research methodology

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research methodology

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Title

I. Problem Statement and its clarifying components.

(A) Statement of the problem.

(B) Clarification of the problem statement:

1. Definitions.

2. Delimitations.

3. Assumptions.

4. Theory base.

II. Group Components for Operation

(A) Hypothesis/Question design.

(B) Sample population-sample or group at hand design:

1. Population delineated, delimited and defined.

2. Sample delineated, delimited and defined.

3. Group at hand delineated, delimited and defined.

(C) Observation Design:

1. Data (evidences) Collection

2. Instrumentation:

(a) Questionnaire.

(b) Schedule.

(c) Sources

(d) Standard measures.

(D) Statistical Designs:

1. Descriptive statistical design

2. Inferential statistics for generalization design.

3. Statistical randomization procedures for control design.

4. Computer assistance design.

(E) Organizational Design.

III. Significance and Review Sections:

(A) Significance of the objectives of the Inquiry.

(B) Review of the Related Literature and Research Reports.

CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD RESEARCH DESIGN

1. It should be free from bias or learnings.

2. It should be free from confounding effect. A good research design eliminates confounding of variables or kept

it to a minimum so the results can be interpreted separately. There should be a statistical precision. The

hypotheses can be tested by employing most appropriate statistical technique.

There should be enough scope to impose the control over the situation. There are basically four ways by which

control can be enhanced :

(a) Through the method of Randomization.

(b) Holding conditions or factors constant.

(c) Building conditions or factors into the design as independent variables.

(d) Statistical adjustment.

POTENTIAL PROBLEMS IN RESEARCH DESIGN

There are several difficulties which make poor research design:

1. Inadequately stating and testing hypotheses.

2. Missing or unusable data.

3. Bias in sampling.

4. Inadequate measurement.

5. Lack of precision in statistical technique or inappropriate statistical devices.

DIFFERENT RESEARCH DESIGNS

Different research designs can be conveniently described if we categorize them as: (1) research design in case of

exploratory research studies; (2) research design in case of descriptive and diagnostic research studies, and (3)

research design in case of hypothesis-testing research studies.

HYPOTHESIS

1. A hypothesis is a tentative prediction about the nature of

the relationship between two or more variables.

2. A hypothesis represents an educated guess about what

will happen in an experiment

3. Hypotheses are always held tentatively

4. Useful if there is an established line of research

5. Useful if a likely outcome can be anticipated in advance

6. Useful to test a specific theory or model

7. Can inhibit flexibility or blind a researcher to

unanticipated results

TYPES

1. Null hypothesis:Symbol = H

o

or H0

2. Experimental hypothesis: Symbol = H

1

, H

a

, etc.

a. nondirectional (two-way)

b. directional (one-way)

RESEARCH QUESTION

1. A research question is simply a hypothesis stated in

question form.

1. Useful if there is little previous research on the topic

2. Allows a researcher to conduct more open-ended

inquiries.

3. A wider range of outcomes can be reported

4. May encourage excessive manipulation of findings or

fishing expeditions.

Research Question: symbol = RQ or R

Null Hypothesis

1. the null hypothesis is a statistical hypothesis, used to determine whether the results of an experiment are

statistically significant.

2. It posits that there is no relationship between two variables, or no difference between two groups.

3. The null hypothesis is supported, if the results are statistically non-significant

a. the null hypothesis is never proven (at least not by a single study)

b. impossibility of proving a negative

4. The null hypothesis is rejected, in favor of the experimental hypothesis, if the results are statistically

significant

Experimental hypothesis

1. A prediction that there will be statistically significant findings

a. significant differences or correlations between groups or among variables

2. Nondirectional hypothesis

a. significant difference in any direction

3. Directional hypothesis

a. Predicts that a specific group or condition will be higher or have more of something, or

b. predicts the specific direction that a correlation will take (positive negative, curvilinear)

EXAMPLES

1. Null hypothesis:

a. H

o

: High exposure to violent video games does not produce more antisocial behavior in

elementary school children than low exposure.

2. Non directional hypothesis:

a. H

1

: Japanese and American supervisors will differ significantly in their use of threats as a

compliance gaining strategy.

3. Directional hypothesis

a. H

a

: Deaf children whose parents are deaf will acquire language faster than deaf children whose

parents are not deaf.

PHRASING HYPOTHESES AND RESEARCH QUESTIONS

Avoid vague or nebulous wording

the hypothesis or research question must be clear and concise

The hypothesis or research question must be testable.

The hypothesis or research question must be falsifiable.

Wrong: Do students with high GPAs feel better about themselves

than students with low GPAs?

Right: Do undergraduates with GPAs greater than 3.0 have higher

self esteem than undergraduates with GPAs of lower than 2.0?

SAMPLING DESIGN

MEANING AND DEFINITION OF SAMPLING

Sampling is indispensable technique of behavioural research, the research work cannot be undertake without

use of sampling. The study of the total population is not possible and it is also impracticable The practical

limitation: cost, time and other factors which are usually operative in the situation, stan in the way of studying

the total population. The concept of sampling has been introduced with a vie to making the research findings

economical and accurate.

Measuring a small portion of something and then making a general statement about the whole

thing.

Process of selecting a number of units for a study in such a way that the units represent the larger

group from which they are selected.

Sampling makes possible the study of a large, heterogeneous (different characteristics) population

The selected respondents constitute what is technically called a sample and the selection process is

called sampling technique. The survey so conducted is known as sample survey.

IMPLICATIONS OF A SAMPLE DESIGN

-definite plan (technique or procedure) for obtaining the sample

-May include the size of the sample

-Researcher must select/prepare a sample design which should be reliable and appropriate for his research

study.

STEPS IN SAMPLE DESIGN

1. Type of universe: The first step in developing any sample design is to clearly define th set of objects,

technically called the Universe, to be studied. The universe can be finite o infinite. In finite universe the

number of items is certain, but in case of an infinite univers the number of items is infinite, i.e., we cannot

have any idea about the total number o items. The population of a city, the number of workers in a factory

and the like are example of finite universes, whereas the number of stars in the sky, listeners of a specific

radi programme, throwing of a dice etc. are examples of infinite universes.

2. Sampling unit: A decision has to be taken concerning a sampling unit before selecting sample. Sampling unit

may be a geographical one such as state, district, village, etc., or a construction unit such as house, flat, etc.,

or it may be a social unit such as family, club, school, etc., or it may be an individual. The researcher will

have to decide one or more of such units that he has to select for his study.

3. Source list: It is also known as sampling frame from which sample is to be drawn. It contains the names of

all items of a universe (in case of finite universe only). If source list is not available, researcher has to

prepare it. Such a list should be comprehensive, correct, reliable and appropriate. It is extremely important

for the source list to be as representative of the population as possible.

4. Size of sample: This refers to the number of items to be selected from the universe to constitute a sample.

This a major problem before a researcher. The size of sample should neither be excessively large, nor too

small. It should be optimum. An optimum sample is one which fulfills the requirements of efficiency,

representativeness, reliability and flexibility. Costs too dictate the size of sample that we can draw. As such,

budgetary constraint must invariably be taken into consideration when we decide the sample size.

5. Parameters of interest: In determining the sample design, one must consider the question of the specific

population parameters which are of interest. For instance, we may be interested in estimating the

proportion of persons with some characteristic in the population, or we may be interested in knowing some

average or the other measure concerning the population. There may also be important sub-groups in the

population about whom we would like to make estimates. All this has a strong impact upon the sample

design we would accept.

6. Budgetary constraint: Cost considerations, from practical point of view, have a major impact upon

decisions relating to not only the size of the sample but also to the type of sample. This fact can even lead to

the use of a non-probability sample.

7. Sampling procedure: Finally, the researcher must decide the type of sample he will use i.e., he must decide

about the technique to be used in selecting the items for the sample. In fact, this technique or procedure

stands for the sample design itself. There are several sample designs (explained in the pages that follow) out

of which the researcher must choose one for his study. Obviously, he must select that design which, for a

given sample size and for a given cost, has a smaller sampling error.

In brief, while selecting a sampling procedure, researcher must ensure that the procedure causes a relatively

small sampling error and helps to control the systematic bias in a better way.

CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD SAMPLE DESIGN

(a) Sample design must result in a truly representative sample.

(b) Sample design must be such which results in a small sampling error.

(c) Sample design must be viable in the context of funds available for the research study.

(d) Sample design must be such so that systematic bias can be controlled in a better way.

(e) Sample should be such that the results of the sample study can be applied, in general, for the universe with a

reasonable level of confidence.

DIFFERENT TYPES OF SAMPLE DESIGNS

There are different types of sample designs based on two factors viz., the representation basis and the

element selection technique. On the representation basis, the sample may be probability sampling or it

may be non-probability sampling. Probability sampling is based on the concept of random selection,

whereas non-probability sampling is non-random sampling. On element selection basis, the sample

may be either unrestricted or restricted. When each sample element is drawn individually from the

population at large, then the sample so drawn is known as unrestricted sample.

Probability sampling: Probability sampling is also known as random sampling or chance sampling.

Under this sampling design, every item of the universe has an equal chance of inclusion in the sample.

Random sampling ensures the law of Statistical Regularity which states that if on an average the sample

chosen is a random one, the sample will have the same composition and characteristics as the universe.

This is the reason why random sampling is considered as the best technique of selecting a

representative sample

1. SIMPLE RANDOM SAMPLING:

a. this type of sampling is one in which every one in the population of the inquiry has an equal

chance of being selected to be included in the sample.

b. also called the lottery or raffle type of sampling.

c. this may be used if the population has no differentiated levels, sections, or classes.

d. done with or without replacement

e. main advantage of this technique of sampling is that, it is easy to understand and it is easy

to apply too.

f. disadvantage is that, it is hard to use with too large a population because of the difficulty

encountered in writing the names of the persons involved.

The following are main methods of randomization:

o Lottery method of randomization.

o Tossing a coin (Head or tail) method.

o Throwing a dice.

o Blind folded method.

o Random tables (Tiptts Table of Randomizations

2. SYSTEMATIC SAMPLING

a. a technique of sampling in which every kth name (old system of counting off) in a list may be

selected to be included in a sample.

b. also called as interval sampling, there is a gap or interval, between each selected unit in the

sample.

c. used when the subjects or respondents in the study are arrayed or arranged in some

systematic or logical manner such as alphabetical arrangement and geographical placement

from north to south.

d. main advantage is that it is more convenient, faster, and more economical

e. is spread more evenly over the entire population

f. disadvantage is that the sample becomes biased if the persons in the list belong to a class by

themselves whereas the investigation requires that all sectors of the population are to be

involved.

g. Disadvantage, if there is hidden periodicity

h. STEPS

i. Define the population

ii. Determine the desired sample size

iii. Obtain a list (preferably randomized) of the population

iv. Determine what K is equal to by dividing the size of the population by the desired

sample size

v. Select some random place at the top of the population list

vi. Starting at that point, take every Kth name on the list until desired sample size is

reached

vii. If the end of the list is reached before the desired sample is reached, go back to the

top of the list.

3. STRATIFIED SAMPLING

a. If a population from which a sample is to be drawn does not constitute a homogeneous

group, stratified sampling technique is generally applied in order to obtain a representative

sample. Under stratified sampling the population is divided into several sub-populations

that are individually more homogeneous than the total population (the different sub-

populations are called strata) and then we select items from each stratum to constitute a

sample.

b. stratified sampling results in more reliable and detailed information

c. If the number of sampling units drawn from each stratum is in proportion to the relative

population size of the stratum, the sample is a proportional stratified sample.

d. In a disproportional stratified sample the sample size for each stratum is not allocated in

proportion to the population size but is dictated by analytical considerations, such as

variability in store sales volume.

4. CLUSTER SAMPLING

a. also called as multistage cluster sampling

b. used when the population is so big or the geographical area of the research is so large.

c. Advantage : Efficiency

d. Disadvantage: reduced accuracy or representativeness, on the account of the fact that in

every stage there is a sampling error.

e. Same example in the stratified sampling:

i. Population 5,000 agents

ii. Desired sample size 500

iii. Logical cluster is a branch

iv. 50 branches all over the country

v. Although the branch vary in number of agents , there is an average of 100 agents

per branch.

vi. The number of clusters (branch) needed equals the desired sample size, 500 divided

by the average size of a cluster, 100. Thus, the number of branch needed is 5.

vii. Therefore, we randomly select 5 of the 50 branch

viii. All the agents in each of the 5 selected branch are in the sample.

5. AREA SAMPLING: If clusters happen to be some geographic subdivisions, in that case cluster

sampling is better known as area sampling. In other words, cluster designs, where the primary

sampling unit represents a cluster of units based on geographic area, are distinguished as area

sampling. The plus and minus points of cluster sampling are also applicable to area sampling.

6. MULTI-STAGE SAMPLING: This sample is more comprehensive and representative of the

population. In this type of sampling primary sample units are inclusive groups and secondary units

are sub-groups within these ultimate units to be selected which belong to one and only one group.

Stages of a population are usually available within a group or population, whenever stratification is

done by the researcher. The Individuals are selected from different stages for constituting the multi-

stage sampling.

Advantages

(a) It is a good representative of the population.

(b) Multi-stage sampling is an improvement over the earlier methods.

(c) It is an objective procedure of sampling.

(d) The observations from multi-stage sample may be used for inferential purpose.

Disadvantages

(a) It is a difficult and complex method of samplings.

(b) It involves errors when we consider the primary and secondary stages.

(c) It is again a subjective phenomenon.

Non-probability Sampling Techniques

Non-probability is also known as non-parametric sampling which ate used for certain purpose.

1. Incidental or Accidental Assignment: The term incidental or accidental applied to those samples that

are taken because they are most frequently available, i.e. this refers to groups which are used as

samples of a population because they are readily available or because the researcher is unable to

employ more acceptable sampling methods.

Advantages

(a) It is very easy method of sampling.

(b) It is frequently used in behavioural sciences.

(c) It reduces the time, money and energy i.e. it is an economical method.

Disadvantages

(a) It is not a representative of the population.

(b) It is not free from error.

(c) Parametric statistics cannot be used.

2. Judgement Sampling

This involves the selection of a group from the population on the basis of available information thought.

It is to be representative of the total population. Or the selection of a group by intuition on the basis of

criterion deemed to be self-evident. Generally investigator should take the judgement sample so this

sampling is highly risky.

Advantages

(a) Knowledge of the investigator can be best used in this technique of sampling.

(b) This technique of sampling is also economical.

Disadvantages

(a) This technique is objective.

(b) It is not free from error.

(c) It includes uncontrolled variation.

(d) Inferential statistics cannot be used for the observations of this sampling, so generalization is not

possible.

3. Purposive Sampling

The purposive sampling is selected by some arbitrary method because it is known to be representative

of the total population, or it is known that it will produce well matched groups. The Idea is to pick out

the sample in relation to some criterion, which are considered important for the particular study. This

method is appropriate when the study places special emphasis upon the control of certain specific

variables.

Advantages

(a) Use of the best available knowledge concerning the sample subjects.

(b) Better control of significant variables.

(c) Sample groups data can be easily matched.

(d) Homogeneity of subjects used in the sample.

Disadvantages

(a) Reliability of the criterion is questionable.

(b) Knowledge of population is essential.

(c) Errors in classifying sampling subjects.

(d) Inability to utilise the inferential parametric statistics.

(e) Inability to make generalization concerning total population.

4. Quota Sampling

This combined both judgement sampling and probability sampling. The population is classified into

several categories: on the basis of judgement or assumption or the previous knowledge, the proportion

of population falling into each category is decided. Thereafter a quota of cases to be drawn is fixed and

the observer is allowed to sample as he likes. Quota sampling is very arbitrary and likely to figure in

Municipal surveys.

Advantages

(a) It is an improvement over the judgement sampling.

(b) It is an easy sampling technique.

(c) It is most frequently used in social surveys.

Disadvantages

(a) It is not a representative sample.

(b) It is not free from error.

(c) It has the influence of regional geographical and social factors.

Since research design is a plan by which research samples may be selected from a population and under

which experimental treatments are administered and controlled so that their effect upon the sample

may be measured. Therefore, a second step in the establishment of an experimental design is to select

the treatments that will be used to control sources of learning change in the sample subjects.

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Collection of Data

The research studies in

behavioral science or mainly

concerned with the

characteristics or traits.

Thus, tools are administered

to quantify these

characteristics, but all traits

or characteristics cannot be

quantified.

The data can be classified

into two broad categories:

1. Qualitative data or

attributes.

2. Quantitative data or

variables.

1. Quantitative Data or

Attributes: The

characteristics or traits for

which numerical value

cannot be assigned, are

called attributes, e.g.

motivation, confidence,

honesty integrity etc.

2. Quantitative Data or

Variables: The

characteristics or traits for

which numerical value can

be assigned, are called

variables, e.g. Achievement

Intelligent, Aptitude Height, Weight etc.

The primary data are those which are collected afresh and for the first time, and thus happen to be

original in character.

The secondary data, on the other hand, are those which have already been collected by someone else and

which have already been passed through the statistical process.

COLLECTION OF PRIMARY DATA

An experiment refers to an investigation in which a factor or variable under test is isolated and its effect(s) measured. In an

experiment the investigator measures the effects of an experiment which he conducts intentionally. Survey refers to the method

of securing information concerning a phenomena under study from all or a selected number of respondents of the concerned

universe. In a survey, the investigator examines those phenomena which exist in the universe independent of his action.

1. Observation method: Under the observation method, the information is sought by way of

investigators own direct observation without asking from the respondent. For instance, in a study

relating to consumer behaviour, the investigator instead of asking the brand of wrist watch used by

the respondent, may himself look at the watch.

The main advantage of this method:

a. Subjective bias is eliminated, if observation is done accurately.

b. the information obtained under this method relates to what is currently happening; it is

not complicated by either the past behaviour or future intentions or attitudes.

c. this method is independent of respondents willingness to respond and as such is

relatively less demanding of active cooperation on the part of respondents as happens to

be the case in the interview or the questionnaire method.

d. This method is particularly suitable in studies which deal with subjects (i.e., respondents)

who are not capable of giving verbal reports of their feelings for one reason or the other

Limitations:

a. it is an expensive method.

b. the information provided by this method is very limited.

c. sometimes unforeseen factors may interfere with the observational task.

d. At times, the fact that some people are rarely accessible to direct observation creates

obstacle for this method to collect data effectively.

While using this method, the researcher should keep in mind things like: What should be observed?

How the observations should be recorded? Or how the accuracy of observation can be ensured? In case

the observation is characterised by a careful definition of the units to be observed, the style of recording

the observed information, standardised conditions of observation and the selection of pertinent data of

observation, then the observation is called as structured observation. But when observation is to take

place without these characteristics to be thought of in advance, the same is termed as unstructured

observation. Structured observation is considered appropriate in descriptive studies, whereas in an

exploratory study the observational procedure is most likely to be relatively unstructured.

participant and non-participant types of observation

disguised observation

controlled and uncontrolled observation.

2. interview method: The interview method of collecting data involves presentation of oral-verbal

stimuli and reply in terms of oral-verbal responses. This method can be used through personal

interviews and, if possible, through telephone interviews.

a) Personal interviews: Personal interview method requires a person known as the interviewer

asking questions generally in a face-to-face contact to the other person or persons. This sort of

interview may be in the form of direct personal investigation or it may be indirect oral investigation.

direct personal investigation indirect oral investigation

the interviewer has to collect the information

personally from the sources concerned. He has to

be on the spot and has to meet people from

whom data have to be collected. This method is

particularly suitable for intensive investigations.

But in certain cases it may not be possible or

worthwhile to contact directly the persons

concerned or on account of the extensive scope

of enquiry, the direct personal investigation

technique may not be used.

In such cases an indirect oral examination can be

conducted under which the interviewer has to

cross-examine other persons who are supposed

to have knowledge about the problem under

investigation and the information, obtained is

recorded. Most of the commissions and committees

appointed by government to carry on investigations

make use of this method.

structured interviews unstructured interviews

The method of collecting information through

personal interviews is usually carried out in a

structured way. Such interviews involve

the use of a set of predetermined questions and of

highly standardised techniques of recording. Thus,

the interviewer in a structured interview follows a

rigid procedure laid down, asking questions in a

form and order prescribed.

But in case of descriptive studies, we quite often

use the technique of

structured interview because of its being more

economical, providing a safe basis for

generalisation

and requiring relatively lesser skill on the part of

the interviewer.

characterised by a flexibility of approach to

questioning. do not follow a system of pre-

determined questions and standardised

techniques of recording information. the

interviewer is allowed much greater freedom to

ask, in case of need, supplementary questions or

at times he may omit certain questions if the

situation so requires. He may even change the

sequence of questions.. But this sort of flexibility

results in lack of comparability of one interview

with another and the analysis of unstructured

responses becomes much more difficult and time-

consuming than that of the structured responses

obtained in case of structured interviews.

also demand deep knowledge and greater skill on

the part of the interviewer. however, happens to

be the central technique of collecting

information in case of exploratory or formulative

research studies.

3. through questionnaires,

4. through schedules,

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