Bubble-Wrap For Bullets: The Draping of Magnetic Fields in Galaxy Clusters

CITA|ICAT

Jonathan Dursi, CITA Christoph Pfrommer, CITA

on arXiv: arxiv.org/abs/0711.0213 arxiv.org/abs/0706.3216 Paper with interactive 3D graphics: http://www.cita.utoronto.ca/~ljdursi/draping/

Credit: NASA, N. Benitez (JHU), T. Broadhurst (The Hebrew University), H. Ford (JHU), M. Clampin(STScI), G. Hartig (STScI), G. Illingworth (UCO/Lick Observatory), the ACS Science Team and ESA

Abel 1689

Clusters: Thousands of galaxies within a radius of 1-10 Mpc

Abel 2029
When X-ray satellites started to go up over the past couple of decades, we got a much different picture of these galaxy clusters; the volume was filled with very hot (10-100 Million K; 1-10 keV), tenuous plasma that emitted in the X-rays -- and what’s more, this wispy gas actually comprises more of the normal matter in these galaxy clusters than the galaxies themselves! This gas is a wonderful laboratory for interesting fluid and plasma dynamics.

R. White (UA; optical), S. Snowden, R. Mushotzky (NASA/GSFC; X-ray)

Virgo:

NASA/CXC/Northwestern/F.Zadeh et al.

Arches

NASA/CXC/SAO http://chandra.harvard.edu/photo/1999/0087/

Hydra A

But the very fact that we can see this gas poses a puzzle. The gas is radiating in the Xrays at a rate that should cause catastrophic cooling. As the central regions cool and fall inwards, outer regions should move inwards, become denser, and start cooling faster; this gas should have collapsed away billions of years ago, vastly changing the makeup of the galaxies at the centre of the cluster. What is keeping it hot?

Bubbles in Galaxy Clusters
• Radio Bubbles (radii 6-20 kpc),
seen as voids in X-rays

• Thought to be inflated by highenergy jets from active central galaxies interfaces

• Seen to have very sharp • Conduction should dissipate
these in ~108 years

NASA/IoA/A.Fabian et al.

A related puzzle is the presence of bubbles in the cluster gas. These bubbles are thought to be filled with extremely hot plasma fed by jets -- jets launched by the supermassive black holes in the centre of the central galaxy. So they represent a very plausible (Image:
The Perseus Cluster: thousands of galaxies, 100Mpc away. At core is the giant cannibal galaxy Perseus A (NGC 1275), accreting matter as gas and galaxiest. Representing low, medium, and high energy x-rays as red, green, and blue colours respectively, this Chandra X-ray Observatory image shows remarkable details of x-ray emission from this monster galaxy and surrounding hot (30-70 million degrees C) cluster gas. The bright central source is the supermassive black hole at the core of Perseus A itself. Dark circular voids just above and below the galaxy center, each about half the size of our own Milky Way Galaxy, are believed to be magnetic bubbles of energetic particles blown by the accreting black hole. Settling toward Perseus A, the cluster's x-ray hot gas piles up forming bright regions around the bubble rims.)

Perseus: A. Fabian (IoA Cambridge) et al., NASA
http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap001031.html

This is the `skull’ picture, showing the same cluster at a somewhat more provocative angle and color, but it also shows that such bubbles persist for quite some distance through the intercluster medium

Cluster Bubbles
Robinson, Dursi et al (2004)
• Bubble’s existence at a distance from inflation point is a puzzle • Purely hydrodynamic bubble will rip itself to a smoke ring in one crossing time

Put bubble rise here

Mergers of Galaxy Clusters
• Minor mergers involve smaller
cluster falling into more massive ones

M. Bruggen, Bremen
Where an infalling smaller core or galaxy looses its identity by completely blending in with the environment has consequences for profiles of enrichment, populations...

This is a poster of a huge cosmological simulation run by a team largely at the MPA in Germany , the `Millenium Run’. The history of these clusters is of a constant stream of mergers with infalling objects, some quite small, some quite large. The final makeup of the cluster will depend on how the mergers proceed.

Applications to Galaxy Clusters: Mergers
• Minor mergers involve smaller • Stripping of small-mass ICM • When/where does this occur? • Consequences for
enrichment, ... cluster falling into more massive ones

M. Bruggen, Bremen

Where an infalling smaller core or galaxy looses its identity by completely blending in with the environment has consequences for profiles of enrichment, populations...

This is a still from the movie that was looping. It shows the basic idea of the `draping’ of a magnetic field; the moving object sweeps up the field lines that it encounters, building up a considerable energy density; field lines can also slide around the object if they are far enough away from the stagnation line. The build up of pressure at the head pushes more field lines aside, so that there is a natural steady state that is reached. (Save more explanation for going over the movie again.)

Draping of Solar wind field around Earth
• Happens very quickly (figure to
right -- 600 s)

• Can induce magnetic field in
even a neutral atmosphere

• Earth Magnetic Field reversals

may not be catastrophic to life

Birk et al (2004)

This isn’t a new idea, and has been known (and observed) for many decades in solar-system circles. Comets and planets moving through solar field & wind undergo this phenomenon, and it has been measured by satellites both directly and indirectly. This is a recent work showing what would happen to an unmagnetized Earth...

Draping of Saturn’s Field over Titan
• Observable with Cassini • Emission from draped field • Observed: `Magnetic Pile-Up
Boundary’, eg Bertucci et al 2005, Neubauer et al 2006

S. A. Ledvina, UC Berkeley

Other bodies moving through other fields have similar dynamics; this is a figure showing a cartoon of Titan moving through the field around Saturn, and the resulting radiative processes that can indicate the strengthened, curved magnetic field. These processes are in principle observable with Cassini

Comets in Solar Wind
• Draping occurs and can distort
velocity, magnetic fields in wind over significant distances

Wegman (2002)
Comets are another example of objects which may substantially distort an ambient magnetic field as well; recent work by Wegmen and others have shown that draping can measurably modify the interplanetary magnetic field and velocity structure of the solar wind over significant distances.

Applications to Galaxy Clusters: Bubbles
• Radio Bubbles (radii 6-20 kpc), • Conduction should dissipate
these in ~108 years seen as voids in X-rays, are seen to have very sharp interfaces

• Could bubble motions sweep
up enough field to suppress conduction?

Xray/optical/radio; bubbles correspond to under-emission in radio.

Applications to Galaxy Clusters: Mergers
• Does magnetic field draping
significantly effect the dynamics of infalling material?

• Does it strongly effect stripping?
M. Bruggen, Bremen
Where an infalling smaller core or galaxy looses its identity by completely blending in with the environment has consequences for profiles of enrichment, populations...

Previous Work: Lyutikov 2004
• Analytics • Particularly along stagnation line
B = ρ 1 1−
3 R0 r3

B ρ

;
0

1 l∼ R M2 A

Previous application to galaxy clusters -- fairly recent.

Asai et al (2004,5,6..)
• Numerics • 2d, 3d • `Kitchen sink’ - turbulent
Yes magnetic field, conduction,...

• Can draping effect conduction?

Asai et al (2004...)

On the other extreme is work done in the `kitchen sink’ model, putting everything conceivable into a simulation and looking to answer one question -- whether the magnetic field built up by draping can effect conduction. Can certainly answer that question under realistic conditions, but hard to gain much insight into the process in this mode.

Our Contributions
• Linear theory analysis - can the thin layer do
anything interesting?

• 3D, AMR numerical experiments of draping
of uniform magnetic fields - like what?

• More careful analytic calculation in potential
flow approximation to compare to simulations, understand dynamics - how?

We’ve tried to really sink our teeth into this fairly simple problem so that we can really understand it and its properties, and then can slowly work our way up to including `kitchen sink’ physics. We’re doing that by using both simple numerical experiments and analytics to get as deep into the problem as we can.

Does it matter?
• • •
Can such a thin layer have interesting dynamic effects? Linear theory analysis Three layers; velocity +/- U, magnetized layer of some thickness/ strength

Rayleigh-Taylor
10

Kelvin-Helmholtz
(Alfvén Speed/Shear Speed)2
10

(Alfvén Speed/Grav Speed)2

7 5

7 5

stable
stable

stable
stable

3

k v2 A g

v2 A U2

3

2 1.5

2 1.5

1 0.02

1 0.02

layer thickness
l Λ

0.05

0.1

0.2

0.5

1

2

layer thickness
l Λ

0.05

0.1

0.2

0.5

1

2

If VA is a few times relevant velocity, can stabilize against wavelengths an order of magnitude longer than thickness of layer

U

U VA = 0.2 U VA = 1.25 U Run with v3.0 of the Athena code

Excellent agreement between theory and simulation!
0.8

0.6

Growth Rate

0.4

0.2

0.0 0.00

0.05 B

0.10

0.15

3D Simulations using FLASH
• AMR very useful for focusing
size of traversed region and thickness of layer straightforward resolution in near draped layer

• Large dynamic range between • Magnetic dynamics relatively

These types of problems are sort of the poster children for adaptive mesh refinement, where high resolution can be applied only at the interesting layer, where the magnetic field is being built up, and in the turbulent wake of the moving projectile. AMR is especially important for 3D simulations, where the computational cost would be too high otherwise. We used the FLASH code for these simulations... Important to emphasize that 3d simulations are necessary

FLASH MHD
• Compressible • Ideal MHD: • Locally neutral • Nonrelativistic • No (explicit) magnetic diffusion, viscosity, thermal diffusion

No displacement current

FLASH MHD
• `8 wave’ Godunov-type scheme • 2nd order accurate • Does not exactly maintain · B = 0

• Uses diffusion to ensure monopoles remain small • Mostly a problem for shocks • AMR, sharp interfaces more important for this problem than high order accuracy

Sometimes, 2D just isn’t enough...

Magnetic Energy Density in 2D

18

18

18

17

17

17

16

16

16

15

15

15

-0.5

0.0

0.5

-0.5

0.0

0.5

-0.5

0.0

0.5

Not only slingshots the bullet backwards, but squishes it, too...

2D

Foreshadowed earlier
• Asai et al 2004, 2005 saw strong
growth of magnetic field in 2d, but only commented on it • Simulation was not run long enough to see that there is no steady state

Asai et al (2005) 3D

3d simulations of a massive `bullet’ moving into a magnetized region of uniform field over the scales of interest. Bullet has a smooth density profile, and it moves into a region where a magnetic field is `turned on’ . Magnetic field initially

vx
38

vy
38

vz
38

!x of kinematic solution

!y of kinematic solution

!z of kinematic solution

Potential flow around solid sphere

36

36

36

34

34

34

32

32

32

30

30

30

28

28

28

26 -2 38 0 2

26 -2 38 0 2

26 -2 38 0 2

!x around draped projectile

!y around draped projectile

!z around draped projectile

36

36

36

3D AMR results

34

34

34

32

32

32

30

30

30

28

28

28

26 -2 0 2

26 -2 0 2

26 -2 0 2

!x / u
-0.07 -0.03 0.00 0.03 0.07 -0.4 -0.2

!y / u
0.0 0.2 0.4 -1.0 -0.7

!z / u
-0.3 0.1 0.4

• Flow ahead of projectile agrees

Analytic MHD approach

× v×B =0 ·B =0

quite well • Gives hope that potential flow can tell us something about the magnetic structure • Kinematic -- flow advects, stretches B, no back-reaction

Agreement with potential flow
Magnetic field strength
ro = 14.0088 r = 1.19687 pow = 3.00000
17

z position

16

15

14

13 0 1 2 B 3 4

y
1 1−
3 R0 r3

x
;
0

B = ρ

B ρ

1 l∼ R M2 A

z

y

38

Bx of kinematic MHD solution

Bx, By, Bz in `draping’ plane
38

By of kinematic MHD solution

38

Bz of kinematic MHD solution

36

36

36

Potential flow around solid sphere

34

34

34

32

32

32

30

30

30

28

28

28

26 -2 38 0 2

26 -2 38 0 2

26 -2 38 0 2

Bx around draped projectile

By around draped projectile

Bz around draped projectile

36

36

36

34

34

34

3d AMR results

32

32

32

30

30

30

28

28

28

26 -2 0 2

26 -2 0 2

26 -2 0 2

Bx / B0
-0.2 -0.1 0.0 0.1 0.2 -0.2 0.7

By / B0
1.6 2.5 3.4 -2.1 -1.1

Bz / B0
0.0 1.1 2.1

38

Bx of kinematic MHD solution

Bx, By, Bz in perpendicular plane
38

By of kinematic MHD solution

38

Bz of kinematic MHD solution

36

36

36

Potential flow around solid sphere

34

34

34

32

32

32

30

30

30

28

28

28

26 -4 38

-2

0

2

4

26 -4 38

-2

0

2

4

26 -4 38

-2

0

2

4

Bx around draped projectile

By around draped projectile

Bz around draped projectile

36

36

36

34

34

34

3d AMR results

32

32

32

30

30

30

28

28

28

26 -4

-2

0

2

4

26 -4

-2

0

2

4

26 -4

-2

0

2

4

Bx / B0
-0.3 -0.2 0.0 0.2 0.3 -0.2 0.7

By / B0
1.6 2.5 3.4 -0.4 -0.1

Bz / B0
0.2 0.5 0.8

36

Magnetic Pressure
PB around draped core

36

Ram Pressure
!"2 around draped core

36

Total Pressure
!"2 + PB around draped core
!"2 + PB, plane with x=0 -2 0 2

0.10

34

34

34 0.08

32

32

32

Draping Plane

30

30

30

0.05

28

28

28

0.03 26 26 26

24 -2 36 0 2

24 -2 36 0 2

24

0.00

PB around draped core

!"2 around draped core

36

!"2 + PB around draped core

0.15

34

34

34 0.11

Perpendicular Plane

30

30

30

!"2 + PB, plane with y=0 -2 0 2 4

32

32

32

0.08

28

28

28

0.04 26 26 26

24 -4

-2

0

2

4

24 -4

-2

0

2

4

24 -4

0.00

Max. Magnetic Pressure on Stagnation Line

Magnetic Field Strength in Draped Layer
• Field has to build not only to
ram pressure back react, but to redirect flow

0.16 0.14 0.12 0.1 0.08 0.06 0.04 0.02 0 0 0.01 0.02 0.03 Magnetic pressure = 2 x ram pressure Data 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07

• To first order, depends only on • Maximum magnetic field
strength ~ 2 x ram pressure

Mean Ram Pressure

Best fit ~ 2.2x ram pressure

Magnetic Tension Force of Cap
• Bent field lines - magnetic
tension

• Field strength in cap greater
than ram pressure seen by projectile

B2 Tension force: 4πR 4ρu2 ∼ R

• Tension is dynamically

important, even in 3D case

Projectile Velocity <u>

Deceleration Due To Tension
• Can be seen as projectile
less moves into magnetized region

Projectile in magnetized region
0.25

0.24

0.23

0.22

• Hydrodynamic drag significantly • Scaling same as viscous drag • Magnitude can be measured

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

Time

Measured Decelleration

Deceleration Due To Tension
• Magnetic layer is strong enough
(and curved enough) that it dominates deceleration turbulent drag for high Re

0.002

0.0015

0.001

0.0005

0 0 0.0002 0.0004

1.87 x (3/8 (Ram Pressure)/(core dens x R)) Data 0.0006 0.0008 0.001

• ~ 4x stronger than viscous/ • ~ 3x stronger in these
somewhat viscous (Re ~ 200) simulations

3/8 x Ram Pressure / (core dens x R)

Opening Angle of Drape
• Comparison with 9 3D
simulations

1.2

1

tan !

0.8

0.6

0.4

• Correlation a little rattier than
other quantities --

0.2 0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

1.2

• Largest scales in simulations,
some effects of Boundary Conditions

Opening angle ~ vA/U

Many simulations, varying several parameters; here we vary only the velocity of the `bullet’.

Opening angle ~ vA/U

Opening angle ~ vA/U

Generation of Vorticity
• Magnetic contact layer induces • Operates primarily in plane
along field lines in other plane vorticity in fluid elements which cross it

• Much less vorticity generation

Long-term Behaviour
• Evolution of core after it has
swept past roughly its own mass

• Mixed material `fills up’ drape • Highly constrained in other
plane!

Y slice: No Magnetic Field
20 20

X slice: No Magnetic Field

19

19

Long-term Behaviour
• Evolution of core after it has
swept past roughly its own mass

18

18

17

17

16

16

-3

-2

-1

0

1

2

3

-3

-2

-1

0

1

2

3

Y slice: Beta=100
20 20

X slice: Beta=100

19

19

18

18

• Mixed material `fills up’ drape • Highly constrained in other
plane!

17

17

16

16

-2

-1

0

1

2

-2

-1

0

1

2

10

13 4

25 9

38 3

50 7

63 2

75 6

Conclusions
• Very quickly drape strong magnetized layer • Even thin layer can have interesting effects
protecting object against indignities of shearing into environment hydro drag

• Drape can slow down core by ~4x over • Geometry gives probe of ambient field

Future work
• Direct visibility of draped layer? • Supersonic case • Underdense Bubble • Turbulent field (what is smallest scale on
which a field gets draped?)

• Other applications

Irresponsible Speculation:
Containing Mira’s Tail?

NASA Galex

Y slice: No Magnetic Field
20 20

X slice: No Magnetic Field

19

19

Long-term Behaviour
• Evolution of core after it has
swept past roughly its own mass

18

18

17

17

16

16

-3

-2

-1

0

1

2

3

-3

-2

-1

0

1

2

3

Y slice: Beta=100
20 20

X slice: Beta=100

19

19

18

18

• Mixed material `fills up’ drape • Highly constrained in other
plane!

17

17

16

16

-2

-1

0

1

2

-2

-1

0

1

2

10

13 4

25 9

38 3

50 7

63 2

75 6

on arXiv: arxiv.org/abs/0711.0213 arxiv.org/abs/0706.3216 Paper with interactive 3D graphics: http://www.cita.utoronto.ca/~ljdursi/draping/

FLASH MHD Eqns

Powell et al. 1999
Properly symmetrized; 8-waves

Active Galaxies to the rescue?
• Central galaxies frequently very
active. • Massive black holes in the centre form engines for extremely strong jets. • Can this be heating the gas?