or
behavior that suit their "articular aims and (oals. %ome o# the norms "romote the aims o#
research@ such as "ursuit o# 8no.led(e and truth as .ell as avoidance o# error. The research
ethics maintain "rohibitions a(ainst #abricatin(@ #alsi#yin(@ or misre"resentin( research data.
It hel"s to "romote the truth and avoids error. The ethical standards "romote the values
that are essential to collaborative .or8@ because research o#ten involves a (reat deal o#
coo"eration and coordination amon( di##erent "artici"ants@ disci"lines@ and institutions. The
ethical norms such as "atentin( "olicies@ data sharin( "olicies@ and con#identiality rules in
"eer revie. are desi(ned to "rotect intellectual "ro"erty interests .hile encoura(in(
collaboration.
2.2 Information for %articipants
In conteCt o# all research@ there is the need #or coo"eration and collaboration #rom
the "artici"ants .ho may belon( to di##erent disci"lines and institutions. The #irst and
#oremost thin( is to see8 their coo"eration. They have ri(hts and they cannot be #orced into
"artici"ation. It is their voluntary "artici"ation that is needed. This .ill only ha""en on the
assurance o# honourin( and u"holdin( their ri(hts.
49
2.3 Informed Consent
The second research ethic is to (et in#ormation #rom the "eo"le@ .ho are (oin( to be
your "artici"ants. Bou cannot .or8 .ith them unless you have their consent. Bou (et their
consent by in#ormin( them about .hat you are (oin( to do. Bou (ive this in#ormation
throu(h an in#ormed consent #orm@ .hich is on the o##icial letter "ad and carries the
#ollo.in(
the "ur"ose o# the research
.ho you are
.hat you are doin(
ho. lon( .ill the "artici"ants be involved
an o##er to .ithdra. #rom the eC"eriment at any time #or any reason
"otential bene#its to the individual as .ell as to society
"otential harm or ris8s #or discom#ort to the individual
an assurance that the results .ill be 8e"t in strict con#idence
ho. to (et a co"y o# the results
ho. can you be reached should anyone have =uestions
a "lace #or the "artici"ants to si(n to con#irm their .illin(ness
In#ormed consent #orm is to in#orm and not to #orce "eo"le into "artici"atin(.
2.4 8aintaining Confidentia!ity
The third very im"ortant research ethic is the "artici"ants ri(ht o# "rivacy throu(h
our assurance o# con#identiality. The "artici"ants need the assurance that their in#ormation
.ill not be made available to anyone .ho is not directly connected .ith the research. The
in#ormation "rovided by the "artici"ants should in no .ay reveal their identity. This means
they .ill remain anonymous throu(h out the study.
0. 2eachin" A''roaches
The research ethics .ill be tau(ht by the #ollo.in( method
'ecture .ith a !o.er!oint "resentation.
50
>rou" discussion on the three research ethics related to the "artici"ants
3. !earnin" Activities
The #acilitator .ill introduce the theme by brainstormin( the term ethics and
ho. it is bein( used in daily li#e.
4rom the res"onses@ "ic8in( out the terms that relate to research ethics.
/iscuss the im"ortance o# ethics in conductin( research.
Ma8e a conce"t ma" o# the three research ethics related to "artici"ant
in#ormation@ in#ormed consent and con#identiality
/iscuss the in#ormed consent #ormat.
%hare &esources
Online &esource &esearch Methods )no.led(e Base Online. AvailableR
htt"::....socialresearchmethods.net:8b:contents."h"
5. Summar% and 2ransition
In this session .e have discussed the im"ortance o# research ethics in all conteCt o#
research. &esearch cannot be conducted unless .e ensure collaboration and coo"eration o#
di##erent "artici"ants@ disci"lines@ and institutions. The three major ethics "rinci"les related
to "artici"ants in#ormation@ in#ormed consent and con#identiality .ere addressed
s"eci#ically.
4. Assessment
Answer the following questions8
1. 2o. do you observe ethics in your day to day interaction .ith your collea(uesM
2. Bou .ant to (et in#ormation on the students o# your class throu(h a survey o#
their "arentsH bac8(round and socio economic status. 2o. .ill you (et this
in#ormationM 1hat research ethics related to the "artici"ants .ill you address
and ho. .ill you deal .ith itM
51
Session I> *rocessin" and Anal%?in" +ata (# hours
1. Session !earnin" Outcomes
A#ter the com"letion o# this session@ the "artici"ants .ill be able to
understand the conce"ts o# descri"tive and in#erential statistics
di##erentiate bet.een the =ualitative and =uantitative research
a""ly sim"le "rocedures o# descri"tive statistics to a data set
#. $e% &once'ts and &ontent
2.1 Key Concept 1: *ata Ana!ysis
A#ter the data is collected #rom the "artici"ants o# the research@ there is the need to
or(ani<e and analy<e data into a meanin(#ul #orm to (enerate results. 7ualitative and
=uantitative studies #ollo. di##erent "rocedures #or the analysis o# data.
2.2 Key Concept 2: .$antitative and .$a!itative Research
7uantitative research deals .ith the numbers and the =ualitative research deals
.ith the teCt. Althou(h the =ualitative and the =uantitative studies share some common
#eature@ they di##er in #ollo.in( .ays
52
Duantitative Dualitative
Measures the 7uantity
/eals .ith the numbers
Can be conducted in short time
s"an
More Objectivity
Can be restricted to limited
variables
%am"le is selected randomly
&esearcher has control over the
variables
&esults are in#erred throu(h
hy"othesis testin(
Measures the 7uality
/eals .ith the teCt@ codin( and
(eneratin( the meanin( #rom the
teCt
9Ctended over lon( "eriod o# time
More %ubjectivity
Involves many variables
!ur"osive sam"lin(
&esearcher does not have control
over variables
&esults are based on
inter"retation o# the researcher
2./ Key Concept /: &tatistica! Ana!ysis
The "rocess o# com"ilation and inter"retation o# =uantitative data is called statistical
analysis. There are many "rocedures involved in statistical analysis but the most commonly
used "rocedures are
/escri"tive %tatistics
In#erential %tatistics
2.4 Key Concept ': *escriptive &tatistics
/escri"tive statistics involve such "rocedures that are used to describe the data
meanin(#ully and summari<e it. The #ollo.in( t.o ty"es o# data are analy<ed throu(h
descri"tive statistics
Cate(orical /ata
?umerical /ata
53
2.5 Key Concept 0: Categorica! *ata
Cate(orical data involves cate(ories or (rou"s.
These can be made .ithout the #ear o# their order to be disturbed i.e. seC@
a(e@ marital status.
It covers the #ollo.in( to"ics
o 4re=uency /istribution
o >ra"hs
2.6 Key Concept 1: re9$ency *istrib$tion
It is used to hi(hli(ht the number or #re=uency o# the occurrence o# variables. 'oo8
at the #ollo.in( eCam"le o# #re=uency distribution
54
!<ample
Ma8e a #re=uency distribution #rom these observations
*,@ 0-@ ,,@ *2@ 30@ ,0@ ,1@ 06@ 32@ ,*@ 36@ *2@ **@ -6@ 0+@ 30@ *$@ 3$@ 31@ -+
Steps in %aking a &re#uency istribution!
1. Arran(e the observations in ascendin( order
,1@ ,,@ ,*@ ,0@ *2@ *2@ *$@ *,@ **@ 36@ 31@ 32@ 3$@ 30@ 30@ -6@ -+@ 06@ 0+@ 0-
2. 9stimate F) Dnumber o# classesEG
$. ) S 2 Di# F)G raise to the "o.erE Tn
+. %o the number o# classes .ill be , #or eCam"le is F,G is raised to the
"o.er o# 2@ it .ill be D2C2C2C2C2E S $2 .hich is T number o# the
observations. I# the number o# the classes are ,6@ ) .ill be * as
D2C2C2C2C2C2E S *+ .hich is (reater than ,6 Dtotal number o# classesE
,. /etermine the si<e o# the classes Dho. many numbers .ill be "resent in
one classE. It .ill be done accordin( to the #ormula .hich is DmaCimum
numberJminimum number:no. o# classesE
D0-J,1:, S 0E. 9ach class .ill be com"rises o# F0G items
*. %o there .ill be F,G classes based on F0G items
'requency ,istribution of the mar9s of the F
th
grade students in Science
Classes 'requency 1f5
,1J,0 IIII +
*6J*- IIII ,
*0J33 IIII +
3-J-* IIII +
-3J0, II 2
0*J16+ I 1
Total 23
2.7 Key Concept 2: :raphs
A "ercenta(e is the absolute #i(ure re=uired to inter"ret the data. >ra"hs are used
.hen a lar(e number o# data is "resented. 4ollo.in( are the im"ortant ty"es o# (ra"hs i.e.
"ie charts@ bar charts and line (ra"h etc
2.7.1 *ie charts
!ie chart is a circular sha"e@ "resentin( di##erent "ercenta(es. It is also 8no.n as the
sector (ra"h.
!<ample8
Percentage of Marks Obtained by a
Student in Diffrent Subjects
20!
2"!
#0
20!
Science
Mat$s
Englis$
Social Stdies
2.7.2 7ar chart
Bar chart is a most commonly used ty"e o# (ra"hs@ in bar chart@ the reader can have
a =uic8 overvie. o# the data. The data is "resented in the #orm o# "ercenta(es. Bou can "ut
one variable on the CJaCis or the hori<ontal aCis and the other on yJaCis or the vertical aCis.
55
!<ample8
0
20
!0
%0
&0
'00
Percentag
es
200! 200( 200%
)ears
*omparison of +,o -alues in +$ree
)ears
-lue '
-alue 2
2.7.3 !ine "ra'h
'ine (ra"hs are used to com"are the t.o or more variables. They have t.o aCes
F; aCis@ .hich is hori<ontalG and FB aCis@ .hich is verticalG. I# you .ant to sho. the
"er#ormance o# a student at di##erent times@ you .ill .rite the time on CJaCis and the
"ercenta(e on yJaCis.
!<ample8
0
20
!0
%0
&0
'00
'20
'!0
'%0
'&0
2000 200' 2002 200.
-ariable .
-ariable 2
-ariable '
2.8 Key Concept 3: 4$merica! *ata
?umerical data involves the numbers and it covers the #ollo.in( cate(ories
1. Measures o# Central Tendency
2. Measures o# /is"ersion
$. ?ormal Curve
+. Measures o# &elationshi"
,. Measures o# &elative !osition
D%ee *earning "aterial for Session &I #or /etailsE
56
2.9 Key Concept ;: Inferentia! &tatistics
The in#erential statistics in#er or conclude somethin( throu(h the behaviour o# the
sam"le .hich can be (enerali<ed #or the entire "o"ulation. The in#erential statistics deal
.ith the #ollo.in( to"ics
%tandard 9rror
The ?ull 2y"othesis
The &esearch 2y"othesis
Test o# %i(ni#icance
Ty"e I U Ty"e II 9rrors
'evel o# %i(ni#icance
T.o Tailed and One Tailed Tests
/e(ree o# 4reedom
D%ee *earning "aterial for Session &I #or /etailsE
0. 2eachin" A''roaches
The content o# this session com"rises statistical measures@ so the #ollo.in( teachin(
a""roaches .ill be used #or the delivery o# this content
The #acilitator .ill #irst clari#y the conce"ts o# the "artici"ants throu(h
lecturin( the di##erences bet.een descri"tive and in#erential statistics.
!o.er!oint "resentation can be desi(ned by hi(hli(htin( the main "oints.
The #acilitator .ill use the "rocedures #or descri"tive data analysis .ith the
hel" o# (iven eCam"les in the content or by consultin( the material in a""endiC
The #acilitator .ill en(a(e "artici"ants in activity based (rou" .or8.
57
3. !earnin" Activities
4.1 Activity (b)ective
To enable the "artici"ants to a""ly the 8no.led(e about data analysis
'.2 Activity
A#ter the .hole content is delivered throu(h the lecture@ the #acilitator .ill arran(e a
#e. research articles. Then the (rou"s o# the "artici"ants .ill be #ormed. Articles .ill be
(iven to the "artici"ants and they .ill be as8ed to identi#y the #ollo.in( #rom research
articles
The null hy"othesis
The research hy"othesis
1hich ty"e o# data analysis is usedM
1hat is the total number o# sam"leM
2i(hli(ht the conclusion o# the study about the acce"tance or rejection o#
hy"othesis.
%hare the #indin(s .ith other (rou"s
5. Summar% and 2ransition
&esults o# the research let the researcher 8no. .hether the hy"othesis o# the study
is acce"ted or not and .hich variable is a##ectin( the other. I# the data is used just to
describe the res"onses o# the sam"le@ it comes under the descri"tive statisticsL i# it is #urther
used to dra. conclusions about the "o"ulation it comes under in#erential statistics. Both
the descri"tive and the in#erential statistics o##er alternatives to the researcher to analyse
the results and to dra. conclusions. These #urther hel" the researcher to certainly conclude
that to .hich eCtent the results are si(ni#icant. The session and the learnin( material .ill
hel" you #urther clari#y your conce"ts in a "ractical .ay.
58
4. Assessment
The #acilitator .ill as8 the "artici"ants to do the #ollo.in( activity #or assessment
Answer the following questions8
1. 1hat is descri"tive statisticsM
2. 1hat are the im"ortant ty"es o# cate(orical dataM
$. 1hat are the im"ortant ty"es o# numerical dataM
+. 1hat is the di##erence bet.een the descri"tive and in#erential statisticsM
59
Session >: *rocessin" and Anal%?in" @ualitative +ata (1.5
hour
1. Session !earnin" Outcomes
A#ter the com"letion o# this session@ the "artici"ants .ill be able to
understand the =ualitative data analysis "rocess
use the com"uter in analy<in( the data
#. $e% &once't and &ontent
2.1 Key Concept: .$a!itative *ata Ana!ysis
4ollo.in( are the most commonly used methods #or data collection in =ualitative
studies
9thno(ra"hy
Case %tudies
/ocument or Content Analysis
?aturalistic Observation
4ocused Intervie.
!henomenolo(ical %tudies
>rounded Theory
Analy<in( =ualitative data involves the codin( o# the data and "roduction o# a
coherent verbal synthesis in the #orm descri"tion. 7ualitative data analysis involves the
#ollo.in( sta(es
2.1.1 Observin" the data or noticin"
1ritin( about ha""enin(s
Ta8in( notes
&ecordin( intervie.s
>atherin( documents and readin(
60
Codin( di##erent observations a#ter a dee" study o# all the collected material.
2.4.2 &lassification of the +ata
%electin( the most a""ro"riate material
%ortin( out the connection bet.een #acts
Com"arin( and contrastin( ideas
2.4.= Anal%?in" the +ata
Thin8in( about the /ata and #ocusin( on the research =uestion
Mana(in( the data
Cate(ori<in( the data
%ynthesi<in( Ma8in( connections .ithin the cate(ories and across the
cate(ories
'in8in( the ideas
Ma8in( sense o# each cate(ory
In#errin( the meanin(s
Inter"retin( the meanin(s and ma8in( the discovery about the research
=uestion.
2.1.+ Methods for 1ualitative anal%sis
4ollo.in( are the most commonly used methods #or =ualitative analysis
Typology V a system #or classi#ication or cate(ori<ation o# the data
Ta<onomyJ a system o# classi#ication or cate(ori<ation as ty"olo(y but it
involves hi(her and lo.er levels
Constant Comparison/+rounded TheoryJ dee"ly studyin( the collected data@
codin( the data and #indin( the di##erences and similarities amon( the codes
DCodin( can be done .ith the hel" o# the com"uterE
61
Analytic &nductionJ Ksin( inductive a""roach@ com"are the (athered
material@ and com"are it .ith the hy"othesis. I# it #its the hy"othesis@ acce"t it
other.ise revise the hy"othesis.
*ogical Analysis/"atri< Analysis >ivin( lo(ical reasonin( to "resent some
conce"ts. In#ormation and the conce"ts can be visuali<ed also.
Duasi@statistics In observation chec8lists or the #ield notes@ countin( the
number o# occurrence o# some variable or ma8in( its #re=uency.
!vent Analysis/"icroanalysis Analysin( the events by se"aratin( di##erent
events #rom one another.
"etaphorical Analysis Ksin( meta"hors to analyse the observed #acts and
#indin( the similarities bet.een them. Try on various meta"hors and see ho.
.ell they #it .hat is observed.
,omain Analysis Inter"retation and analysis o# social situations to #ind out
semantic relationshi" amon( entities.
ermeneutical Analysis Ma8in( meanin(s and inter"retations #rom the
.ritten teCt not in its real meanin(s but ho. "eo"le "erceive it in some
situation.
,iscourse Analysis /oin( lin(uistic analysis o# the situation not by some
individual but amon( di##erent "eo"le .ithin a #lo. o# communication.
Semiotics 4indin( out the meanin(s #rom the lan(ua(e o# si(ns and symbols.
,ocument/Content Analysis &eadin( the .ritten materials or the
documents to #ind out the meanin( and inter"ret them.
Phenomenology/euristic Analysis Analysin( the individual eC"eriences not
the shared one.
2.2 The <se of Comp$ter soft"are in *ata Ana!ysis
#.#.1 Ase of S*SS
62
%tatistical !ac8a(e #or %ocial %ciences D%!%%E is so#t.are@ .hich "rovides a .ide ran(e
o# statistical analysis a""lications to its user. Any ty"e o# =uantitative and =ualitative
analysis can be done throu(h this so#t.are.
4or =uantitative researches@ it o##ers the #ollo.in( statistical analyses techni=ues
ChiJ%=uare test
TJtest
%"earman and !earson Correlation
OneJ.ay A?O5A D'essons attached in A""endiCE
4or =ualitative research@ com"uter does not "er#orm the conce"tual tas8s such as
synthesi<in( ideas@ analy<in(@ and testin( hy"othesis@ but it "er#orms mechanical tas8s as
#ollo.s
As8%am
?K/WI%T
D%ee *earning "aterial for Session I #or /etailsE
0. 2eachin" A''roaches
The session content .ill be delivered throu(h
'ecture based on !o.er!oint "resentations .hich com"rise the main "oints
Com"uter based activities usin( %!%%
3. !earnin" Activities
'.1 Activity (b)ective
To enable the "artici"ants to a""ly the 8no.led(e learned in the session "ractically.
'.2 Activity 1
A#ter the lecture@ the #acilitator .ill arran(e some research articles based on
=ualitative research and as8 the "artici"ants to do the #ollo.in(
&dentify from the article8
Issues about .hich the research is conducted.
63
_________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
Methods o# the data collection.
_________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
Techni=ues #or the data analysis .hich have been used in that research.
_________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
'./ Activity 2
The #acilitator .ill ta8e the "artici"ants to com"uter lab and use the com"uter #or
data analysis .ith the hel" o# the material (iven in the learnin( material.
5. Summar% and 2ransition
In this session you have learned about the "rocedure #or =ualitative data analysis.
This material o"ens a ne. .ay #or you to consult more readin(s and boo8s to (et eC"ertise
in =ualitative data analysis. In modern times@ the com"uter is #acilitatin( the researcher and
ma8es it easy to analyse the data usin( di##erent ty"es o# so#t.are. This introductory
material can hel" you in learnin( dee"er conce"ts o# data analysis.
4. Assessment
The assessment o# this session .ill be based on "artici"antsH "er#ormance o# assi(ned tas8s
on com"uter.
64
T!"! '#-% %!S!A%C )%&T&$+
Session >I: Academic Research (ritin" (1.5 hours
1. Session !earnin" Outcomes
A#ter the com"letion o# this session@ the "artici"ants .ill be able to
understand the issues o# intellectual "ro"erty
document your research
#. $e% &once'ts and &ontent
2.1 5thica! Iss$es Concerning Research -riting: -hat Constit$tes
Inte!!ect$a! %roperty=
In the research ethics@ you have to #ollo. the a""lication o# #undamental ethical
"rinci"les to a variety o# to"ics includin( a scienti#ic research. /i##erent disci"lines and
"ro#essions have norms #or behaviour that suit their "articular aims and (oals. %ome o# the
norms "romote the aims o# research@ such as 8no.led(e@ truth@ and avoidance o# error. The
research ethics maintain "rohibitions a(ainst #abricatin(@ #alsi#yin(@ or misre"resentin(
research data. It hel"s to "romote the truth and avoids error. The ethical standards "romote
the values that are essential to collaborative .or8@ because research o#ten involves a (reat
deal o# coo"eration and coordination amon( di##erent disci"line and institutions. The ethical
norms such as "atentin( "olicies@ data sharin( "olicies@ and con#identiality rules in "eer
revie. are desi(ned to "rotect intellectual "ro"erty interests .hile encoura(in(
collaboration
2.1.1 7ey Concept 48 Plagiarism
!la(iarism re#ers to co"yin( otherHs .or8. !la(iarism is an act o# #raud. It includes
stealin( and "assin( o## others ideas and .ords as your o.nL
usin( otherHs "roduction .ithout creditin( the sourceL or
(ivin( incorrect in#ormation about the source o# a =uotation.
4ollo.in( are some o# the .ays o# "la(iarism
65
/eliberate miscues "rovidin( inaccurate in#ormation re(ardin( the sources
ma8in( it im"ossible to #ind them.
Accidental "la(iarism .here students do not understand .hat document is
and ho. to do it
Intentional "la(iarism i.e.@ cuttin(:"astin(@ or "resentin( otherHs .or8 as
their o.n.
2.1.2 ow to avoid plagiarismC
Most cases o# "la(iarism can be avoided by
citin( the "ro"er sources and ac8no.led(in( the ori(inal material.
"rovidin( the sustainable model develo"ed by the institutions in order to
detect and "revent "la(iarism.
teachin( students about "la(iarism and ho. to avoid it hel"s to minimi<e
"la(iarism.
creatin( a culture o# research rather than detectin( and "unishin( #or
"la(iarism.
introducin( la.s a(ainst "la(iarism.
66
Activities
2.1.$ 7ey Concept 28 !thics of research
A #e. other research ethics are described belo.
'onesty! It includes re"ortin( o# the data@ results@ methods@ "rocedures and
"ublication o# data.
(b)ectivity! It strives to avoid bias in eC"erimental desi(n@ data analysis and
inter"retation@ "eer revie.@ "ersonal decisions@ (rant .ritin( and eC"ert testimony etc.
Care&ulness! It is im"ortant to avoid careless errors and ne(li(ence and to critically
and care#ully eCamine the research .or8.
2.1.+ 7ey Concept =8 &ntellectual property rights
2onor "atents@ co"yri(hts@ and other #orms o# intellectual "ro"erty. /o not use
un"ublished data@ method or results .ithout "ermission. >ive "ro"er ac8no.led(ement.
67
!rovide instruction and resources that teach students the s8ills o#
"ara"hrasin(@ summari<in(@ critical analysis@ etc.
/irect students to re#erence and (uidelines relevant to their area o#
research.
Ma8e the tas8 so s"eci#ic that students are unable to sim"ly do.nload
#rom the .eb@ or co"y #rom the boo8.
As8 students to relate "articular theories@ conce"ts@ issues in current
ne.s"a"er articles.
>et students to inte(rate theory and eC"erience De.(.@ #ield tri"s@
"racticum@ and re#lective .ritin(sE.
Critically analyse the (iven articles.
As8 students to re(ularly hand in sam"les o# their classroom notes and
use these to (ive them #eedbac8 on their identi#ication o# 8ey issues and
their inte(ration o# these into their .or8.
As8 students to 8ee" a lo(boo8 o# their learnin( throu(hout the
"roject:thesis.
2.2 Referencing
Bou have learned ho. to conduct the research. ?o. you are at a sta(e to "resent
your research. This section o# the module is based on .ritin( o# research re"ort and the
essentials o# a (ood research re"ort.
2.3 *oc$menting Research
Once your research "ro"osal has been a""roved and you have started doin( the
"ractical research@ the =uestion o# documentin( or .ritin( it starts a""earin( as a threat.
1ritin( o# academic research demands a lot o# home.or8. 1ithout ensurin( the availability
o# re=uired materials@ teCts@ data etc.@ i# you .ould "lun(e into the dee" sea o# academic
research .ritin(@ your survival .ould be =uite doubt#ul. %o@ to learn a #e. s.immin( stro8es
be#ore "lun(in( into the sea is a (ood idea. 2o.ever@ you also need to be care#ul about
.hat Bod(an and Bi8len D10-2E assert
?ovice .riters are bi( "rocrastinators. They #ind countless reasons not to (et
started. 9ven .hen they #inally (et themselves seated at their des8s@ they al.ays
seem to #ind diversions ma8e the co##ee@ shar"en the "encil@ (o to the bathroom@
thumb throu(h more literature@ sometimes even (et u" and return to the #ield.
&emember that you are never PreadyH to .riteL .ritin( is somethin( you must ma8e
conscious decision to do and then disci"line yoursel# to #ollo. throu(h.
DBod(an and Bi8len@ 10-2 132E
1hen you sit to start .ritin( an academic research .or8@ remind yoursel# that unli8e
in creative .ritin(@ you cannot enjoy the #reedom o# ma8in( "artial jud(ments@ "assin(
subjective comments@ (ivin( s.ee"in(@ and (enerali<ed statements. Academic research
.ritin( is a very methodical and controlled "rocess. It involves more clarity o# mind as .ell
as a more systematic a""roach to.ards the .ritin( "rocess itsel#. As an academic research
.riter you need to be conscious and cautious that
1. Bou are systematic
2. Bou are lo(ical
$. Bou authenticate .hat you say
+. Bou synthesi<e materials@ citations@ eCam"les etc.
68
&esearch .ritin(@ be it a re"ort or a dissertation@ calls #or sel#J disci"line and sel#J
control. Accordin( to Bell D1000 "100J266E it .ill be crucial #or you as an academic research
.riter to
%et deadlines
1rite re(ularly
Create a rhythm o# .or8
1rite u" a section as soon as it is ready
%to" at a "oint #rom .hich it is easy to resume .ritin(
'eave s"ace #or revisions
!ublici<e your "lans
2.4 &tandard Report ormat
There can be sli(ht variations as "er institutional needs@ or as "er #ield or area o#
research@ ho.ever@ (enerally and broadly s"ea8in( you .ould #ollo. the same outline and
#ormat. 4ollo.in( is a (eneral basic #ormat #or the .ritin( o# academic research
48 &ntroduction
1.1 Bac8(round
1.2 Identi#ication o# the !roblem: &esearch !roblem
1.$ %i(ni#icance o# the &esearch
1.+ 2y"othesis
1., Aims : Objectives
1.* /elimitation
1.*.1 %co"e:&an(e in Time and %"ace
1.*.2 !o"ulation:%am"le
1.*.$ A %"eci#ic Class@ >rou"@ >ender@ A(e etc.
28 *iterature %eview
=8 %esearch "ethodology
$.1 !o"ulation and %am"le
$.2 Instruments o# /ata Collection
Tests: 7uestionnaires: Intervie.s etc.
69
?8 ,ata Presentation and Analysis
+.1 !resentation and analysis
+.2 Tabulation etc.
E8 Conclusion
,.1 %u((estions
,.2 &ecommendations
,.$ 'esson !lans
,.+ Other Alternatives
F8 %eferences and Bibliography
D?ote A"art #rom these sections:cha"ters@ at the out set o# your .or8 you .ould
(ive the Title Page/ Ac9nowledgements/ Contents/ and Abstract.E
2.?.4 &ntroduction
The introduction section is im"ortant as it "rovides the reader o# your research .ith
the basic in#ormation about your research .or8. It serves as an under"innin( #or the .hole
.or8. Clarity o# thou(ht should be clearly re#lected at this sta(e throu(h the "roblem
statement@ research =uestion:s@ hy"othesis@ and aims and "ur"ose o# the study. /o not
#or(et to dra. attention to any limitations o# your study at this sta(e. It is not "ossible that a
small study .ould cover everythin(L so it is better to ma8e the reader conscious o# this #act.
2.+.2 *iterature review
Ma8e sure your "ro"osal has a com"rehensive revie. o# the literature included. %ee
the session on F'iterature &evie.G #or (uidance. I# .hile readin( the material@ you have
sorted it out and recorded under various headin(s@ at the .ritin( sta(e@ you .ill be able to
.or8 #aster and better.
2.+.$ %esearch methodology
This section eC"lains ho. the "roblem .as investi(ated and .hy "articular methods
and techni=ues .ere used. The "o"ulation and sam"le o# the research should be clearly
stated. Choice o# variables should be mani#est. Instruments o# data collection such as tests:
=uestionnaires: intervie.s etc. should be mentioned. Also@ the reason and justi#ication #or
choosin( these instruments should be (iven. All im"ortant terms used in the research .or8
should be de#ined "recisely at this sta(e.
70
It is im"ortant to "rovide a com"lete list o# every source that you have used in you
research. It "rovides the in#ormation necessary #or a reader to locate and retrieve any
sources cited in your research. Kse o# re#erences allo.s readers to crossJre#erence your
sources easily@ and it "rovides a consistent #ormat to .ritin(. It also (ives you credibility as
a .riter@ and "rotects you #rom "la(iarism. CrossJre#erencin( allo.s the readers to locate
the "ublication in#ormation o# source material. This is o# (reat value #or researchers .ho
may .ant to locate your sources #or their o.n research "rojects. Kse a consistent #ormat o#
citations and re#erencin(. Ksin( a consistent #ormat hel"s your reader understand your
ar(uments and the sources theyHre built on. It also hel"s you 8ee" trac8 o# your sources as
you build ar(uments.
2.+.+ ,ata presentation and analysis
4or (uidance see the section on P/ata AnalysisH.
2.?.E Conclusion
The conclusion o# your research deals .ith the summary o# #indin(s o# your research.
I# the nature o# the research re=uires any su((estions@ recommendations@ lesson "lans etc.
you can (ive at this sta(e.
2.?.F Bibliography
The "ur"ose o# a biblio(ra"hy is to authenticate your .or8. Bou should be clear
about the di##erence in
9ndnotes
&e#erences
Biblio(ra"hy
Also ma8e yoursel# #amiliar to .hat are di##erent styles o# citation and re#erences.
The most common ones are
A!A DAmerican !sycholo(ists AssociationE
M'A DModern lan(ua(es AssociationE
2.?.G %eferencing
There are #ormal acce"ted .ays o# re#erencin(@ such as the A!A 4ormat o#
&e#erencin(. 9Cam"les o# ho. to use A!A #ormat are as #ollo.s
71
Book re&erence
&osenthal@ &. D10-3E Meta-analytic procedures for social research. ?e. Bor8
Mc>ra.J2ill.
Article re&erence
Mellers@ B.A. D2666E Choice and the relative "leasure o# conse=uences. Psycholoical
!ulletin@ "2#@ 016J02+.
Daily newspaper article
%ch.art<@ N. D100$@ %e"tember $6E Obesity a##ects economic@ social status. $he
%ashinton Post@ ". A1@ A+.
Encyclopaeia or ictionary
%adie@ %. D9d.E D10-6E $he ne& 'ro(e dictionary of )usic and )usicians D*th ed.@ 5ols.
1J26E. 'ondon Macmillan
Re&erence &ro% book reviews
)raus@ %. N. D1002E 5isions o# "sycholo(y A video o# classic studies X&evie. o# the
motion "icture /iscoverin( !sycholo(yY. *onte)porary Psycholoy, +,@ 11+*J
11+3.
Motion picture
%corese@ M. D!roducerE@ U 'on(ern@ ). D1riter:/irectorE D2666E
Bou can count on me Xmotion "ictureY Knited %tates !aramount !ictures.
Re&erence &ro% $nternet
4redric8son@ B. '. D2666@ March 3E Cultivatin( "ositive emotions to o"timi<e health
and .ellJbein(. &etrieved ?ovember 26@ 2666 #rom htt":: journals. A"a.
Or(: "revention:volume$:"re66$6661a.html
D?ote 4or #urther clarity consult A!A ,
th
9ditionE.
2.0 Academic -riting for other %$rposes
Material is "rovided in the *earning "aterial for Session I& and can be used i#
re=uired. DO"tionalE
72
0. 2eachin" A''roaches
The content o# this session .ill be delivered throu(h
'ectures based on !o.er!oint "resentations hi(hli(htin( the main "oints o#
.ritin( the research
!artici"ant discussions
3. !earnin" Activities
'.1 Activity
/eliver the lecture #irst. Almost all the content need to be shi#ted to the !o.er!oint.
%"ecially@ the "arts o# contents that are (iven in bullets are to be used on !o.er!oint. The
#acilitator .ould (enerate discussions based on these contents.
A#ter the lecture@ (ive the "artici"ants an activity. To "ractice in AinJteCt citationA and
Are#erence .ritin(A, "rovide the "artici"ants some boo8s@ journals, and ma(a<ines. As8
them to cite one direct and one indirect =uote #rom them. Then as8 them to .rite re#erence
o# the source.
'.2 Reso$rces
D%ee *earning "aterial for Session I& #or /etailsE
The content .ill serve as resources
5. Summar% and 2ransition
This session "rovides you an introductory material on research .ritin(. Bou can
consult some other boo8s or .ritin( material to have a more clear idea about some other
#orms o# academic .ritin( as this material "rovides you a basis #or attainin( #urther
8no.led(e.
73
4. Assessment
1.1 56ercise 1
1rite re#erences #ollo.in( A!A: M'A or any other authentic standard re#erence
#ormat.
48
)riter@ %"it<er@ '.@
(ear of publicationJ2666@
Chapter@ The Individual 4actors in 'in(uistic Innovations@
Boo9@ &outled(e 'an(ua(e and Culture Theory &eader
!ditor@ '. Bur8e@ T. Cro.ley@ and A. >irvin@
Press@ &outled(e@
Place@ 'ondon.
28
)riter@ %"ols8y@ B.
(ear of publicationJ100-@
Boo9@ -ociolinuistics
Press@ OC#ord Kniversity !ress
Place@ OC#ord@
=8
)riter@ &ichards@ Nac8. C.
(ear of publication 103+
Boo9@ .rror /nalysis: Perspecti(es on -econd Lanuae /c0uisition
Press@ 'on(man
Place@ 'ondon
6.2 56ercise 2
D 48 2o. .ould you .rite the re#erence o# the material that you have ta8en #rom
televisionM >ive one eCam"le accordin( to M'A #ormat.
D 28 2o. .ould you .rite the re#erence o# the material you have ta8en #rom an
un"ublished thesisM >ive one eCam"le accordin( to the A!A #ormat.
74
T!"! '&B! S-P!%B&S&$+ ACA,!"&C %!S!A%C
Session >II: Academic Su'ervision (1.5 hour
1. Session !earnin" Outcomes
A#ter the com"letion o# this session@ the "artici"ants .ill be able to
"er#orm your role as a su"ervisor at three sta(es be#ore the research@ durin(
the research and the .ritin( sta(e.
sensiti<e the su"ervisees to the eC"ected role.
#. $e% &once'ts and &ontent
>enerally@ the hi(her education institutions are en(a(ed in "er#ormin( three
#unctions teachin(@ research and administration. &ecently .ith the stron( "ush o# the
2i(her 9ducation Commission a lot o# universities and /e(ree A.ardin( Colle(es in !a8istan
have made research a mandatory "art o# =uali#yin( #or a de(ree at both the under(raduate
and (raduate level. A research culture is be(innin( to evolve amon( academic community.
This has (iven rise to a number o# =ueries and =uandaries about the "rocess o# su"ervision
and the roles o# the su"ervisor and su"ervisee. This "art o# the module .ill deal .ith these
issues. 1e .ill also brie#ly discuss the "lace o# research in oneHs o.n career.
2.1 Key Concept 1: the Ro!e of the &$pervisor
Most su"ervisors learn ho. to su"ervise by trial and error. %ometimes the junior
#aculty (ets the o""ortunity to observe the senior #aculty and they can be ta8en as
a""rentices in joint su"ervision arran(ements. This hel"s the junior #aculty to learn the rules
o# the (ame be#ore bein( thro.n into the dee" end. %ome institutions are #ollo.in( these
"ractices. This intellectual su""ort can create a critical mass o# researchers .ho can ably
su"ervise valuable research.
The role o# the su"ervisor can be divided into three sta(es
1. %election o# the to"ic Dbe#ore the research has be(unE
2. /urin( the research
$. At the .ritin( sta(e
?o. .e .ill discuss each in some detail.
75
#.1.1 Selection of the to'ic
The im"ortance o# a suitable research to"ic #or the timely and success#ul com"letion
o# research thesis is sel#Jevident. The su"ervisors can (uide the students in choosin( a to"ic
by
/iscussin( .ith the students areas o# (eneral interest.
As8in( the students to read theses and dissertations in the #ield to (et ideas.
As8in( students to read articles in journals and boo8s and boo8 revie.s.
It is recommended that a to"ic be selected a#ter ne(otiation and interaction
bet.een the su"ervisor and the student@ based on the interest o# the student and eC"ertise
o# the su"ervisor.
Be#ore the to"ic is #inali<ed the su"ervisors need to consider the #easibility o# the
com"letion o# the research in the (iven time #rame. They need to ensure that ade=uate
resources are available and the student can access them #or carryin( out the research.
%tudents need to 8no. i# any ethical issues are involved and i# they need to (et clearance
#rom the relevant authorities:bodies to collect data. %u"ervisors can #acilitate them in
(ettin( institutional su""ort #or this "ur"ose.
The su"ervisors should discuss .ith the students the value o# the research@ .hether
the #indin(s .ill eCtend the 8no.led(e in the #ield or have "ractical im"lications. The sco"e
o# the research should also be considered in terms o# its suitability #or the de(ree. DMoses@
100,E
%ometimes the research to"ic re=uires the students to learn some s"ecial s8ills li8e
learnin( to .or8 .ith a ne. so#t.are or lan(ua(e. The su"ervisors should ta8e account o#
these "reJre=uisites and consider i# this is "ossible in the (iven time #rame. The enthusiasm
o# the student cannot overcome the time constraint.
#.1.# +urin" the Research
The su"ervisor should (uide the student in choosin( a theoretical #rame o# re#erence
that is most a""ro"riate. %ometimes this re=uires actin( just as a soundin( board and
sometimes a (entle nud(e is needed to move the student in a "articular direction. The
ra""ort bet.een the su"ervisor and the student can hel" in determinin( .hat strate(y is
76
re=uired at .hat time. %u"ervisors can re#er the students to relevant sources includin(
"eo"le.
A structured "ro(ram o# "ro(ress needs to be maintained. This is to oversee i#
deadlines are bein( met and the time mana(ement is satis#actory. Initially a .ee8ly meetin(
o# hal# an hour at under(raduate and (raduate level research is ade=uate. This #re=uency
can be reduced as students (ain con#idence in doin( their .or8. 2o.ever@ a #ortni(htly
meetin( is still advisable to maintain a smooth "ace. The su"ervisor should "rovide timely
in#ormation to the student i# a scheduled meetin( is to be "ost"oned@ delayed or cancelled.
The ne. meetin( schedule should be ne(otiated eC"licitly. This structured meetin( "attern
.ould #acilitate both the su"ervisor and the student. This does not mean that the
su"ervisors should not be available #or the students #or "roblemJsolvin( at other times.
They should be (enerally available #or brie# sessions but have a contract #or detailed
meetin(s. ?o.adays the email is one mode o# communication that "rovides ready access.
This may be used i# #ace to #ace im"rom"tu meetin(s are di##icult to mana(e. %ome sort o#
notes should be maintained o# each meetin(.
%u"ervisors should (uard a(ainst too much control. 'et the students come u" .ith
=ueriesL assist them in #indin( solutions or ans.ers. &ecommend readin(s and discuss them.
)een research students are usually #uture collea(ues. 9ncoura(e them to become a "art o#
the academic community by attendin(: "resentin( at collo=uia:seminars:con#erences.
Ma8e them a "art o# a research (rou" i# it eCists.
#.1.0 At the 5ritin" sta"e
9ncoura(e the students to start .ritin( at an early sta(e. >ive ra"id #eedbac8 on
.ritten .or8. !ersuade them to #ollo. the standard #ormat o# thesis .ritin( as re=uired by
their institution. Ma8e sure that the discourse conventions o# academic .ritin( are bein(
#ollo.ed. This is "ossible .hen the initial dra#ts (ive critical #eedbac8 re(ardin( style@
structure@ ar(ument@ analysis@ etc.
The su"ervisors need to ensure that the lan(ua(e is o# hi(h academic standin(.
Assessin( the overall coherence and lo(ic in the structure o# the thesis is also the
res"onsibility o# the su"ervisors. %tudents tend to (et enthusiastic about issues that are not
77
directly related to their main ar(ument. %u"ervisors need to see that they 8ee" on trac8 and
do not di(ress #rom their research =uestion.
&edra#tin( and revision o# .ritin( should not be considered as ne(ative endeavour.
&ather it should be treated as "olishin( o# the "roduct. The su"ervisors may have seen and
commented on "arts o# the thesis at di##erent times but they need to see the com"leted
dra#t #or #inal criticism. This has to done .ell in advance o# the date o# submission o# the
thesis to incor"orate any chan(es that are re=uired. DMoses@ 1002E
%o #ar .e have tal8ed about the role o# the su"ervisors. 1e also need to consider the
role o# the students or su"ervisees.
2.2 Key Concept 2: Ro!e of the &$pervisees
The students need to choose a su"ervisor .ho is easily accessible and is related to
their #ield. I# they are "art o# an institution they .ould be #amiliar .ith the area o# eC"ertise
o# their teachers. They should choose judiciously accordin( to the academic standin( o# the
su"ervisor and not based on the ease o# manner o# the "erson. In our situation an academic
on the list o# 29C reco(ni<ed su"ervisors is a recommendation o# academic .orth o# the
"erson.
/oin( research is an intense and lonely eC"erience. %u""ort@ both emotional and
academic@ is needed #rom the su"ervisor. But sel#Jreliance is also very im"ortant. %u"ervisor
may hel" to locate the si(n"osts but the su"ervisee has to travel do.n the road. This
becomes easier by #ollo.in( the (uidelines and schedules set u" .ith the su"ervisor. Any
deviance has to be duly re"orted and ne(otiated. Tas8s set have to be com"leted .ithin the
(iven time #rame.
It is im"ortant that you deal .ith the #eedbac8 #rom the su"ervisor in a calm and
"ro#essional manner. Ksually .hen students (et a lot o# comments on their .ritten .or8 #or
the su"ervisor@ they #eel #rustrated and devastated. They need to 8no. that a lot o# time
has been s"ent by an eC"ert in the #ield to (ive the comments. 'oo8 at them "ositively and
not "ersonally and start redra#tin( DOH'eary@ 266+E. Bell D1000E has em"hasi<ed the need #or
redra#tin( and re.ritin( in .ritin( research. P?o one@ ho.ever (i#ted@ can ma8e a "assable
#irst dra#t. 1ritin( means re.ritin(H DBar<un and >ra##@ 1033 $1E.
I# the scheduled meetin(s .ith the su"ervisor are re"eatedly cancelled and ne.
times not set u"@ the matter becomes stic8y. In such a situation you need to consult the
78
thesis:research committee or advisor. Maybe the head o# the de"artment can sort out the
situation. Bou need to brin( the matter to the attention o# the authorities as it may lead to a
delay in the com"letion o# the thesis.
In case o# con#lict o# interest bet.een the su"ervisor and the su"ervisee@ the best
course is to re=uest #or a chan(e o# su"ervisors PO even at a late sta(e@ or to su""lement
.ith a second su"ervisor@ rather than (ettin( into com"leC inter"ersonal en(a(ement OH
D'eonard@ 2661 2+$E. 2o.ever@ this ste" should only be ta8en i# all attem"ts at ne(otiation
and "ositive interaction have "roved #utile. It is a course o# action that should be avoided at
the best.
2.3 Key Concept /: The +iva7Thesis *efense
&esearch@ its documentation and .ritin( u" is a com"leC and eCtended "rocess. Its
culmination is the eCternal evaluation and intervie. or the viva voce Dby .ord o# mouthE. PIt
is a "retty dauntin( eC"erience but also o#ten stimulatin(@ interestin( and@ in retros"ect@
enjoyableH D'eonard@ 2661 2+0E. 2o.ever@ most o# the students are =uite unsure about
.hat to eC"ect and .hat to "rovide in the viva. The teCtboo8s usually deal .ith ho. to
"re"are #or the viva but have no clues about the event itsel#. %o #amiliari<e yoursel# .ith the
routine o# viva in your de"artment. I# "ossible attend a viva as an observer so that you can
understand the "ractice. I# this is not "ossible as8 the recent (raduates to (et an idea.
2o.ever@ each viva is a uni=ue eC"erience in itsel# and the stories o# others should neither
demorali<e you nor ma8e you thin8 that it is a .al8over.
&ead your thesis thorou(hly be#ore the viva. /iscuss any "oints that you are underJ
con#ident about .ith your su"ervisor. Bour eCternal eCaminers .ould have read your thesis
.ith care. They .ould as8 you =uestions about your research@ your methodolo(y@ the
contribution o# the research in the eCistin( "ool o# 8no.led(e and ho. or .here you .ill
"ublish it. Thin8 about your res"onses. %tructure your vie.s care#ully. 'isten to the
=uestions care#ully be#ore res"ondin(. /o not hesitate to re=uest #or a re"etition i# you
have not understood clearly. Try not to (et into a con#rontational mode and do not be overJ
assertive. /e#end your ideas .ithout (ettin( de#ensive. /o not (ive very lon( ans.ers that
"ush the eCaminers to interru"t. I# you (et rattled then admit that you are nervous and ta8e
a dee" breath to com"ose yoursel#. I# you do not 8no. the ans.ers to a =uestion then do
not blu##. Admit your i(norance and assure that you .ill read the related literature to (et
79
the re=uired in#ormation. I# you cannot ans.er all the =uestions brilliantly do not #ret as
lon( as you have ans.ered ade=uately. %ometimes the objections o# the eCaminers on your
.or8 can be ade=uately eC"lained durin( the viva so that they revise their o"inion or as8
you to add the verbal eC"lanation to your .ritten .or8. D1e have added a cha"ter on this
as"ect in the readin( "ac8a(e #or detailed in#ormation.E
Best o# luc8 .ith your viva.
2.4 %!ace of Research in (ne>s ("n Career
&esearch culture is be(innin( to evolve in our academic community. Teachers@
es"ecially in universities@ 8no. that career advancement and "ro#essional develo"ment are
lin8ed to research and its "ublication. P&esearch and research re"utation besto. "eer
reco(nition .ithin the disci"linary #ield@ both nationally and internationallyH. It is im"ortant
that .e "rovide our teachers .ith ade=uate research trainin( so that they can then create
research "rojects that .ill not only brin( name and #ame to their institution but also
#undin(. Collaborative research
1
"rojects can be (enerated in de"artments .here senior
teachers ta8e the youn( #aculty under their .in( and introduce them to the net.or8 o#
scholars .or8in( in the same or similar #ields. This .ould "re"are them to be inde"endent
researchers .ho can then a""ly #or research (rants usin( the same s8ills. This academic
activity is hi(hly valued by the #aculty and the administrators.
These are eCtrinsic reasons #or "ursuin( research. 2o.ever@ #or a lot o# academics@
research is an intrinsically valued activity.
CuriosityJdriven research is stimulatin( and hi(hly satis#yin(.
Bein( able to add to 8no.led(e buildin( and meanin( ma8in(@ bein( "art o# a
community o# scholars@ locally@ nationally and internationally is re.ardin(.
A""lied research@ .hich contributes to solve social@ industrial@ environmental
or economic "roblems@ is most satis#yin(.
4or many academics conductin( research is also a #orm o# sel#Jdevelo"ment
they remain intellectually alive and stay at the cuttin( ed(e o# research throu(h
their readin(. %uch academics are usually better teachers and collea(ues.
1
This is a genre that needs t be st!died caref!lly s as nt t infringe the intellect!al and ther prperty rights
f any participant.
80
1ithin universities@ research is su""orted throu(h an or(ani<ational in#rastructure
that may have a research o##ice to acce"t a""lications and disburse research (rants
obtained #orm di##erent sources. These o##ices should also disseminate in#ormation about
"ublishin( research in reco(ni<ed journals o# established academic standin(. 1e need to
inculcate this research culture in our academia to com"ete success#ully in a .orld .here
in#ormation is available at our #in(erti"s throu(h the Internet.
In our academic environment con#erence culture is no. becomin( common.
Academics are be(innin( to understand the im"ortance o# attendin( and "artici"atin( in
con#erences. 2o.ever@ mostly "a"ers that are "resented at con#erences sometimes become
a "art o# con#erence "roceedin(s Di# there is bud(et #or "rintin(E or they just #i<<le out a#ter
"resentation. 9C"erience sho.s that a#ter sendin( the abstract@ a rou(h dra#t o# the "a"er is
sent and a (ood "resentation "re"ared #or "artici"atin( in the con#erence. This "resentation
then never (ets translated into a document that #ul#ils the criteria #or "ublication in a
journal o# (ood academic standin(.
This .as a little s"iel to ma8e you thin8 care#ully about your career and locate a
"lace #or research in it.
2.0 Key Concept ': %$b!ication
Ksually the end o# the viva is devoted to discussion about "ublication o# the
research. It is a moot =uestion. %cience students usually have the o""ortunity to "ublish as a
team by the time they are in a "osition to de#end their research. 2o.ever@ social sciences
have #e.er o""ortunities o# doin( so. But .hen you are .ritin( u" your research you should
be thin8in( about "ublication as .ell. As8 you su"ervisor and even your eCternal eCaminers
about ade=uate sources that may be eC"lored #or "ublication. !ublication is im"ortant as
!ublication contributes to the scholarly literature in the #ield. All the reasons
that are (iven #or the "lace o# research in your career a""ly here.
It reaches a .ide international audience.
It identi#ies your area o# research and #acilitates contact .ith other
"ro#essionals.
9stablishes academic credibility as thin8ers and not retailers o# others ideas
81
9nhances your academic re"utation@ that o# your de"artment and o# your
or(ani<ation.
!ublication in journals is economical
!ublication is 4K?.
Nust a .ord o# caution hereZ !ublication in a (ood journal is not an overni(ht
"rocess. It can ta8e u" to a cou"le o# years to (et "ublished. The article:"a"er is sent #or a
blind revie. to the re#erees .ho (ive their comments. These comments are communicated
to the .riter #or incor"oration. The revised article is a(ain revie.ed and then sent to the
"ress i# all is as it should be.
2.6 5thics of Responsib!e %$b!ications
!la(iarism is a "la(ue that .e have to (uard a(ainst. !ublished .or8 assumes
authenticity there#ore it should be underta8en .ith a sense o# res"onsibility. This re=uires
that
All research and its "ublication should con#orm to acce"ted ethical standards.
!la(iarism is ille(al and breach o# the co"yri(ht la.s.
All sources have to be ac8no.led(ed.
Minimum re=uirement #or authorshi" is "artici"ation in conceivin(@ eCecutin(
or inter"retin( at least "art o# the research re"orted. /ue reco(nition should be
(iven to it.
!ublication o# the multi"le "a"ers based on the same setDsE or subJsetDsE o#
data is im"ro"er unless #ully crossJre#erenced.
%ome disci"lines have s"ecial needs o# research e.( animal and human
eC"erimentation. %hould (o throu(h the 9thics Committee.
82
0. 2eachin" A''roaches
'ecture .ith !!T "resentation
/iscussion
&ole !lay
3. !earnin" Activities
'.1 Activities
The #acilitator .ill brain storm the terms su"ervisor and su"ervisee
1rite on board the roles under both the terms evolvin( #rom the brain storm
session.
Introduce the role o# su"ervisor under three sta(es
/o the role "lay o# the three sta(es .ith the t.o "artici"ants as %u"ervisor
and su"ervisee.
'.2 Reso$rces:
Content .ill serve as resource
Boo8 on %u"ervisorHs role
5. Summar% and 2ransition
In this session .e have discussed issues related to academic su"ervision and .hat
#ollo.s #rom it. The role o# the su"ervisor is im"ortant not only durin( the research but also
durin( the viva and a#ter it.
4. Assessment
Ans.er the #ollo.in( =uestions
1. 1hat is role o# the su"ervisor in the selection o# a to"icM
2. 1hat 8ind o# #eedbac8 is re=uired on the dra#ts (iven by the studentsM
$. Thou(h .e have not tal8ed about it@ .hat are the advanta(es or disadvanta(es
o# joint su"ervisionM
83
+. 1hat .ould you describe as a (ood vivaM
,. 1hat is the im"ortance o# "ublication o# research in the career o# an academicM
1hat is role o# the su"ervisor in the selection o# a to"icM
84
,. Materials
+.1 !earnin" Material of Session 9
45 Activities
Activity 4
The #acilitator .ill arran(e some sam"le =uestionnaires. Then the "artici"ants .ill be
divided into di##erent (rou"s. 9ach (rou" .ill be a (iven a =uestionnaire and the (rou"s .ill
be as8ed to ans.er the #ollo.in( =uestions
1hat is the =uestionnaire aboutM
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
1rite do.n your o"inion about the items and construction o# the
=uestionnaire@ is it .ell constructed or notM %u""ort your res"onse .ith
ar(uments.
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
/o you .ant to (ive any su((estion re(ardin( the #urther im"rovement o#
the =uestionnaireM
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
Activity 2
The #acilitator .ill (ive the "artici"ants the issue@ FCurriculum o# 9n(lish 'an(ua(e
#orG
!rimary 'evel
%econdary 'evel
85
Knder(raduate 'evel
In the neCt ste", the "artici"ants .ill be as8ed to select one issue #rom the above
issues and "lan #or an Intervie.. The intervie. .ill be conducted in (rou"s. The (rou"s .ill
be com"rised o# three members. One "erson .ill "er#orm the roles o# the Intervie.er@ the
Intervie.ee and the Observer. The #acilitator .ill (ive 26 minutes to the "artici"ants to
conduct the intervie. and then 16 minutes to share the #indin(s. Be#ore conductin( the
intervie.@ the "artici"ants .ill be as8ed to do the #ollo.in(
/ecide .ho .ill be the intervie.eeM
_________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
/ecide the ty"e o# Intervie. Done to one@ >rou" intervie.@ 4ocus >rou"E
_________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
/ecide the method D#ace to #ace@ tele"honic@ electronicE
_________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
!re"are the structure:outline #or the intervie.
_________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
1rite do.n the method #or 8ee"in( the record o# the res"ondentsH .ords
_________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
!re"are +J, sam"le =uestions and conduct a role "lay in the (rou" o# t.o
members
_________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
86
Activity =
The #acilitator .ill as8 the "artici"ants to do the #ollo.in(
%eview what you have learned about the observational chec9lists and do the
following8
Consult the recommended boo8s and search #or the observational chec8lists
I# you are (oin( to observe the students durin( microteachin(@ ho. .ill you
"re"are a chec8list #or itM
&esources: D%ee *earning "aterial for Session B #or /etailsE
25 Duestionnaire and &nterview
2.1) !<ample of a Duestionnaire
Ima(ine that you had to eC"lain .hat a (ood citi<en is or .hat a (ood citi<en ou(ht
to do. !lease read each sentence@ then "ut a tic8 D[ E under the headin( P>ood Citi<enH i# that
is .hat you mean by a (ood citi<en. I# the sentence does ?OT hel" to eC"lain .hat you
mean by a (ood citi<en@ "ut a tic8 under POtherH i# you are not sure@ "ut a tic8 under the
=uestionJmar8 DME
A +##, C&T&0!$8 +ood Citi:en C #ther
1
. Obeys the la.
2
. Is al.ays !olite
$
. 'oves his :her "arents
+
. 5otes in every election
,
. Is loyal to his : her #amily
* >oes to church re(ularly
87
3
. Is loyal to his :her country
-
. Cares about other "eo"leHs troubles
0
. Is (ood at s"orts
1
6
.
Ta8es an interest in the .ay the country
is run
1
1
.
1or8s hard
1
2
.
Noins a "olitical "arty
1
$
.
)no.s a (ood deal about ho. our taC
money is s"ent
1
+
.
2as (ood table manners
1
,
.
%tudies hard to "ass an eCamination
88
1
*
.
!ays his:her taCes re(ularly
1
3
.
Minds his : her o.n business
1
-
.
)ee"s u" .ith .hat is ha""enin( in the
.orld
1
0
.
Tries to chan(e thin(s in the (overnment
2
6
.
>ets other "eo"le to vote in elections
2.2) Some other &mportant Points in Constructing the Duestionnaires and
Planning for the &nterview
Questionnaires! Dos an Don*ts
Ta8e consent #rom the author o# the =uestionnaire in case o# usin(
standardi<ed =uestionnaires.
A research =uestionnaire must be di##erent #rom the =uestionnaire o# a
mar8etin( "roduct or the term "a"er.
As8 direct =uestions about the "oint concerned in the research.
/irections about ho. to ans.er the =uestions must be "rovided.
7uestions should be in easy and understandable lan(ua(e.
89
>ive eCam"les to ans.er the =uestions .hile necessary.
!ilotin( is necessary.
!reJcoded ans.ers should be "re"ared in case o# closeJended =uestions.
!rovide the codin( boCes so that the res"ondents can be a.are o# .hat they
are ans.erin(.
7uestionnaire must accom"any the cover letter.
$nterview! Dos an Don*ts
Intervie. should be "lanned in selection o#
o to"ics
o res"ondents
o "lace
o time #or the intervie.
o =uestions to be as8ed
Intervie.er must have the com"lete list o# the res"ondents@ .ith their
addresses and other contact details.
/ecide the ty"e o# the intervie. D#ace to #ace@ electronic@ tele"honic or #ocus
(rou"E.
/ecide the method #or recordin( the intervie. D#ield notes@ ta"e:video
recordin( or any otherE.
/ata is based on emotions@ eC"eriences and #eelin(s@ so it is necessary to ta8e
record o# each.
7uestions should be .ell "re"ared be#ore ta8in( the intervie..
/o not behave in a threatenin( .ay.
!ractice to as8 the =uestions be#ore the actual intervie. session.
90
7uestions and the intervie.s share some common #eatures and these are almost
similar because both involve ta8in( "eo"leHs o"inion about di##erent issues. Common
#eatures are as #ollo.s
91
Co%%on &eatures o& $nterview an the Questionnaires
Consent to ta8e "art in the study
Ma8e the sam"le a.are o# the research "ur"ose
Objectives o# the research must be 8e"t in mind
Con#identiality o# "artici"antsH .ords
Bour "ur"ose is to (et in#ormation@ but not to "rovide
in#ormation
%hould not be very len(thy
Knbiased a""roaches
Brie# =uestions
9asily scoreable codin(
Question "or%ats
4ollo.in( are the di##erent ty"es o# =uestions@ .hich can be included in intervie.s
and =uestions
/irect =uestions may be as8ed .ith one a""ro"riate ans.er.
7uestions may be as8ed indirectly.
%tatements can be (iven .ith .hich the res"ondent can a(ree or disa(ree.
7uestions about the #acts can be as8ed@ .hich the res"ondent ans.ers
accordin( to his:her eC"erience.
7uestions to ta8e the o"inions or the "re#erences o# the res"ondents about
some objects.
!redetermined =uestions can be as8ed in .hich the res"ondent is su""osed
to ans.er each and every =uestion.
&es"onse )eyed are also a ty"e o# =uestions in .hich the res"ondent is
allo.ed to s8i" some =uestions .hich does to a""ly to him:her.
92
=5 Scales for "easurement
3.1) $ominal Scale
The term means Fto nameG.
The cate(ories di##er in =uality rather that =uantity.
9ach value belon(s to only its o.n cate(ory but can be more than or less
than the other.
?ominal scales are based on cate(ories .hich must be mutually eCclusive@
eChaustive and uniJdimensional.
Most elaboratin( scale.
There is no chance o# addition@ multi"lication@ subtraction or other
mathematical o"erations .ith the cate(ories
It "rovides the ratio or the #re=uency and "rovides the de#inite in#ormation.
Can be used to measure (ender@ or "re#erences o# res"ondents.
,iscipline8
Arts
2umanities
!ure %ciences
%ocial %ciences
+ender8
Male
4emale
=.25 #rdinal Scale
The term means Fto orderG.
In ordinal scale@ the data is or(ani<ed in some order Dhi(hJlo. or lo.Jhi(hE.
This scale does not s"eci#y ho. much di##erent the cate(ories are #rom each
other.
Cate(ories can be "resented in the #orm o# a continuum.
Cate(ories are (iven in a lo(ical or a ran8 order
93
2ei(ht@ .ei(ht@ income and the ran8s can be measured.
(our income is8
Belo. $6@666
$6@166 to ,6@666
,6@166 and above
=.=5 &nterval Scale
Interval scale is used to tell the order o# the objects.
It tells ho. much distant the cate(ories are #rom each other.
All ty"es o# mathematical o"erations can be "er#ormed on this data.
&atin( scales are considered the interval scales also.
The di##erence bet.een the a(es o# "eo"le can be identi#ied .ith the hel" o#
this scale.
7indly mention the number of employees at
your organi:ation from year 4JJG to 23348
(ear $umber of !mployees
1003
100-
1000
2666
2661
=.?5 %atio Scale
&atio scale is a scale .ith true value F6G.
Ksed to (et =uantitative data.
%alary@ =uantities "urchased and mar8et share are all eC"ressed on a ratio
scale.
Most so"histicated scale o# all.
=.E5 *i9ert Scale
A uniJdimensional scale usually .ith #ive "oints.
94
All the "oints have e=ual interval bet.een each other.
&ecords the a(reement or disa(reement o# res"ondent about some
"articular variable.
O"tions are "reJcoded.
O"tions are %tron(ly A(ree@ A(ree@ Kndecided@ /isa(ree@ %tron(ly /isa(ree.
=.F5 %ating Scales
A scale used in observational studies.
It is used to record the behavior or activity o# the res"ondents.
/escri"tive statements are used .ith in#inite "oints on a line.
!oint or line to record the behaviour is termed as rater.
Can be subjected to human error.
95
%ating Scale
___,___@ ___+___@ ___$___@ ___2___@ ___ 1___
%tudents used %tudents did not use
teachin( aids teachin( aids
+.# !earnin" Material of Session 9I
1" Probability Sampling Techniques
4.45 Simple %andom Sampling
In sim"le random sam"lin(
Chance #or every member o# the "o"ulation to be included in the sam"le is
e=ual and inde"endent.
Chance o# researcherHs o.n bias is no.here.
!rocedure o# %im"le &andom %am"lin(
?eed #or sam"lin( #rame@ .hich contains in#ormation about each individual
o# the "o"ulation.
Ksin( the table o# random numbers so that the numbers may be assi(ned to
the "o"ulation.
?umbers in the table must be accordin( to the "o"ulation si<e Di.e. i# total
"o"ulation is 1@666@ the directory must be com"rised o# the numbers #rom 6666
to 6000E.
In the #ollo.in( #i(ure@ you can see some random numbers. These numbers can be
assi(ned to every member in the "o"ulation. The researcher can select any number
randomly@ and the "erson corres"ondin( to that number .ill be selected in sam"le.
96
!<ample8
Table of %andom $umbers
6$31 6*$2 6-+,
6-*2 6,$0 626*
60$2 63*1 60$3
6-*, 606$ 6+$-
1.2) Stratified Sampling
In strati#ied sam"lin(
%am"le is not selected directly #rom the "o"ulation.
!o"ulation is divided into sub(rou"s@ re#erred to as strata.
%am"le is selected #rom these strata@ "ro"ortionally.
!ro"ortions are "rior set by the researcher.
1.3) Cluster Sampling
Cluster sam"lin(
is the Identi#ication and study o# the sam"le in the #orm o# (rou"s.
is done .hen the researcher cannot #ind the re=uired sam"le due to some
s"eci#ic reason.
%o@ it involves identi#yin( (rou"s and studyin( them.
1.4) Systematic Sampling
In systematic sam"lin(
%am"le is selected .ith the hel" o# sam"lin( #rame or the list containin(
in#ormation about each and every member o# the "o"ulation.
The 8th number is determined.
1.5) Procedure for ,etermining 7th $umber
4or determinin( the 8th number@ the total number o# "o"ulation D?E is
divided by the desired number o# sam"le DnE and the value is determined as the
8th number.
Then every 8th number #rom the list is included in the sam"le.
'oo8 at the "rocedure to determine the 8th number in the #ollo.in( eCam"le
97
In the above
eCam"le@ F,G is the 1th
number@ so in the list o#
"o"ulation@ every ,
th
number .ill be included in
the sam"le. 'oo8 at the
#ollo.in( eCam"le
!<ample8
*ist of the $ames in Population
4. A G. + 4=. "
2.B K. 4?. $
=.C J. & 4E. #
?., 43. A 4F. P
E.! 44. 7 4G. D
F.' 42. * 4K. %
25 $on Probability Sampling Techniques
2.1) Purposive Sampling
In "ur"osive sam"lin(@ the researcher includes the "eo"le in sam"le
accordin( to his:her o.n choice
It is called Nud(ment %am"lin( also.
2.2) Duota Sampling
7uota sam"lin( is used in #ace to #ace intervie.s
The researcher #iCes a =uota and then accordin( to that =uota the sam"le is
selected.
98
!<ample8
Procedure for ,etermining 7th number
Total $o. of Population 1$5 L 1666
,esired Sample 1n5 L 266
7 L 4333/233 L 1$/n5 L ,
+th number S ,
!<ample8
%ee i# you are (oin( to com"are the status o# educated
and non educated individuals in a society@ you identi#y that
,6\ educated individuals and ,6\ nonJeducated individuals
.ill be included in the sam"le.
It means that you are selectin( a =uota
%o accordin( to this "rede#ined =uota@ the sam"le is
selected.
2.3) Convenience Sampling
Convenience sam"lin( involves no "rior "lan@ but the researcher can as8 every one
to be included in sam"le even .hile .al8in( on the .ay.
2.4) Snowball Sampling
The researcher does not "re"are any sam"lin( #rame
The researcher comes to 8no. the availability o# the "eo"le .ith some
s"eci#ic characteristics accordin( to the re=uirement o# the study@ .ho are
(enerally not available
The researcher a""roaches to them
Then these s"eci#ic "eo"le in#orm the researcher about the availability o# the
"eo"le .ith the same characteristics some.here else and thus the researcher
moves to #urther "eo"le .ith such characteristics.
99
+.0 !earnin" Material for Session I>
$-"!%&CA* ,ATA
45 "easures of Central Tendency
The Mean
The Median
The Mode
1.1) The "ean/Average
Mean is the avera(e o# scores.
It is the most a""ro"riate value .hen the data is ac=uired #rom the interval
or the ratio scale.
!<ample8
Calculate the mean o# these values 26@ 2*@ 2+@ $3@ $0@ ,-@ *2@ 36
Steps to calculate the mean of above observation8
1E Add all the observations D;iE .hich is $$*
2E /ivide the sum o# all the observations by total number o# the observations
DnE .hich is -
$E Mean S $$*:- D];i:nE S S +2
Mean is ; in statistical lan(ua(e
1.2) The "edian
Median is the midJ"oint or middle value o# the observations.
It does not ta8e any account o# each and every observation but it i(nores
hi(hest or lo.est values.
A""ro"riate measure #or the data ac=uired throu(h ordinal scale.
'oo8 at the #ollo.in( eCam"le and learn about the calculation o# the median
100
101
!<ample 4 1in case of #dd Balues5
Calculate the median o# these observations -@ 16@ 3@ 36@ 0@ *@ 0@ $@ 1@ 2@ ,
Steps in calculating the median
1E Arran(e these values in descendin( order D36@ 16@ 0@ 0@ -@ 3@ *@ ,@ $@ 2@ 1E
2" 3 is the middle value@ so it is the median in these observations
!<ample 2 1in case of !ven Balues5
Calculate the median o# these observations -@ 16@ 3@ 0@ *@ 0@ $@ 1@ 2@ ,
Steps in calculating the median
1E Arran(e these values in descendin( order D16@ 0@ 0@ -@ 3@ *@ ,@ $@ 2@ 1E
2E ?o. these observations are even but 3 U * are t.o middle values
3" Ta8e the avera(e o# these t.o values DD*^3E:2 S *.,E
+E *., .ill be the median
1.3) The "ode
Mode is the most #re=uent value o# the recorded observations.
The value .hich has been attained by more than one subject.
Most a""ro"riate measure in case o# nominal data.
All the three measures o# Central Tendency have been identi#ied in the #ollo.in(
eCam"le
102
!<ample8
Mar8s o# 3
th
(rade students in Mathematics are -2@ -3@ 06@ 02@ 0+@ 0+ and
0-. 4or these observations@ the three measures o# central tendency are
1" Median S 02 Dthe midJ"oint or the middle valueE
2E Mode S 0+ Dthe most #re=uent valueE
3" Mean S 01 Dthe avera(e o# the values calculated by addin( all the values
and dividin( there sum by total number o# observationsE
2" "easures of ,ispersion
The &an(e
The %tandard /eviation
The 7uartile /eviation
2.1) The %ange
&an(e is the deviation o# the lo.est value #rom the hi(hest value.
It is calculated by subtractin( the lo.est value #rom the hi(hest value.
The #ocus is only on t.o eCtreme values A major disadvanta(e.
2.25 The Standard ,eviation
%=uare root o# the variance is called FThe %tandard /eviationG.
5ariance is actually the mean o# the variation.
It tells ho. much the values are distant #rom their center .hich is actually
the mean or avera(e o# the values.
2.3) Steps to calculate the Standard ,eviation
The teacher .ill calculate the standard deviation by usin( the "rocedure described in
the #ollo.in( eCam"le
'oo8 at the #ollo.in( eCam"le in .hich the "rocess o# calculation o# the %tandard
/eviation is hi(hli(hted.
103
!<ample8
1E The mean o# all the observations is ta8en
2E Then the mean is subtracted #rom all the values
$E Then all the deviations are added and the sum o# all the deviations
#rom mean is al.ays F6G
+E The s=uare o# all the values is ta8en
,E All the s=uares are added and divided by the total number o# values to
(et the variance
*E A#ter the variance has been calculated@ its s=uare root is ta8en that is
called %tandard deviation
2.4) The Duartile ,eviation
7uartile deviation is the oneJhal# o# the di##erence bet.een the u""er
=uartile and the lo.er =uartile.
The u""er =uartile is actually the 3,th "ercentile and the lo.er =uartile is
actually the 2,th "ercentile.
The lo.er =uartile is deviated #rom the u""er =uartile and calculated value is
divided by t.o@ thus the =uartile deviation is ta8en.
=5 $ormal Curve
The normal curve is actually the bellJsha"ed curve in .hich the data is normally
distributed. There are t.o ty"es o# distribution
?ormal /istribution
%8e.ed /istribution
3.1) $ormal ,istribution
?ormal distribution is to #orm a curve .here the mean@ the median and the
mode lie in the centre o# the curve and all are e=ual.
104
It is also 8no.n as symmetrical distribution as the curve #ormed by this
distribution is bellJsha"ed.
$ormal ,istribution
3.2) S9ewed ,istribution
A distribution .hich is not normal is called s8e.ed distribution.
It is not symmetrical or bellJsha"ed.
The mean@ the median and the mode are not the same or e=ual.
%8e.ed distribution can be o# t.o ty"esL "ositively s8e.ed distribution and
ne(atively s8e.ed distribution.
In ne(atively s8e.ed distribution
Mean R Median R Mode
$egatively S9ewed ,istribution
In "ositively s8e.ed distribution
Mean T Median T Mode
Positively S9ewed ,istribution
?5 "easures of %elationship
The !earson Correlation
105
The %"earman &an8JOrder Correlation
4.1) The Pearson Correlation
The !earson Correlation is used .hen the data about the variables is ratio or
interval scale.
A#ter calculatin( the correlation the status o# relationshi" can be determined
.hether it is "ositive or ne(ative.
4.2) The Spearman %an9@#rder Correlation
I# the data is in the #orm o# ran8s or it has been ta8en #rom the ordinal scale@
the %"earman Correlation is used.
It does not "ermit the several subjects to have the same ran8. I# several
subjects receive the same score@ the %"earman Correlation (ives a techni=ue to
avera(e their ran8s.
In both the above correlation measurements@ the value o# correlation coe##icient is
some.here bet.een J1 and ^ 1. I# it is to.ards ^ 1@ the relationshi" is "ositive and i# it is
to.ards V 1@ the relationshi" is ne(ative and i# the value is 6@ it means that there is no
relationshi".
E5 "easures of %elative Position
!ercentile &an8s
%tandard %cores
5.1" Percentile %an9s
The "ercentile ran8 is used to measure the "osition o# some score as
com"ared to the others.
Tells the "ercenta(e o# the scores that lie belo. a (iven value.
Althou(h these are used #or the inter"retation o# the data o# interval scale
data but this is very much a""ro"riate #or inter"retin( ordinal data.
'oo8 at the #ollo.in( eCam"le@ .hich sho.s ho. to calculate the !ercentile
&an8
106
!<ample8
-2@ -+@ ,*@ ,1@ ,-@ 06@ 3*@ 3-@ **@ *-@ 32@ *0@ ,6@ +-@ -*@ --@ *6@ ,+@ 0-@ 0, are
the mar8s o# 26 "eo"le in a test. I# a "erson has (ot 3- mar8s@ .hat .ill be the
"ercentileM
Steps in calculating the Percentile %an9
1E Arran(e the mar8s in ascendin( order
2E +-@ ,6@ ,1@ ,+@ ,*@ ,-@ *6@ **@ *-@ *0@ 32@ 3*@ 3-@ -2@ -+@ -*@ --@ 06@ 0,@ 0-
$E I# a "erson has (ot 3- mar8s@ it means that 12 "eo"le have (ot mar8s
less than him:her and he or she is at 1$th number
+E 1e .ill divide the number o# "eo"le .ho have (ot mar8s less than
him:her .hich is 12 by the total number o# the "eo"le a""eared in the
test .hich are 26 and multi"ly by 166
,E D12:26 C 166 S *6E
*E The "erson is at *6th "ercentile
5.2" Standard Scores
There are three ty"e o# standard scores .hich are most commonly and
.idely used@ T %cores@ _ %cores and stanines.
It de"icts that ho. #ar a ra. score is #rom a re#erence "oint .hich can be the
mean.
107
&$'!%!$T&A* STAT&ST&CS
45 Standard !rror
The natural di##erence bet.een the means o# sam"les o# same "o"ulation@
.hich is not due to the #ault or mista8e o# the researcher is called sam"lin(
error.
The main characteristic o# these means is this that they all are normally
distributed and are very close to the "o"ulation mean.
The distribution o# all the sam"le means .ill have its mean as .ell as its o.n
standard deviation.
%o the standard deviation o# the sam"lin( error is called the standard error@
.hich hi(hli(hts the di##erence bet.een all the sam"le means.
25 The $ull ypothesis
The null hy"othesis is the statement o# e=uivalence.
It usually states that there is no di##erence and no relationshi" bet.een the
t.o variables or bet.een the means o# t.o sam"les #rom the same "o"ulation.
In the lan(ua(e o# research the null hy"othesis is .ritten as
__ __
26 ;1 S ;2 DThere is no di##erence bet.een the means@ both are e=ualE
=5 %esearch hypothesis
&esearch hy"othesis can be directional or notJdirectional
It "rovides the clear direction to the researcher that there is di##erence or the
relationshi" D"ositive:ne(ativeE bet.een the means o# the sam"les.
In the lan(ua(e o# research@ the research hy"othesis is .ritten as
?onJdirectional
__ __
21 ;1 ;2 DMean o# one sam"le is (reater than that o# the otherE
/irectional
108
__ __
21 ;1 T ;2 DMean o# one sam"le is (reater than that o# the otherE
__ __
21 ;1 T ;2 DMean o# one sam"le is smaller than that o# the otherE
?5 Tests of Significance
A#ter #indin( out the di##erence bet.een the variables@ the researcher can not ma8e
the decision u"on his:her o.n choice that ho. much si(ni#icant the di##erence is. In#erential
statistics o##er the tests o# si(ni#icance .hich hel" the researcher to conclude or in#er that
the di##erence is not natural but it is due to the treatment. 4ollo.in( are the most
commonly used tests o# si(ni#icance
1E TJ Test
2E Analysis o# 5ariance
$E Multi"le &e(ression
+E Chi %=uare
?.45 T@ Test
TJtest is used to com"are the means o# t.o sam"les to determine that there is
di##erence bet.een them .hich is not a chance error. There are #ollo.in( t.o ty"es o# TJ
test
Inde"endent %am"les tJtest
o Inde"endent sam"les neither do have similar characteristics and nor do
they de"end u"on each other.
o The only similarity bet.een them is that they are ta8en #rom the same
"o"ulation.
o Inde"endent sam"les tJtest is used to jud(e the di##erence bet.een t.o
means.
o It lets the researcher 8no. that the di##erence is not natural but is the result
o# treatment .hich has been a""lied to one o# them.
o The researcher can in#er that the di##erence is si(ni#icant.
/e"endent %am"les tJtest
109
o The de"endent sam"les are matched sam"les
o %cores o# the same (rou" in t.o di##erent tests at t.o di##erent times can be
the inde"endent sam"les.
o 9ven the sam"les can be the same (rou" to be assessed at t.o di##erent
times.
o The de"endent sam"les tJtest is used to determine that the di##erence is not
due to the sam"lin( error.
4.2) Analysis of Bariance
Analysis o# 5ariance DA?O5AE is used to inter"ret more than t.o variables
simultaneously.
It o##ers multi"le a""lications %im"le analysis bet.een the t.o or more than
t.o variables to #ind the di##erence.
I# there is di##erence@ to determine .here the di##erence lies.
Is used to determine .hich means are si(ni#icantly di##erent #rom .hich
means.
Is used to analyse the variables o# #actorial research desi(n .ith the
de"endent@ the inde"endent and the moderator variables.
4.3) "ultiple %egression
Multi"le re(ression is the "rediction e=uation to "redict about the variables.
The use o# multi"le re(ression is increasin(.
It can be used .ith the data attained throu(h any o# the scale.
It can also be used in eC"eriments@ correlational and causalJcom"arative
studies.
4.4) Chi@Square
ChiJs=uare is a test o# si(ni#icance .hich is a""lied .hen the data is in the
#orm o# #re=uencies o# t.o or more than t.o mutually eCclusive or di##erent
(rou"s.
110
?ot #or the data in the #orm o# test scores.
It com"ares the "ro"ortions .hich have been observed in some study and
the "ro"ortions .hich are eC"ected and #inds out the di##erence bet.een them.
I# the di##erence bet.een the observed and eC"ected values increases@ the
value o# the chi s=uare also increases but ho. si(ni#icant is it@ .ill be determined
by consultin( the chi s=uare table.
E5 Type & M Type && !rrors
There are t.o ty"es o# errors at the time o# acce"tance o# the hy"othesis
&ejectin( the null hy"othesis .hen it is true is a ty"e o# error and in the
lan(ua(e o# research it is called Ty"e I 9rror.
Acce"tin( the null hy"othesis .hen it is not true is called Ty"e II errorG.
F5 *evel of Significance
1hen the hy"othesis is tested to be rejected or acce"ted@ it is tested a(ainst
standard criteria@ called the level o# si(ni#icance.
It determines ho. lar(e the di##erence bet.een the mean must be in order
to be declared si(ni#icantly di##erent.
The Most commonly used level o# si(ni#icance is .6,G.
G5 Two Tailed and #ne Tailed Tests
One and t.o tailed tests are used to test the hy"othesis hi(hli(htin( the
relationshi" bet.een the variables i.e. "ositive@ ne(ative or no relationshi". T.o
tailed tests s"eci#y no direction or say A B. It sho.s that the relationshi" can
be either "ositive or ne(ative.
One tailed test s"eci#ies the eCact direction that A has "ositive relation .ith
B@ or A has ne(ative relation .ith B.
K5 ,egree of 'reedom
/e(ree o# the #reedom is the last sta(e in in#errin( or concludin( the results.
111
/e(ree o# #reedom is actually the total number o# observations@ values or the
sam"le #rom .hich 1 is subtracted to reduce the bias and is denoted by DnJ1E.
/e(ree o# #reedom is (iven in the table o# si(ni#icance tests a(ainst the level o#
si(ni#icance.
The acce"tance or rejection o# the hy"othesis de"ends u"on the value o#
table to be consulted a(ainst the de(ree o# #reedom.
112
+.3 !earnin" Material for Session >
45 ow to Create ,ata Set in SPSSC
'et us start to create data set in %!%%. 1hen you o"en %!%%@ there is a .indo. in
#ront o# you. At the bottom le#t side o# the .indo. there are t.o o"tions F/ata 5ie.G and
F5ariable 5ie.G. Bou have to #irst clic8 the variable vie.. This is the #irst ste" to enter data in
the %!%% and to analy<e it. 1hen you clic8 on the 5ariable 5ie.@ a .indo. .ith di##erent
columns o"ens. Bou have to .rite the names o# all your variables in the column o# F?ameG
one by one. It is not necessary to .rite the #ull name@ but you can .rite the name o# your
variable in the #orm o# an abbreviation. In most o# the old versions o# %!%%@ the column o#
?ame is limited to only ei(ht characters. I# it does not allo. in"uttin( the #ull name o# your
abbreviation@ do not (et .orried and just .rite the short name. 4ill the column accordin( to
the number o# your variables .hen this column is com"leted@ move to the other columns
.hich have been automatically #illed@ but #ill the other columns accordin( the re=uirement
o# your study.
In the second column@ FTy"eG@ you have to .rite the ty"e o# your variable.
F?umericG is the de#ault settin(@ because in most o# the cases the variables are numerical. I#
the variables are not numerical such as FeducatedG .hich consists o# .ords. This is 8no.n
as the %trin( 5ariable in the lan(ua(e o# %!%% DConnolly@ 2663E. To chan(e the numeric
variable to the strin( variable@ clic8 on the .ord FnumericG in the column o# FTy"eG@ another
small .indo. o# F5ariable Ty"eG .ill a""ear in #ront o# you. 4rom this .indo.@ select the
.ord Fstrin(G and the characters as re=uired and then clic8 FO)G. ?o. the variable ty"e
matches your variable.
In the column o# F1idthG@ .rite the number or characters #or the variable that you
have assi(ned to the o"tions o# your tool. 4or eCam"le@ one variable is >ender Dmale and
#emaleE@ and the other one is A(e. A(e is numerical and it does not need any code to be
assi(ned. I# your variables are not numerical@ you assi(n codes to them Di.e. male and
#emale@ Dmale S 1E and D#emale S 2EE. Then in the column o# .idth you .rite F1G #or >ender
because the codes that you assi(n to >ender are oneJdi(it numbers F1G or F2G. 4or your
second variable@ .hich is a(e@ the .idth .ill be F2G@ because the number o# characters #or
A(e is al.ays t.o Di.e. 26@ $6@ +6@ ,6@ etc.E I# your variable is salary@ its number o# characters
113
can be more than one di(it and the .idth can be .ritten accordin( to the "ac8a(e@ .hich
the researcher is #indin( out.
In the column o# F/ecimalsG@ .rite F6G i# the decimals are not re=uired@ but i# the
decimals are re=uired accordin( to the variable such as birth rate **\@ then .rite the
number o# decimals re=uired.
In the neCt column@ F'abelG@ .rite "ro"er names o# your variables .hich .ill a""ear
in the tables or the charts at the end.
Then in the column o# F5alueG@ you double clic8 it and another .indo. F5alue
'abelsG o"ens in #ront o# you. In this .indo.@ you have to .rite the codes .hich you have
assi(ned to your variable and this is in the case o# nominal variables as there are three ty"es
o# variables used in %!%%@ nominalL ordinal and scale. D4or details@ "lease see 7uantitative
/ata Analysis in 9ducationZ A Critical Introduction Ksin( %!%% by !aul ConnollyE. 4or
eCam"le@ you have assi(ned F1G as a code to FmaleG and F2G #or F#emaleG@ so .rite F1G
be#ore F5alueG and .rite FMaleG be#ore F5alue 'abelG. ItHs the same #or #emale. 1rite F2 S
F4emaleGG and clic8 FAddG as sho.n in the #i(ure. Then clic8 FO)G.
The neCt column FMissin( 5alueG is used #or missin( data o# some variables. I#
someone had s8i""ed the =uestion #rom a 166 items =uestionnaire and had not ans.ered@
you can .rite FJ1G #or that =uestion. In other case@ i# someone had ans.ers as he:she .as
not su""osed to ans.er@ you can .rite F00G DConnolly@ 2663E.
The neCt t.o columns are FColumnsG and Ali(nG. It is not necessary to enter any data
in these columns because the just de#ine the .idth and ali(nments o# the columns in data
vie..
The last column FMeasurementG is about the ty"e o# variables i.e. nominal@ ordinal
or scale variables. %elect one ty"e accordin( to the variable. The 5ariable 5ie. is com"lete
no.@ and once (ain clic8 on the bottom le#t o# the .indo. on /ata 5ie.. The .indo. is
o"en in #ront o# you. ?o. enter data accordin( to the variables.
114
A#ter the data has been entered@ %!%% o##ers all ty"es o# statistical analysis .hich
have been discussed above. It #ollo.s a common "rocedure #or almost all ty"es o# analysis.
A#ter enterin( the data in /ata 5ie.@ the .indo. o# /ata 5ie. is o"en in #ront o# you.
115
4rom the to" menu@ clic8 FAnaly<eG@ you .ill see a dro" list o# statistical analysis Di.e.
&e"orts@ /escri"tive %tatistics@ Com"are Means@ >eneral 'inear Model@ Correlate@
&e(ression@ 'o(linear@ Classi#y@ /ata &eduction@ %cale@ ?on"arametric Tests@ %urvival and
Multi"le &es"onseE. Bou can choose any o# the o"tions accordin( to your study.
116
As to create the data set in %!%% and to enter the data in it is totally "ractical@ so #irst
the teacher .ill use the %!%% in #ront o# the students@ and then the students .ill "ractice it
by themselves.
%!%% "rovides the broad a""lications #or statistical analysis in a variety o# .ays. But
the "rocedure #or only a #e. o# them .ill be described here.
25 Procedure for using Pearson Correlation
>o to A?A'B_9
%elect the /9%C&ITI59 %TATI%TIC%
>o to CO&&9'ATIO?%@
Choose BI5A&IAT9
Trans#er all the variables to the variable boC
Choose CO&&9'ATIO? CO944ICI9?T D!earsonE and T1OJTAI'9/ T9%T O4
%I>?I4ICA?C9
Then clic8 O) and a .indo. com"risin( o# all the data@ .ill a""ear
=5 Procedure for using %egression
>o to A?A'B_9
%elect the /9%C&ITI59 %TATI%TIC% and select &9>&9%%IO?
>o to 'I?9A&
%elect the de"endent and inde"endent variable and "ut .here these have
been re=uired
Choose 9%TIMAT9%@ CO?4I/9BC9 I?T9&5A'% and MO/9' 4IT
Clic8 O)
?5 Procedure for using Spearman %an9 #rder Correlation
>o to A?A'B_9
%elect the /9%C&ITI59 %TATI%TIC%
Choose CO&&9'AT9 and then chose BI5A&IAT9
117
Knder variable boC@ chose %!9A&MA?
Choose T1OJTAI'9/ test
Clic8 O)
E5 Procedure for using Chi@Square test
>o to A?A'B_9
%elect the /9%C&ITI59 %TATI%TIC%
Then select C&O%%TAB%
In C&O%%TBA% .indo.@ in the #ield o# F&O1D%EG "ut the variables .hich you
.ant to com"are@ and in the #ield o# FCO'KM?D%EG "ut the characteristics .hich
you .ant to com"are bet.een the variables.
Then select %TATI%TIC% in the same .indo. and another .indo.
C&O%%TAB% %TATI%TIC% .ill o"en
In this ne. .indo.@ select ChiJs=uare and !hi and CramerHs 5
Then select CO?TI?K9 and then O)
F5 Procedure for using &ndependent Samples t@test
>o to A?A'B_9
%elect COM!A&9 M9A?%
%elect I?/9!9?/9?T %AM!'9% TJT9%T
A .indo. .ill o"en. !ut both variables that you .ant to com"are in the
#ields@ FT9%T 5A&IAB'9 D%E and >&OK!I?> 5A&AIAB'9G
In the same .indo.@ clic8 /94I?9 >&OK!%
Another small .indo. .ill o"en@ and here you have to "ut the codes .hich
you have assi(ned to your variables
Then clic8 CO?TI?K9
Clic8 O) to com"lete the "rocedure
118
G5 Procedure for using #ne@way A$#BA
>o to A?A'B_9
%elect COM!A&9 M9A?%
%elect OneJ.ay A?O5A
A .indo. a""ears be#ore youL "ut the scale variables in the #ield o#
F/e"endent 'istG
!ut the nominal variables in the #ield o# F4actorsG
In the same .indo. clic8 on !O%T 2OC button
Another .indo. .ill a""ear@ clic8 on 2OC2B9&>H% >T2
Then clic8 CO?TI?K9
Bou are once a(ain in the .indo. o# O?9J1AB A?O5A
In this .indo.@ clic8 on O!TIO?% button
This .ill o"en another .indo.
In the O!TIO?% .indo.@ select /9%C&I!TI59 and 2OMO>9?I9TB o# 5&IA?C9
T9%T
Then clic8 CO?TI?K9
And #inally clic8 O)
119
+.5 !earnin" Material for Session >I
ACA,!"&C )%&T&$+ '#% #T!% P-%P#S!S
45 )riting *etters
Any 8ind o# letter@ .hether .ritten by an individual@ a com"any@ or an o##ice has the
same layout. There are ei(ht "arts o# this layout and this layout is to be used #or all 8inds o#
letters. This layout is (iven belo..
1.1) *etterhead/ Sender.s Address
At the minimum@ your address@ and "hone number or that o# your o##ice is sho.n at
the to" or in the "rinted letterhead.
$he 2irst %o)en 3ni(ersity
*ity *enter
Lahore
6,1J**++2*-
citycenter@(mail.com
40, Lane 4
5arley -treet
6a&alpindi
6,1J,,0$+31
docred@yahoo.com
1.2) ,ate
The date is usually "resented in this order month@ day@ year@ as in Nanuary 3@ 2660@
unless the o##ice re=uires a di##erent arran(ement. The date may be(in #lush .ith the le#t
mar(in.
1.3) &nside Address
The com"lete address is sho.n. ?otice the use o# the courtesy title "recedin( the
addresseeHs name.
Ms. %aleha %abir
!roject Mana(er
City Center Mar8et Branch
&a.al"indi
1.4) Salutation
The salutation is a""ro"riate #or the name (iven in the inside address. The 8ind o#
salutation used in a letter is determined by the nameDsE sho.n on the #irst line o# the inside
address. Mr. 7adir:Ms. 7adir:/r. 7adir:!ro#essor 7adir.
120
1.5) Body
The body is sin(leJs"aced .ith a double s"ace bet.een "ara(ra"hs. The "ara(ra"hs
be(in justi#ied to the le#t mar(in.
1.6) Complimentary Closing
The com"limentary closin( is a""ro"riate #or a #ormal letter #rom an
individual:business:o##ice to an individual: business:o##ice. 9Cam"le
Bours truly@
Bours sincerely@
1.7) Signature !lement
The .riterHs name and title are sho.n. I# the addressee needs to res"ond to a letter@
the in#ormation in the si(nature element .ill be used in the inside address o# the letter.
9Cam"le
Ms. %abiha %yed
Assistant !ro#essor
1.8) !nclosure
O#ten enclosures accom"any a business letter. The number o# enclosures may be
sho.n@ or the enclosures may be listed. A variety o# styles may be used to identi#y the
enclosures.
9ncls 6-
1.9) 'ormat of *etters
25 %outine/pleasant letters8 ,eductive
Be(in directly .ith the main idea Deasy to .riteE
/etails or eC"lanations
Closin( thou(ht
/ear &e(istrar
!lease send a re"lacement co"y o# the A""lication 4orm that is attached. 1hen it
.as delivered in the "ost Dsee co"y attachedE@ "a(es -J16 .ere missin(.
I shall a""reciate your sendin( a com"lete #orm in eCchan(e.
121
=5 -npleasant letters8 &nductive
Be(in .ith a neutral statement that leads to the reasons #or re#usin( the
re=uest.
!resent the #acts@ an analysis@ and the reason #or re#usal. Major "ortion o#
the letter to be an eC"lanation. Be#ore the re#usal to "revent ne(ative reaction.
%tate the re#usal. /eJem"hasi<e it.
Close .ith a related idea that shi#ts em"hasis a.ay #rom the re#usal. O##er
counter"ro"osal. %ho.s your con#idence in the addressee.
/ear Ms. %iddi=uii
Bour e##orts to build the scholarshi" #und #or the AssociationHs needy children are
most commendable. 1e .ish you (ood success in your e##orts #or this .orthy cause.
1e here at !o"ular Traders are al.ays .illin( to assist .orthy causes .henever .e
can. That is .hy every Nanuary .e bud(et #or the year the maCimum amount .e #eel .e are
able to contribute to .orthy causes. Then .e distribute this amount amon( the various
deservin( (rou"s as #ar as it .ill (o. As our bud(eted contributions #or this year already have
been made@ the best .e can do is to "lace your or(ani<ation on our list #or consideration
neCt year.
1e .ish you the best o# luc8 in your e##orts to hel" educate the deservin( children
o# the Association members.
?5 Special *etters
1. Con(ratulatory letters JJJ /eductive
2. 'etters o# "ersuasion Inductive
o >et attention
o Introduce the to"ic to arouse attention
o >ive evidence
o 9ncoura(e action
$. 'etters o# recommendation JJJ /eductive #or "ositive ones and Inductive #or the
not so "ositive ones.
+. 'etters o# Invitation and res"onses JJJ /eductive
122
,. 'etters o# %ym"athy or Condolence
o %tart .ith a statement o# sym"athy
o 4ollo. .ith sentences about mutual eC"eriences or relationshi"s
Close .ith some .ords o# com#ort and a##ection
123
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