Digital Image Processing (DIP

)
Dr. Muhammad Nawaz
Assistant Professor (Multimedia Technologies)
8//!" !
8//!" #
Digital Image Processing (DIP)
Te$t %oo&s and notes !. '. (. )onzalez and '. *. +oods,
-Digital Image Processing”, #
nd edition, Pearson *ducation,
Inc., #..#.
#. “Digital Image Processing using MATLAB” '. (. )onzalez , '. *.
+oods and /.0. *ddins Pearson *ducation, Inc., #..".
1. (lass /lides
Additional %oo&s 2. (. 'uss, -The Image Processing Handbook”, fourth edition,
('( Press, #..#.
8//!" 1
Pre3re4uisites for the course
!. 5nowledge of 6ro%a%ilit7 and random 8aria%les,
9ectors and Matrices.
#. +or&ing &nowledge of MAT0A:
1. /ignals and /7stems, and D/P courses es6eciall7 the
conce6ts of (on8olution, ;;T, filtering, etc.
Class yahoo group:
8//!" "
)rading Polic7< :rea&u6


Term !< =#.>

Term #< =#.>

Term 1< =#.>

(om6rehensi8e< =".>

/ur6rise ?uizzes< @>

Assignments ( written A 6rogramming) @#.>

ProBect @!>
333333333333333333
!..
)rading %rea&u6 can change without an7 notice during the
semester in %enefit of all the students
8//!"
)rading Polic7< e8aluation

)rades are gi8en according to the class standings of the
student (relative marking)

*$am6le<

Average marks of the class will get around B grade

Around top 10% of the class student will get A

The grading will follow the approximate bell shaped curve
8//!" C
Assignments

Please chec& the class 7ahoo grou6 __________ e8er7 da7, for
the notification of assignments, 6roBects and other u6dated
information.

Assignments ma7 %e written assignments of 6rogramming
assignments.

There will %e a total of around 8 assignments.

The deadline for the su%mission of assignment will %e gi8en with
the assignment.

Assignments su%mitted after the deadline will not %e acce6ted and
will carr7 ZERO MARKS.

(heated assignments will get ZERO MARKS.
8//!" D
0a%s

The 6ur6ose of the la%s is to guide the students to
6racticall7 im6lement the conce6ts co8ered in the class

The la% will co8er onl7 the %asic image 6rocessing
techni4ues li&e image enhancement, restoration and
filtering
8//!" 8
ProBect

ProBects will ha8e @!> weight in the total mar&s.

ProBects ma7 %e conducted indi8iduall7 or in grou6s of two
students.

Different suggested to6ics for 6roBects will %e u6loaded on the
class 7ahoo grou6.

'eading material and other sources for e8er7 6roBect to hel6 the
students will also %e gi8en.

If 7ou want to do 7our own 6roBect ta&e 6ermission first.

ProBect to6ics should %e selected and a66ro8ed %efore fi8e wee&s
of (om6rehensi8e e$am.

ProBect 6resentation date will %e announced and 6roBects will not
%e acce6ted after the 6resentation date.

ProBects consisting of Downloaded codes or 6resentations will not
%e acce6ted will carr7 E*'F MA'5/.
8//!" G
Why do we process images?

;acilitate 6icture storage and transmission

Efficientl store an image in a digital camera

!end an image through mobile phone

*nhance and restore images

"emove scratches from an old photo

#mprove visibilit of tumor in a radiograph

*$tract information from images

$easure water pollution from aerial images

$easure the %& distances and heights of ob'ects from stereo
images

Pre6are for dis6la7 or 6rinting

Ad'ust image si(e

)alftoning

:iometrics %ased identification
8//!" !.
Image Processing *$am6les
Photo restoration
Damaged Image 'estored Image
8//!" !!
Image Processing *$am6les
:lac& and white Photo colorization
Friginal :/+ Image colorized Image Friginal Image (olorized Image
8//!" !#
Image Processing *$am6les
(olor 6hoto enhancement


Friginal Images *nhanced Images
8//!" !1
Image *nhancement
Initial image Final image
Performed steps: Gaussian blur, contrast enhancement,
median flter and sharpening. Processing made by
Photoshop.
Example taken from microscopy.berkeley.educoursesdib
8//!" !"
;ault7 image of /aturn 'eco8ered image
Image Processing *$am6les
'estoration of image from Hu%%le /6ace Telesco6e
8//!" !
Image Processing *$am6les
*$traction of settlement area from an aerial image
Degraded Image Noise3reduced Image
8//!" !C
Image Processing *$am6les
*arth4ua&e anal7sis from s6ace
Image shows the ground dis6lacement of a t76ical area due to earth4ua&e
8//!" !D
Image Processing *$am6les

Medical Imaging< (om6uter Tomogra6h7 ((T)

Generating 3-D images from 2-D slices.

CAD, CAM applications

Industrial inspections
8//!" !8
Image Processing *$am6les

Medical Imaging< (om6uter Aided Tomogra6h7 ((AT)
8//!" !G
Image Processing *$am6les

Medical Imaging< Iltrasound imaging
8//!" #.
Image Processing *$am6les
Medical imaging< A8eraging M'I slices for &nee image

8//!" #!
Image Processing *$am6les
Image com6ression
Friginal 2P*) #D<!
8//!" ##
Image Processing *$am6les
Image com6ression
Friginal 2P*)#... #D<!
8//!" #1
Image Processing *$am6les
;ace detection
8//!" #"
Image Processing *$am6les
;ace Trac&ing
8//!" #
Image Processing *$am6les
;ace Mor6hing
8//!" #C
Image Processing *$am6les
;inger6rint recognition
X

X
8//!" #D
Personal Identification using Iris 'ecognition
National )eogra6hics< -Afghan )irlJ






1983 2000
8//!" #8
'emo8ing geometric distortions of camera
8//!" #G
A66lications of DIP
Categoriation a!!or"ing to image #o$r!e#

*lectromagnetic (*M) %and Imaging

*amma ra images

x+ra band images

ultra+violet band images

visual light and infra+red images

#maging based on micro+waves and radio waves

Non3*M %and Imaging

Acoustic and ultrasonic images

Electron $icroscop

,omputer+generated snthetic images
8//!" 1.
*M /6ectrum
8//!" 1!
A66lications of DIP
EM band imaging

)amma3ra7 imaging

-uclear medicine, astronomical observations.

K3ra7 Imaging

$edical diagnostics /,AT scans, x+ra scans0, industr,
astronom.

Iltra38iolet imaging

1luorescence microscop, astronom,

9isi%le L Infrared3%and imaging (most widel7 used)

2ight microscop, astronom, remote sensing, industr, law
enforcement, militar recogni(ance, etc.

Micro3wa8e and radio %and imager7

"adar, $edicine /$"#0, astronom
8//!" 1#
A66lications of DIP
Non-EM band imaging

Acoustic imaging (hundreds of Hz)

Geological exploration (oil exploration)

Ultrasound imaging (millions of Hz)

Industry and medicine especially in obstetrics, determine the health
of the fetal development

Electron microscopic imaging

Used to achieve magnification of 10,000x or more

(Light microscopy is limited to around 1000x)

ynthetic imaging

3D modeling or visualization systems for flight simulators, machine
design, special effects and animations,etc.
8//!" 11
Classification of !"# and Computer $ision #rocesses

%ow&le'el process: (!"#)

rimitive operations !here inputs and outputs are images "a#or
functions$ image pre%processing li&e noise reduction, contrast
enhancement, image sharpening, etc.

(id&le'el process (!"# and Computer $ision and #attern
)ecognition)

Inputs are images, outputs are attributes (e.g., edges) ma#or
functions$ segmentation, description, classification ' recognition of
ob#ects

High&le'el process (Computer $ision)

ma&e sense of an ensemble of recognized ob#ects( perform the
cognitive functions normally associated !ith vision
8//!" 1"
Image Processing /te6s
Imaging
Image ac4uisition
Digitization, 4uantization and
com6ression
*nhancement and restoration
Image segmentation
;eature selection/e$traction
Image re6resentation
Image inter6retation
Ph7sical world
Ph7sical action
Image Processing
Imaging Anal7sis
((om6uter 9ision and
Pattern recognition)
Image understanding
((om6uter 9ision and
Pattern recognition)
8//!" 1
Image Processing (om6uter 8ision and P'

Image ac4uisition %7 sensor

Image sam6ling and 4uantization
Image )eometrical 'ectification

(amera geometr7
;eature *$traction

*dge and Interest 6oints detection

Te$ture and shading

/ha6e from te$ture and shading
(alculation on Multi6le 9iews

Multi38iew geometr7 and /tereo imaging

/tructure from motion
/egmentation

Im6ose some order on grou6 of 6i$els to
se6arate them from each other
Tem6late matching
Image enhancement and restoration

;iltering in s6atial domain or
fre4uenc7 domain
;eature *$traction

*dge detection

Interest 6oints
(olored image Processing

Pseudo coloring

(olor segmentation
Multi3resolution anal7sis

P7ramids

+a8elets

Fther transformations
Image and 8ideo com6ression

Image com6ression standards

9ideo com6ression standards
/egmentation
(lassification and 'ecognition

(lassification and inter6retation of o%Bects
%ased on selected features

'ecognize o%Bects using 6ro%a%ilistic
techni4ues
D
i
g
i
t
a
l

I
m
a
g
e

P
r
o
c
e
s
s
i
n
g
(
o
m
6
u
t
e
r

9
i
s
i
o
n
P
a
t
t
e
r
n

'
e
c
o
g
n
i
t
i
o
n
8//!" 1C
/co6e of DIP (ourse

Digital image fundamentals and image ac4uisition (%riefl7)

Image enhancement in s6atial domain

pixel operations

histogram processing

1iltering

Image enhancement in fre4uenc7 domain

Transformation and reverse transformation

1re3uenc domain filters

)omomorphic filtering

Image sam6ling

Image restoration

-oise reduction techni3ues

*eometric transformations

(olor image 6rocessing

,olor models

4seudocolor image processing

,olor transformations and color segmentation
8//!" 1D
/co6e of DIP (ourse (continued)

+a8elets and multi3resolution 6rocessing

$ulti+resolution expansion

5avelet transforms, etc.

Image com6ression

#mage compression models

Error free compression

2oss compression, etc

Image segmentation

Edge, point and boundar detection

Thresholding

"egion based segmentation, etc

Mor6hological image 6rocessing

&ilation and erosion

6pening closing

)it or miss transformation

Basic morphological algorithms

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful