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ME 2202 Engineering Thermodynamics

ME 2202 Engineering Thermodynamics Mechanical Engineering


2012 - 2013
UNIT I
Basic Concept and irst !a"
2 Mar#s
1$ %hat do yo& &nderstand 'y p&re s&'stance(
A pure substance is defined as one that is homogeneous and invariable in chemical composition
throughout its mass.
2$ )e*ne thermodynamic system$
A thermodynamic system is defined as a quantity of matter or a region in space, on which the analysis
of the problem is concentrated.
3$ Name the di+erent types o, system$
1. Closed system (only energy transfer and no mass transfer)
2. pen system (!oth energy and mass transfer)
". #solated system ($o mass and energy transfer)
-$ )e*ne thermodynamic e.&ili'ri&m$
#f a system is in %echanical, &hermal and Chemical 'quilibrium then the system is in
thermodynamically equilibrium. (or)
#f the system is isolated from its surrounding there will be no change in the macroscopic property, then
the system is said to e(ist in a state of thermodynamic equilibrium.
/$ %hat do yo& mean 'y .&asi-static process(
#nfinite slowness is the characteristic feature of a quasi)static process. A quasi)static process is that a
succession of equilibrium states. A quasi)static process is also called as reversible process.
0$ )e*ne 1ath ,&nction$
&he wor* done by a process does not depend upon the end of the process. #t depends on the path of the
system follows from state 1 to state 2. +ence wor* is called a path function.
2$ )e*ne point ,&nction$
&hermodynamic properties are point functions. &he change in a thermodynamic property of a system
is a change of state is independent of the path and depends only on the initial and final states of the
system.
3$ Name and e4plain the t"o types o, properties$
&he two types of properties are intensive property and e(tensive property.
Intensi5e 1roperty6 #t is independent of the mass of the system.
E4ample6 pressure, temperature, specific volume, specific energy, density.
E4tensi5e 1roperty6 #t is dependent on the mass of the system.
E4ample6 ,olume, energy. #f the mass is increased the values of the e(tensive properties also
increase.
7$ E4plain homogeneo&s and heterogeneo&s system$
&he system consist of single phase is called homogeneous system and the system consist of more than
one phase is called heterogeneous system.
10$ %hat is a steady 8o" process(
-teady flow means that the rates of flow of mass and energy across the control surface are constant.
11$ 1ro5e that ,or an isolated system9 there is no change in internal energy$
#n isolated system there is no interaction between the system and the surroundings. &here is no mass
transfer and energy transfer. According to first law of thermodynamics as d. / d0 1 d23 d0 / d. 4
d23 d. / 5, d2 / 5,
&here fore d0 / 5 by integrating the above equation 0 / constant, therefore the internal energy is
constant for isolated system.
12$ Indicate the practical application o, steady 8o" energy e.&ation$
1. &urbine, 2. $o66le, ". Condenser, 7. Compressor.
13$ )e*ne system$
#t is defined as the quantity of the matter or a region in space upon which we focus attention to study
its property.
1-$ )e*ne cycle$
#t is defined as a series of state changes such that the final state is identical with the initial state.
1/$ )i+erentiate closed and open system$
Closed :ystem;pen :ystem
1. &here is no mass transfer. nly heat and1. %ass transfer will ta*e place, in addition to
wor* will transfer.the heat and wor* transfer.
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ME 2202 Engineering Thermodynamics Mechanical Engineering
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2. -ystem boundary is fi(ed one2. -ystem boundary may or may not change.
". '(8 9iston : cylinder arrangement, &hermal
". Air compressor, boiler
power plant
10$ E4plain Mechanical e.&ili'ri&m$
#f the forces are balanced between the system and surroundings are called %echanical equilibrium
12$ E4plain Chemical e.&ili'ri&m$
#f there is no chemical reaction or transfer of matter form one part of the system to another is called
Chemical equilibrium
13$ E4plain Thermal e.&ili'ri&m$
#f the temperature difference between the system and surroundings is 6ero then it is in &hermal
equilibrium.
17$ )e*ne >eroth la" o, Thermodynamics$
2hen two systems are separately in thermal equilibrium with a third system then they themselves is in
thermal equilibrium with each other.
20$ %hat are the limitations o, *rst la" o, thermodynamics(
1. According to first law of thermodynamics heat and wor* are mutually convertible during any cycle
of a closed system. !ut this law does not specify the possible conditions under which the heat is
converted into wor*.
2. According to the first law of thermodynamics it is impossible to transfer heat from lower
temperature to higher temperature.
". #t does not give any information regarding change of state or whether the process is possible or not.
7. &he law does not specify the direction of heat and wor*.
21$ %hat is perpet&al motion machine o, *rst #ind(
#t is defined as a machine, which produces wor* energy without consuming an equivalent of energy
from other source. #t is impossible to obtain in actual practice, because no machine can produce energy
of its own without consuming any other form of energy.
22$ )e*ne6 :peci*c heat capacity at constant press&re$
#t is defined as the amount of heat energy required to raise or lower the temperature of unit mass of the
substance through one degree when the pressure *ept constant. #t is denoted by Cp.
23$ )e*ne6 :peci*c heat capacity at constant 5ol&me$
#t is defined as the amount of heat energy required to raise or lower the temperature of unit mass of the
substance through one degree when volume *ept constant.
2-$ )i+erentiate Intensi5e and E4tensi5e properties
Intensi5e 1ropertiesE4tensi5e 1roperties
1. #ndependent on the mass of the system;ependent on the mass of the system.
2. #f we consider part of the system these #f we consider part of the system it will have a
properties remain same.lesser value.
e.g. pressure, &emperature specific volume e.g., &otal energy, &otal volume, weight etc.,
etc.,
". '(tensive property<mass is *nown as))
intensive property
2/$ )e*ne the term enthalpy(
&he Combination of internal energy and flow energy is *nown as enthalpy of the system. #t may also
be defined as the total heat of the substance.
%athematically, enthalpy (+) / 0 1 pv =>)
2here, 0 4 internal energy
p 4 pressure
v 4 volume
#n terms of Cp : & ? + / mCp (&2)&1)=>
20$ )e*ne the term internal energy
#nternal energy of a gas is the energy stored in a gas due to its molecular interactions. #t is also defined
as the energy possessed by a gas at a given temperature.
22$ %hat is meant 'y thermodynamic "or#(
#t is the wor* done by the system when the energy transferred across the boundary of the system. #t is
mainly due to intensive property difference between the system and surroundings.
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ME 2202 Engineering Thermodynamics Mechanical Engineering
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10 Mar#s
1.
2hen a system is ta*en from state l to state m, in @ig., along path lqm, 1AB *> of heat flows into
the system, and the system does A7 *> of wor* 8
(i) +ow much will be the heat that flows into the system along path lnm if the wor* done is 21
*>C
(ii) 2hen the system is returned from m to l along the curved path, the wor* done on the system
is 72 *>. ;oes the system absorb or liberate heat, and how much of the heat is absorbed or
liberatedC
(iii) #f 0l / 5 and 0n / B7 *>, find the heat absorbed in the processes ln and nm.
2.
.l4q4m / 1AB *>
2l4q4m / A7 *>
2e have, .l4q4m / (0m 4 0l) 1 2l4q4m
1AB / (0m 4 0l) 1 A7
0m 4 0l / 157 *>. (Ans.)
(i) .l4n4m / (0m 4 0l) 1 2l4n4m
/ 157 1 21
/ 12D *>. (Ans.)
(ii) .m4l / (0l 4 0m) 1 2m4l
/ 4 157 1 (4 72)
/ 4 17A *>. (Ans.)
&he system liberates 17A *>.
(iii) 2l4n4m / 2l4n 1 2n4m
/ 2l4m / 21 *>E2n4m / 5, since volume does not change.F
.l4n / (0n 4 0l) 1 2l4n
/ (B7 4 5) 1 21
/ 15D *>. (Ans.)
$ow .l4m4n / 12D *> / .l4n 1 .n4m
.n4m / 12D 4 .l4n
/ 12D 4 15D
/ 25 *>. (Ans.)
A stone of 25 *g mass and a tan* containing 255 *g water comprise a system. &he stone is 1D m
above the water level initially. &he stone and water are at the same temperature initially. #f the
stone falls into water, then determine G0, G9', G=', . and 2, when
(i) &he stone is about to enter the water,
(ii) &he stone has come to rest in the tan*, and
(iii) &he heat is transferred to the surroundings in such an amount that the stone and water come
to their initial temperature.
%ass of stone / 25 *g
%ass of water in the tan* / 255 *g
+eight of stone above water level / 1D m
Applying the first law of thermodynamics,
?
@
A
B
?
@
+ere . / +eat leaving the boundary.
(i) 2hen the stone is about to enter the water,
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ME 2202 Engineering Thermodynamics Mechanical Engineering
. / 5, 2 / 5, / 5
4 /
/ mg (H2 4 H1)
/ 25 I J.B1 (5 4 1D)
/ 4 2J7" >
C G =' / 2J7" > and G 9' / 4 2J7" >. (Ans.)
2012 - 2013
(ii) 2hen the stone dips into the tan* and comes to rest
. / 5, 2 / 5, G =' / 5
-ubstituting these values in eqn. (1), we get
5 / G 0 1 5 1 G 9' 1 5
C G0 / 4 G9' / 4 (4 2J7") / 2J7" >. (Ans.)
&his shows that the internal energy (temperature) of the system increases.
(iii) 2hen the water and stone come to their initial temperature,
2 / 5, G =' / 5
-ubstituting these values in eqn. (1), we get
C . / 4 G 0 / 4 2J7" >. (Ans.)
&he negative sign shows that the heat is lost from the system to the surroundings.
". A fluid system, contained in a piston and cylinder machine, passes through a complete cycle of
four processes. &he sum of all heat transferred during a cycle is 4 "75 *>. &he system completes
255 cycles per min.
Complete the following table showing the method for each item, and compute the net rate of
wor* output in *2.
9rocess. (*><min)2 (*><min)G' (*><min)
1K257"75K
2K"725555K
"K74 7255K4 L"255
7K1KKK
-um of all heat transferred during the cycle / 4 "75 *>.
$umber of cycles completed by the system / 255 cycles<min.
9rocess 1K2 8
./G'12
5 / G ' 1 7"75
C G ' / 4 7"75 *><min.
9rocess 2K" 8
./G'12
72555 / G ' 1 5
G ' / 72555 *><min.
9rocess "K7 8
./G'12
4 7255 / 4 L"255 1 2
C 2 / AJ555 *><min.
9rocess 7K1 8
M. cycle / 4 "75 *>
&he system completes 255 cycles<min
.142 / .24" 1 ."47 1 .741
/ 4 "75 I 255
/ 4 AB555 *><min
5 1 72555 1 (4 7255) 1 .741 / 4 AB555
.741 / 4 15DB55 *><min.
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ME 2202 Engineering Thermodynamics Mechanical Engineering
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7.
$ow, N d' / 5, since cyclic integral of any property is 6ero.
G '142 1 G'24" 1 G '"47 1 G '741 / 5
4 7"75 1 72555 1 (4 L"255) 1 G '741 / 5
C G '741 / "DD75 *><min.
C 2741 / .741 4 G '741
/ 4 15DB55 4 "DD75
/ 4 171"75 *><min
9rocess. (*><min)2 (*><min)G' (*><min)
1K257"754 7"75
2K"72555572555
"K74 7255AJ5554 L"255
7K14 15DB554 171"75"DD75
-ince M. cycle / M2 cycle
Oate of wor* output / 4 AB555 *><min
03000
00
/ 11""."" *2. (Ans.)
A fluid system undergoes a non)flow frictionless process following the pressure)volume relation
aswhere p is in bar and , is in m". ;uring the process the volume changes from
5.1D m" to 5.5D m" and the system rePects 7D *> of heat. ;etermine 8
(i) Change in internal energy 3
(ii) Change in enthalpy.
#nitial volume, ,1 / 5.1D m"
@inal volume, ,2 / 5.5D m"
+eat rePected by the system, . / 4 7D *>
2or* done is given by,
D
D
E
?
D
@
?
@F
?
@
00
?000 @
0 D
/ 4 D.A7 I 15 $)m / 4 D.A7 I 15D >
/ 4 DA7 *>
(i) Applying the first law energy equation,
./G012
4 7D / G 0 1 (4 DA7)
C G0 / D1J *>. (Ans.)
&his shows that the internal energy is increased.
(ii) Change in enthalpy,
G + / G 0 1 G (p,)
/ D1J I 15" 1 (p2,2 4 p1,1)
E1 $m / 1 >F
0
/ "7.B" I 15D $<m2
00
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ME 2202 Engineering Thermodynamics Mechanical Engineering
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D.
/ 151.D bar / 151.D I 15D $<m2
C G + / D1J I 15" 1 (151.D I 15D I 5.5D 4 "7.B" I 15D I 5.1D)
/ D1J I 15" 1 15"(D5L.D 4 D22.7D)
/ 15"(D1J 1 D5L.D 4 D22.7D) / D57 *>
C Change in enthalpy / D57 *>. (Ans.)
&he following equation gives the internal energy of a certain substance u / ".A7 pv 1 J5 where u
is *><*g, p is in *9a and v is in m"<*g.
A system composed of ".D *g of this substance e(pands from an initial pressure of D55 *9a and a
volume of 5.2D m" to a final pressure 155 *9a in a process in which pressure and volume are
related by pv1.2D / constant.
(i) #f the e(pansion is quasi)static, find ., G0 and 2 for the process.
(ii) #n another process, the same system e(pands according to the same pressure)volume
relationship as in part (i), and from the same initial state to the same final state as in part (i), but
the heat transfer in this case is "2 *>. @ind the wor* transfer for this process.
(iii) '(plain the difference in wor* transfer in parts (i) and (ii).
#nternal energy equation 8 u / ".A7 pv 1 J5
#nitial volume, ,1 / 5.2D m"
#nitial pressure, p1 / D55 *9a
@inal pressure, p2 / 155 *9a
9rocess8 pv1.2D / constant.
(i) $ow, u / ".A7 pv 1 J5
G u / u2 4 u1 / ".A7 (p2v2 4 p1v1) ...per *g
C G 0 / ".A7 (p2,2 4 p1,1) ...for ".D *g
$ow, p1,11.2D / p2,21.2D
?
@
G
00 G
0?@
00
/ 5.J5A m"
G0 / ".A7 (155 I 15" I 5.J5A 4 D55 I 15" I 5.2D) >
/ ".A7 I 15D (5.J5A 4 D I 5.2D) >
/ 4 ".A7 I 15D I 5."77 > / 4 12D.2 *>
i.e., G0 / 4 12D.2 *>. (Ans.)
@or a quasi)static process
D
00
0
0
00
0
0 00
E1 9a / 1 $<m2F
A.
/ 1"L.A *>
. / G0 1 2
/ 4 12D.2 1 1"L.A
/ 12.7 *>
i.e., . / 12.7 *>. (Ans.)
(ii)+ere . / "2 *>
-ince the end states are the same, G0 would remain the same as in (i)
C 2 / . 4 G0 / "2 4 (4 12D.2) / 1DL.2 *>. (Ans.)
(iii) &he wor* in (ii) is not equal to N p d, since the process is not quasi)static.
5.2 m" of air at 7 bar and 1"5QC is contained in a system. A reversible adiabatic e(pansion ta*es
place till the pressure falls to 1.52 bar. &he gas is then heated at constant pressure till enthalpy
increases by L2.D *>. Calculate 8
(i) &he wor* done 3
(ii) &he inde( of e(pansion, if the above processes are replaced by a single reversible polytropic
process giving the same wor* between the same initial and final states.
&a*e cp / 1 *><*g =, cv / 5.L17 *><*g =.
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ME 2202 Engineering Thermodynamics Mechanical Engineering
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#nitial volume, ,1 / 5.2 m"
#nitial pressure, p1 / 7 bar / 7 I 15D $<m2
#nitial temperature, &1 / 1"5 1 2L" / 75" =
@inal pressure after adiabatic e(pansion,
p2 / 1.52 bar / 1.52 I 15D $<m2
#ncrease in enthalpy during constant pressure process / L2.D *>.
(i) 2or* done 8
9rocess 1)2 8 Oeversible adiabatic process 8
?
Also
0
?
@
0 ?
%ass of the gas,
where, O / (cp 4 cv) / (1 4 5.L17) *><*g =
/ 5.2BA *><*g =
/ 2BA ><*g = or 2BA $m<*g =
0 0
00
300
9rocess 2)". Constant pressure 8
.24" / m cp (&" 4 &2)
L2.D / 5.AJ7 I 1 I (&" 4 2L2.L)
&" / "LL =
Also,
,"/ 5.L"2 m"
2or* done by the path 1)2)" is given by
21424" / 2142 1 224"
?
+ence, total wor* done / BD7D7 $m or >.
(ii) #nde( of e(pansion, n 8
#f the wor* done by the polytropic process is the same,

@
?
@
/ 5.D" m"
@
/ 2L2.L =
@
+ence,
n / 1.5A2
value of inde( / 1.5A2. (Ans.)
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ME 2202 Engineering Thermodynamics Mechanical Engineering
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A cylinder contains 5.7D m" of a gas at 1 I 15D $<m2 and B5QC. &he gas is compressed to a
volume of 5.1" m", the final pressure being D I 15D $<m2. ;etermine 8
(i) &he mass of gas 3
(ii) &he value of inde( RnS for compression 3
(iii) &he increase in internal energy of the gas 3
(iv) &he heat received or rePected by the gas during compression.
&a*e T / 1.7, O / 2J7.2 ><*gQC.
#nitial volume of gas, ,1 / 5.7D m"
#nitial pressure of gas, p1 / 1 I 15D $<m2
#nitial temperature, &1 / B5 1 2L" / "D" =
@inal volume after compression, ,2 / 5.1" m"
&he final pressure, p2 / D I 15D $<m2.
(i) &o find mass RmS using the relation
0 0
0
(ii) &o find inde( RnS using the relation
? @
00
?@
00
n
(".7A) / D
&a*ing log on both sides, we get
n loge ".7A / loge D
n / loge D<loge ".7A / 1.2JA. (Ans.)
(iii) #n a polytropic process,
0
? @?@
0
C &2 / "D" I 1.777 / D5J.L =
$ow, increase in internal energy,
G 0 / mcv (&2 4 &1)
?
(iv) . / G 0 1 2
0

@
/ 7J.J *>. (Ans.)
?
@
B.
?0 @
0
/ 4 AL7"B $)m or 4 AL7"B > / 4 AL.77 *>
C . / 7J.J 1 (4 AL.77) / 4 1L.D7 *>
"
5.1 m of an ideal gas at "55 = and 1 bar is compressed adiabatically to B bar. #t is then cooled at
constant volume and further e(panded isothermally so as to reach the condition from where it
started. Calculate 8
(i) 9ressure at the end of constant volume cooling.
(ii) Change in internal energy during constant volume process.
(iii) $et wor* done and heat transferred during the cycle. Assume
cp / 17." *><*g = and cv / 15.2 *><*g =.
Uiven8 ,1 / 5.1 m" 3 &1 / "55 = 3 p1 / 1 bar 3 cp / 17." *><*g = 3 cv / 15.2 *><*g =.
(i) 9ressure at the end of constant volume cooling, p"8
0
0
Characteristic gas constant,
O / cp 4 cv / 17." 4 15.2 / 7.1 *><*g =
Considering process 1)2, we have 8
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ME 2202 Engineering Thermodynamics Mechanical Engineering
?
0
00
?
@
/ D77.D =
@
? @
3
2012 - 2013
00 ? @
Considering process "41, we have
p"," / p1,1
0
00
(ii) Change in internal energy during constant volume process, (0" 4 02) 8
%ass of gas,
0 0
0 003
00000
Change in internal energy during constant volume process 24",
0" 4 02 / mcv(&" 4 &2)
/ 5.55B1" I 15.2 ("55 4 D77.D)(-ince &" / &1)
/ 4 25.2L *> (Ans.) (4 ve sign means decrease in internal energy)
V ;uring constant volume cooling process, temperature and hence internal energy is reduced.
&his decrease in internal energy equals to heat flow to surroundings since wor* done is 6ero.
(iii) $et wor* done and heat transferred during the cycle 8
?@
0 003
? 00
@
0
0
224" / 5 ... since volume remains constant
? @
?
0 @ 0
?
@
?
@
/ 17B1A $m (or >) or 17.B2 *>
C $et wor* done / 2142 1 224" 1 2"41
/ (4 25.2L) 1 5 1 17.B2
/ 4 D.7D *>
4ve sign indicates that wor* has been done on the system. (Ans.)
@or a cyclic process 8
H
H
C +eat transferred during the complete cycle / 4 D.7D *>
4ve sign means heat has been rePected i.e., lost from the system. (Ans.)
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ME 2202 Engineering Thermodynamics Mechanical Engineering
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15 *g of fluid per minute goes through a reversible steady flow process. &he properties of fluid at
the inlet are8 p1 / 1.D bar, W1 / 2A *g<m", C1 / 115 m<s and u1 / J15 *><*g and at the e(it are p2 /
D.D bar, W2 / D.D *g<m", C2 / 1J5 m<s and u2 / L15 *><*g. ;uring the passage, the fluid rePects DD
*><s and rises through DD metres. ;etermine 8
(i) &he change in specific enthalpy (G h) 3
(ii) 2or* done during the process (2).
@low of fluid / 15 *g<min
9roperties of fluid at the inlet 8
9ressure, p1 / 1.D bar / 1.D I 15D $<m2
;ensity, W1 / 2A *g<m"
,elocity, C1 / 115 m<s
#nternal energy, u1 / J15 *><*g
9roperties of the fluid at the e(it 8
9ressure, p2 / D.D bar / D.D I 15D $<m2
;ensity, W2 / D.D *g<m"
,elocity, C2 / 1J5 m<s
#nternal energy, u2 / L15 *><*g
+eat rePected by the fluid,
. / DD *><s
Oise is elevation of fluid / DD m.
(i) &he change in enthalpy,
Gh / Gu 1 G(pv)
?
@
0
D
0
0D
/ 1 I 15 4 5.5DLL I 15
/ 15D I 5.J72" $m or >
/ J7.2" *>
Gu / u2 4 u1
/ (L15 4 J15)
/ 4 255 *><*g
-ubstituting the value in eqn. (i), we get
Gh / 4 255 1 J7.2"
/ 4 15D.LL *><*g. (Ans.)
(ii) &he steady flow equation for unit mass flow can be written as
. / G =' 1 G 9' 1 G h 1 2
where . is the heat transfer per *g of fluid
0
00
/ DD I A / ""5 *><*g
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ME 2202 Engineering Thermodynamics Mechanical Engineering
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2012 - 2013
/ 12555 > or 12 *><*g
G9' / (H2 4 H1) g / (DD 4 5) I J.B1 $m or >
/ D"J.D > or X 5.D7 *><*g
-ubstituting the value in steady flow equation,
4 ""5 / 12 1 5.D7 4 15D.LL 1 2 or 2
/ 4 2"A.LL *><*g.
0/ 4 "J.7A *><s
/ 4 "J.7A *2. (Ans.)
15. At the inlet to a certain no66le the enthalpy of fluid passing is 2B55 *><*g, and the velocity is D5
m<s. At the discharge end the enthalpy is 2A55 *><*g. &he no66le is hori6ontal and there is
negligible heat loss from it.
(i) @ind the velocity at e(it of the no66le.
(ii) #f the inlet area is J55 cm2 and the specific volume at inlet is 5.1BL m"<*g, find the mass flow
rate.
(iii) #f the specific volume at the no66le e(it is 5.7JB m"<*g, find the e(it area of no66le.
Conditions of fluid at inlet (1) 8
'nthalpy, h1 / 2B55 *><*g
,elocity, C1 / D5 m<s
Area, A1 / J55 cm2 / J55 I 1547 m2
-pecific volume, v1 / 5.1BL m"<*g
Conditions of fluid at e(it (2) 8
'nthalpy, h2 / 2A55 *><*g
-pecific volume, v2 / 5.7JB m"<*>
Area, A2 /C
%ass flow rate, I /C
(i) ,elocity at e(it of the no66le, C2 8
Applying energy equation at R1S and R2S, we get
were . / 5, 2 / 5, H1 / H2
? 300 000@
/ 2512D5 $)m
C C2 / 752D55
C C2 / A"7.7 m<s. (Ans.)
2
000
0
(ii) %ass flow rate I 8
!y continuity equation,
I
00
0 3
C %ass flow rate / 27.5A *g<s. (Ans.)
00
0
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ME 2202 Engineering Thermodynamics Mechanical Engineering
iii) Area at the e(it, A2 8
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0 3
A2 / 5.51BBBL m2 / 1BB.BL cm2
+ence, area at the e(it / 1BB.BL cm2. (Ans.)
11. Air at a temperature of 25QC passes through a heat e(changer at a velocity of 75 m<s where its
temperature is raised to B25QC. #t then enters a turbine with same velocity of 75 m<s and e(pands
till the temperature falls to A25QC. n leaving the turbine, the air is ta*en at a velocity of DD m<s
to a no66le where it e(pands until the temperature has fallen to D15QC. #f the air flow rate is 2.D
*g<s, calculate 8
(i) Oate of heat transfer to the air in the heat e(changer 3
(ii) &he power output from the turbine assuming no heat loss 3
(iii) &he velocity at e(it from the no66le, assuming no heat loss.
&a*e the enthalpy of air as h / cpt, where cp is the specific heat equal to 1.55D *><*gQC and t the
temperature.
00
&emperature of air, t1 / 25QC
,elocity of air, C1 / 75 m<s.
&emperature of air after passing the heat e(changer, t2 / B25QC
,elocity of air at entry to the turbine, C2 / 75 m<s
&emperature of air after leaving the turbine, t" / A25QC
,elocity of air at entry to no66le, C" / DD m<s
&emperature of air after e(pansion through the no66le, t7 / D15QC
Air flow rate, I / 2.D *g<s.
(i) +eat e(changer 8
Oate of heat transfer 8
'nergy equation is given as,
+ere, H1 / H2, C1, C2 / 5, 2142 / 5
C mh1 1 .142 / mh2
or .142 / m(h2 4 h1)
/ mcp (t2 4 t1)
/ 2.D I 1.55D (B25 4 25)
/ 2515 *><s.
+ence, rate of heat transfer / 2515 *><s. (Ans.)
(ii) &urbine 8
9ower output of turbine 8
'nergy equation for turbine gives
?
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A?
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@
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E-ince .24" / 5, H1 / H2F
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ME 2202 Engineering Thermodynamics Mechanical Engineering
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0 0@
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@B
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@B
2012 - 2013
A 00 ?3 0
/ 2.D E251 1 5.L12DF / D57." *><s or D57." *2
+ence, power output of turbine / D57." *2. (Ans.)
(iii) $o66le8
,elocity at e(it from the no66le 8
'nergy equation for no66le gives,
E-ince 2"47 / 5, ." 4 7 / 5, H1 / H2F
?
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0@
000
00 ?0 0
C7 / 7L".7 m<s.
+ence, velocity at e(it from the no66le / 7L".7 m<s. (Ans.)
UNIT II
:econd !a"
2 Mar#s
1$ )e*ne Cla&si&s statement$
#t is impossible for a self)acting machine wor*ing in a cyclic process, to transfer heat from a body at
lower temperature to a body at a higher temperature without the aid of an e(ternal agency.
2$ %hat is 1erpet&al motion machine o, the second #ind(
A heat engine, which converts whole of the heat energy into mechanical wor* is *nown as 9erpetual
motion machine of the second *ind.
3$ )e*ne <el5in 1lanc# :tatement$
#t is impossible to construct a heat engine to produce networ* in a complete cycle if it e(changes heat
from a single reservoir at single fi(ed temperature.
-$ )e*ne Jeat p&mp$
A heat pump is a device, which is wor*ing in a cycle and transfers heat from lower temperature to
higher temperature.
/$ )e*ne Jeat engine$
+eat engine is a machine, which is used to convert the heat energy into mechanical wor* in a cyclic
process.
0$ %hat are the ass&mptions made on heat engine(
1. &he source and sin* are maintained at constant temperature.
2. &he source and sin* has infinite heat capacity.
2$ :tate Carnot theorem$
#t states that no heat engine operating in a cycle between two constant temperature heat reservoir can
be more efficient than a reversible engine operating between the same reservoir.
3$ %hat is meant 'y re5ersi'le process(
A reversible process is one, which is performed in such a way that at the conclusion of process, both
system and surroundings may be restored to their initial state, without producing any changes in rest of
the universe.
7$ %hat is meant 'y irre5ersi'le process(
&he mi(ing of two substances and combustion also leads to irreversibility. All spontaneous process is
irreversible.
10$ E4plain entropy(
#t is an important thermodynamic property of the substance. #t is the measure of molecular disorder. #t
is denoted by -. &he measurement of change in entropy for reversible process is obtained by the
quantity of heat received or rePected to absolute temperature.
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11$ %hat is a'sol&te entropy(
&he entropy measured for all perfect crystalline solids at absolute 6ero temperature is *nown as
absolute entropy.
12$ )e*ne a5aila'ility$
&he ma(imum useful wor* obtained during a process in which the final condition of the system is the
same as that of the surrounding is called availability of the system.
13$ )e*ne a5aila'le energy and &na5aila'le energy$
Available energy is the ma(imum thermal useful wor* under ideal condition. &he remaining part,
which cannot be converted into wor*, is *nown as unavailable energy.
1-$ E4plain the term so&rce and sin#$
-ource is a thermal reservoir, which supplies heat to the system and sin* is a thermal reservoir, which
ta*es the heat from the system.
1/$ %hat do yo& &nderstand 'y the entropy principle(
&he entropy of an isolated system can never decrease. #t always increases and remains constant only
when the process is reversible. &his is *nown as principle of increase in entropy or entropy principle.
10$ %hat are the important characteristics o, entropy(
1. #f the heat is supplied to the system then the entropy will increase.
2. #f the heat is rePected to the system then the entropy will decrease.
". &he entropy is constant for all adiabatic frictionless process.
7. &he entropy increases if temperature of heat is lowered without wor* being done as in throttling
process.
D. #f the entropy is ma(imum, then there is a minimum availability for conversion in to wor*.
A. #f the entropy is minimum then there is a ma(imum availability for conversion into wor*.
12$ %hat is re5ersed carnot heat engine( %hat are the limitations o, carnot cycle(
1. $o friction is considered for moving parts of the engine.
2. &here should not be any heat loss.
13$ )e*ne an isentropic process$
#sentropic process is also called as reversible adiabatic process. #t is a process which follows the law
of p,y / C is *nown as isentropic process. ;uring this process entropy remains constant and no heat
enters or leaves the gas.
17$ E4plain the throttling process$
2hen a gas or vapour e(pands and flows through an aperture of small si6e, the process is called as
throttling process.
20$ %hat are the Corollaries o, Carnot theorem$
(i) #n the entire reversible engine operating between the two given thermal reservoirs with fi(ed
temperature, have the same efficiency.
(ii) &he efficiency of any reversible heat engine operating between two reservoirs is independent of the
nature of the wor*ing fluid and depends only on the temperature of the reservoirs.
21$ )e*ne 1MM o, second #ind$
9erpetual motion machine of second *ind draws heat continuously from single reservoir and converts
it into equivalent amount of wor*. &hus it gives 155Y efficiency.
22$ %hat is the di+erence 'et"een a heat p&mp and a re,rigerator(
+eat pump is a device which operating in cyclic process, maintains the temperature of a hot body at a
temperature higher than the temperature of surroundings.
A refrigerator is a device which operating in a cyclic process, maintains the temperature of a cold body
at a temperature lower than the temperature of the surroundings.
23$ )e*ne the term C;1(
Co)efficient of performance is defined as the ratio of heat e(tracted or rePected to wor* input.
+eat e(tracted or rePected
C9 / ))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))
2or* input
2-$ %rite the e4pression ,or C;1 o, a heat p&mp and a re,rigerator(
C9 of heat pump
+eat -upplied&2
C9 +9 /))))))))))))))))))) / ))))))))
2or* input&2)&1
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C9 of Oefrigerator
+eat e(tracted&1
C9 Oef /))))))))))))))) /))))))))
2or* input&2)&1
2/$ %hy Carnot cycle cannot 'e realiKed in practical(
(i) #n a Carnot cycle all the four process are reversible but in actual practice there is no process is
reversible.
(ii) &here are two processes to be carried out during compression and e(pansion. @or isothermal
process the piston moves very slowly and for adiabatic process the piston moves as fast as possible.
&his speed variation during the same stro*e of the piston is not possible.
(iii) #t is not possible to avoid friction moving parts completely.
20$ %hy a heat engine cannot ha5e 100L eMciency(
@or all the heat engines there will be a heat loss between system and surroundings. &herefore we canSt
convert all the heat input into useful wor*.
22$ %hat are the processes in5ol5ed in Carnot cycle$
Carnot cycle consist of
i) Oeversible isothermal compression
ii) isentropic compression
iii) reversible isothermal e(pansion
iv) isentropic e(pansion
10 Mar#s
1.
A reversible heat engine operates between two reservoirs at temperatures L55QC and D5QC. &he
engine drives a reversible refrigerator which operates between reservoirs at temperatures of D5QC
and 4 2DQC. &he heat transfer to the engine is 2D55 *> and the net wor* output of the combined
engine refrigerator plant is 755 *>.
(i) ;etermine the heat transfer to the refrigerant and the net heat transfer to the reservoir at D5QC
(ii) Oeconsider (i) given that the efficiency of the heat engine and the C..9. of the refrigerator
are each 7D per cent of their ma(imum possible values.
&emperature, &1 / L55 1 2L" / JL" =
&emperature, &2 / D5 1 2L" / "2" =
&emperature, &" / 4 2D 1 2L" / 27B =
&he heat transfer to the heat engine, .1 / 2D55 *>
&he networ* output of the combined engine refrigerator plant,
2 / 21 4 22 / 755 *>.
(i) %a(imum efficiency of the heat engine cycle is given by
0 003
0 003
21 / 5.AAB I 2D55 / 1AL5 *>
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00
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00
-ince, 21 4 22 / 2 / 755 *>
22 / 2 1 4 2
/ 1AL5 4 755
/ 12L5 *>
C .7 / "."5A I 12L5
/ 71JB.A *>
." / .7 1 22
/ 71JB.A 1 12L5
/ D7AB.A *>
.2 / .1 4 21
/ 2D55 4 1AL5
/ B"5 *>.
+eat rePection to the D5QC reservoir
/ .2 1 ."
/ B"5 1 D7AB.A
/ A2JB.A *>. (Ans.)
(ii) 'fficiency of actual heat engine cycle,
Z / 5.7D Zma(
/ 5.7D I 5.AAB
/ 5."
C 21 / Z I .1
/ 5." I 2D55
/ LD5 *>
C 22 / LD5 4 755
/ "D5 *>
C..9. of the actual refrigerator cycle,
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2.
/ 5.7D I "."5A / 1.7B
C .7 / "D5 I 1.7B
/ D1B *>. (Ans.)
." / D1B 1 "D5
/ BAB *>
.2 / 2D55 4 LD5
/ 1LD5 *>
+eat rePected to D5QC reservoir
/ .2 1 ."
/ 1LD5 1 BAB
/ 2A1B *>. (Ans.)
(i) A reversible heat pump is used to maintain a temperature of 5QC in a refrigerator when it
rePects the heat to the surroundings at 2DQC. #f the heat removal rate from the refrigerator is 1775
*><min, determine the C..9. of the machine and wor* input required.
(ii) #f the required input to run the pump is developed by a reversible engine which receives heat
at "B5QC and rePects heat to atmosphere, then determine the overall C..9. of the system.
(i) &emperature, &1 / 2D 1 2L" / 2JB =
&emperature, &2 / 5 1 2L" / 2L" =
+eat removal rate from the refrigerator,
.1 / 1775 *><min / 27 *><s
$ow, co)efficient of performance, for reversible heat pump,
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0
0
2 / 2.2 *2
i.e., 2or* input required / 2.2 *2. (Ans.)
.2 / .1 1 2 / 27 1 2.2 / 2A.2 *><s
(ii) Oefer @ig.
&he overall C..9. is given by,
@or the reversible engine, we can write
30
2JB(.7 1 2.2) / AD" .7
.7(AD" 4 2JB) / 2JB I 2.2
3
03
3
." / .7 1 2
/ 1.B7L 1 2.2
/ 7.57L *><s
-ubstituting this value in eqn. (i), we get
0
#f the purpose of the system is to supply the heat to the sin* at 2DQC, then
0
0
3
0
". An ice plant wor*ing on a reversed Carnot cycle heat pump produces 1D tonnes of ice per day.
&he ice is formed from water at 5QC and the formed ice is maintained at 5QC. &he heat is rePected
to the atmosphere at 2DQC. &he heat pump used to run the ice plant is coupled to a Carnot engine
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which absorbs heat from a source which is maintained at 225QC by burning liquid fuel of 77D55
*><*g calorific value and rePects the heat to the atmosphere. ;etermine 8
(i) 9ower developed by the engine 3
(ii) @uel consumed per hour.
&a*e enthalpy of fusion of ice / ""7.D *><*g.
(i) @igure shows the arrangement of the system.
Amount of ice produced per day / 1D tonnes.
C &he amount of heat removed by the heat pump,
000
00
/ "7B7.7 *><min
3
3
3
/ "1J.5B *><min
&his wor* must be developed by the Carnot engine,
03
00
/ D." *><s / D." =w
&hus power developed by the engine / D." *2. (Ans.)
(ii) &he efficiency of Carnot engine is given by
3
3
3
?@
3 03
C .uantity of fuel consumed<hour
00
00
7.
03
Air at 25QC and 1.5D bar occupies 5.52D m". &he air is heated at constant volume until the
pressure is 7.D bar, and then cooled at constant pressure bac* to original temperature.
Calculate 8
(i) &he net heat flow from the air.
(ii) &he net entropy change.
-*etch the process on &)s diagram.
@or air 8
&emperature, &1 / 25 1 2L" / 2J" =
,olume,,1 / ," / 5.52D m"
9ressure,p1 / 1.5D bar / 1.5D I 15D $<m2
9ressure,p2 / 7.D bar / 7.D I 15D $<m2.
(i) $et heat flow 8
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@or a perfect gas (corresponding to point 1 of air),
0
0 3
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0
0 00
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2012 - 2013
0
At constant volume,
. / mcv (&2 4 &1)
/ 5.5"12 I 5.L1B (12DD.L 4 2J")
i.e., .142 / 21.DA *>.
Also, at constant pressure,
. / m I cp I (&" 4 &2)
/ 5.5"12 I 1.55D (2J" 4 12DD.L)
i.e., .24" / 4 "5.1B *>
C $et heat flow / .142 1 .24"
/ 21.DA 1 (4 "5.1B)
/ 4 B.A2 *>
i.e., +eat rePected / B.A2 *>. (Ans.)
(ii) $et entropy change 8
$et decrease in entropy,
-1 4 -2 / (-2 4 -") 4 (-2 4 -1)
At constant pressure, d. / mcp d&, hence
?
?
@
@
D
00
00
-2 4 -" / 5.57DA *><=
At constant volume, d. / mcv d&, hence
?
?
@
@
D
00
0
3
D.
-2 4 -1 / 5.5"2A *><=
C m(s1 4 s") / -1 4 -" / (-2 4 -") 4 (-2 4 -1)
/ 5.57DA 4 5.5"2A
/ 5.51" *><=
+ence, decrease in entropy / 5.51" *><=. (Ans.)
A reversible heat engine operates between two reservoirs at B2L[C and 2L[C. 'ngine drives a
Carnot refrigerator maintaining 41"[C and rePecting heat to reservoir at 2L[C. +eat input to the
engine is 2555 *> and the net wor* available is "55 *>. +ow much heat is transferred to
17
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ME 2202 Engineering Thermodynamics Mechanical Engineering
refrigerant and total heat rePected to reservoir at 2L[CC
-olution8
!loc* diagram based on the arrangement stated3
2012 - 2013
2e can write, for heat engine,
00
00
-ubstituting.1 / 2555 *>, we get .2 / D7D.7D *>
Also 2' / .1 4 .2 / 17D7.DD *>
@or refrigerator,
00
00
Also, 2O/ .7 4 ."
and 2' 4 2O / "55
or 2O / 11D7.DD *>
@rom above equations,
.7 4 ." / 11D7.DD
@rom equations,
." / LD57.DB *>
.7 / BADJ.1" *>
&otal heat transferred to low temperature reservoir
/ .2 1 .7
/ J257.AB *>
+eat transferred to refrigerant / LD57.DB *>
&otal heat transferred to low temperature reservoir / J257.AB *> Ans.
A heat pump is run by a reversible heat engine operating between reservoirs at B55QC and D5QC.
&he heat pump wor*ing on Carnot cycle pic*s up 1D *2 heat from reservoir at 15QC and
delivers it to a reservoir at D5QC. &he reversible engine also runs a machine that needs 2D *2.
;etermine the heat received from highest temperature reservoir and heat rePected to reservoir at
D5QC.
-chematic arrangement for the problem is given in figure.
@or heat engine,
A.
/ 5.L27A
@or heat pump,
2+9 / .7 4 ."
/ .7 4 1D
C9 /
3
.7 / 1L.12 *2
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2+9 / 1L.12 4 1D
/ 2.12 *2
-ince, 2+' / 2+9 1 2D
2+' / 2L.12 *2
Z+' / 5.L27A /
.1 / "L.72L *2
.2 / .1 4 2+'
/ "L.72L 4 2L.12
.2 / 15."5L *2
2012 - 2013
L.
+ence heat rePected to reservoir at D5QC
/ .2 1 .7
/ 15."5L 1 1L.12
/ 2L.72L *2 Ans.
+eat received from highest temperature reservoir / "L.72L*2 Ans.
@ind the change in entropy of steam generated at 755[C from D *g of water at 2L[C and
atmospheric pressure. &a*e specific heat of water to be 7.2 *><*g.=, heat of vapori6ation at
155[C as 22A5 *><*g and specific heat for steam given by3 cp / O (".D 1 1.2& 1 5.17&2), ><*g.=
-olution8
&otal entropy change / 'ntropy change during water temperature rise (G-1) 1 'ntropy change
during water to steam change (G-2) 1 'ntropy change during steam temperature rise (G-")
G-1 /
where .1 / m cp G&
+eat added for increasing water temperature from 2L[C to 155[C.
/ D I 7.2 I (155 4 2L)
/ 1D"" *>
G-1 /
/ D.11 *><=
'ntropy change during phase transformation3
G-2 /
+ere .2 / +eat of vapori6ation / D I 22A5 / 11"55 *>
'ntropy change, G-2/
/ "5.2B *><=.
'ntropy change during steam temperature rise3
D
@or steam
&herefore,
+ere d. / mcp d&
O// 5.7A2 *><*g.=
cp for steam / 5.7A2 (".D 1 1.2 \ & 1 5.17&2) I 154"
/ (1.A1L 1 5.DD77 & 1 5.5AD &2) I 154"
0
D0?0
/ D1B7".7J I 154" *><=
21
0 00
@
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B.
G-" / D1.B7 *><=
&otal entropy change / D.11 1 "5.2B 1 D1.B7
/ BL.2" *><= Ans.
;etermine the change in entropy of universe if a copper bloc* of 1 *g at 1D5[C is placed in a sea
water at 2D[C. &a*e heat capacity of copper as 5."J" *><*g =.
'ntropy change in universe
G-universe / G-bloc* 1 G-water
where G-bloc* / mC. ln
+ere hot bloc* is put into sea water, so bloc* shall cool down upto sea water at 2D[C as sea may
be treated as sin*.
&herefore, &1 / 1D5[C or 72".1D =
and&2 / 2D[C or 2JB.1D =
where G-bloc* / 1 ] 5."J" ( ln ?@
/ 4 5.1"LA *><=
+eat lost by bloc* / +eat gained by water
/ 4 1 I 5."J" I (72".1D 4 2JB.1D)
/ 4 7J.12D *>
&herefore, G-water /
/ 5.1AD *><*
&hus, G-universe / 4 5.1"LA 1 5.1AD
/ 5.52L7 *><* or 2L.7 ><=
'ntropy change of universe / 2L.7 ><= Ans.
&wo tan*s A and ! are connected through a pipe with valve in between. #nitially valve is closed
and tan*s A and ! contain 5.A *g of air at J5QC, 1 bar and 1 *g of air at 7DQC, 2 bar respectively.
-ubsequently valve is opened and air is allowed to mi( until equilibrium. Considering the
complete system to be insulated determine the final temperature, final pressure and entropy
change.
#n this case due to perfectly insulated system, . / 5, Also 2 / 5
^et the final state be given by subscript f _ and initial states of tan* be given by subscripts RAS
and R!S. pA / 1 bar, &A / "A" =, mA / 5.A *g3 &! / "1B=, m! / 1*g, p! / 2 bar
G. / G2 1 G0
5 / 5 1 `(mA 1 m!) 1 Cv.&f 4 (mA.Cv&A) 4 (m!.Cv.&!)a
?@
?@
?0 003@
?0 0@
&f / ""7.BB =,
@inal temperature / ""7.BB = Ans.
0sing gas law for combined system after attainment of equilibrium,
?@
?@
J.
,A / 5.A2D m"
,! / 5.7DA m"
?0 0@ 0 333
?0 00 0@
/ 172.2D *9a
@inal pressure / 172.2D *9a Ans.
'ntropy change3
G- / `((mA 1 m!).sf) 4 (mA.sA 1 m!s!)a
G- / `mA(sf 4 sA) 1 m! (sf 4 s!)a
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Considering Cp / 1.55D *><*g.=
0 3@? 000 3@ON0 0 ? 00
G- / ` 4 5.15J" 1 517JLLa
/ 5.5757L *><=
'ntropy produced / 5.5757L *><= Ans.
15. '(plain Carnot cycle with neat s*etches.
2e mentioned earlier that heat engines are cyclic devices and that the wor*ing fluid of a heat
engine returns to its initial state at the end of each cycle. 2or* is done by the wor*ing fluid
during one part of the cycle and on the wor*ing fluid during another part. &he difference
between these two is the net wor* delivered by the heat engine. &he efficiency of a heat)engine
cycle greatly depends on how the individual processes that ma*e up the cycle are e(ecuted. &he
net wor*, thus the cycle efficiency, can be ma(imi6ed by using processes that require the least
amount of wor* and deliver the most, that is, by using reversible processes. &herefore, it is no
surprise that the most efficient cycles are reversible cycles, that is, cycles that consist entirely of
reversible processes. Oeversible cycles cannot be achieved in practice because the
irreversibilities associated with each process cannot be eliminated. +owever, reversible cycles
provide upper limits on the performance of real cycles. +eat engines and refrigerators that wor*
on reversible cycles serve as models to which actual heat engines and refrigerators can be
compared. Oeversible cycles also serve as starting points in the development of actual cycles and
are modified as needed to meet certain requirements. 9robably the best *nown reversible cycle is
the Carnot cycle, first proposed in 1B27 by @rench engineer -adi Carnot. &he theoretical heat
engine that operates on the Carnot cycle is called the Carnot heat engine. &he Carnot cycle is
composed of four reversible processesKtwo isothermal and two adiabaticKand it can be
e(ecuted either in a closed or a steady)flow system.
Consider a closed system that consists of a gas contained in an adiabatic piston4cylinder device,
as shown in figure. &he insulation of the cylinder head is such that it may be removed to bring
the cylinder into contact with reservoirs to provide heat transfer. &he four reversible processes
that ma*e up the Carnot cycle are as follows8
Pe5ersi'le Isothermal E4pansion ?process 1-29 TJ Q constant@$
#nitially (state 1), the temperature of the gas is & + and the cylinder head is in close contact with a
source at temperature &+. &he gas is allowed to e(pand slowly, doing wor* on the surroundings.
As the gas e(pands, the temperature of the gas tends to decrease. !ut as soon as the temperature
drops by an infinitesimal amount d&, some heat is transferred from the reservoir into the gas,
raising the gas temperature to &+. &hus, the gas temperature is *ept constant at &+. -ince the
temperature difference between the gas and the reservoir never e(ceeds a differential amount d&,
this is a reversible heat transfer process. #t continues until the piston reaches position 2. &he
amount of total heat transferred to the gas during this process is .+.
Pe5ersi'le =dia'atic E4pansion ?process 2-39 temperat&re drops ,rom TJ to T!@$
At state 2, the reservoir that was in contact with the cylinder head is removed and replaced by
insulation so that the system becomes adiabatic. &he gas continues to e(pand slowly, doing wor*
on the surroundings until its temperature drops from &+ to &^ (state "). &he piston is assumed to
be frictionless and the process to be quasi)equilibrium, so the process is reversible as well as
adiabatic.
Pe5ersi'le Isothermal Compression ?process 3--9 T! Q constant@$
At state ", the insulation at the cylinder head is removed, and the cylinder is brought into contact
with a sin* at temperature &^. $ow the piston is pushed inward by an e(ternal force, doing wor*
on the gas. As the gas is compressed, its temperature tends to rise. !ut as soon as it rises by an
infinitesimal amount d&, heat is transferred from the gas to the sin*, causing the gas temperature
to drop to &^. &hus, the gas temperature remains constant at &^. -ince the temperature difference
between the gas and the sin* never e(ceeds a differential amount d&, this is a reversible heat
transfer process. #t continues until the piston reaches state 7. &he amount of heat rePected from
the gas during this process is .^.
Pe5ersi'le =dia'atic Compression ?process --19 temperat&re rises ,rom T! to TJ@$
-tate 7 is such that when the low)temperature reservoir is removed, the insulation is put bac* on
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ME 2202 Engineering Thermodynamics Mechanical Engineering
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the cylinder head, and the gas is compressed in a reversible manner, the gas returns to its initial
state (state 1). &he temperature rises from &^ to &+ during this reversible adiabatic compression
process, which completes the cycle.
&he 9), diagram of this cycle is shown in figure. Oemembering that on a 9), diagram the area
under the process curve represents the boundary wor* for quasi)equilibrium (internally
reversible) processes, we see that the area under curve 1)2)" is the wor* done by the gas during
the e(pansion part of the cycle, and the area under curve ")7)1 is the wor* done on the gas
during the compression part of the cycle. &he area enclosed by the path of the cycle (area 1)2)")
7)1) is the difference between these two and represents the net wor* done during the cycle.
$otice that if we acted stingily and compressed the gas at state " adiabatically instead of
isothermally in an effort to save .^, we would end up bac* at state 2, retracing the process path
")2. !y doing so we would save .^, but we would not be able to obtain any net wor* output
from this engine. &his illustrates once more the necessity of a heat engine e(changing heat with
at least two reservoirs at different temperatures to operate in a cycle and produce a net amount of
wor*.
&he Carnot cycle can also be e(ecuted in a steady)flow system. !eing a reversible cycle, the
Carnot cycle is the most efficient cycle operating between two specified temperature limits. 'ven
though the Carnot cycle cannot be achieved in reality, the efficiency of actual cycles can be
improved by attempting to appro(imate the Carnot cycle more closely.
UNIT III
1roperties o, 1&re s&'stance and :team po"er cycles
2 Mar#s
1$ %hy Pan#ine cycle is modi*ed(
&he wor* obtained at the end of the e(pansion is very less. &he wor* is too inadequate to overcome
the friction. &herefore the adiabatic e(pansion is terminated at the point before the end of the
e(pansion in the turbine and pressure decreases suddenly, while the volume remains constant.
2$ Name the 5ario&s 5apo&r po"er cycle$
Carnot cycle and Oan*ine cycle.
3$ )e*ne eMciency ratio$
&he ratio of actual cycle efficiency to that of the ideal cycle efficiency is termed as efficiency ratio.
-$ )e*ne o5erall eMciency$
#t is the ratio of the mechanical wor* to the energy supplied in the fuel. #t is also defined as the product
of combustion efficiency and the cycle efficiency.
/$ )e*ne speci*c steam cons&mption o, an ideal Pan#ine cycle$
#t is defined as the mass flow of steam required per unit power output.
0$ Name the di+erent components in steam po"er plant "or#ing on Pan#ine cycle$
!oiler, &urbine, Cooling &ower or Condenser and 9ump.
2$ %hat are the e+ects o, condenser press&re on the Pan#ine Cycle(
!y lowering the condenser pressure, we can increase the cycle efficiency. &he main disadvantage is
lowering the bac* pressure in release the wetness of steam. #sentropic compression of a very wet
vapour is very difficult.
3$ Mention the impro5ements made to increase the ideal eMciency o, Pan#ine cycle$
1. ^owering the condenser pressure.
2. -uperheated steam is supplied to the turbine.
". #ncreasing the boiler pressure to certain limit.
7. #mplementing reheat and regeneration in the cycle.
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7$ %hy reheat cycle is not &sed ,or lo" 'oiler press&re(
At the low reheat pressure the heat cycle efficiency may be less than the Oan*ine cycle efficiency.
-ince the average temperature during heating will then be low.
10$ %hat are the disad5antages o, reheating(
Oeheating increases the condenser capacity due to increased dryness fraction, increases the cost of the
plant due to the reheats and its very long connections.
11$ %hat are the ad5antages o, reheat cycle(
1. #t increases the turbine wor*.
2. #t increases the heat supply.
". #t increases the efficiency of the plant.
7. #t reduces the wear on the blade because of low moisture content in ^9 state of the turbine.
12$ )e*ne latent heat o, e5aporation or Enthalpy o, e5aporation$
&he amount of heat added during heating of water up to dry steam from boiling point is *nown as
^atent heat of evaporation or enthalpy of evaporation.
13$ E4plain the term s&per heated steam and s&per heating$
&he dry steam is further heated its temperature raises, this process is called as superheating and the
steam obtained is *nown as superheated steam.
1-$ E4plain heat o, s&per heat or s&per heat enthalpy$
&he heat added to dry steam at 155oC to convert it into super heated steam at the temperature &sup is
called as heat of superheat or super heat enthalpy.
1/$ E4plain the term critical point9 critical temperat&re and critical press&re$
#n the &)- diagram the region left of the waterline, the water e(ists as liquid. #n right of the dry steam
line, the water e(ists as a super heated steam. #n between water and dry steam line the water e(ists as a
wet steam. At a particular point, the water is directly converted into dry steam without formation of
wet steam. &he point is called critical point. &he critical temperature is the temperature above which a
substance cannot e(ist as a liquid3 the critical temperature of water is "L7.1DoC. &he corresponding
pressure is called critical pressure.
10$ )e*ne dryness ,raction ?or@ %hat is the .&ality o, steam(
#t is defined as the ratio of mass of the dry steam to the mass of the total steam.
12$ )e*ne enthalpy o, steam$
#t is the sum of heat added to water from free6ing point to saturation temperature and the heat
absorbed during evaporation.
13$ Jo" do yo& determine the state o, steam(
#f ,bvg then super)heated steam, ,/ vg then dry steam and ,c vg then wet steam.
17$ )e*ne triple point$
&he triple point is merely the point of intersection of sublimation and vapourisation curves.
20$ )e*ne heat o, 5apo&risation$
&he amount of heat required to convert the liquid water completely into vapour under this condition is
called the heat of vapourisation.
21$ E4plain the terms9 )egree o, s&per heat9 degree o, s&'-cooling$
&he difference between the temperature of the superheated vapour and the saturation temperature at
the same pressure. &he temperature between the saturation temperature and the temperature in the sub
cooled region of liquid.
22$ %hat is the p&rpose o, reheating(
&he purpose of reheating is to increase the dryness fraction of the steam passing out of the later stages
of the turbine.
23$ %hat are the processes that constit&te a Pan#ine cycle(
9rocess 1428 #sentropic e(pansion of the wor*ing fluid through the turbine from saturated vapor at
state 1 to the condenser pressure.
9rocess 24"8 +eat transfer from the wor*ing fluid as it flows at constant pressure through the
condenser with saturated liquid at state ".
9rocess "478 #sentropic compression in the pump to state 7 in the compressed liquid region.
9rocess 7418 +eat transfer to the wor*ing fluid as it flows at constant pressure through the boiler to
complete the cycle.
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10 Mar#s
1.
A vessel having a capacity of 5.5D m contains a mi(ture of saturated water and saturated steam
at a temperature of 27DQC. &he mass of the liquid present is 15 *g. @ind the following 8
(i) &he pressure, (ii) &he mass, (iii) &he specific volume, (iv) &he specific enthalpy, (v) &he
specific entropy, and (vi) &he specific internal energy.
@rom steam tables, corresponding to 27DQC 8
psat / "A.D bar,
vf / 5.5512"J m"<*g,
vg / 5.5D7A m"<*g
hf / 15A1.7 *><*g,
hfg / 1L75.2 *><*g,
sf / 2.L7L7 *><*g =
sfg / "."DBD *><*g =.
(i) &he pressure/ "A.D bar (or ".AD %9a). (Ans.)
(ii) &he mass, m 8
,olume of liquid, ,f / mfvf
/ 15 I 5.5512"J
/ 5.512"J m"
,olume of vapour, ,g / 5.5D 4 5.512"J
/ 5.5"LA1 m"
C %ass of vapour,
00 0
00 0
/ 5.ABB *g
C &he total mass of mi(ture,
m / mf 1 mg
/ 15 1 5.ABB
/ 15.ABB *g. (Ans.)
(iii) &he specific volume, v 8
.uality of the mi(ture,
0 033
0 0330
0 00
v / vf 1 ( vfg
/ 5.5512"J 1 5.5A7 I (5.5D7A 4 5.5512"J)(-ince vfg / vg d vf )
"
/ 5.557AD7 m <*g. (Ans.)
(iv) &he specific enthalpy, h 8
h / hf 1 ( hfg
/ 15A1.7 1 5.5A7 I 1L75.2
/ 11L2.LL *><*g. (Ans.)
(v) &he specific entropy, s 8
s / sf 1 ( sfg
/ 2.L7L7 1 5.5A7 I "."DBD
/ 2.JA2" *><*g =. (Ans.)
(vi) &he specific internal energy, u 8
u / h 4 pv
/ 11DD.LB *><*g.
A pressure coo*er contains 1.D *g of saturated steam at D bar. @ind the quantity of heat which
must be rePected so as to reduce the quality to A5Y dry. ;etermine the pressure and temperature
of the steam at the new state.
-olution. %ass of steam in the coo*er/ 1.D *g
9ressure of steam,p / D bar
#nitial dryness fraction of steam, (1 / 1
@inal dryness fraction of steam, (2 / 5.A
20
"
2.
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".
+eat to be rePected 8
9ressure and temperature of the steam at the new state 8
At D bar. @rom steam tables,
ts / 1D1.BQC 3
hf / A75.1 *><*g 3
hfg / 215L.7 *><*g 3
vg / 5."LD m"<*g
&hus, the volume of pressure coo*er
/ 1.D I 5."LD
/ 5.DA2D m"
#nternal energy of steam per *g at initial point 1,
u1 / h1 4 p1v1
/ (hf 1 hfg) 4 p1vg1(-ince v1 / vg1)
D4"/ (A75.1 1 215L.7) 4 D I 15 I 5."LD I 15
/ 2L7L.D 4 1BL.D
/ 2DA5 *><*g
Also, ,1 / ,2 (,2 / volume at final condition)
i.e., 5.DA2D / 1.DE(1 4 (2) vf2 1 (2vg2F
/ 1.D (2vg2(-ince vf 2 is negligible)
/ 1.D I 5.A I vg2
0 0
00
00
@rom steam tables corresponding to 5.A2D m"<*g,
p2 e 2.J bar,
ts / 1"2.7QC,
hf / DDA.D *><*g,
hfg / 21AA.A *><*g
#nternal energy of steam per *g, at final point 2,
u2 / h2 4 p2v2
/ (hf2 1 (2hfg2) 4 p2(vg2(-ince, v2 / ( vg 2)
/ (DDA.D 1 5.A I 21AA.A) 4 2.J I 15D I 5.A I 5.A2D I 154"
/ 1BDA.7A 4 15B.LD
/ 1L7L.L1 *><*g.
+eat transferred at constant volume per *g
/ u2 4 u1
/ 1L7L.L1 4 2DA5
/ 4 B12.2J *><*g
&hus, total heat transferred
/ 4 B12.2J I 1.D
/ 4 121B.7" *>. (Ans.)
$egative sign indicates that heat has been rePected.
A spherical vessel of 5.J m" capacity contains steam at B bar and 5.J dryness fraction. -team is
blown off until the pressure drops to 7 bar. &he valve is then closed and the steam is allowed to
cool until the pressure falls to " bar. Assuming that the enthalpy of steam in the vessel remains
constant during blowing off periods, determine 8
(i) &he mass of steam blown off 3
(ii) &he dryness fraction of steam in the vessel after cooling 3
(iii) &he heat lost by steam per *g during cooling.
-olution. Capacity of the spherical vessel, , / 5.J m"
9ressure of the steam,p1 / B bar
;ryness fraction of steam,(1 / 5.J
9ressure of steam after blow off, p2 / 7 bar
@inal pressure of steam,p" / " bar.
(i) &he mass of steam blown off 8
&he mass of steam in the vessel
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ME 2202 Engineering Thermodynamics Mechanical Engineering
0
0
0
0
?
3
0
@
2012 - 2013
&he enthalpy of steam before blowing off (per *g)
/ hf1 1 (1hfg1 / L25.J 1 5.J I 257A.D ...... at pressure B bar
/ 2DA2.LD *><*g
'nthalpy before blowing off / 'nthalpy after blowing off
C 2DA2.LD / (hf2 1 (2hfg2) at pressure 7 bar
/ A57.L 1 (2 I 21"" ...... at pressure 7 bar
000
0 3
$ow the mass of steam in the vessel after blowing off,
0
0 3 0 0
Evg2 / 5.7A2 m" < *g.......at 7 barF
%ass of steam blown off, m / m1 4 m2
/ 7.1AL 4 2.122
/ 2.57D *g. (Ans.)
(ii) ;ryness fraction of steam in the vessel after cooling, (" 8
As it is constant volume cooling
C (2vg2 (at 7 bar) / ("vg" (at " bar)
5.J1B I 5.7A2 / (" I 5.A5A
0 30 0
0 000
00
(iii) +eat lost during cooling 8
+eat lost during cooling / m (u" 4 u2), where u2 and u" are the internal energies of steam before
starting cooling or after blowing and at the end of the cooling.
C u2 / h2 4 p2(2vg2
/ (hf2 1 (2hfg2) 4 p2(2vg2
/ (A57.L 1 5.J1B I 21"") 4 7 I 15D I 5.J1B I 5.7A2 I 154"
/ 2DA2.LJ 4 1AJ.AD
/ 2"J".17 *><*g
u" / h" 4 p"("vg"
/ (hf" 1 ("hfg") 4 p"("vg"
/ (DA1.7 1 5.AAJ I 21A".2) 4 " I 15D I 5.AJJ I 5.A5A I 154"
/ 25L".7L 4 12L.5L
/ 1J7A.7 *><*g
C +eat transferred during cooling
/ 2.57D (1J7A.7 4 2"J".17)
/ 4 J1".A *>.
i.e., +eat lost during cooling / J1".A *>. (Ans.)
Calculate the internal energy per *g of superheated steam at a pressure of 15 bar and a
temperature of "55QC. Also find the change of internal energy if this steam is e(panded to 1.7
bar and dryness fraction 5.B.
-olution. At 15 bar, "55QC. @rom steam tables for superheated steam.
hsup / "5D1.2 *><*g (&sup / "55 1 2L" / DL" =)
23
7.
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ME 2202 Engineering Thermodynamics Mechanical Engineering
and corresponding to 15 bar (from tables of dry saturated steam)
&s / 1LJ.J 1 2L" / 7D2.J = 3
vg / 5.1J7 m"<*g
&o find vsup., using the relation,
2012 - 2013
D.
/ 5.27D m"<*g.
#nternal energy of superheated steam at 15 bar,
u1 / hsup 4 pvsup
/ "5D1.2 4 15 I 15D I 5.27D I 154"
/ 2B5A.2 *><*g. (Ans.)
At 1.7 bar. @rom steam tables 3
hf / 7DB.7 *><*g,
hfg / 22"1.J *><*g 3
vg / 1.2"A m"<*g
'nthalpy of wet steam (after e(pansion)
h / hf 1 ( hfg
/ 7DB.7 1 5.B I 22"1.J
/ 227".J2 *>.
#nternal energy of this steam,
u2 / h 4 p(vg
/ 227".J2 4 1.7 I 15D I 5.B I 1.2"A I 154"
/ 215D.7J *>
+ence change of internal energy per *g
u2 4 u1 / 215D.7J 4 2B5A.2
/ 4 L55.L *>. (Ans.)
$egative sign indicates decrease in internal energy.
&he following data refer to a simple steam power plant 8
Calculate 8
(i) 9ower output of the turbine.
(ii) +eat transfer per hour in the boiler and condenser separately.
(iii) %ass of cooling water circulated per hour in the condenser. Choose the inlet temperature of
cooling water 25QC and "5QC at e(it from the condenser.
(iv) ;iameter of the pipe connecting turbine with condenser.
-olution.
(i) 9ower output of the turbine, 9 8
At A5 bar, "B5QC 8 @rom steam tables,
0 0?0 @0...!y interpolation
?@
/ "12".D *><*g
At 5.1 bar 8
hf2 / 1J1.B *><*g,
hfg2 / 2"J2.B *><*g (from steam tables)
and (2 / 5.J (given)
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ME 2202 Engineering Thermodynamics Mechanical Engineering
C h2 / hf2 1 (2 hfg2
/ 1J1.B 1 5.J I 2"J2.B
/ 2"7D." *><*g
9ower output of the turbine / ms (h1 4 h2) *2,
Ewhere ms / Oate of steam flow in *g<s and h1, h2 / 'nthalpy of steam in *><*gF
?3@
0
+ence power output of the turbine / 21A2 *2. (Ans.)
2012 - 2013
(ii) +eat transfer per hour in the boiler and condenser 8
At L5 bar 8 hf7 / 12AL.7 *><*g
?@?@
At AD bar, 755QC 8?
/ "1AL.A *><*g
C +eat transfer per hour in the boiler,
.1 / 15555 (ha 4 hf7 ) *><h
/ 15555 ("1AL.A 4 12AL.7) / 1.J I 15L *><h. (Ans.)
At 5.5J bar 8 hf" / 1B"." *><*g
+eat transfer per hour in the condenser,
.1 / 15555 (h2 d hf")
/ 15555 (2"7D." 4 1B".") / 2.1A I 15L *><h. (Ans.)
(iii) %ass of cooling water circulated per hour in the condenser, mw 8
+eat lost by steam / +eat gained by the cooling water
.2 / mw I cpw (t2 4 t1)
2.1A I 15L / mw I 7.1B ("5 4 25)
00
3? 00@
L
/ 1.11A I 15 *g<h. (Ans.)
(iv) ;iameter of the pipe connecting turbine with condenser, d 8
@
A.
+ere, d / ;iameter of the pipe (m),
C / ,elocity of steam / 255 m<s (given),
ms / %ass of steam in *g<s,
(2 / ;ryness fraction at R2S, and
vg2 / -pecific volume at pressure 5.1 bar (/ 17.AL m"<*g).
-ubstituting the various values in eqn. (i), we get
0000
0000
000
d /5.7B" m or 7B" mm. (Ans.)
#n a steam turbine steam at 25 bar, "A5QC is e(panded to 5.5B bar. #t then enters a condenser,
where it is condensed to saturated liquid water. &he pump feeds bac* the water into the boiler.
Assume ideal processes, find per *g of steam the net wor* and the cycle efficiency.
-olution. !oiler pressure,p1 / 25 bar ("A5QC)
Condenser pressure, p2 / 5.5B bar
@rom steam tables 8
At 25 bar (p1), "A5QC 8h1 / "1DJ." *><*g
30
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ME 2202 Engineering Thermodynamics Mechanical Engineering
s1 / A.JJ1L *><*g)=
At 5.5B bar (p2) 8h" / hf (p2) / 1L".BB *><*g,
s" / sf (p2) / 5.DJ2A *><*g)=
hfg (p2) / 275".1 *><*g
sg (p2) / B.22BL *><*g)=
vf (p2) / 5.55155B m"<*g
C sfg (p2) / L.A"A1 *><*g)=
$ow s1 / s2
A.JJ1L / sf (p2) 1 (2 sfg (p2)
/ 5.DJ2A 1 (2 I L.A"A1
(2 / 5.B"B
h2 / hf (p2) 1 (2 hfg (p2)
/ 1L".BB 1 5.B"B I 275".1
/ 21BL.AB *><*g.
2012 - 2013
$et wor*, 2net 8
L.
2net / 2turbine 4 2pump
2pump / hf7 4 hf (p2) (/ hf" )
/ vf (p2) (p1 4 p2)
/ 5.5515B (m"<*g) I (25 4 5.5B) I 155 *$<m2
/ 2.55B *><*g
Eand hf7 / 2.55B 1 hf (p2) / 2.55B 1 1L".BB / 1LD.BJ *><*gF
2turbine / h1 4 h2
/ "1DJ." 4 21BL.AB
/ JL1.A2 *><*g
C 2net / JL1.A2 4 2.55B
/ JAJ.A1 *><*g. (Ans.)
Cycle efficiency, Zcycle 8
.1 / h1 4 hf7
/ "1DJ." 4 1LD.BJ
/ 2JB".71 *><*g
0 0
C
3
/ 5."2D or "2.DY. (Ans.)
A Oan*ine cycle operates between pressures of B5 bar and 5.1 bar. &he ma(imum cycle
temperature is A55QC. #f the steam turbine and condensate pump efficiencies are 5.J and 5.B
respectively, calculate the specific wor* and thermal efficiency. Oelevant steam table e(tract is
given below.
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At B5 bar, A55[C 8
h1 / "A72 *> < *g 3
s1 / L.525A *> < *g =.
-ince s1 / s2,
C L.525A / sf2 1 (2 sfg2
/ 5.A7BB 1 (2 I L.D55A
0 00 0 0 33
000
/ 5.BD
$ow, h2 / hf2 1 (2 hfg2
/ 1J1.J 1 5.BD I 2"J2."
/ 222D."A *><*g
Actual turbine wor*
/ Zturbine I (h1 d h2 )
/ 5.J ("A72 4 222D."A)/ 12LD *><*g
9ump wor* / vf ( p2 )( p1 d p2 )
0 00 0 0 ?30 0 @
3030
03
/ 15.5J *><*g
-pecific wor* (2net ) / 12LD 4 15.5J
/ 12A7.J1 *> < *g. (Ans.)
30
B.
where, .1 / h1 4 hf7
!ut hf7 / hf" 1 pump wor*
/ 1J1.J 1 15.5J
/ 252 *><*g
C &hermal efficiency, Zth /
/ 5."AB or "A.B Y. (Ans.)
A simple Oan*ine cycle wor*s between pressures 2B bar and 5.5A bar, the initial condition of
steam being dry saturated. Calculate the cycle efficiency, wor* ratio and specific steam
consumption.
@rom steam tables,
At 2B bar 8
h1 / 2B52 *><*g,
s1 / A.2157 *><*g =
32
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At 5.5A bar 8 hf2 / hf" / 1D1.D *><*g,
hfg2 / 271D.J *><*g,
sf2 / 5.D21 *><*g =,
sfg2 / L.B5J *><*g =
vf / 5.551 m"<*g
Considering turbine process 1)2, we have 8
s1 / s 2
A.2157 / sf2 1 (2 sfg2
/ 5.D21 1 (2 I L.B5J
(2 / 5.L2B
h2 / hf2 1 (2 hfg2
/ 1D1.D 1 5.L2B I 271D.J
/ 1J15.2L *><*g
C &urbine wor*, 2turbine / h1 4 h2
/ 2B52 4 1J15.2L
/ BJ1.L" *><*g
9ump wor*, 2pump / hf7 4 hf"
/ vf (p1 4 p2)
0 00 ? 3 0 00@ 0
000
/ 2.LJ *><*g
E-ince, hf7 / hf" 1 2.LJ / 1D1.D 1 2.LJ / 1D7.2J *><*gF
C $et wor*, 2net / 2turbine 4 2pump
/ BJ1.L" 4 2.LJ
/ BBB.J7 *><*g
Cycle efficiency
333
333
30
/ 5.""DL or "".DLY. (Ans.)
333
3
/ 5.JJL. (Ans.)
-pecific steam consumption /
J.
2012 - 2013
/ 7.57J *g<*2h.
#n a Oan*ine cycle, the steam at inlet to turbine is saturated at a pressure of "D bar and the
e(haust pressure is 5.2 bar. ;etermine 8
(i) &he pump wor*, (ii) &he turbine wor*, (iii) &he Oan*ine efficiency, (iv) &he condenser heat
flow, (v) &he dryness at the end of e(pansion. Assume flow rate of J.D *g<s.
-olution. 9ressure and condition of steam, at inlet to the turbine,
p1 / "D bar, ( / 1
'(haust pressure, p2 / 5.2 bar
@low rate,I / J.D *g<s
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ME 2202 Engineering Thermodynamics Mechanical Engineering
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@rom steam tables 8
At "D bar 8 h1 / hg1 / 2B52 *><*g,
sg1 / A.122B *><*g =
At 5.2A bar 8 hf / 2D1.D *><*g,
hfg / 2"DB.7 *><*g,
vf / 5.55151L m"<*g,
sf / 5.B"21 *><*g =,
sfg / L.5LL" *><*g =.
(i) &he pump wor* 8
9ump wor* / (p7 4 p") vf
/ ("D 4 5.2) I 15D I 5.55151L > or ".D7 *><*g
Also hf7 4 hf" / 9ump wor* / ".D7 *><*g
C hf7 / 2D1.D 1 ".D7
/ 2DD.57 *><*g
$ow power required to drive the pump
/ J.D I ".D7 *><s or "".A" *2. (Ans.)
(ii) &he turbine wor* 8
s1 / s2 / sf2 1 (2 I sfg2
A.122B / 5.B"21 1 (2 I L.5LL"
(2 / 5.L7L
C h2 / hf2 1 (2 hfg2
/ 2D1.D 1 5.L7L I 2"DB.7
/ 251" *><*g
C &urbine wor* / I (h1 4 h2)
/ J.D (2B52 4 251")
/ L7JD.D *2. (Ans.)
#t may be noted that pump wor* ("".A" *2) is very small as compared to the turbine wor*
(L7JD.D *2).
(iii) &he Oan*ine efficiency 8
300
30
/ 5."5J" or "5.J"Y. (Ans.)
(iv) &he condenser heat flow 8
&he condenser heat flow / I (h2 4 hf" )
/ J.D (251" 4 2D1.D)
/ 1AL"7.2D *2. (Ans.)
(v) &he dryness at the end of e(pansion, (2 8
&he dryness at the end of e(pansion,
(2 / 5.L7L or L7.LY. (Ans.)
15. A steam turbine is fed with steam having an enthalpy of "155 *><*g. #t moves out of the turbine
with an enthalpy of 2155 *><*g. @eed heating is done at a pressure of ".2 bar with steam enthalpy
of 2D55 *><*g. &he condensate from a condenser with an enthalpy of 12D *><*g enters into the
feed heater. &he quantity of bled steam is 11255 *g<h. @ind the power developed by the turbine.
Assume that the water leaving the feed heater is saturated liquid at ".2 bar and the heater is direct
mi(ing type. $eglect pump wor*.
At ".2 bar, hf2 / DL5.J *><*g.
Consider m *g out of 1 *g is ta*en to the feed heater
'nergy balance for the feed heater is written as 8
mh2 1 (1 4 m) hfD / 1 I hf2
m I 2155 1 (1 4 m) I 12D / 1 I DL5.J
2155 m 1 12D 4 12D m / DL5.J
1JLD m / DL5.J 4 12D
C m / 5.22A *g per *g of steam supplied to the turbine
C -team supplied to the turbine per hour
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ME 2202 Engineering Thermodynamics Mechanical Engineering
00
0 0
/ 7JDDL.D *g<h
2012 - 2013
$et wor* developed per *g of steam
/ (h1 4 h2) 1 (1 4 m) (h2 4 h")
/ ("155 4 2D55) 1 (1 4 5.22A) (2D55 4 2155)
/ A55 1 "5J.A
/ J5J.A *><*g
C 9ower developed by the turbine
/ 12D21.D *2. (Ans.)
11. #n a single)heater regenerative cycle the steam enters the turbine at "5 bar, 755QC and the
e(haust pressure is 5.15 bar. &he feed water heater is a direct contact type which operates at D
bar. @ind 8
(i) &he efficiency and the steam rate of the cycle.
(ii) &he increase in mean temperature of heat addition, efficiency and steam rate as compared to
the Oan*ine cycle (without regeneration).
9ump wor* may be neglected.
@rom steam tables 8
At "5 bar, 755QC 8 h1 / "2"5.J *><*g,
s1 / A.J21 *><*g = / s2 / s",
At D bar 8sf / 1.BA57,
sg / A.B1J2 *><*g =,
hf / A75.1 *><*g
-ince s2 b sg, the state 2 must lie in the superheated region. @rom the table for superheated steam
t2 / 1L2QC,
h2 / 2LJA *><*g.
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ME 2202 Engineering Thermodynamics Mechanical Engineering
sf / 5.A7J,
sfg / L.D51,
hf / 1J1.B,
hfg / 2"J2.B
$ow, s2 / s"
i.e., A.J21 / sf" 1 (" sfg"
/ 5.A7J 1 (" I L.D51
(" / 5.B"A
h" / hf" 1 (" hfg"
/ 1J1.B 1 5.B"A I 2"J2.B
/ 21J2.2 *><*g
-ince pump wor* is neglected
hf7 / 1J1.B *><*g / hfD
hfA / A75.1 *><*g (at D bar) / hfL
'nergy balance for heater gives
m (h2 4 hfA ) / (1 4 m) (hfA4 hfD)
m (2LJA 4 A75.1) / (1 4 m) (A75.1 4 1J1.B) / 77B." (1 4 m)
21DD.J m / 77B." 4 77B." m
C m / 5.1L2 *g
C &urbine wor*, 2& / (h1 4 h2) 1 (1 4 m) (h2 4 h")
/ ("2"5.J 4 2LJA) 1 (1 4 5.1L2) (2LJA 4 21J2.2)
/ 7"7.J 1 7JJ.J / J"7.B *><*g
+eat supplied, .1 / h1 4 hfA
/ "2"5.J 4 A75.1
/ 2DJ5.B *><*g.
(i) 'fficiency of cycle, Zcycle 8
3
03
/ 5."A5B or "A.5BY. (Ans.)
-team rate /
/ ".BD *g<*2h. (Ans.)
(ii)
0
3
000
/ 7B7.D =
/ 211.DQC.
#ncrease in &m1 due to regeneration
/ 2"B.J 4 211.D
/ 2L.7QC. (Ans.)
2& (without regeneration)
/ h1 4 h"
/ "2"5.J 4 21J2.2
/ 15"B.L *><*g
-team rate without regeneration
000
0 3
/ ".7A *g<*2h
C #ncrease in steam rate due to regeneration
/ ".BD 4 ".7A
/ 5."J *g<*2h. (Ans.)
Zcycle (without regeneration) /
/ 5."71B or "7.1BY. (Ans.)
#ncrease in cycle efficiency due to regeneration
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At 5.1 bar 8
2012 - 2013
ME 2202 Engineering Thermodynamics Mechanical Engineering
/ "A.5B 4 "7.1B
/ 1.JY. (Ans.)
2012 - 2013
UNIT IR
Ideal and Peal Sases and Thermodynamic Pelations
2 Mar#s
1$ )e*ne Ideal gas$
#t is defined as a gas having no forces of intermolecular attraction. &hese gases will follow the gas
laws at all ranges of pressures and temperatures.
2$ )e*ne Peal gas$
#t is defined, as a gas having the forces of attraction between molecules tends to be very small at
reduced pressures and elevated temperatures.
3$ %hat is e.&ation o, state(
&he relation between the independent properties such as pressure, specific volume and temperature for
a pure substance is *nown as the equation of state.
-$ :tate BoyleTs la"$
#t states that volume of a given mass of a perfect gas varies inversely as the absolute pressure when
temperature is constant.
/$ :tate CharleTs la"$
#t states that if any gas is heated at constant pressure, its volume changes directly as its absolute
temperature.
0$ E4plain the constr&ction and gi5e the &se o, generaliKed compressi'ility chart$
&he general compressibility chart is plotted with H versus 9r for various values of &r. &his is
constructed by plotting the *nown data of one of mole gases and can be used for any gas. &his chart
gives best results for the regions well removed from the critical state for all gases.
2$ %hat do yo& mean 'y red&ced properties(
&he ratios of pressure, temperature and specific volume of a real gas to the corresponding critical
values are called the reduced properties.
3$ E4plain la" o, corresponding states$
#f any two gases have equal values of reduced pressure and reduced temperature, then they have same
values of reduced volume.
7$ E4plain )altonTs la" o, partial press&re$
&he pressure of a mi(ture of gases is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of the constituents. &he
partial pressure of each constituent is that pressure which the gas would e(pect if it occupied alone that
volume occupied by the mi(tures at the same temperatures. m / mA1m!1mC1ff. / mi
mi / mass of the constituent.
9/9A19!19C1ff. / 9i, 9i 4 the partial pressure of a constituent.
10$ :tate =5ogardoTs !a"$
&he number of moles of any gas is proportional to the volume of gas at a given pressure and
temperature.
11$ %hat is compressi'ility ,actor(
&he gas equation for an ideal gas is given by (9,<O&) / 1, for real gas (9,<O&) is not equal to 1
(9,<O&) / H for real gas is called the compressibility factor.
12$ %hat is partial press&re(
&he partial pressure of each constituent is that pressure which the gas would e(ert if it occupied alone
that volume occupied by the mi(tures at the same temperature.
13$ )e*ne )altonTs la" o, partial press&re$
&he total pressure e(erted in a closed vessel containing a number of gases is equal to the sum of the
pressures of each gas and the volume of each gas equal to the volume of the vessel.
1-$ Jo" does the Rander %aalTs e.&ation di+er ,rom the ideal gas e.&ation o, state(
&he ideal gas equation p,/mO& has two important assumptions,
1. &here is little or no attraction between the molecules of the gas.
2. &hat the volume occupied by the molecules themselves is negligibly small compared to the volume
of the gas. &his equation holds good for low pressure and high temperature ranges as the
intermolecular attraction and the volume of the molecules are not of much significance.
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ME 2202 Engineering Thermodynamics Mechanical Engineering
2012 - 2013
As the pressure increases, the inter molecular forces of attraction and repulsion increases and the
volume of the molecules are not negligible. &he real gas deviates considerably from the ideal gas
equation Ep1(a<,2)F(,)b) / O&
1/$ E4plain Uo&le-<el5in e+ect$ %hat is in5ersion temperat&re(
2hen a gas (not ideal gas) is throttled, the temperature increases up to a point and then decreases. &his
is *nown as >oule =elvin effect. &he temperature at which the slope of a throttling curve in &)p
diagram is 6ero is inversion temperature.
10 Mar#s
1.
;rive %a(well relations
&he first law applied to a closed system undergoing a reversible process states that
d. / du 1 pdv
According to second law,
? @
Combining these equations, we get
&ds / du 1 pdv
ordu / &ds 4 pdv
&he properties h, f and g may also be put in terms of &, s, p and v as follows 8
dh / du 1 pdv 1 vdp / &ds 1 vdp
+elmholt6 free energy function,
df / du 4 &ds 4 sd&
/ 4 pdv 4 sd&
UibbSs free energy function,
dg / dh 4 &ds 4 sd& / vdp 4 sd&
'ach of these equations is a result of the two laws of thermodynamics.
-ince du, dh, df and dg are the e(act differentials, we can e(press them as
? @? @
? @
? @
?
@
? @
? @
?
@
Comparing these equations we may equate the corresponding co)efficients.
@or e(ample, from the two equations for du, we have
? @? @
&he complete group of such relations may be summarised as follows 8
? @? @
? @
? @
? @
Also,
? @
? @
? @
? @
2.
? @
? @
? @
? @
? @
? @
? @
(a) 1 *g of air at a pressure of B bar and a temperature of 155QC undergoes a reversible
polytropic process following the law pv1.2 / constant. #f the final pressure is 1.B bar determine 8
(i) &he final specific volume, temperature and increase in entropy 3
33
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ME 2202 Engineering Thermodynamics Mechanical Engineering
(ii) &he wor* done and the heat transfer.
Assume O / 5.2BL *><*g = and T / 1.7.
(b) Oepeat (a) assuming the process to be irreversible and adiabatic between end states.
-olution. (a)%ass of air,m / 1 *g
9ressure,p1 / B bar
&emperature,&1 / 155 1 2L" / "L" =
&he law followed 8 pv1.2 / constant
@inal pressure,p2 / 1.B bar
Characteristic gas constant, O / 5.2BL *><*g =
Oatio of specific heats, T / 1.7
(i) v2, &2 and Gs 8
Assuming air to be a perfect gas,
p1v1 / O&1
000@
30
/ 5.1""B m"<*g
Also, p1v11.2 / p2v21.2
?
?
@
?0 3
2012 - 2013
G
G
G
@
03? @
/ 5.7A"L m"<*g
i.e., @inal specific volume, v2 / 5.7A"L m"<*g. (Ans.)
Again, p2v2 / O&2
30 0 0
?0 3000@
/ 2J5.B =
i.e., @inal temperature,t2 / 2J5.B 4 2L" / 1L.BQC. (Ans.)
#ncrease in entropy Gs is given by,
? @
!ut,
/ 1.7 (given) ...(i)
? @
and cp 4 cv / O (/ 5.2BL *><*g = for air) ...(ii)
-olving for cv between (i) and (ii),
cv / 5.L1L *><*g =
03
0?@ 0 3
0 0
?@
03
/ 4 5.1LBD 1 5."DAL / 5.1LB2 *><*g =
i.e., #ncrease in entropy, Gs / 5.1LB2 *><*g =. (Ans.)
(ii) 2or* done and heat transfer 8
&he wor* done in a polytropic process is given by,
?@
0 3 ?
0 3@
/ 11L.JA *><*g
i.e., 2or* done / 11L.JA *><*g. (Ans.)
+eat transfer, . / Gu 1 2
where Gu / cv(&2 4 &1)
/ 5.L1L (2J5.B 4 "L")
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ME 2202 Engineering Thermodynamics Mechanical Engineering
2012 - 2013
".
/ 4 DB.J7 *><*g
C . / 4 DB.J7 1 11L.JA
/ DJ.52 *><*g
+ence heat transfer / DJ.52 *><*g. (Ans.)
(b) (i) &hough the process is assumed now to be irreversible and adiabatic, the end states are
given to be the same as in (a). &herefore, all the properties at the end of the process are the same
as in (a). (Ans.)
(ii) As the process is adiabatic, . (heat transfer) / 5. (Ans.)
Gu / Gu in (a)
Applying first law for this process
. / Gu 1 2
5 / Gu 1 2
or 2 / 4 Gu
/ 4 (4 DB.J7) / DB.J7
C 2or* done / DB.J7 *><*g. (Ans.)
A container of " m" capacity contains 15 *g of C2 at 2LQC. 'stimate the pressure e(erted by
C2 by using 8
(i) 9erfect gas equation
(ii) ,an der 2aalsS equation
(iii) !eattie !ridgeman equation.
-olution. Capacity of the container, , / " m"
%ass of C2, m / 15 *g
&emperature of C2, & / 2L 1 2L" / "55 =
9ressure e(erted by C2, p 8
(i) 0sing perfect gas equation 8
Characteristic gas constant, O /
/ 1BB.JD $m<*g = (for C2)
0sing perfect gas equation
p, / mO&
0
33
00
/ 1BBJD5 $<m2 or 1.BBJ bar. (Ans.)
(ii) 0sing ,an der 2aalsS equation 8
@?@ ?V
V
V
V
7
@or C2 8 a / "A2BD5 $m <(*g)mol)2
b / 5.572" m"<(*g)mol)
V / %olar specific volume /
/ 1".2 m"<*g)mol
$ow substituting the values in the above equation, we get
3000 3 0
00
/ 1BJDA2 4 25B2.D
/ 1BL7LJ.D $<m2 or 1.BLD bar. (Ans.)
(iii) 0sing !eattie !ridgeman equation 8
?@
?V@
V
V
where p / pressure, A /?@9 ! /?
V
A5 / D5L.2B"A, a / 5.5L1"2
!5 / 5.157LA, b / 5.5L2"D
C / AA I 157
A/ 0 3 0 ?@
:< Engineering =cademy
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V
@ and e / V
ME 2202 Engineering Thermodynamics Mechanical Engineering
/ D57.D
!/0 0 0 ?
/ 5.1572
e/
?
@
2012 - 2013
@
/ 5.551BD2
$ow substituting the various values in the above equation, we get
300 ?0 00 3 @
?
0 0
@
0
7.
/ 1J55J" 4 2.BJ
/ 1.J I 15D $<m2
/ 1.J bar. (Ans.)
"
A vessel of 5."D m capacity contains 5.7 *g of carbon mono(ide (molecular weight / 2B) and 1
*g of air at 25QC. Calculate 8
(i) &he partial pressure of each constituent,
(ii) &he total pressure in the vessel, and
&he gravimetric analysis of air is to be ta*en as 2"."Y o(ygen (molecular weight / "2) and
LA.LY nitrogen (molecular weight / 2B).
-olution. Capacity of the vessel, , / 5."D m"
%ass of carbon mono(ide / 5.7 *g
%ass of air/ 1 *g
&emperature,& / 25QC or 2J" =
%ass of o(ygen present in 1 *g of air // 5.2"" *g
%ass of nitrogen present in 1 *g of air // 5.LAL *g
!ut, characteristic gas constant,
O/
where, O5 / 0niversal gas constant (/ B."17 *><*g =), and % / %olecular weight.
Also, the characteristic gas equation is given by
p, / mO&
+ence, for a constituent,
-ubstituting the values, we get the partial pressures as follows 8
(i) 9artial pressures 8
@or 2,
03
00
/ 5.D5AB bar. (Ans.)
@or $2,
0 03
3 00
/ 1.J5AD bar (Ans.)
@or C,
0 0 3
3 00
/ 5.JJ7" bar. (Ans.)
(ii) &otal pressure in the vessel, p 8
p / M pi / p2 1 p$2 1 pC
/ 5.D5AB 1 1.J5AD 1 5.JJ7"
/ ".75LA bar. (Ans.)
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ME 2202 Engineering Thermodynamics Mechanical Engineering
D.
2012 - 2013
A vessel contains at 1 bar and 25QC a mi(ture of 1 mole of C2 and 7 moles of air. Calculate for
the mi(ture 8
(i) &he masses of C2, 2 and $2, and the total mass 3
(ii) &he percentage carbon content by mass 3
(iii) &he apparent molecular weight and the gas constant for the mi(ture 3
(iv) &he specific volume of the mi(ture.
&he volumetric analysis of air can be ta*en as 21Y o(ygen and LJY nitrogen.
-olution. &he pressure in the vessel, p / 1 bar
&emperature in the vessel, & / 25 1 2L" / 2J" =
$o. of moles ofC2 / 1 mole
$o. of moles of air/ 7 mole
@rom equation,
? @ we have
n2 / 5.21 I 7
/ 5.B7
n$2 / 5.LJ I 7
/ ".1A
(i) @rom equation,mi / ni%i, we have
mC2 / 1 I 77
/ 77 *g. (Ans.)
m2 / 5.B7 I "2
/ 2A.BB *g. (Ans.)
and m$2 / ".1A I 2B
/ BB.7B *g. (Ans.)
&he total mass, m / mC2 1 m2 1 m$2
/ 77 1 2A.BB 1 BB.7B
/ 1DJ."A *g. (Ans.)
(ii) -ince the molecular weight of carbon is 12, therefore, there are 12 *g of carbon
present for every mole of C2,
i.e., 9ercentage carbon in mi(ture // L.D"Y by mass. (Ans.)
(iii) @rom equation n / M ni, we have
n / nC2 1 n2 1 n$2
/ 1 1 5.B7 1 ".1A
/ D.5
$ow using the equation % / M, we have
030
3
/ B.B 1 D."LA 1 1L.AJA
/ "1.BL2
i.e., Apparent molecular weight / "1.BL2. (Ans.)
@rom equation, O / , we have
O/
/ 5.2A5B *><*g =
i.e., Uas constant for the mi(ture / 5.2A5B *><*g =. (Ans.)
(iv) &o find specific volume of the mi(ture, v using the relation 8
pv / O&
0
0
/ 5.LA71 m"<*g
i.e., -pecific volume of the mi(ture / 5.LA71 m"<*g. (Ans.)
0 003
:< Engineering =cademy
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ME 2202 Engineering Thermodynamics Mechanical Engineering
A.
2012 - 2013
A mi(ture of ideal gases consists of 7 *g of nitrogen and A *g of carbon dio(ide at a pressure of
7 bar and a temperature of 25QC. @ind 8
(i) &he mole fraction of each constituent,
(ii) &he equivalent molecular weight of the mi(ture,
(iii) &he equivalent gas constant of the mi(ture,
(iv) &he partial pressures and partial volumes,
(v) &he volume and density of the mi(ture, and
(vi) &he cp and cv of the mi(ture.
#f the mi(ture is heated at constant volume to D5QC, find the changes in internal energy, enthalpy
and entropy of the mi(ture. @ind the changes in internal energy, enthalpy and entropy of the
mi(ture if the heating is done at constant pressure.
&a*e T 8 for C2 / 1.2BA and for $2 / 1.7.
-olution. (i) &he mole fraction of each constituent 8
-ince mole fraction,
3
3
0
0
03
03 0
/ 5.D11. (Ans.)
0
3
0
0 0
03 0 0
/ 5.7BB. (Ans.)
(ii) &he equivalent molecular weight of the mi(ture, % 8
% / 5.D11 I 2B 1 5.7BB I 77 / "D.LB *g<*g mole. (Ans.)
(iii) &he equivalent gas constant of the mi(ture, Omi( 8
&otal mass, m / m$2 1 mC2 / 7 1 A / 15 *g
3
?
3
?
0
/ 5.2"2 *><*g =. (Ans.)
(iv) &he partial pressures and partial volumes 8
9$2 / ($2 I p
/ 5.D11 I 7
/ 2.577 bar. (Ans.)
9C2 / (C2 I p
/ 5.7BB I 7
/ 1.JD2 bar. (Ans.)
3
"
3
@
0
@
0
/ 5.BL m . (Ans.)
3
3
0
0
0
0
/ 5.B" m".
(v) &he volume and density of the mi(ture 8
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ME 2202 Engineering Thermodynamics Mechanical Engineering
&otal volume of the mi(ture,
2012 - 2013
0
0
"
0
0
/ 1.AJJ m . (Ans.)
;ensity of the mi(ture,
Wmi( / W$2 1 WC2
0
0"
/ D.BB *g<m . (Ans.)
(vi) cp and cv of the mi(ture 8
cp$ 4 cv$ / O$2
2
2
and cp$
2
3
3?@
/ 5.L72 *><*g =.
/ 1.7 I 5.L72 / 1.5"J *><*g =
?
@
E-ince T for C2 / 1.2BAF
and cpC
@or the mi(ture 8
2
/ 5.AA1 *><*g =
/ 1.2BA I 5.AA1
/ 5.BD *><*g =
00 03
?0@
/ 5.J2D *><*g =.
0 0 00
?0@
/ 5.AJ" *><*g =. (Ans.)
2hen the mi(ture is heated at constant volume 8
Change in internal energy,
02 4 01 / mcv(&2 4 &1)
/ 15 I 5.AJ"(D5 4 25)
/ 25L.J *>. (Ans.)
Change in entropy,
+2 4 +1 / mcp(&2 4 &1)
/ 15 I 5.J2D(D5 4 25)
/ 2LL.D *>. (Ans.)
Change in entropy,
0
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ME 2202 Engineering Thermodynamics Mechanical Engineering
0
00
?
0
@
0
2012 - 2013
/ 5.ALD *><*g =. (Ans.)
2hen the mi(ture is heated at constant pressure 8
#f the mi(ture is heated at constant pressure G0 and G+ will remain the same.
&he change in entropy will be
0
L.
"
0
?
@
/ 5.J52 *><*g =. (Ans.)
A vessel of 1.B m capacity contains o(ygen at B bar and D5QC. &he vessel is connected to
another vessel of ".A m" capacity containing carbon mono(ide at 1 bar and 25QC. A connecting
valve is opened and the gases mi( adiabatically. Calculate 8
(i) &he final temperature and pressure of the mi(ture 3
(ii) &he change of entropy of the system.
&a*e8 @or o(ygen Cv / 21.5L *><mole =.
@or carbon mono(ide Cv / 25.BA *><mole =.
-olution. 0sing the relation,
3
0
3
?30 @
/ 5.D"A (where &2 / D5 1 2L" / "2" =)
00
?30 @
/ 5.17LB (where &C / 25 1 2L" / 2J" =).
(i) @inal temperature (&) and pressure (p) of the mi(ture 8
!efore mi(ing 8
01 / M niCvi&i
/ 5.D"A I 21.5L I "2" 1 5.17LB I 25.BA I 2J"
i.e., 01 / 7DD1.1D *>
After mi(ing 8
02 / & M niCvi
/ & (5.D"A I 21.5L 1 5.17LB I 25.BA)
i.e., 02 / 17."L &
@or adiabatic mi(ing,
01 / 02
C 7DD1.1D / 17."L &
& / "1A.L =
C &emperature of the mi(ture / "1A.L 4 2L" / 7".LQC. (Ans.)
?0
0
0
3@
? 3
3
0@
0
0
0
/ "."" bar
i.e., 9ressure after mi(ing / "."" bar. (Ans.)
(ii) Change of entropy of the system 8
Change of entropy of the system / change of entropy of the 2 1 change of entropy of C
...... Uibbs);alton law
Oeferring to @igure, the change of entropy of 2 can be calculated by replacing the process
undergone by the o(ygen by the two processes 1 to A and A to 2.
@or an isothermal process 1)A 8
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ME 2202 Engineering Thermodynamics Mechanical Engineering
2012 - 2013
0
0
3
3
/ 7.BJA *><=
@or constant volume process A)2 8
D
0
/ 5.222 *><=
C -2 4 -1 / (-A 4 -1) 4 (-A 4 -2)
/ 7.BJA 4 5.222
/ 7.AL7 *><=
Oeferring to @igure, the change of entropy of C can be found in a similar way to the above,
i.e., -2 4 -1 / (-! 4 -1) 1 (-2 4 -!)
0
0
0
0
0
3
3
0
0
3
0 30
B.
/ 5.7JB 1 5.2"J
/ 5.L"L *><=
+ence the change of entropy of the whole system is given by
(-2 4 -1)system / (-2 d -1)2 1 (-2 d -1)C
i.e., Change of entropy of system / 7.AL7 1 5.L"L
/ D.711 *><=. (Ans.)
&he pressure and temperature of mi(ture of 7 *g of 2 and A *g of $2 are 7 bar and 2LQC
respectively. @or the mi(ture determine the following 8
(i) &he mole fraction of each component 3 (ii) &he average molecular weight 3 (iii) &he specific
gas constant 3 (iv) &he volume and density 3 (v) &he partial pressures and partial volumes.
-olution. %ass of o(ygen, m2 / 7 *g
%ass of nitrogen, m$2/ A *g
9ressure,p / 7 bar
&emperature,& / 2L 1 2L" / "55 =.
(i) &he mole fraction of each component 8
/ 5.12D
0
3
/ 5.217
0
/ 5."ABL
:< Engineering =cademy
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0
-0
ME 2202 Engineering Thermodynamics Mechanical Engineering
0
00
/ 5.A"1"
(ii) &he average molecular weight, % 8
2012 - 2013
0
0
/ 2J.7LD
i.e., Average molecular weight / 2J.7LD. (Ans.)
(iii) &he specific gas constant, O 8
3
0
0
3
/ 5.2B2 *><*g =.
(iv) &he volume and density 8
p, / mO& for mi(ture
?
0@
0 3
0
0
00
/ 2.11D m". (Ans.)
;ensity, W / W2 W$2
/ 1.BJ1 *g<m"
0
/ 2.B"L *g<m"
C W / 1.BJ1 1 2.B"L
/ 7.L2B *g<m". (Ans.)
(v) &he partial pressures and partial volumes 8
p2 , / n2O5&
0
3
0
0
00
J.
/ 1.7L7 bar. (Ans.)
and
p$2 / 7 4 1.7L7
/ 2.D2A bar. (Ans.)
, 2 / (2 ,
/ 5."ABL I 2.11D
/ 5.LLJ m". (Ans.)
, $2 / ($2 ,
/ 5.A"1" I 2.11D
/ 1.""D m". (Ans.)
;rive entropy equations (&ds 'quations)
-ince entropy may be e(pressed as a function of any other two properties,
e.g. temperature & and specific volume v,
s / f(&, v)
-2
:< Engineering =cademy
ME 2202 Engineering Thermodynamics Mechanical Engineering
?
?
@
@
?
@
?
@
2012 - 2013
!ut for a reversible constant volume change
dq / cv (d&)v / &(ds)v
?
?
@
?
@
?
@
@
+ence, substituting in above equation, we get
&his is *nown as the first form of entropy equation or the first &ds equation.
-imilarly, writing
s / f(&, p)
?
?
?
@
?
@
@
@
?
@
?
@
&his is *nown as the second form of entropy equation or the second &ds equation.
15. ;rive equations for internal energy and enthalpy.
(i)^et u / f(&, v)
?
@
?
?
let
@
u / f (s, v)
?
?
?
?
?
?
@
@
@
@
@
?
@
?
@
?
@
@ ?
@
?
@
?
@
?
@
@
&his is sometimes called the energy equation.
@rom above equation, we get
N ?
@
O
(ii) &o evaluate dh we can follow similar steps as under
h / f(&, p)
?
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@
?
@
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ME 2202 Engineering Thermodynamics Mechanical Engineering
?
?
@
@
2012 - 2013
let h / f(s, p)
?
?
?
?
?
?
@
@
@
@
@
?
@
?
@
?
@
@ ?
@
?
@
?
@
@rom above equation, we get
9
?
@ -
UNIT R
1sychrometry
2 Mar#s
1$ %hat is h&midi*cation and deh&midi*cation(
&he addition of water vapour into air is humidification and the removal of water
vapour from air is dehumidification.
2$ )i+erentiate a'sol&te h&midity and relati5e h&midity$
Absolute humidity is the mass of water vapour present in one *g of dry air.
Oelative humidity is the ratio of the actual mass of water vapour present in one *g of dry air at the
given temperature to the ma(imum mass of water vapour it can with hold at the same temperature.
Absolute humidity is e(pressed in terms of *g<*g of dry air. Oelative humidity is e(pressed in terms of
percentage.
3$ %hat is e+ecti5e temperat&re(
&he effective temperature is a measure of feeling warmth or cold to the human body in response to the
air temperature, moisture content and air motion. #f the air at different ;!& and O+ condition carries
the same amount of heat as the heat carried by the air at temperature & and 155Y O+, then the
temperature & is *nown as effective temperature.
-$ )e*ne Pelati5e h&midity$
#t is defined as the ratio of partial pressure of water vapour (pw) in a mi(ture to the saturation pressure
(ps) of pure water at the same temperature of mi(ture.
/$ )e*ne speci*c h&midity$
#t is defined as the ratio of the mass of water vapour (ms) in a given volume to the mass of dry air in a
given volume (ma).
0$ )e*ne degree o, sat&ration$
#t is the ratio of the actual specific humidity and the saturated specific humidity at the same
temperature of the mi(ture.
2$ %hat is de" point temperat&re(
&he temperature at which the vapour starts condensing is called dew point temperature. #t is also equal
to the saturation temperature at the partial pressure of water vapour in the mi(ture. &he dew point
temperature is an indication of specific humidity.
3$ %hat is meant 'y dry '&l' temperat&re ?)BT@(
&he temperature recorded by the thermometer with a dry bulb. &he dry bulb thermometer cannot affect
by the moisture present in the air. #t is the measure of sensible heat of the air.
:< Engineering =cademy
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ME 2202 Engineering Thermodynamics Mechanical Engineering
2012 - 2013
7$ %hat is meant 'y "et '&l' temperat&re ?%BT@(
#t is the temperature recorded by a thermometer whose bulb is covered with cotton wic* (wet)
saturated with water. &he wet bulb temperature may be the measure of enthalpy of air. 2!& is the
lowest temperature recorded by moistened bulb.
10$ )e*ne de" point depression$
#t is the difference between dry bulb temperature and dew point temperature of air vapour mi(ture.
11$ %hat is meant 'y adia'atic sat&ration temperat&re ?or@ thermodynamic "et '&l'
temperat&re(
#t is the temperature at which the outlet air can be brought into saturation state by passing through the
water in the long insulated duct (adiabatic) by the evaporation of water due to latent heat of
vapourisation.
12$ %hat is psychrometer(
9sychrometer is an instrument which measures both dry bulb temperature and wet bulb temperature.
13$ %hat is psychrometric chart(
#t is the graphical plot with specific humidity and partial pressure of water vapour in y a(is and dry
bulb temperature along ( a(is. &he specific volume of mi(ture, wet bulb temperature, relative
humidity and enthalpy are the properties appeared in the psychrometric chart.
1-$ )e*ne sensi'le heat and latent heat$
-ensible heat is the heat that changes the temperature of the substance when added to it or when
abstracted from it. ^atent heat is the heat that does not affect the temperature but change of state
occurred by adding the heat or by abstracting the heat.
1/$ %hat are the important psychrometric processes(
1. -ensible heating and sensible cooling,
2. Cooling and dehumidification,
". +eating and humidification,
7. %i(ing of air streams,
D. Chemical dehumidification,
A. Adiabatic evaporative cooling.
10$ %hat is meant 'y adia'atic mi4ing(
&he process of mi(ing two or more stream of air without any heat transfer to the surrounding is *nown
as adiabatic mi(ing. #t is happened in air conditioning system.
12$ %hat are the ass&mptions made in Rander"aalTs e.&ation o, state(
1. &here is no inter molecular forces between particles.
2. &he volume of molecules is negligible in comparison with the gas.
13$ )e*ne coeMcient o, 5ol&me e4pansion$
&he coefficient of volume e(pansion is defined as the change in volume with the change in
temperature per unit volum
17$ :tate JelmholtK ,&nction$
+elmholt6 function is the property of a system and is given by subtracting the product of absolute
temperature (&) and entropy (-) from the internal energy (0).
+elmholt6 function / 0 4 &-
20$ %hat are thermodynamic properties(
&hermodynamic properties are pressure (p), temperature (&), volume (,), internal energy (0),
enthalpy(+), entropy (-), +elmholt6 function and Uibbs function
21$ )e*ne throttling process$
2hen a fluid e(pands through a minute orifice or slightly opened valve, the process is called as
throttling process. ;uring this process, pressure and velocity are reduced.
22$ )e*ne Molec&lar mass$
%olecular mass is defined as the ratio between total mass of the mi(ture to the total number of moles
available in the mi(ture.
23$ )e*ne isothermal compressi'ility$
#sothermal compressibility is defined as the change in volume with change in pressure per unit volume
*eeping the temperature constant.
2-$ )e*ne psychrometry$
&he science which deals with the study of behavior of moist air (mi(ture of dry air and water vapour)
is *nown as psychrometry.
:< Engineering =cademy
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ME 2202 Engineering Thermodynamics Mechanical Engineering
2012 - 2013
10 Mar#s
1. &he sling psychrometer in a laboratory test recorded the following readings 8
;ry bulb temperature / "DQC
2et bulb temperature / 2DQC.
Calculate the following 8
(i) -pecific humidity (ii) Oelative humidity (iii) ,apour density in air (iv) ;ew point temperature
(v) 'nthalpy of mi(ture per *g of dry air
&a*e atmospheric pressure / 1.51"2 bar. &he sling psychrometer in a laboratory test recorded the
following readings 8
;ry bulb temperature / "DQC
2et bulb temperature / 2DQC.
Calculate the following 8
(i) -pecific humidity (ii) Oelative humidity (iii) ,apour density in air (iv) ;ew point temperature
(v) 'nthalpy of mi(ture per *g of dry air
&a*e atmospheric pressure / 1.51"2 bar.
-olution. @or finding the partial pressure of vapour, using the equation 8
E? @ F?@
? @
Corresponding to 2D[C (from steam tables),
(pvs)wb / 5.5"1L bar
-ubstituting the values in the above equation, we get
E 0F?00
00
/ 5.5"1L 4 5.55AD / 5.52D2 bar.
(i) -pecific humidity,
00
0000
000
/ 5.51DBA *g<*g of dry air. (Ans.)
(ii) Oelative humidity,
00
00 0
Epvs / 5.5DA" bar corresponding to "D[C, from steam tablesF
/ 5.77L or 77.LY. (Ans.)
(iii) ,apour density 8
@rom characteristic gas equation
pv,v / mvOv&v
where
vapour density,
3
3
@
3
3
@
00
0
?
0003
303
"
/ 5.51LL *g<m . (Ans.)
(iv) ;ew point temperature, tdp 8
Corresponding to 5.52D2 bar, from steam tables (by interpolation),
?0 000@
?@
?0 0 000@
/ 21.2QC. (Ans.)
(v) 'nthalpy of mi(ture per *g of dry air, h 8
h / cptdb 1 2hvapour
/ 1.55D I "D 1 5.51DBA Ehg 1 1.BB (tdb 4 tdp)F
/ "D.1LD 1 5.51DBA E2DAD." 1 1.BB ("D 4 21.2)F
:< Engineering =cademy/1
ME 2202 Engineering Thermodynamics Mechanical Engineering
2012 - 2013
(where hg / 2DAD." *><*g corresponding to "D[C tdb)
/ LA.2L *><*g of dry air. (Ans.)
2. ne *g of air at "DQC ;!& and A5Y O.+. is mi(ed with 2 *g of air at 25QC ;!& and 1"QC dew
point temperature. Calculate the specific humidity of the mi(ture.
-olution. @or the air at "DQC ;!& and A5Y O.+. 8
Corresponding to "D[C, from steam tables,
pvs / 5.5DA" bar
Oelative humidity
pv / g pvs
/ 5.A I 5.5DA"
/ 5.5""B bar
00
0000 3
000 3
/ 5.5217 *g<*g of dry air
Corresponding to 5.5""B bar, from steam tables,
?
0 ?0@
?
@
@
/ 2A.1[C
'nthalpy, h / cptdb 1 2hvapour
/ 1.55D tdb 1 2 Ehg 1 1.BB (tdb 4 tdp)F
/ 1.55D I "D 1 5.5217 E2DAD." 1 1.BB ("D 4 2A.1)F
/ J5.7" *><*g of dry air.
@or the air at 25QC ;!& and 1"QC dew point temperature 8
pv is the vapour pressure corresponding to the saturation pressure of steam at 1"[C.
C pv / 5.51D5 bar
00
0000
000
/ 5.55J"D *g<*g of dry air
'nthalpy, h / cptdb 1 2hvapour
/ 1.55D I 25 1 5.55J"D Ehg 1 1.BB (tdb 4 tdp)F
/ 25.1 1 5.55J"D E2D"B.1 1 1.BB (25 4 1")F
/ 7".JD *><*g of dry air
$ow enthalpy per *g of moist air
0
EF
000
/ DB.D7 *><*g of moist air
%ass of vapour<*g of moist air
000 00
EF
000
/ 5.51"1A *g<*g of moist air
-pecific humidity of mi(ture
000
000
/ 5.51""" *g<*g of dry air. (Ans.)
"
". J5 m of air per minute at 25QC and LDY O.+. is heated until its temperature becomes "5QC.
Calculate8 (i) O.+. of the heated air. (ii) +eat added to air per minute
(i) @or air at 25QC and LDY O.+. 8
pvs / 5.52"7 bar (from steam tables, at 25[C)
pv / g I pvs
/ 5.LD I 5.52"7
/ 5.51LDD bar
?0 000 @
? 0@
?0 0 300 @
:< Engineering =cademy/2
ME 2202 Engineering Thermodynamics Mechanical Engineering
/ 1D.D[C
00
2012 - 2013
0000
000
/ 5.515J *g<*g of dry air
'nthalpy, h1 / cptdb 1 2hvapour
/ 1.55D I 25 1 5.515J Ehg 1 1.BB (tdb 4 tdp)F
/ 1.55D I 25 1 5.515J E2D"B.1 1 1.BB(25 4 1D.D)F
/ 7L.BD *><*g of dry air
(ii) Oelative humidity of heated air 8
@or air at "5QC ;!& 8
-ince the saturation pressure of water vapour at "5[C is higher than the saturation
pressure of water vapour at 25[C so it is sensible heating, where pv is same after heating.
Oelative humidity
00
00
/ 5.712 or 71.2Y
(pvs / 5.572D bar, corresponding to "5[C)
i.e., Oelative humidity of heated air / 71.2Y. (Ans.)
(iii) +eat added to air per minute 8
'nthalpy, h2 / cptdb 1 2hvapour
/ 1.55D I "5 1 5.515J I Ehg 1 1.BB (tdb 4 tdp)F
/ 1.55D I "5 1 5.515J E2DDA." 1 1.BB ("5 4 1D.D)F
/ DB."1 *><*g of dry air
"
%ass of dry air in J5 m of air supplied
?@
@0000
3?0@
/ 15A.D *g<min.
Amount of heat added per minute
/ 15A.D (h2 4 h1)
/ 15A.D (DB."1 4 7L.BD)
/ 1117 *>. (Ans.)
"
7. 75 m of air at "DQC ;!& and D5Y O.+. is cooled to 2DQC ;!& maintaining its specific humidity
constant. ;etermine 8
(i) Oelative humidity (O.+.) of cooled air 3 (ii) +eat removed from air.
-olution. @or air at "DQC ;!& and D5Y O.+. 8
pvs / 5.5DA" bar (At "D[C, from steam tables)
Oelative humidity
C pv / g I pvs
/ 5.D I 5.5DA"
/ 5.52B1D bar
00
0000 3
000 3
/ 5.51LL *g<*g of dry air
h1 / cp tdb1 1 21 Ehg1 1 1.BB ( tdb1 4 tdp1 )F
tdp1 / 2"[C (corresponding to 5.52B1D bar)
C h1 / 1.55D I "D 1 5.51LL E2DAD." 1 1.BB ("D 4 2")F
/ B5.JB *><*g of dry air
@or air at 2DQC ;!& 8
(i) O.+. of cooled air 8
-ince the specific humidity remains constant the vapour pressure in the air remains constant.
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ME 2202 Engineering Thermodynamics Mechanical Engineering
2012 - 2013
00 3
00
/ 5.BBB or BB.BY
i.e., Oelative humidity of the cooled air / BB.BY. (Ans.)
(ii) +eat removed from air 8
h2 / cp tdb2 1 22 Ehg2 1 1.BB ( tdb2 4 tdp2 )F
/ 1.55D I 2D 1 5.51LL E2D7L.2 1 1.BB (2D 4 2")F
/ L5.2L *><*g of dry air.
/ 5.51LL *g<*g of dry air
sincedoes not change
&o find mass of dry air (ma), using the relation 8
pava / maOa&a
? 0
00 3
3?
@
0
@
0
/ 77.DL *g
C +eat removed from 75 m" of air
/ ma (h1 4 h2)
/ 77.DL (B5.JB 4 L5.2L)
/ 7LL." *>. (Ans.)
"
D. 125 m of air per minute at "DQC ;!& and D5Y relative humidity is cooled to 25QC ;!& by
passing through a cooling coil.
;etermine the following 8
(i) Oelative humidity of out coming air and its wet bulb temperature.
(ii) Capacity of cooling coil in tonnes of refrigeration.
(iii) Amount of water vapour removed per hour.
-olution. @or the air at "DQC ;!& and D5Y O.+. 8
pvs / 5.5DA" bar (At "D[C, from steam tables)
pv / g I pvs
/ 5.D I 5.5DA"
/ 5.52B1D bar.
00
0000 3
000 3
/ 5.51LL *g<*g of dry air.
h1 / cp tdb1 1 21 Ehg1 1 1.BB ( tdb1 4 tdp1 )F
tdp1 X 2"[C (Corresponding to 5.52B1D bar).
C h1 / 1.55D I "D 1 5.51LL E2DAD." 1 1.BB ("D 4 2")F
/ B5.JB *><*g of dry dir.
@or the air at 25QC. As the saturation vapour pressure at 25[C is 5.52"7 bar, less than the vapour
pressure 5.52B1D bar at "D[C, so that condensation ta*es place and air will be saturated at 25QC.
(i) C Oelative humidity of e(it air is 155 per cent. (Ans.)
-ince the air is saturated, wet bulb temperature is equal to dry bulb temperature / 25QC. (Ans.)
C pv / pvs / 5.52"7 bar.
00
0000
000
/ 5.517L *g<*g of dry air
h2 / cp tdb2 1 22 Ehg2 1 1.BB ( tdb2 4 tdp2 )F
/ 1.55D I 25 1 5.517L E2D"B.1 1 1.BB (25 4 25)F
E-ince 2hen air is saturated tdb / tdpF
/ DL.71 *><*g of dry air
:< Engineering =cademy/-
ME 2202 Engineering Thermodynamics Mechanical Engineering
&he weight of water vapour removed per *g of dry air
/ 5.51LL 4 5.517L
/ 5.55" *g<*g of dry air
+eat removed per *g of dry air
/ h1 4 h2
/ B5.JB 4 DL.71
/ 2".DL *><*g of dry air
%ass of dry air passing per minute
2012 - 2013
00 3 @00
3?@
/ 1"".L *g<min
(ii) Capacity of the cooling coil in tonnes of refrigeration
?@
000
00
000
/ 1".D &O. (Ans.)
(iii) Amount of water removed per hour
/ ma (21 4 22) I A5
/ 1"".L (5.51LL 4 5.517L) I A5
/ 27.5AA *g<h. (Ans.)
A. #t is required to design an air)conditioning plant for a small office room
for following winter conditions 8
utdoor conditions ...... 17[C ;!& and 15[C 2!&
Oequired conditions ...... 25[C ;!& and A5Y O.+.
Amount of air circulation ...... 5."5 m"<min.<person.
-eating capacity of office ...... A5.
&he required condition is achieved first by heating and then by adiabatic humidifying.
;etermine the following 8
(i) +eating capacity of the coil in *2 and the surface temperature required if the by pass factor of
coil is 5.7.
(ii) &he capacity of the humidifier. -olve the problem by using psychrometric chart.
^ocate the points R1S and R"S on the psychrometric chart.
;raw a constant enthalpy line through R"S and constant specific humidity line through R1S.
^ocate the point R2S where the above two lines intersect.
? 0
@rom the psychrometric chart 8
h1 / 2J." *><*g,
h2 / h" / 72." *><*g
tdb2 / 27.D[C,
vs1 / 5.B1L m"<*g
&he mass of air circulated per minute,
0 0 00
03
:< Engineering =cademy//
ME 2202 Engineering Thermodynamics Mechanical Engineering
/ 22.5" *g<min.
(i) +eating capacity of the heating coil
/ ma(h2 4 h1)
/ 22.5" (72." 4 2J.")
/ 2BA.7 *><min.
/ 7.LL *><s or 7.LL *2. (Ans.)
&he by)pass factor (!@) of heating coil is given by 8
2012 - 2013
0
@0 ?
i.e., tdb7 (coil surface temperature) / "2.B[C. (Ans.)
(ii) &he capacity of the humidifier
?@
00
000
0 ?3 0 0 3@
00
000
/ 2."LJ *g<h. (Ans.)
L. #t is required to design an air)conditioning system for an industrial process for the following hot
and wet summer conditions 8
utdoor conditions ...... "2[C ;!& and ADY O.+.
Oequired air inlet conditions ...... 2D[C ;!& and A5Y O.+.
Amount of free air circulated ...... 2D5 m"<min.
Coil dew temperature ...... 1"[C.
&he required condition is achieved by first cooling and dehumidifying and then by heating.
Calculate the following 8
(i) &he cooling capacity of the cooling coil and its by)pass factor.
(ii) +eating capacity of the heating coil in *2 and surface temperature of the heating coil if the
by)pass factor is 5.".
(iii) &he mass of water vapour removed per hour. -olve this problem with the use of
psychrometric chart.
^ocate the points R1S, RDS and R"S as shown on psychrometric chart.
>oin the line 1)D.
;raw constant specific humidity line through R"S which cuts the line 1)D at point R2S.
&he point R2S is located in this way.
@rom psychrometric chart 8
h1 / B2.D *><*g
h2 / 7L.D *><*g
h" / DD.L *><*g
hD / "A.A *><*g
21 / 1J.A gm<*g,
2" / 11.B gm<*g
tdb2 / 1L.A[C,
vs1 / 5.BJ2 m"<*g.
&he mass of air supplied per minute,
:< Engineering =cademy
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ME 2202 Engineering Thermodynamics Mechanical Engineering
0
03
/ 2B5.2A *g<min.
(i) &he capacity of the cooling coil
?@ 00
000
@30 0 ?3
000
/ 72.57 &O. (Ans.)
00
00
2012 - 2013
00
3
/ 5.2"L.
(ii) &he heating capacity of the heating coil
/ ma (h" 4 h2)
/ 2B5.2A (DD.L 4 7L.D)
/ 22JB.1" *><min
*><s
/ "B." *2. (Ans.)
&he by)pass factor of the heating coil is given by
0
C tdbA / 2B.2[C.
+ence surface temperature of heating coil / 2B.2[C. (Ans.)
(iii) &he mass of water vapour removed per hour
@ 0030 0 ?
000
30 0 ? 03@ 00
000
/ 1"1.1A *g<h. (Ans.)
B. @or the atmospheric air at room temperature of "5[C and relative humidity of A5Y determine
partial pressure of air, humidity ratio, dew point temperature, density and enthalpy of air
-olution8
At "5[C from steam table,
saturation pressure, pv, sat / 5.572D bar
9artial pressure of vapour / Oelative humidity I pv, sat
/ 5.A I 5.572D
/ 5.52DD bar
9artial pressure of air / &otal pressure of mi(ture 4 9artial pressure of vapour
/ 1.51" 4 5.52DD
/ 5.JBLD bar
9artial pressure of air / 5.JBLD bar
00
000
h / 5.51A5A *g<*g of dry air.
+umidity ratio / 5.51A5A *g<*g of dry air
;ew point temperature may be seen from the steam table. &he saturation temperature
corresponding to the partial pressure of vapour is 5.52DD bar. ;ew point temperature can be
appro(imated as 21.7[C by interpolation.
;ew point temperature / 21.7[C
;ensity of mi(ture / ;ensity of air (Wa) 1 ;ensity of vapour (Wv)
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00
00
0
ME 2202 Engineering Thermodynamics Mechanical Engineering
/ Wa 1 Wv
/ Wa 1 h \ W a
/ Wa (1 1 h)
?
0
0 0 000@
00 000
0 3"0
/ 1.1B"D *g<m
;ensity / 1.1B"D *g<m"
'nthalpy of mi(ture, h / Cp \ & 1 h (hg at "5[C 1 1.BA5 ("5 4 21.7))
/ (1.55D I "5) 1 (5.51A5A I (2D75.1 1 1.BA I B.A))
/ L1.2 *><*g of dry air
'nthalpy of mi(ture / L1.2 *><*g of dry air
2012 - 2013
:< Engineering =cademy
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