Executive Education Schools

Elementary School Program
Of Studies

Executive Education Schools

Grade K

ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS
Standards-based instruction is critical to the kindergarten curriculum. Such instruction
develops students’ literacy and proficiency in English language arts. The standards describe
what students are expected to know and be able to do by the end of the school year. The
CCSS integrate the strands of English language arts: Reading, Writing, Speaking and
Listening, and Language. Students in kindergarten begin to demonstrate their understanding
of the organizational and basic features of print as they learn to track print and distinguish
words from pictures and letters from words. Students should learn the basics of sound-print
code and begin to develop comprehension strategies that will enable them to manipulate
grade-level texts of appropriate complexity, including both fiction and informational texts.
Students will begin to identify main ideas, as well as basic story elements. Kindergarten
students will develop the ability to write letters and represent words with letters. They will
begin to build a sight word vocabulary. Kindergarteners will continue to increase the
complexity of their spoken language and to use language in both one-on-one and group
settings.

By the end of Kindergarten, students will:

Concepts of Print
• Realize that speech can be recorded in words
• Distinguish letters from words
• Recognize that words are separated by spaces
• Follow words left to right and from top to bottom
• Recognize that print represents spoken language
• Demonstrate understanding of the function of a book and its parts
Phonological Awareness
• Demonstrate understanding that spoken words consist of sequences of phonemes
• Demonstrate phonemic awareness by rhyming, clapping syllables and substituting
sounds
• Understand that the sequence of letters in a written word represents the sequence of
sounds in a spoken word
• Learn most one-one letter-sound correspondences
• Given a spoken word, produce another word that rhymes with it
Decoding and Word Recognition
• Recognize some words by sight
• Recognize and name most upper and lowercase letters
• Recognize and read one's name
Fluency
Executive Education Schools

• Practice reading behaviors such as retelling, reenacting or dramatizing stories
• Recognize when a simple text does not make sense when listening to a read aloud
• Attempt to follow along in a book while listening to a story
• Listen and respond attentively to fiction and nonfiction texts
Reading Strategies
• Begin to track and follow print when listening to a familiar text
• Make simple predictions about a text
• Use picture clues to aid comprehension
• Relate personal experiences to story characters' experiences, language, customs and
cultures
• "Read" familiar texts from memory and partially from text
Vocabulary
• Continue to develop a vocabulary through meaningful, concrete experiences
• Identify and sort words into categories
• Explain meanings of common signs and symbols
• Use new vocabulary and proper grammatical structure when speaking
Comprehension Skills
• Respond to a variety of poems and stories through art, music, movement and drama
• Orally identify the main character, setting, and important events from a Read Aloud
• Identify favorite books and stories
• Retell a story using main character and events
• Participate in shared reading experiences
• Make predictions based on illustrations or portions of stories
Inquiry and Research
• Locate and know the purposes for various literacy areas of the classroom
• Choose books related to topics of interest
MATH
Effective mathematics education provides students with a balanced instructional program. In
such a program, students become proficient in basic computational skills and procedures,
develop conceptual understandings, and become adept at problem solving. Standards-based
mathematics instruction starts with basic material and increases in scope and content as the
year’s progress. In Kindergarten students will concentrate on numbers. They will use
numbers to represent quantities and to solve quantitative problems. Through the student of
numbers students will develop cardinality, counting strategies, and strategies for joining and
separating within 10 and to make ten. Students will use positional words, descriptive words,
and mathematical terms to tell about their physical world. The Kindergarten year outlined in
this scope and sequence document begins with developing strategies for counting by ones.
In the first unit students will learn to count to 10. In subsequent units students build on this
Executive Education Schools

understanding to expand counting to 12, then 20, then 50, and finally, 100. By the end of
Kindergarten, students count to 100 by ones and by tens. They concept of number builds as
the year proceeds. Students will be able to read, write and represent quantities to 20. They
compare quantities and numerals up to 10. As Kindergarten students develop their ability to
compose and decompose numbers, they learn to fluently add and subtract within 5. A
second critical area for kindergarten is geometry- describing shapes and space. Geometrical
ideas are developed throughout the Kindergarten year. The year begins with describing
location and position of shapes. Later students classify, compare and count 2-D and 3-D
shapes. Finally, they compose and create shapes.

Throughout Kindergarten, students should continue to develop proficiency with the
Common Core's Eight Standards for Mathematical Practice. These practices should become
the natural way in which students come to understand and do mathematics. While,
depending on the content to be understood or on the problem to be solved, any practice
might be brought to bear, some practices may prove more useful than others. Opportunities
for highlighting certain practices are indicated in different units in this scope and sequence,
but this highlighting should not be interpreted that other practices should be neglected in
those units.

SOCIAL STUDIES
In kindergarten, students begin the study of history–social science with concepts anchored in
the experiences they bring to school from their families and communities. Students explore
what it means to be a good citizen, national symbols, work (now and long ago), geography,
time and chronology, and life in the past. Teachers are encouraged to build students’
understanding of history–social science concepts while furthering beginning literacy skills as
outlined in the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). For example, shared readings of
narrative and expository text related to the history–social science standards can reinforce
academic content vocabulary, concepts about print, phonemic awareness, the alphabetic
principle, analysis of text, and fluency.

SCIENCE
During kindergarten, students participate in classroom discussions to share ideas and
evidence and are provided with opportunities to change or revise understandings based on
new evidence. Hands-on activities and games help develop skills and should include explicit
teaching of scientific concepts and vocabulary. Kindergarteners use their senses of sight,
sound, and touch to investigate a variety of objects and learn how to classify, compare, and
sort these objects. They observe, measure, and predict the properties of materials. They
begin the study of the properties of matter and its transformation, and observe and describe
different types of plants and animals. In addition, kindergarteners use the study of weather as
a basis for the study of earth science, including the characteristics of land, air, and water and
the use of Earth’s resources in everyday life. Students expand their vocabularies by learning
appropriate grade-level scientific terms, such as freezing, melting, heating, dissolving, and
evaporating. Kindergarten science topics are organized into four standard sets: Physical
Sciences, Life Sciences, Earth Sciences, and Investigation and Experimentation. As students
learn the content defined by the standards in the Life, Earth, and Physical Sciences strands,
they are also practicing investigation and experimentation skills. That is, the investigation and
experimentation standards should be infused throughout science instruction. During
Executive Education Schools

kindergarten, students participate in classroom discussions to share ideas and evidence and
are provided with opportunities to change or revise understandings based on new evidence.

ART
Students first encounter visual art at the kindergarten level as an integral part of a variety of
creative and developmentally appropriate experiences in music, dramatics, movement, arts,
and crafts. They may identify lines, colors, shapes and forms, and textures. They may begin
to talk about perspective, noticing how objects appear to be larger when close and smaller
when far away. Students use this visual information to create works of art on geometric
shapes and paper and in three-dimensional constructions, using geometric shapes and lines.
Then they advance into analysis as they discover meaning and stories in works of art and see
how other artists use the same lines, colors, shapes, and textures as the students did in their
own work. Now they have a vocabulary to use as they tell why they like a work of art they
made and learn about a variety of artwork in the world around them.

MUSIC
Through music activities, students sing and play instruments, become aware of music in their
daily experience, and learn about music from various cultures. Creating movements in
response to music helps students to connect to dance and discern variations in rhythm,
tempo, and dynamics.

HEALTH
Through health education, students learn skills that enable them to make healthy choices and
avoid high-risk behaviors. They also learn health concepts and acquire related knowledge.
Students develop communication skills, decision-making and goal-setting skills, refusal
techniques, and the ability to access health information and assess its accuracy. They learn
health skills and content simultaneously. Health literacy is a primary goal of health education.
Health literacy is defined as the capacity of an individual to obtain, interpret, and understand
basic health information and services and the competence to use such information and
services to enhance health. The knowledge and skills that comprise health literacy are woven
throughout the health education content standards. The health education content standards
provide a vision of what students need to know and be able to do so they can adopt and
maintain healthy behaviors. In kindergarten, students learn basic health concepts and skills.
They learn how to plan nutritious meals and snacks and the importance of physical activity
for good health. They learn that living things grow, and they gain knowledge of their own
body parts and the five senses. Concepts and skills for staying safe at home and school and
while riding in a vehicle or on a bicycle are introduced. In kindergarten, students learn to
identify trusted adults and the people to go to for medical, vision, and dental care and for
help with mental and emotional health concerns. By the end of kindergarten, students can
demonstrate ways to prevent the spread of disease, such as washing hands, and simple
practices that are good for the environment, such as turning off lights and picking up trash.

PHYSICAL EDUCATION
Physical Education in Kindergarten is based on the PA Standards for Physical Education.
Students in the kindergarten physical education program build on the sequential learning
experiences of the early childhood program with an emphasis on how students move in the
environment. Students learn fundamental locomotors (walking, running, hopping, skipping,
jumping, sliding, galloping), non-loco motor (bending, twisting, turning, rocking, swaying,
Executive Education Schools

rolling, balancing, stretching, pushing and pulling) and manipulative (rolling, throwing,
catching/collecting, bouncing, kicking, dribbling, volleying, and striking) skills through a
wide variety of activities. These experiences include initial exposure to fitness concepts and
fitness development exercises. Activities encourage socialization, feelings of personal
success, expressing ideas through movement, and the integration and reinforcement of a
variety of educational concepts. Ongoing assessment is conducted throughout the
curriculum.

INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNOLOGY
Instructional Technology K-5 Curricululm forms its foundation by utilizing the ISTE’s
National Education Technology Standards for Students (NET*S) for the Technology Scope
and Sequence. In this course sequence students focus on basic concepts operations and
concepts, social, ethical, human issues, and technology tools. These courses are accelerated
to give students proficiency before taking course work in the middle years. The most
effective approach to the elementary computer lab instruction is to combine the computer
work with current classroom lessons. This creates continuity in students’ learning so they
don’t have to go back and forth between different topics. The computer lab can be used to
emphasize the current topics being presented in the classroom. It should not be a competing
force in their learning but something that engages students and keeps them interested in
their education.
This is the time to establish a foundational understanding of computers. Until now, these
students have probably considered computers as a source of entertainment. The curriculum
will present the computer as a tool to help them get something done. At this level, though, it
won’t be so much about “creating” anything. It is about the pieces, how they all work
together and how to use all of the pieces to do something useful.
This grade level will spend time accessing things on the computer that will retain the
students’ interests and help them gain the skills to work with all of the components. A
sample curriculum for the Kindergarten class includes these tools and lessons:
• Monitor
• Keyboard
• Mouse
• Disk drive
• CD/DVD
• Printer
• Demonstrate how to use each component
• Demonstrate how to turn the computer, monitor and printer on and off
• Demonstrate how to use the mouse and keyboard

This is also a good time to begin talking about computer etiquette such as how to behave
while one is on the computer and how to respect the equipment they are using.
At this level, having a series of icons on the screen that take a child to an educational website
is helpful. Sites that help children exercise their use of the mouse and keyboard are useful.
Executive Education Schools

Since the students are still learning their alphabet, the keyboard will be used more for
mimicking instructions rather than creating something. For example, an online game that
asks the student to press the key that matches the picture they see on the screen can be
helpful.
There is also the opportunity to tie in reading and writing skills with the computer at this
level. Make sure the difference is explained between writing on paper with a pencil and
“writing” on the computer. The computer shouldn’t distract from the student’s reading and
writing efforts.
Software that may be introduced at this level could be a graphics or paint program. The
visual reward of such tools can help the students develop their mouse and keyboard skills.

WORLD LANGUAGES K-3 (MANDARIN)
World Languages K-3 focuses on the student’s self, emphasizing developmentally
appropriate vocabulary that is relevant to the student and his or her immediate, familiar
environment. The principle objectives for these grades are developing listening
comprehension skills and fostering confident interpersonal communication. While print and
written materials can be present in the classroom setting to enable peripheral learning and to
generate student interest, interpretive skills related to reading are not explicitly taught in the
introductory grades. Emphasis is also given to developing student awareness of relationships
between the target language and cultures, as well as reinforcing concepts from other content
areas. World Languages – Grades K-3 is designed to be a sequential Foreign Language in the
Elementary School course that builds to communicative proficiency in a world language.

Grade 1
ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS
Standards-based instruction is critical to developing students’ literacy and proficiency in
English language arts. The standards describe what students are expected to know and be
able to do by the end of this school year. The CCSS integrate the strands of English language
arts: Reading, Writing, Speaking and Listening, and Language.

First grade students are exposed to a wide variety of poetry, fiction and non-fiction as part of
a balanced literacy program. They start to produce published writing pieces and will begin to
collaborate on basic research projects. By the end of first grade students will be able to
sound out and recognize many one-syllable and multisyllabic words and will have a strong
sight word vocabulary.

By the end of grade 1 students’ will:

Concepts About Print
• Match oral words to printed words
• Practice reading print in the home and the environment
• Locate and identify the title, author and illustrator of a book or selection
• Interpret simple graphs, charts, and diagrams
Executive Education Schools

Phonological Awareness
• Demonstrate an understanding of all sound-symbol relationships
• Blend or segment the phonemes of one-syllable words
• Listen and identify the number of syllables in a word
• Merge spoken segments into a word
• Add, delete or change sounds to change words
Decoding and Word Recognition
• Identify all consonant sounds in spoken words
• Recognize and use rhyming words to reinforce decoding skills
• Decode regular one-syllable words and nonsense words
• Use sound-letter correspondence knowledge to sound out unknown words when
reading text
• Recognize high frequency words in and out of context
• Decode unknown words using basic phonetic analysis
• Decode unknown words using context clues
Fluency
• Answer questions correctly that are posed about stories read
• Begin to read simple text with fluency
• Read with fluency grade appropriate fiction and nonfiction text
Reading Strategies
• Use prior knowledge to comprehend text
• Establish a purpose for reading and adjust reading rate
• Use pictures as cues to check for understanding
• Monitor comprehension while reading and use strategies to self-correct
• Use graphic organizers to build on experiences and extend learning
• Begin to apply study skills strategies
Vocabulary and Concept Development
• Develop a vocabulary of 300-500 high frequency sight words and phonetically
regular words
• Use and explain common antonyms and synonyms
• Comprehend vocabulary in fiction and nonfiction texts
Comprehension Skills and Response to Text
• Draw simple conclusions from information gathered from pictures, print and
discussions
• Demonstrate familiarity with various genres of text
• Sequence information from text into a logical order for retelling
Executive Education Schools

• Identify, describe, compare, and contrast the elements of plot, setting and characters
• Make simple inferences
• Read regularly at independent reading level
• Read silently and independently for a specific purpose
Inquiry and Research
• Ask and answer questions related to a topic of interest
• Draw conclusions from information gathered
• Read a variety of fiction and nonfiction text and provide evidence of such
MATH
Previously, students learned to count in order, count to find out "how many", and model
addition and subtraction with small sets of objects. Students identified and described
geometrical shapes, as well as created and composed shapes. In Grade 1, students develop
strategies for adding and subtracting whole numbers based on their prior work with small
numbers. They develop an understanding for the relationship between addition and
subtraction and develop efficient strategies for adding, subtracting and comparing within
100. The measurement focus at this grade level is on iterating (repetition) and transitivity (the
relationship between three elements); the geometric focus is on composition and
decomposition of shapes, and comparing their attributes.

The Grade 1 year in this scope and sequence builds on the previous year's experience with
small numbers to introduce the concept of a "ten" as a bundle of ones and to familiarize
students with mathematical symbols for comparison. As the year progresses, they begin to
think of whole numbers in terms of tens and ones. Students develop understanding and
strategies for addition and subtraction within 20. Students generalize methods to add within
100 using concrete models or drawings. They are expected to become fluent with addition
and subtraction within 10.

To further their understanding of properties of geometric shapes, students compose and
decompose figures and build understanding of part-whole relationships. The three geometry
units provide time throughout the year to develop vocabulary and reasoning with shapes and
their attributes. Students develop understanding of linear measurement and understand that
length is measured in equal-sized units. They also compare lengths indirectly.

Throughout First Grade, students should continue to develop proficiency with the Common
Core's Eight Standards for Mathematical Practice. These practices should become the
natural way in which students come to understand and do mathematics. While, depending
on the content to be understood or on the problem to be solved, any practice might be
brought to bear, some practices may prove more useful than others. Opportunities for
highlighting certain practices are indicated in different units in this scope and sequence, but
this highlighting should not be interpreted that other practices should be neglected in those
units.

SCIENCE
Executive Education Schools

First-grade students are expected to learn both the content and process of science. Effective
science programs reflect a balanced, comprehensive approach that includes the teaching of
investigation and experimentation skills along with direct instruction. Key elements of a
balanced science program include explicit teaching of science content and concepts,
identifying students’ prior knowledge, and addressing student misconceptions. Investigation
skills should also be highlighted, with students encouraged to find answers or reach
conclusions using their own experiences or observations. High-quality science instruction
should also develop students’ command of the academic language of science and use
standards-based connections with other core subjects to reinforce science teaching and
learning. Safety should always be the foremost consideration in teacher modeling, the design
of demonstrations, investigation and experiments, and science projects. Safety must be
taught. Knowing and following safe practices in science are a part of understanding the
nature of science and scientific enterprise. Students in first grade learn about the properties
of solids, liquids, and gases and use words and drawings to record their observations about
various objects. They deepen their understanding of the needs and structures of plants and
animals. First-grade students also continue their study of weather, observing, measuring, and
recording weather conditions regularly to learn more about day-to-day and seasonal changes.
They use simple tools and technology, with adult assistance provided as necessary. First
graders respond to who, what, when, where, and how questions. They expand their
vocabulary by learning appropriate grade-level scientific terms (such as freezing, melting,
heating, dissolving, and evaporating). They participate in classroom discussions to share
ideas and evidence and learn to reevaluate their thinking when presented with new evidence.
They make new observations when discrepancies exist between two descriptions of the same
object or phenomenon. Science learning is facilitated by hands-on activities and games that
include explicit teaching of scientific concepts and vocabulary. Science topics in first grade
are organized into four sets of standards: Physical Sciences, Life Sciences, Earth Sciences,
and Investigation and Experimentation. As students learn the content defined by the
standards in the Life, Earth, and Physical Sciences strands, they are also practicing
investigation and experimentation skills. That is, the investigation and experimentation
standards should be infused throughout science instruction.

SOCIAL STUDIES
Students in the first grade are ready to learn more about the world in which they live and
about their responsibilities to other people. They begin to learn how necessary it is for
people and groups to work together and how to resolve problems through cooperation.
Students’ expanding sense of place and spatial relationships provides readiness for new
geographic learning and a deeper understanding of chronology. Students also are ready to
develop a deeper understanding of cultural diversity and to appreciate the many people from
various backgrounds and ways of life in the world. Students also begin to develop economic
literacy as they learn about work both in and outside the home and the exchange of goods
and services for money. Teachers are also encouraged to build understanding of history–
social science concepts while furthering beginning literacy skills as outlined in the Common
Core State Standards (CCSS). For example, shared readings of narrative and expository texts
related to the history–social science standards can reinforce academic content vocabulary;
concepts about print, phonemic awareness, and the alphabetic principle; analysis of text; and
fluency. At the first grade level, students develop thinking and decision-making skills
through active participation as members of their school and neighborhood. They learn to
identify events and changes taking place in the school and local community and classify
Executive Education Schools

events as taking place “today,” “yesterday,” and “long ago.” First grade students have the
opportunities to discuss ways in which people are alike and different and how people around
the world work and use resources to meet their needs. Students in grade one learn to
explain why rules are needed in groups and apply rules to different group situations. They
are given opportunities to practice citizenship skills through participation in a variety of
group activities.
ART
Working in flat, two-dimensional formats, students create three-dimensional works of art
through the use of texture and color. Along with learning the elements of art, such as line,
color, shape, and texture, students describe a variety of subject matter in works of art. For
example, they can examine landscapes portrayed in early-morning light or at night; seascapes
on a calm or stormy day; portraits of men and women, boys and girls; and still-life
compositions of objects large to small, bright to dull, and rough to smooth.

MUSIC
Singing and playing classroom instruments improve students’ listening skills, accuracy and
technique, and understanding of musical forms. By improvising simple rhythmic
accompaniments and learning singing games from various cultures, students begin their
creative work in music. They focus their listening and relate to music and dance by creating
and performing movements.

HEALTH
Through health education, students learn skills that enable them to make healthy choices and
avoid high-risk behaviors. They also learn health concepts and acquire related knowledge.
Students develop communication skills, decision-making and goal-setting skills, refusal
techniques, and the ability to access health information and assess its accuracy. They learn
health skills and content simultaneously. Health literacy is a primary goal of health education.
Health literacy is defined as the capacity of an individual to obtain, interpret, and understand
basic health information and services and the competence to use such information and
services to enhance health. The knowledge and skills that comprise health literacy are woven
throughout the health education content standards. The health education content standards
provide a vision of what students need to know and be able to do so they can adopt and
maintain healthy behaviors.

In first grade, student learning is centered on three topic areas: Growth and Development,
Injury Prevention and Safety, and Personal and Community Health. Students learn more
about how living things grow, their own body parts, and their families. Personal safety is a
major focus, including safety at home, at school, and in the community. Students learn how
to identify and report dangerous situations. In first grade, students begin to learn refusal
skills in personal-safety situations and how to ask for help from trusted adults when feeling
unsafe. First grade also includes instruction on bullying, inappropriate touching, and conflict
resolution. Students learn about personal hygiene, common health problems and diseases,
and sun safety. They practice behaviors that promote their health and development as they
acquire more skills in obtaining valid information, communicating, making decisions, and
setting goals. They also begin to promote the health and well being of others.

Executive Education Schools

PHYSICAL EDUCATION
Elementary physical education programs emphasize the importance of physical activity and
personal fitness. Fitness is developed through the activities in the daily lessons, which
emphasize physical activity, continuous movement, and challenges that involve overloading
the major muscle groups. Students have opportunities to understand the fitness components,
fitness assessment, and the need for a lifetime of physical activity. Participation in physical
activity also can be an important venue for the social, psychological, and emotional
development of children. The elementary school physical education program emphasizes the
development of fundamental loco motor, non-loco motor, and manipulative skills. In grade
one, students practice and build on the foundational skills they learned in kindergarten.
Students continue to practice and improve their loco motor skills, jumping, hopping,
galloping, sliding, walking, running, leaping, and skipping with more confidence. They learn
about movement qualities, particularly space and time. They are improving hand–eye
coordination and reaction time make the manipulation of objects easier, but they must
practice basic manipulative skills to improve their technique. Static and dynamic balances
also improve, which allows for the learning of more advanced tumbling and dancing skills.
First-grade students also learn to share, take turns, and work with others.

INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNOLOGY
In First and Second Grade, students are introduced to the concept of creating something
brand new. A simple word-processing program or text editor becomes the whiteboard for
the students at this level. They learn how to create and edit simple documents, and work
their way up to actual class assignments.
Some example exercises for this level are:
• How information is stored on the computer: the concept of files and folders
• Accessing folders and finding files
• Starting the editor program
• Creating a new file, opening an existing file
• Adding new text and editing existing text
• Saving the file so it may be found and edited later
• Basic formatting commands (e.g., bold, italic, underline)

WORLD LANGUAGES K-3 (MANDARIN)
World Languages K-3 focuses on the student’s self, emphasizing developmentally
appropriate vocabulary that is relevant to the student and his or her immediate, familiar
environment. The principle objectives for these grades are developing listening
comprehension skills and fostering confident interpersonal communication. While print and
written materials can be present in the classroom setting to enable peripheral learning and to
generate student interest, interpretive skills related to reading are not explicitly taught in the
introductory grades. Emphasis is also given to developing student awareness of relationships
between the target language and cultures, as well as reinforcing concepts from other content
areas. World Languages – Grades K-3 is designed to be a sequential Foreign Language in the
Elementary School course that builds to communicative proficiency in a world language.
Executive Education Schools


Executive Education Schools


Grade 2
ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS
For students in second grade, instruction focuses on developing literacy and proficiency in
language arts with the goal that all students become lifelong readers, competent writers, and
effective communicators. Literacy is critical to academic success and is the key to becoming
an independent learner in all other disciplines. Students need to be competent in reading and
English language arts to be able to obtain information in all content areas and communicate
to others what they have learned. By the end of second grade, students should be able to
read with accuracy and fluency to support their comprehension of literature and
informational text. Their oral reading skills should be developed to the point that they can
read grade-level text orally with expression In Grade 2, students become more secure in their
ability to read and write independently. Consequently, it is crucial for them to be exposed to
rich literature from a variety of genres. Throughout the course, students will continue to
build vocabulary as well as background knowledge. Standards-based instruction is critical to
developing students’ literacy and proficiency in English language arts. The standards describe
what students are expected to know and be able to do by the end of the school year.

*on-going from previous grades

Concepts of Print/Text: *
• Use titles, tables of contents, and chapter headings to locate information.
• Recognize the purpose of a paragraph.
Phonological Awareness: *
• Add, delete or change middle sounds to change words (e.g., ran to run).
• Use knowledge of letter-sound correspondences to sound out unknown words.
Phonics and Word Recognition
• Look for known chunks or small words to attempt to decode an unknown word. *
• Reread inserting the beginning sound of the unknown word. *
• Decode regular multi syllable words and parts of words. *
• Read many irregularly spelled words and a variety of spelling patterns (i.e., dipthongs,
special vowel spellings, and common endings). *
• Learn prefixes and suffixes along with Latin suffixes to enhance decoding, spelling
ability and vocabulary development.
Fluency - Helps the reader process language for meaning and enjoyment
• Pause at appropriate end points (e.g., comma, period). *
Executive Education Schools

• Read at an appropriate pace (not choppy or word by word).
• Read silently without finger or lip movement.
• Self-monitor when text does not make sense.
• Apply strategies to self-correct when the text does not make sense.

MATH
Effective mathematics education provides students with a balanced instructional program. In
such a program, students become proficient in basic computational skills and procedures,
develop conceptual understandings, and become adept at problem solving. Standards-based
mathematics instruction starts with basic material and increases in scope and content as the
year’s progress.
In the two years prior to Grade 2, students have gained an understanding of whole numbers
to 120, begun to develop strategies for addition and subtraction, worked with non-standard
measurement, and reasoned about attributes. Students are fluent adding and subtracting
within 10. Students have an initial understanding of place value of two-digit numbers.

In grade 2, students apply the strategies for addition and subtraction they developed in
earlier grades to larger numbers. They acquire calculation fluency in addition and subtraction
within 100, and mental fluency in addition and subtraction within 20. They learn to use
standard units of measure, and they continue to compose and decompose shapes with a new
focus on examining sides and angles.

Throughout Second Grade, students should continue to develop proficiency with the
Common Core's Eight Standards for Mathematical Practice. These practices should become
the natural way in which students come to understand and do mathematics. While,
depending on the content to be understood or on the problem to be solved, any practice
might be brought to bear, some practices may prove more useful than others. Opportunities
for highlighting certain practices are indicated in different units in this scope and sequence,
but this highlighting should not be interpreted that other practices should be neglected in
those units.

Critical Areas:
1. Extending understanding of base-ten system
2. Building fluency with addition and subtraction within 100
3. Understanding need for and appropriate use of standard units of measure
4. Describing and analyzing shapes

SCIENCE
Through active learning experiences, students in the second grade are able to apply thinking
and decision-making skills within the context of their school and neighborhood. Students
examine events and changes that might take place in the future. Students identify local
landforms and bodies of water. They explore geographic relationships by making simple
maps of the school and neighborhood. Students demonstrate that neighborhoods around
the world are made up of people of diverse ages and backgrounds and explain how family
Executive Education Schools

and community members depend upon each other to provide for emotional needs and for
goods and services. Students also identify the rights and responsibilities of members of the
school and neighborhood and explain why communities have rules and laws. They should
have opportunities to engage in problem solving and participate in the development of
classrooms rules. They should have the opportunity to use a variety of means for gathering
and organizing information.
In second grade, scientific investigation focuses on the students’ questioning, observation,
and communication skills. Students need time to examine different ideas, ask questions,
observe patterns, make predictions, use simple equipment and tools, and discuss what they
see with others. They develop skills in making careful, replicable, and validated observations
and have multiple opportunities to communicate their findings in writing, through pictures,
and orally. In addition, students learn about the important role of technology in science.
In the physical sciences, second-grade students learn about forces (pushes and pulls) and the
phenomena of gravity, magnetism, and sound. In the life sciences, they learn about the life
cycles of animals and plants and the basics of inheritance. In the earth sciences, students
learn that rocks are composed of different combinations of minerals, that smaller rocks and
soil are made from the breakage and weathering of larger rocks, and that soil also contains
organic materials. Students are introduced to fossils and the evidence they provide about
Earth’s history. With appropriate tools, students practice measuring length, weight,
temperature, and liquid volume, expressing those measurements in standard metric-system
units. They learn to organize their observations into a chronological sequence and are able to
follow oral instructions for an investigation. Second-grade science topics are organized into
four standard sets: Physical Sciences, Life Sciences, Earth Sciences, and Investigation and
Experimentation. As students learn the content defined by the standards in the Life, Earth,
and Physical Sciences strands, they are also practicing investigation and experimentation
skills. That is, the investigation and experimentation standards should be infused throughout
science instruction.

SOCIAL STUDIES
Students in the second grade are ready to learn about people who make a difference in their
lives and who have made a difference in the past. They develop their own identities as
people who have places in their communities. Students start their study of people who make
a difference by studying the families and people they know. Students themselves can make a
difference by engaging in service learning to improve their schools or communities. Teachers
are encouraged to build understanding of history– social science concepts while furthering
beginning literacy skills as outlined in the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). For
example, shared readings of narrative and expository texts related to the history–social
science standards can reinforce academic content vocabulary, concepts about print,
phonemic awareness, the alphabetic principle, analysis of text, and fluency.

Through active learning experiences, students in the second grade are able to apply thinking
and decision-making skills within the context of their school and neighborhood. Students
examine events and changes that might take place in the future. Students identify local
landforms and bodies of water. They explore geographic relationships by making simple
maps of the school and neighborhood. Students demonstrate that neighborhoods around
the world are made up of people of diverse ages and backgrounds and explain how family
and community members depend upon each other to provide for emotional needs and for
goods and services. Students also identify the rights and responsibilities of members of the
Executive Education Schools

school and neighborhood and explain why communities have rules and laws. They should
have opportunities to engage in problem solving and participate in the development of
classrooms rules. They should have the opportunity to use a variety of means for gathering
and organizing information.

ART
Students continue to expand their understanding of the elements of art and apply them as
they learn to use basic tools and art-making processes, such as printmaking and collage. They
describe art objects from various cultures and time periods brought into the classroom for
analysis. Students are beginning to evaluate their own work as they analyze what they
intended to paint and how well they succeeded.

MUSIC
Students learn verbal syllables, such as sol and fa, for the degrees of the musical scale, called
solfège. In doing so, they learn to read, write, and perform simple patterns of pitch, a
process that leads to a whole world of listening to, playing, singing, and composing music.

HEALTH
Through health education, students learn skills that enable them to make healthy choices and
avoid high-risk behaviors. They also learn health concepts and acquire related knowledge.
Students develop communication skills, decision-making and goal-setting skills, refusal
techniques, and the ability to access health information and assess its accuracy. They learn
health skills and content simultaneously. Health literacy is a primary goal of health education.
Health literacy is defined as the capacity of an individual to obtain, interpret, and understand
basic health information and services and the competence to use such information and
services to enhance health. The knowledge and skills that comprise health literacy are woven
throughout the health education content standards. The health education content standards
provide a vision of what students need to know and be able to do so they can adopt and
maintain healthy behaviors. Throughout second grade, skills for developing positive health
habits and using them to recognize and manage risks are the emphasis. Students learn about,
select, and set goals to eat healthy and nutritious food. Students learn about the effects of
physical activity and identify ways to increase their level of physical activity.
They learn about alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs, including medicines that are helpful
when taken correctly and harmful when they are not. They also learn and practice refusal
skills to avoid unsafe behaviors and situations, even when a friend is pressuring them.
Students in second grade learn and practice skills to form healthy, supportive relationships
with trusted adults and friends.

PHYSICAL EDUCATION
Elementary physical education programs emphasize the importance of physical activity and
personal fitness. Fitness is developed through the activities in the daily lessons, which
emphasize physical activity, continuous movement, and challenges that involve overloading
the major muscle groups. Students have opportunities to understand the fitness components,
fitness assessment, and the need for a lifetime of physical activity. Participation in physical
activity also can be an important venue for the social, psychological, and emotional
development of children. The elementary school physical education program emphasizes the
development of fundamental loco motor, non-loco motor, and manipulative skills. In second
Executive Education Schools

grade, students focus on mastering the correct technique for loco motor and non-loco motor
skills.
They begin learning tumbling skills at a level that allows them to create their own routines
and to transfer weight from one body part to another with control. By the end of the school
year, students demonstrate more control when using manipulative skills and can describe the
correct technique in greater detail. They learn about the benefits of physical activity, the
purpose of good nutrition, and how to solve movement problems with a partner. Students
learn the terms force, open space, and base of support as they experience them during
physical education lessons.

INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNOLOGY
In First and Second Grade, students are introduced to the concept of creating something
brand new. A simple word-processing program or text editor becomes the whiteboard for
the students at this level. They learn how to create and edit simple documents, and work
their way up to actual class assignments.
Some example exercises for this level are:
• How information is stored on the computer: the concept of files and folders
• Accessing folders and finding files
• Starting the editor program
• Creating a new file, opening an existing file
• Adding new text and editing existing text
• Saving the file so it may be found and edited later
• Basic formatting commands (e.g., bold, italic, underline)
WORLD LANGUAGES K-3 (MANDARIN)
World Languages K-3 focuses on the student’s self, emphasizing developmentally
appropriate vocabulary that is relevant to the student and his or her immediate, familiar
environment. The principle objectives for these grades are developing listening
comprehension skills and fostering confident interpersonal communication. While print and
written materials can be present in the classroom setting to enable peripheral learning and to
generate student interest, interpretive skills related to reading are not explicitly taught in the
introductory grades. Emphasis is also given to developing student awareness of relationships
between the target language and cultures, as well as reinforcing concepts from other content
areas. World Languages – Grades K-3 is designed to be a sequential Foreign Language in the
Elementary School course that builds to communicative proficiency in a world language.

Grade 3

ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS
The Common Core State Standards call for students in grade 3 to proficiently read grade-
appropriate complex literature and informational text (RL/RI.3.10) such that they can ask
and answer questions by referring explicitly to a text (RL/RI.3.1). Students delve deeply into
texts to uncover both the central message and supporting details, identifying the logical
connections between sentences and paragraphs in a text. They can compare and contrast
Executive Education Schools

two or more works with the same topic, author, or character, describing the traits,
motivations, and feelings of characters or how ideas relate to one another.
Additional Standards for Reading Literature [1] (RL.3.2-9) and Standards for
Reading Informational Text [2] (RI.3.2-9) offer detailed expectations for student academic
performance in preparation for college and careers.
Helping students understand what they read is a crucial element of grade 3. In grades K-2,
children begin to master the decoding skills described in the Standards for Reading:
Foundational Skills [3]. Students in grade 3 use these emerging skills to negotiate
multisyllabic words, which in turn increases their fluency and confidence when reading new
and unfamiliar material. Students emerge from grade 3 with an ever-expanding academic
vocabulary that they use in their writing and speaking.
In support of the reading standards, students are taught to ask questions of a speaker or
classmate to deepen understanding of the material in ways elaborated in the Standards for
Speaking and Listening [4]. Students read aloud fluently and offer appropriate elaboration on
the ideas of classmates, building on what has been said before.
Two new Writing Standards [5] (W.3.4 and W.3.10) are introduced in grade 3. They call for
students to develop and organize writing in a manner appropriate to the task and purpose
and to write routinely for a range of timeframes and contexts. Gaining expertise at writing
narratives teaches students to describe accurately what happened and helps them recognize
and select the most relevant information when reading. Students’ readings of history and
science texts provide models of connecting and sequencing ideas when writing to
inform/explain or to express an opinion. In all student writing, the use of specific facts and
descriptive details is emphasized, as is correct spelling and punctuation.
There are two additional instructional priorities to address over the course of grade 3
regarding the foundational skills of reading:
1. Grade 3 is a pivotal year for students to build their word analysis skills so that
they are reliably able to make sense of multisyllabic words in books (RF.3.3).
2. Reading fluency assessments administered at the start of the year (and
throughout the year as necessary) should be used to determine a
student’s fluency level. Students who have not yet achieved grade-
level fluency and students learning English will need
direct fluency instruction. Like their more proficient peers, they will need
opportunities to build fluency through independent reading and
opportunities to analyze closely how syntax and the meaning(s) of the text
influence expression and phrasing (RF.3.4).
RESEARCH PROJECT
Teachers should include the opportunity for students to compose a minimum of two
extended projects that uses research to address a significant topic, problem, or issue. This
task should entail integrating knowledge about a topic drawn from one or more texts from
the module, taking brief notes on sources, and sorting evidence into provided categories.
Students can present their findings in a variety of modes in both informal and more formal
Executive Education Schools

contexts. Ongoing incorporation of research for shorter tasks should also be a regular
component of instruction.
MATH
In the years prior to Grade 3, students have gained an understanding of place value, used
strategies based on place value to add and subtract, worked with standard units of measure
for length, and described attributes of shapes. Students have an initial understanding of
multiplication based on the array model.

The grade 3 year in this scope and sequence begins with students relating addition to
perimeter. This is a new concept to third grade students. This will allow students access to
prior learning. Students apply place value to addition and rounding. The concepts of
fractions, multiplication, and division are critical areas introduced early in the third grade
year. Throughout the year, students develop multiplication strategies and relate division to
multiplication. By the end of the year students recall all products of two one-digit numbers.
Third grade students will develop understanding of fractions as numbers. They compare and
reason about fractions. To continue the study of geometry, students describe and analyze
shapes by their sides, angles, and definitions. The final unit in this scope and sequence is for
students to generalize and apply strategies learned for computational fluency.

Throughout Third Grade, students should continue to develop proficiency with the
Common Core's Eight Standards for Mathematical Practice. These practices should become
the natural way in which students come to understand and do mathematics. While,
depending on the content to be understood or on the problem to be solved, any practice
might be brought to bear, some practices may prove more useful than others. Opportunities
for highlighting certain practices are indicated in different units in this scope and sequence,
but this highlighting should not be interpreted that other practices should be neglected in
those units.

SCIENCE
Third-graders have a natural curiosity about the world and how it works. The grade-three
science standards introduce students to some of the most fundamental patterns in nature
and develop the concept that science helps to make the world understandable. Grade-three
students are expected to learn both the content and process of science. Effective science
programs reflect a balanced, comprehensive approach that includes the teaching of
investigation and experimentation skills along with direct instruction. Key elements of a
balanced science program include explicit teaching of science content and concepts,
identifying students’ prior knowledge, and addressing student misconceptions. Investigation
skills should also be highlighted, with students encouraged to find answers or reach
conclusions using their own experiences or observations. High-quality science instruction
should also develop students’ command of the academic language of science and use
standards-based connections with other core subjects to reinforce science learning.
Safety should always be the foremost consideration in teacher modeling, the design of
demonstrations, investigation and experiments, and science projects. Safety must be taught.
Knowing and following safe practices in science are a part of understanding the nature of
science and scientific enterprise.

Executive Education Schools

During third grade, students further develop the important skills of making careful,
replicable, and validated observations; recognizing patterns; categorizing; developing
questions and answers; and communicating findings both in writing and orally. They
conduct research, read about new topics, and learn more about the important role of
technology in the sciences. Students in grade three further develop their understandings of
the structure of matter and forces of interaction. They study the properties of light and learn
how light affects the perception of direction, shadow, and color. They extend their
knowledge of ecology by learning about different environments, such as oceans, deserts,
tundra, forests, grasslands, and wetlands, and the types of organisms adapted to live in each.
They learn that objects in the sky move in regular and predictable patterns. Third-graders
practice making precise measurements and learn that even careful measurements are
sometimes subject to error. They also learn that predictions are not guesses and that
predictions must be verified by experiments and the analysis of data gathered through careful
measurements.

SOCIAL STUDIES
Third-graders prepare for learning Pennsylvania history and geography in the fourth grade
and United States history and geography in the fifth grade by thinking about continuity and
change in their local community. Through exploration of their local community, students
have an opportunity to make contact with times past and with the people whose activities
have left their mark on the land. In third grade, students build on their knowledge of
geography, civics, historical thinking, chronology, and national identity. The emphasis is on
understanding how some things change and others remain the same. To understand changes
occurring today, students explore the ways in which their locality continues to evolve and
how they can contribute to improvement of their community. Teachers are also encouraged
to build understanding of history–social science concepts while furthering beginning literacy
skills as outlined in the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). For example, shared readings
of narrative and expository text related to the history–social science standards can reinforce
academic content vocabulary and comprehension skills.

ART
Students increase their understanding of how to create the illusion of space and apply those
techniques in their work, allowing them to recognize near and far distances in a painting.
They also compare works of art made with different media, such as watercolor or oil paint,
and different art objects, such as a woodcut or computer-generated prints. Creating works of
visual art based on their observations of objects and scenes, they include drawing, painting,
sculpture, printmaking, and other forms of expression in their efforts. Students also become
familiar with local artists and their works as well as artists throughout the state and from
various parts of the world. Students’ progress into analyzing how diverse works may
communicate similar ideas, or moods. They can distinguish among representational, abstract,
and nonrepresentational works of art; including developing and applying appropriate criteria
for evaluation. For example, they might consider how effectively the artist used elements of
art, such as line, shape, and color, to communicate a mood. In addition, students apply
criteria to their own artwork and explain how it might be improved. Another activity allows
students to apply their understanding of the communicative quality of the visual arts as they
describe, for example, how costumes contribute to the meaning of a dance, how an artist
tells a story in a figurative painting, how a work of art can be the inspiration for a poem, or
how artists have affected people’s lives.
Executive Education Schools


MUSIC
Students’ focus on rhythmic patterns, musical forms, melody, harmony, and timbre as they
read, write, and perform music. Their increased listening skills help them identify those
qualities in music selections, in the four families of orchestral instruments, and in male and
female adult voices. By singing from memory, they improve their accuracy and create
rhythmic and melodic phrases. As students sing and play songs from diverse cultures, they
can compare and contrast music from around the world. When they read, write, and play
and sing music, they are honing their ability to select and use specific criteria to judge the
quality of a musical performance. Focusing on the use of the musical elements for their
criteria, they can describe how the elements help the composer or performer to
communicate an idea or mood in the music and can identify the use of similar elements,
such as pattern and rhythm, in other art forms.

HEALTH
Through health education, students learn skills that enable them to make healthy choices and
avoid high-risk behaviors. They also learn health concepts and acquire related knowledge.
Students develop communication skills, decision-making and goal-setting skills, refusal
techniques, and the ability to access health information and assess its accuracy. They learn
health skills and content simultaneously. Health literacy is a primary goal of health education.
Health literacy is defined as the capacity of an individual to obtain, interpret, and understand
basic health information and services and the competence to use such information and
services to enhance health. The knowledge and skills that comprise health literacy are woven
throughout the health education content standards. The health education content standards
provide a vision of what students need to know and be able to do so they can adopt and
maintain healthy behaviors. In grade three, students learn and practice more skills than in
previous years; in particular, they learn about decision-making, goal setting, and health
promotion. Reflecting the expanding worlds of third-grade students, the standards focus on
social behaviors and skills that help students be safe and secure. Students also learn about
their roles and responsibilities in their families, schools, and communities. Instruction in
grade three is focused on physical growth and development; mental, emotional, and social
development; and personal and community health. Because of the strong link between
healthy physical development and healthy mental, emotional, and social development, these
two content areas are intentionally addressed in the same school year. The study of personal
and community health expands students’ focus from themselves, their families, and their
schools into the larger community.

PHYSICAL EDUCATION
Elementary physical education programs emphasize the importance of physical activity and
personal fitness. Fitness is developed through the activities in the daily lessons, which
emphasize physical activity, continuous movement, and challenges that involve overloading
the major muscle groups. Students have opportunities to understand the fitness components,
fitness assessment, and the need for a lifetime of physical activity. Participation in physical
activity also can be an important venue for the social, psychological, and emotional
development of children. The elementary school physical education program emphasizes the
development of fundamental loco motor, nonlocomotor, and manipulative skills. Grade
three is a pivotal time in the development of students’ movement skills. In grade three,
students begin to focus on combining loco motor and nonlocomotor skills into new
Executive Education Schools

movement sequences. Students who cannot perform the skills using the proper technique
will need additional learning and practice opportunities to improve these foundational skills.
Practice opportunities throughout the school year allow them time to develop the proper
form for manipulative skills, such as rolling an object, throwing, catching, dribbling, kicking,
and striking. By the end of grade three, students should have mastered the proper form for
locomotor and nonlocomotor skills and learned to manipulate objects in a variety of ways.
Students experiment with and explore alternative movements, such as tumbling, creative
dance, and formal dance.

INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNOLOGY
In third and fourth grades the concept of data versus information may be introduced. Until
higher math skills are developed, databases and spreadsheets may not make sense to
students. At this grade level, they can understand how data can be useful if made easy to get
to and interpret.
A curriculum for the third and fourth grade may include the following topics:
• Discuss what a database is and how it is used
• Show examples of databases that the students might find useful
• Discuss what a spreadsheet is and how it relates to databases
• Demonstrate using a spreadsheet to create a small database
• Discuss tables, columns and rows
• Demonstrate cell formatting
• Show simple charts that can be made from the data
At the third- and fourth-grade levels, working with numbers and formulas in the spreadsheet
should correspond with their math lessons. The computer work should complement their
classroom curriculum, not compete with it.

WORLD LANGUAGES K-3 (MANDARIN/SPANISH)
World Languages K-3 focuses on the student’s self, emphasizing developmentally-
appropriate vocabulary that is relevant to the student and his or her immediate, familiar
environment. The principle objectives for these grades are developing listening
comprehension skills and fostering confident interpersonal communication. While print and
written materials can be present in the classroom setting to enable peripheral learning and to
generate student interest, interpretive skills related to reading are not explicitly taught in the
introductory grades. Emphasis is also given to developing student awareness of relationships
between the target language and cultures, as well as reinforcing concepts from other content
areas. World Languages – Grades K-3 is designed to be a sequential Foreign Language in the
Elementary School course that builds to communicative proficiency in a world language.

Grade 4

ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS
The Common Core State Standards call for students in grade 4 to continue to build their
stamina and skill to proficiently read challenging, grade
Executive Education Schools

appropriate complex literature and informational text (RL/RI.4.10) such that they can draw
on or infer specific details and examples from the text (RL/RI.4.1). Students perform
specific tasks targeted in the standards, from describing how focusing on different details
affects a text to summarizing both the main and supporting ideas, explaining what happened
and why, and recognizing allusions to significant characters found in mythology. They are
expected to offer reasons and evidence to support particular points being made in a single
text and integrate information from two texts on the same topic or theme(including
traditional literature from different cultures). Additional Standards for
Reading Literature [1] (RL.4.2-9) and Standards for Reading Informational Text [2] (RI.4.2-
9) offer detailed expectations for student academic performance in preparation for college
and careers.
When participating in class, students should both paraphrase accurately and respond
effectively with information during discussions in ways elaborated in the Standards for
Speaking and Listening [3]. Reading complex texts that range across literature, history, the
arts, and the sciences will also build the vocabulary skills of students as well as improve
their fluency and confidence, leading to success in later grades.
One new Writing Standard [4] that begins in grade 4 supports the close connection between
reading and writing (W.4.9). It requires students to draw evidence from literary
and informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. Students should be able
to produce a variety of written texts, including opinion pieces, explanations, narratives, and
short research projects — each of which presents evidence in an organized fashion to clarify
the topic under discussion for the intended audience.
The Standards for Reading: Foundational Skills [5] specifies that in addition to the continued
development of word analysis skills (RF.4.3), reading fluency assessments administered at the
start of the year (and throughout the year as necessary) should be used to determine a
student’s fluency level. Students not yet fluent and students learning English will need
direct fluency instruction. Like their more proficient peers, they will need opportunities to
build fluency through independent reading and opportunities to analyze closely
how syntax and the meaning(s) of the text influence expression and phrasing (RF.4.4)
RESEARCH PROJECT
Teachers should include the opportunity for students to compose a minimum of two
extended projects that uses research to address a significant topic, problem, or issue. This
task should entail integrating knowledge about a topic drawn from one or more texts from
the module, taking brief notes on sources, and sorting evidence into provided categories.
Students can present their findings in a variety of modes in both informal and more formal
contexts. Ongoing incorporation of research for shorter tasks should also be a regular
component of instruction.
MATH
In the years prior to Grade 4, students have gained an understanding of multiplication and
division of whole numbers, generalized strategies for addition and subtraction to multi-digit
numbers, developed understanding of fraction as numbers, and reasoned with shapes and
their attributes. They worked with arrays for multiplication and area.
Executive Education Schools


The grade 4 year in this scope and sequence begins with students expanding their
understanding of place value. They relate place value to addition and subtraction to estimate
and solve problems. Students generalize multiplication and division strategies to multi-digit
numbers. They understand, add and subtract (with like denominators) fractional quantities.
Fractions are multiplied by whole numbers. Students use symmetry and measure angles.
They relate fractions to decimals. Finally, students develop fluency using the standard
algorithm to add and subtract.

Throughout Fourth Grade, students should continue to develop proficiency with the
Common Core's Eight Standards for Mathematical Practice. These practices should become
the natural way in which students come to understand and do mathematics. While,
depending on the content to be understood or on the problem to be solved, any practice
might be brought to bear, some practices may prove more useful than others. Opportunities
for highlighting certain practices are indicated in different units in this scope and sequence,
but this highlighting should not be interpreted that other practices should be neglected in
those units.
SCIENCE
Fourth-graders possess some solid foundations in science and are developing the ability to
work independently. The fourth-grade science standards provide opportunities for them to
build upon their existing knowledge by formulating their own questions and predictions and
conducting investigations. Grade-four students are expected to learn both the content and
process of science. Effective science programs reflect a balanced, comprehensive approach
that includes the teaching of investigation and experimentation skills along with direct
instruction. Key elements of a balanced science program include explicit teaching of science
content and concepts, identifying students’ prior knowledge, and addressing student
misconceptions. Investigation skills should also be highlighted, with students encouraged to
find answers or reach conclusions by using their own experiences or observations. High-
quality science instruction should also develop students’ command of the academic language
of science and use standards-based connections with other core subjects to reinforce science
learning. Safety should always be the foremost consideration in teacher modeling, the design
of demonstrations, investigation and experiments, and science projects. Safety must be
taught. Knowing and following safe practices in science are a part of understanding the
nature of science and scientific enterprise. During fourth grade, students learn to formulate
and justify predictions based on cause-and-effect relationships, differentiate observation
from inference, and conduct multiple trials to test their predictions. In collecting data during
investigative activities, they learn to follow a written set of instructions and continue to build
their skills in expressing measurements in metric system units. Students develop their own
questions, conduct scientific, investigations, and communicate their findings in writing. In
physical science, students in grade four enhance their understandings of electricity and
magnetism and consider the practical applications of these effects, building simple circuits,
compasses and electromagnets. In their study of life sciences, students extend their
knowledge of ecology by learning about food chains and webs and exploring the
relationships between producers, consumers, and decomposers. They consider all
components of an ecosystem, living and nonliving, and are introduced to microorganisms.
Executive Education Schools

In earth science, fourth-graders learn about rocks, minerals, and the rock cycle. They learn
how to differentiate rocks on the basis of their properties and how to identify common
minerals. Students also study the processes of erosion and weathering and learn about the
role of water in shaping the surface of Earth. In addition, students learn about rapid
processes that change Earth’s land surface: landslides, volcanic eruptions, and earthquakes.

SOCIAL STUDIES
Fourth grade students apply their growing academic skills and knowledge to an exploration
of Pennsylvania and its relationships with regional, national, and world communities.
Students are beginning to develop a more definite concept of time and can begin to deal
with cause-and-effect relations and decision-making processes, such as identifying problems
and considering alternative solutions and their consequences. These skills and concepts must
be related to students’ lives and should be presented in a wide variety of resources and
hands-on-activities, which include: (1) collecting and examining primary documents and
artifacts, (2) making models and maps, (3) talking with community resource persons, and (4)
visiting historic sites and buildings.

In the fourth grade, students identify key people, places and events that have shaped their
state and region. They learn to explain how changes have affected people and communities.
Students identify major land forms, water features and resources, and explain how they have
influenced state and regional development. They learn to describe the basic structure of
state government and explain its purpose. Students have opportunities to actively explore
and appreciate the diverse cultures which have contributed to Pennsylvania’s heritage.
Students also learn to develop proficiency in working cooperatively in groups to: (1) collect
data from a variety of resources, including electronic and print media; (2) draw simple
conclusions; and (3) organize data using graphs, charts, maps, and simple time lines.

ART
Students use their knowledge of proportion and measurement learned in mathematics when
they create a portrait. Measuring from the top of the head to under the chin, they find that
the eyes are halfway between. Another concept learned is that blank space in a painting
(negative space) is just as important to what is being expressed as the objects in the painting
(positive space). And by learning the concept of point of view, students can describe how a
person’s own cultural point of view may influence that person’s responses to a work of art.
Connecting the visual arts and Pennsylvania history, they can discuss the content of works
created by artists from various cultures.

MUSIC
Students not only sing and play melodies and accompaniments in various forms and from
many cultures but also compose melodic patterns—a precursor to writing music. They also
employ their expanding vocabulary of music and classify a variety of instruments according
to the way sound is produced. By learning more about music from around the world, they
can recognize the influence of various cultures on music. They also evaluate how practice
and rehearsal improve their performance.

HEALTH
Through health education, students learn skills that enable them to make healthy choices and
avoid high-risk behaviors. They also learn health concepts and acquire related knowledge.
Executive Education Schools

Students develop communication skills, decision-making and goal-setting skills, refusal
techniques, and the ability to access health information and assess its accuracy. They learn
health skills and content simultaneously. Health literacy is a primary goal of health education.
Health literacy is defined as the capacity of an individual to obtain, interpret, and understand
basic health information and services and the competence to use such information and
services to enhance health. The knowledge and skills that comprise health literacy are woven
throughout the health education content standards. The health education content standards
provide a vision of what students need to know and be able to do so they can adopt and
maintain healthy behaviors. In grade four, students learn about nutrition and physical
activity, two important factors in their healthy growth and development. They learn about
healthy food choices, nutrients, and the many influences on their food choices. They learn to
monitor their physical activity and ways to increase the amount of time they are physically
active. Students learn how to prevent many types of injuries by using appropriate safety
equipment and avoiding or reducing risks. They plan responses to emergencies and natural
disasters, identify trusted adults, and practice conflict resolution techniques. They learn skills
to avoid and report bullying and harassment and to resist involvement in gang activities.
Students also learn about the harmful effects of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs and ways
to cope with situations involving them, including refusal skills.

PHYSICAL EDUCATION
Elementary physical education programs emphasize the importance of physical activity and
personal fitness. Fitness is developed through the activities in the daily lessons, which
emphasize physical activity, continuous movement, and challenges that involve overloading
the major muscle groups. Students have opportunities to understand the fitness components,
fitness assessment, and the need for a lifetime of physical activity. Participation in physical
activity also can be an important venue for the social, psychological, and emotional
development of children. The elementary school physical education program emphasizes the
development of fundamental locomotor, nonlocomotor, and manipulative skills. In grade
four, students focus on learning and practicing manipulation skills (e.g., kicking, throwing,
striking), in particular using rackets and paddles to strike objects. They also learn about the
correct technique for manipulative skills, such as body orientation when serving a ball, and
to distinguish between similar skills (e.g., kicking and punting). They begin to learn individual
defensive and offensive moves. Students increase the level and frequency of their physical
activity, set goals for health-related physical fitness, and monitor their improving skills and
fitness. They are introduced to the concept of perceived exertion. They learn about the value
of muscular endurance/strength, aerobic and flexibility exercises, and the importance of
water and healthy foods to improve physical performance. Students learn to include others
in physical activity and to respect differences in skill levels. They also learn to accept
responsibility for their own performance of physical activities and to both win and lose with
dignity and respect.

INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNOLOGY
In third and fourth grades the concept of data versus information may be introduced. Until
higher math skills are developed, databases and spreadsheets may not make sense to
students. At this grade level, they can understand how data can be useful if made easy to get
to and interpret.
Executive Education Schools

A curriculum for the third and fourth grade may include the following topics:
• Discuss what a database is and how it is used
• Show examples of databases that the students might find useful
• Discuss what a spreadsheet is and how it relates to databases
• Demonstrate using a spreadsheet to create a small database
• Discuss tables, columns and rows
• Demonstrate cell formatting
• Show simple charts that can be made from the data
At the third- and fourth-grade levels, working with numbers and formulas in the spreadsheet
should correspond with their math lessons. The computer work should complement their
classroom curriculum, not compete with it.

WORLD LANGUAGES 4-6 (MANDARIN/SPANISH)
World Languages 4-6 focuses on the student and his or her family, taking into account the
expanding awareness of students at this grade level. The principle objectives for these grades
are continued development of interpersonal communication skills, as well as development of
interpretive skills involving word recognition and reading. Emphasis is also given to
developing student awareness of relationships between the target language and cultures, as
well as reinforcing concepts from other content areas. World Languages – Grades 4-6 is
designed to be a course that builds to communicative proficiency in a world language.

Grade 5

ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS
Guided by the Common Core State Standards, students in grade 5 will read widely and
deeply from a range of high-quality, increasingly challenging literature and informational
text from diverse cultures and different time periods (RL/RI.5.10) such that they will be able
to quote accurately and explicitly to support inferences (RL/RI.5.1). Students delve deeply
into texts and build their knowledge base about different subjects through identifying and
assessing evidence as well as accurately paraphrasing reading materials by citing key details.
They can explain how elements of a story or text interact and describe how different points
of view influence the description of events. Students also learn how to trace the
development of a topic in texts of the same genre and integrate the information they glean.
Additional Standards for Reading Literature [1] (RL.5.2-9) and Standards for
Reading Informational Text [2] (RI.5.2-9) offer detailed expectations for student academic
performance in preparation for college and careers.
In discussions, not only will students be able to contribute accurate and relevant information
and comment on the remarks of others (as specified by the Standards in Speaking and
Listening [3]), but also they will be able to synthesize what they read from multiple sources.
Gaining practice at acquiring and employing precise words is a critical element of their
development this year.
Executive Education Schools

Throughout grade 5, students conduct research and write multi-paragraph stories and essays,
working on employing detailed descriptions, providing ample evidence, and grouping related
information as specified by the Writing Standards [4]. Students will respond critically to both
literary and informational sources over the course of the year, writing both short- and long-
form pieces while honing their appreciation for the nuances of grammar, usage, and
punctuation. Revision and editing will play a bigger role in their writing as well.
The Standards for Reading: Foundational Skills [5] specifies that in addition to continuing to
build their word analysis skills (RF.5.3), the reading fluency of students should be assessed at
the start of the year to determine their fluency level and then rechecked during the course of
the year. Students not yet fluent and students learning English will need
direct fluency instruction. Like their more proficient peers, they will need opportunities to
build fluency through independent reading and opportunities to analyze closely
how syntax and the meaning(s) of the text influence expression and phrasing (RF.5.4).
RESEARCH PROJECT
Teachers should provide the opportunity for students to compose a minimum of two
extended projects that use research to address a significant topic, problem or issue. This
entails gathering and integrating relevant information from several additional literary or
informational texts in various media or formats on a particular topic or question drawn
from one or more texts. Students are expected at this stage to have performed research
that includes listing sources and summarizing or paraphrasing findings. Students can
present their findings in a variety of informal and more formal argumentative or
explanatory contexts, either in writing or orally. (Research aligned with the standards
could take one to two weeks of instruction.) Ongoing incorporation of research for
shorter tasks should also be a regular component of instruction.
MATH
In previous grades, students learned strategies for multiplication and division, developed
understanding of structure of the place value system, and applied understanding of fractions
to addition and subtraction with like denominators. Students gained understanding that
geometric figures can be analyzed and classified based on their properties.

The Grade 5 year in this scope and sequence begins with understanding volume to engage
student interest and allow them to apply their understanding of operations. Students extend
their understanding of place value to decimals and use the four operations with decimals.
Place value is an area of mastery for fifth grade. Fluency of addition and subtraction of
fractions is developed throughout the year. Students also develop understanding of
multiplication and division of fractions.

Throughout Fifth Grade, students should continue to develop proficiency with the
Common Core's Eight Standards for Mathematical Practice. These practices should become
the natural way in which students come to understand and do mathematics. While,
depending on the content to be understood or on the problem to be solved, any practice
might be brought to bear, some practices may prove more useful than others. Opportunities
for highlighting certain practices are indicated in different units in this scope and sequence,
Executive Education Schools

but this highlighting should not be interpreted that other practices should be neglected in
those units.

SCIENCE
Grade-five students are expected to learn both the content and process of science. Effective
science programs reflect a balanced, comprehensive approach that includes the teaching of
investigation and experimentation skills along with direct instruction. Key elements of a
balanced science program include explicit teaching of science content and concepts,
identifying students’ prior knowledge, and addressing student misconceptions. Investigation
skills should also be highlighted, with students encouraged to find answers or reach
conclusions using their own experiences or observations. High-quality science instruction
should also develop students’ command of the academic language of science and use
standards-based connections with other core subjects to reinforce science learning.
Safety should always be the foremost consideration in teacher modeling, the design of
demonstrations, investigation and experiments, and science projects. Safety must be taught.
Knowing and following safe practices in science are a part of understanding the nature of
science and scientific enterprise. During fifth grade, students learn to develop testable
questions and plan their own investigations, selecting appropriate tools to make quantitative
observations. In the physical sciences, students develop the ability to distinguish between
molecules and atoms and chemical compounds and mixtures and learn about the
organization of atoms on the periodic table of the elements. They learn about chemical
reactions and discover the special properties of metallic elements and salts.
In the life sciences, they learn the basics of physiology, building on what they have learned in
previous grades about the external adaptations of plants and animals to learn about the
internal structures and processes of living things. Students in grade five also deepen their
understanding of the hydrologic cycle, the process by which water moves between the land
and the oceans. They learn how the hydrologic cycle influences the distribution of weather-
related precipitation. They study the causes and effects of weather. They also study the solar
system and learn that it contains asteroids, comets, the Sun, planets, and moons. They learn
the composition of the Sun and the relationship between gravity and planetary orbits.

SOCIAL STUDIES
The course for grade five presents the story of the development of the United States,
emphasizing the period up to 1850. This course focuses on one of the most remarkable
stories in history: the creation of a new nation peopled by immigrants from all parts of the
globe and governed by institutions influenced by a number of religions, the ideals of the
Enlightenment, and English traditions of self-government. This experiment was inspired by
the innovative dream of building a new society that would realize the promises of the
Declaration of Independence. Wherever possible, events should be viewed through the eyes
of historical groups such as explorers, American Indians, colonists, free blacks and slaves,
women, children, and pioneers. The narrative for the year reflects the experiences of
different races, religions, ethnicities, and both genders. Students also continue to develop the
civic and economic skills they will need as citizens. Students examine the human and
physical geography of the United States by studying present-day maps of the United States
and identifying connections with thematic maps of the ethnic, linguistic, and religious
settlements that developed in the new nation. Teachers are also encouraged to build
understanding of history–social science concepts while furthering beginning literacy skills as
outlined in the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). For example, shared readings of
Executive Education Schools

narrative and expository text related to the history–social science standards can reinforce
academic content vocabulary and comprehension skills. In activities, emphasis is places on
the problem-solving skills of questioning, examining fact and opinion, analyzing and
evaluating sources of information, contrasting and comparing using primary and secondary
sources, and conducting research using a variety of resources, including technology and
electronic and print media. Students also learn to describe the major components of our
national government and to demonstrate responsible citizenship in the classroom and school
setting.

ART
Principles of design, such as composition, emphasis, unity, and the depiction of space,
become part of the visual arts vocabulary and are applied as students create original works of
art with traditional and new media. Students refine their artistic skills, such as perspective,
and use those skills in drawings, sculpture, mixed media, and digital media (e.g., computer-
generated art, digital photography, and videography). Using a defined set of criteria to
describe how they would change or improve their work, they become more proficient in
assessing their artwork.

MUSIC
Students analyze how different elements are used in music of various styles and from many
cultures as they increase their musical skills by singing and playing instruments. They also
learn to create simple melodies and read and write those melodies on the treble clef. And
because of their increased knowledge of musical elements and vocabulary, they develop and
apply appropriate criteria to support their opinions about specific musical selections.

HEALTH
Through health education, students learn skills that enable them to make healthy choices and
avoid high-risk behaviors. They also learn health concepts and acquire related knowledge.
Students develop communication skills, decision-making and goal-setting skills, refusal
techniques, and the ability to access health information and assess its accuracy. They learn
health skills and content simultaneously. Health literacy is a primary goal of health education.
Health literacy is defined as the capacity of an individual to obtain, interpret, and understand
basic health information and services and the competence to use such information and
services to enhance health. The knowledge and skills that comprise health literacy are woven
throughout the health education content standards. The health education content standards
provide a vision of what students need to know and be able to do so they can adopt and
maintain healthy behaviors. In grade five, students learn to read and understand food
nutrition labels and to use the information to select healthy food. They also research age
appropriate guidelines for healthy eating and physical activity to determine if changes in their
eating habits and level of physical activity would improve their health and fitness. Students
learn about the human reproductive cycle, the changes that occur during puberty, and how
to prevent the transmission of bloodborne communicable diseases. They analyze the
influence of media, peers, and culture on their food choices, physical activity level,
perceptions about gender roles and body image, and personal health practices. They
recognize reliable sources of information and learn and practice effective communication
skills to obtain information from others. Grade-five students learn about and adopt health
practices and behaviors that promote their own health. They monitor their health behaviors
Executive Education Schools

and their progress toward personal health goals.

PHYSICAL EDUCATION
Elementary physical education programs emphasize the importance of physical activity and
personal fitness. Fitness is developed through the activities in the daily lessons, which
emphasize physical activity, continuous movement, and challenges that involve overloading
the major muscle groups. Students have opportunities to understand the fitness components,
fitness assessment, and the need for a lifetime of physical activity. Participation in physical
activity also can be an important venue for the social, psychological, and emotional
development of children. The elementary school physical education program emphasizes the
development of fundamental locomotor, nonlocomotor, and manipulative skills. In grade
five, students learn manipulative skills with an emphasis on improving accuracy and distance
while efficiently manipulating objects by using body parts or implements. For example, they
stop a kicked ball by trapping it with a foot and strike a dropped ball with a racket or paddle.
They learn and practice offensive and defensive skills. Students create and then perform
dances with intentional changes in speed and direction and rhythmic routines that involve
manipulating an object. They learn fitness concepts, such as the principles of training, and
how to increase their aerobic capacity. They demonstrate how to set and monitor achievable
short-term and long-term goals for improved physical fitness. Students assess their health
related physical fitness and increase the amount of time and the intensity of their physical
activity. They learn to work cooperatively with and respect others with differing abilities.
INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNOLOGY
In fifth grade students build on established computer skills, this level can focus on
presentation. Learning about slide presentations, embedding images and formatting printed
documents gives students the finishing touches for their elementary computer education.
This course sequence gives students the prior knowledge to handle more complex computer
instruction in middle school. The curriculum at this level may include these topics:
• Introduction to slide-show presentations
• Discuss what comprises a good presentation and how to reflect that in a slide show
• Discuss templates, layouts, backgrounds, fonts and colors
• Demonstrate creating slides and editing, sorting and transitions
• Discuss including images, animation, videos and sound
• Demonstrate editing documents to add and format graphics

Incremental Learning and the Elementary School Computer Lab Curriculum
The most effective approach to the elementary computer lab instruction is to combine the
computer work with current classroom lessons. This creates continuity in students’ learning
so they don’t have to go back and forth between different topics. The computer lab can be
used to emphasize the current topics being presented in the classroom. It should not be a
competing force in their learning but something that engages students and keeps them
interested in their education.


Executive Education Schools

WORLD LANGUAGES 4-6 (MANDARIN/SPANISH)
World Languages 4-6 focuses on the student and his or her family, taking into account the
expanding awareness of students at this grade level. The principle objectives for these grades
are continued development of interpersonal communication skills, as well as development of
interpretive skills involving word recognition and reading. Emphasis is also given to
developing student awareness of relationships between the target language and cultures, as
well as reinforcing concepts from other content areas. World Languages – Grades 4-6 is
designed to be a course that builds to communicative proficiency in a world language.




Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful