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National Défense A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001

Defence nationale

ROYAL CANADIAN AIR CADETS

BASIC AVIATION TECHNOLOGY AND AEROSPACE


INSTRUCTIONAL GUIDES
(ENGLISH)

Cette publication est disponible en français sous le numéro A-CR-CCP-824/PF-002.

Issued on Authority of the Chief of the Defence Staff

Canada
National Défense A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001
Defence nationale

ROYAL CANADIAN AIR CADETS

BASIC AVIATION TECHNOLOGY AND AEROSPACE


INSTRUCTIONAL GUIDES
(ENGLISH)

Cette publication est disponible en français sous le numéro A-CR-CCP-824/PF-002.

Issued on Authority of the Chief of the Defence Staff

OPI: D Cdts 3 – Senior Staff Officer Program Development 2009-01-01

Canada
A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001

LIST OF EFFECTIVE PAGES

Insert latest changed pages and dispose of superseded pages in accordance with applicable orders.

NOTE

The portion of the text affected by the latest change is indicated by a black vertical line
in the margin of the page. Changes to illustrations are indicated by miniature pointing
hands or black vertical lines.

Dates of issue for original and changed pages are:

Original........................... 0 ....................... 2009-01-01 Ch................................... 3 ..........................................


Ch................................... 1 .......................................... Ch................................... 4 ..........................................
Ch................................... 2 .......................................... Ch................................... 5 ..........................................

Zero in Change No. column indicates an original page. Total number of pages in this publication is 681
consisting of the following:

Page No. Change No. Page No. Change No.


Cover page............................................................. 0 1J-1 to 1J-6............................................................ 0
Title......................................................................... 0 1K-1 to 1K-4........................................................... 0
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1-3-1 to 1-3-8..........................................................0 1P-1 to 1P-2........................................................... 0
1-4-1 to 1-4-14........................................................0 1Q-1 to 1Q-2.......................................................... 0
1-5-1 to 1-5-16........................................................0 1R-1 to 1R-2...........................................................0
1-6-1 to 1-6-10........................................................0 1S-1 to 1S-2........................................................... 0
1-7-1 to 1-7-6..........................................................0 1T-1 to 1T-2............................................................0
1-8-1 to 1-8-10........................................................0 1U-1 to 1U-12.........................................................0
1-9-1 to 1-9-8..........................................................0 1V-1 to 1V-2........................................................... 0
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1H-1 to 1H-2...........................................................0 2-8-1 to 2-8-10........................................................0
1I-1 to 1I-4.............................................................. 0 2-9-1 to 2-9-10........................................................0

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Contact Officer: D Cdts 3-2-6 – Air Cadet Program Development Staff Officer
© 2009 DND/MDN Canada

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FOREWORD AND PREFACE

1. Issuing Authority. These Instructional Guides (IGs) A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001 were developed under the
authority of the Director Cadets in accordance with CATO 11-03, Cadet Program Mandate, CATO 11-04, Cadet
Program Outline, and CATO 51-01, Air Cadet Program Outline, and issued on the authority of the Chief of
Defence Staff.

2. Development. Development of these IGs were in accordance with the performance-oriented concept
of training outlined in the A-P9-050 Series, Canadian Forces Individual Training and Education System, with
modifications to meet the needs of the Cadet Organization.

3. Purpose of the IGs. The IGs are to be used by Cadet Summer Training Centres (CSTCs) to conduct
Basic Aviation Technology and Aerospace (BATA), as outlined in CATO 11-04, Cadet Program Outline, and
CATO 51-01, Air Cadet Program Outline.

4. Effective Date. This publication is effective upon receipt. Subsequent changes are effective upon receipt.

5. Suggested Changes. Suggested changes to this document shall be forwarded through the normal
chain of command to National Defence Headquarters (NDHQ) Attention: Air Cadet Program Development Staff
Officer (D Cdts 3-2-6) or by e-mail to air.dev@gc.ca.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAGE

CHAPTER 1 PO S240 – PARTICIPATE IN AEROSPACE ACTIVITIES


Section 1 EO S240.01 – WATCH A SKIT ON THE CONCEPTS OF ASTRONOMY............. 1-1-1
Section 2 EO S240.02 – DISCUSS THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PLANETS IN THE
SOLAR SYSTEM.................................................................................................... 1-2-1
Section 3 EO S240.03 – DISCUSS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE EARTH AND
THE MOON............................................................................................................ 1-3-1
Section 4 EO S240.04 – DISCUSS PHENOMENA WITHIN THE UNIVERSE...................... 1-4-1
Section 5 EO S240.05 – DISCUSS THE HISTORY OF SPACE EXPLORATION................. 1-5-1
Section 6 EO S240.06 – DISCUSS SPACE EXPLORATION................................................ 1-6-1
Section 7 EO S240.07 – DISCUSS THE CURRENT SPACE MISSIONS OF DIFFERENT
COUNTRIES........................................................................................................... 1-7-1
Section 8 EO S240.08 – DISCUSS SPACE SYSTEMS........................................................ 1-8-1
Section 9 EO S240.09 - DISCUSS THE CANADIAN SPACE PROGRAM............................ 1-9-1
Section 10 EO S240.10 – SIMULATE LIFE IN SPACE........................................................... 1-10-1
Section 11 EO S240.11 – IDENTIFY ELEMENTS OF THE NIGHT SKY................................ 1-11-1
Section 12 EO S240.12 – DESCRIBE MODEL ROCKETRY.................................................. 1-12-1
Section 13 EO S240.13 – ASSEMBLE A MODEL ROCKET................................................... 1-13-1
Section 14 EO S240.14 – LAUNCH A MODEL ROCKET....................................................... 1-14-1
Annex A HISTORY OF ASTRONOMY................................................................................. 1A-1
Annex B PLANET SPECIFICATIONS SHEET..................................................................... 1B-1
Annex C PLANET SPECIFICATIONS ANSWER KEY......................................................... 1C-1
Annex D PLANET DESCRIPTION SHEET........................................................................... 1D-1
Annex E PHENOMENA WITHIN THE UNIVERSE............................................................... 1E-1
Annex F ROCKETS............................................................................................................... 1F-1
Annex G SPACE STATIONS................................................................................................ 1G-1
Annex H CERTIFICATE SIGNING OF FIRST AMERICAN AND RUSSIAN DOCKING
1975........................................................................................................................ 1H-1
Annex I MANNED SPACEFLIGHT...................................................................................... 1I-1
Annex J FUTURE SPACE EXPLORATION......................................................................... 1J-1
Annex K ION DRIVES........................................................................................................... 1K-1
Annex L SOLAR SAILS........................................................................................................ 1L-1
Annex M SPACE MISSIONS OF THE UNITED STATES..................................................... 1M-1
Annex N SPACE MISSIONS OF CHINA.............................................................................. 1N-1
Annex O SPACE MISSIONS OF JAPAN.............................................................................. 1O-1
Annex P SPACE MISSIONS OF RUSSIA............................................................................ 1P-1
Annex Q SELECT SPACE MISSIONS OF INDIA................................................................. 1Q-1
Annex R SELECT SPACE MISSIONS OF EUROPE........................................................... 1R-1
Annex S PRESENTATION CHART...................................................................................... 1S-1
Annex T MEASURING DISTANCES.................................................................................... 1T-1

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Annex U CONSTELLATIONS................................................................................................ 1U-1
Annex V OBSERVATION RECORD..................................................................................... 1V-1
Annex W CANADA MODEL ROCKET SAFETY CODE........................................................ 1W-1
Annex X MODEL ROCKET STANDARDS........................................................................... 1X-1
Annex Y LAUNCH SITE SET-UP......................................................................................... 1Y-1
Annex Z MODEL ROCKET LAUNCH PROCEDURES........................................................ 1Z-1
Annex AA IF THE ROCKET ENGINE DOES NOT IGNITE.................................................... 1AA-1

CHAPTER 2 PO S260 – PARTICIPATE IN AERODROME OPERATIONS ACTIVITIES


Section 1 EO S260.01 – IDENTIFY TYPES OF AERODROMES......................................... 2-1-1
Section 2 EO S260.02 – IDENTIFY THE MAJOR COMPONENTS OF AN AERODROME... 2-2-1
Section 3 EO S260.03 – CONSTRUCT A MODEL OF AN AERODROME........................... 2-3-1
Section 4 EO S260.04 – IDENTIFY HOW VEHICLES ARE USED AT AN AERODROME.... 2-4-1
Section 5 EO S260.05 – IDENTIFY HOW EQUIPMENT IS USED AT AN AERODROME.... 2-5-1
Section 6 EO S260.06 – DISCUSS SEASONAL OPERATIONS AT AERODROMES.......... 2-6-1
Section 7 EO S260.07 – EXPLAIN ASPECTS OF FLIGHT SAFETY.................................... 2-7-1
Section 8 EO S260.08 – EXPLAIN ASPECTS OF WORKPLACE SAFETY AT AN
AERODROME........................................................................................................ 2-8-1
Section 9 EO S260.09 – EXPLAIN ASPECTS OF AERODROME SECURITY..................... 2-9-1
Section 10 EO S260.10 – EXPLAIN ASPECTS OF EMERGENCY RESPONSES AT
AERODROMES...................................................................................................... 2-10-1
Section 11 EO S260.11 – EXPLAIN ASPECTS OF AIR TRAFFIC SERVICES (ATS)............ 2-11-1
Section 12 EO S260.12 – EXPLAIN ASPECTS OF THE CANADIAN DOMESTIC
AIRSPACE (CDA) SYSTEM.................................................................................. 2-12-1
Section 13 EO S260.13 – CONSTRUCT A MODEL OF THE AIRSPACE AT AN
AERODROME........................................................................................................ 2-13-1
Section 14 EO S260.14 – EXPLAIN ASPECTS OF AIR NAVIGATION FACILITIES............... 2-14-1
Section 15 EO S260.15 – EXPLAIN ASPECTS OF AERODROME LIGHTING...................... 2-15-1
Annex A TYPES OF AERODROMES MATCHING ACTIVITY............................................. 2A-1
Annex B TYPES OF AERODROMES MATCHING ACTIVITY ANSWER KEY.................... 2B-1
Annex C RUNWAY CONFIGURATIONS.............................................................................. 2C-1
Annex D COMMON TERMINAL BUILDING LAYOUTS....................................................... 2D-1
Annex E AERODROME CONSTRUCTION CHECKLIST..................................................... 2E-1
Annex F AERODROME VEHICLES..................................................................................... 2F-1
Annex G ANSWER KEY........................................................................................................ 2G-1
Annex H AERODROME REFUELLING EQUIPMENT.......................................................... 2H-1
Annex I AERODROME OPERATIONS CROSSWORD PUZZLE....................................... 2I-1
Annex J AERODROME OPERATIONS CROSSWORD PUZZLE ANSWER KEY.............. 2J-1
Annex K SAMPLE CIVILIAN REPORT................................................................................. 2K-1
Annex L SAMPLE MILITARY INITIAL REPORT.................................................................. 2L-1

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Annex M SPECIFIC DUTIES OF EMPLOYERS................................................................... 2M-1
Annex N SPECIFIC DUTIES OF EMPLOYEES................................................................... 2N-1
Annex O CARDS................................................................................................................... 2O-1
Annex P EXAMPLE OF A NOTAM FILE.............................................................................. 2P-1
Annex Q CDA........................................................................................................................ 2Q-1
Annex R AIRSPACE MODEL CONSTRUCTION CHECKLIST............................................ 2R-1
Annex S AERODROME LIGHTING...................................................................................... 2S-1
Annex T AERODROME LIGHTING CHECKLIST................................................................. 2T-1

CHAPTER 3 PO S270 – PARTICIPATE IN AVIATION MANUFACTURING AND


MAINTENANCE ACTIVITIES
Section 1 EO S270.01 – DISCUSS THE AIRCRAFT MANUFACTURING AND
MAINTENANCE INDUSTRIES............................................................................... 3-1-1
Section 2 EO S270.02 – REVIEW AIRCRAFT COMPONENTS............................................ 3-2-1
Section 3 EO S270.03 – DISCUSS AIRCRAFT ASSEMBLY................................................ 3-3-1
Section 4 EO S270.04 – DESCRIBE MATERIALS USED IN AIRCRAFT CONSTRUCTION 3-4-1
Section 5 EO S270.05 – DESCRIBE BASIC HAND TOOLS USED IN AIRCRAFT
MANUFACTURING AND MAINTENANCE............................................................ 3-5-1
Section 6 EO S270.06 – IDENTIFY BASIC POWER TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT USED IN
AIRCRAFT MANUFACTURING AND MAINTENANCE......................................... 3-6-1
Section 7 EO S270.07 – IDENTIFY AVIATION HARDWARE............................................... 3-7-1
Section 8 EO S270.08 – CONSTRUCT AN ALUMINUM MODEL BIPLANE......................... 3-8-1
Section 9 EO S270.09 – PERFORM BASIC AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE TASKS............... 3-9-1
Annex A STRUCTURE OF THE MONTRÉAL REGION AEROSPACE INDUSTRY............ 3A-1
Annex B CERTIFICATES OF AIRWORTHINESS................................................................ 3B-1
Annex C LOG MAINTENANCE CLEARANCE .................................................................... 3C-1
Annex D JOURNEY LOG FLIGHT RECORD....................................................................... 3D-1
Annex E AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE...................................................................................... 3E-1
Annex F GAUGES AND INDICATORS................................................................................ 3F-1
Annex G MANUFACTURER’S ASSEMBLY LINE................................................................. 3G-1
Annex H PYLONS................................................................................................................. 3H-1
Annex I WOODEN AIRCRAFT............................................................................................ 3I-1
Annex J COMPOSITE MATERIALS USED IN AIRCRAFT CONSTRUCTION.................... 3J-1
Annex K METAL USED IN AIRCRAFT CONSTRUCTION................................................... 3K-1
Annex L SHOP SAFETY CONTRACT................................................................................. 3L-1
Annex M POWER TOOLS..................................................................................................... 3M-1
Annex N FORMING AND CUTTING TOOLS....................................................................... 3N-1
Annex O FASTENING TOOLS.............................................................................................. 3O-1
Annex P ATTACHING HARDWARE – BOLTS..................................................................... 3P-1
Annex Q ATTACHING HARDWARE – RIVETS................................................................... 3Q-1

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Annex R SPECIAL FASTENERS.......................................................................................... 3R-1
Annex S MACHINE SCREWS.............................................................................................. 3S-1
Annex T TURNLOCK FASTENERS..................................................................................... 3T-1
Annex U TOOLS AND MATERIALS REQUIRED................................................................. 3U-1
Annex V RAW ALUMINUM MATERIAL ASSEMBLY LINE.................................................. 3V-1
Annex W WOOD ASSEMBLY LINE...................................................................................... 3W-1
Annex X ALUMINUM BILLET ASSEMBLY LINE.................................................................. 3X-1
Annex Y ALUMINUM PANEL SHEARING ASSEMBLY LINE.............................................. 3Y-1
Annex Z CARDBOARD INSERT ASSEMBLY LINE............................................................. 3Z-1
Annex AA WIRE STATION ASSEMBLY LINE........................................................................ 3AA-1
Annex AB DRILL STATION ASSEMBLY LINE....................................................................... 3AB-1
Annex AC ALUMINUM REAR FUSELAGE ASSEMBLY LINE............................................... 3AC-1
Annex AD FUSELAGE AND BOTTOM WING ASSEMBLY LINE........................................... 3AD-1
Annex AE TOP WING ASSEMBLY LINE............................................................................... 3AE-1
Annex AF EMPENNAGE ASSEMBLY LINE........................................................................... 3AF-1
Annex AG PROPELLER PRODUCTION................................................................................. 3AG-1
Annex AH FINAL ASSEMBLY................................................................................................. 3AH-1
Annex AI LOGBOOKS............................................................................................................ 3AI-1
Annex AJ EXAMPLE JOURNEY LOGBOOK......................................................................... 3AJ-1

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LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE TITLE PAGE
1-4-1 Perseid Meteor Fireball................................................................................................. 1-4-2
1-4-2 Comet 73P.................................................................................................................... 1-4-5
1-4-3 The Orion Nebula.......................................................................................................... 1-4-7
1-4-4 The Lagoon Nebula...................................................................................................... 1-4-7
1-4-5 The Omega Nebula....................................................................................................... 1-4-8
1-4-6 The Helix Nebula.......................................................................................................... 1-4-9
1-4-7 Star Cluster NGC 290................................................................................................... 1-4-10
1-4-8 Star Cluster NGC 265................................................................................................... 1-4-10
1-11-1 Orientation of the Big Dipper........................................................................................ 1-11-3
1-11-2 The Big Dipper as the Key to the Night Sky................................................................ 1-11-4
1-11-3 Location of the Big Dipper............................................................................................ 1-11-4
1-11-4 Stars of Our Galaxy Visible From Earth....................................................................... 1-11-5
1-11-5 Constellations................................................................................................................ 1-11-7
1-11-6 Stars of our Galaxy Visible From Earth........................................................................ 1-11-8
1-12-1 Cut-a-Way of a Rocket Engine..................................................................................... 1-12-2
1-12-2 Time/Thrust Curves....................................................................................................... 1-12-3
1-12-3 Model Rocket Engine Codes........................................................................................ 1-12-4
1-12-4 Impulse Classification for Model Rocket Engines......................................................... 1-12-5
1-12-5 Parts of a Model Rocket............................................................................................... 1-12-7
1-12-6 The Igniter..................................................................................................................... 1-12-10
1-12-7 The Propellant Ignited................................................................................................... 1-12-11
1-12-8 Thrust Phase................................................................................................................. 1-12-12
1-12-9 Delay or Coast Phase................................................................................................... 1-12-13
1-12-10 Beginning of the Ejection Phase................................................................................... 1-12-14
1-12-11 Ejection Phase.............................................................................................................. 1-12-15
1-12-12 Model Rocket Flight Profile........................................................................................... 1-12-16
1E-1 Perseid Meteor Fireball................................................................................................. 1E-1
1E-2 Comet 73P.................................................................................................................... 1E-2
1E-3 The Orion Nebula.......................................................................................................... 1E-3
1E-4 The Lagoon Nebula...................................................................................................... 1E-4
1E-5 The Omega Nebula....................................................................................................... 1E-5
1E-6 The Helix Nebula.......................................................................................................... 1E-6
1E-7 Star Cluster NGC 290................................................................................................... 1E-7
1E-8 Star Cluster NGC 265................................................................................................... 1E-8
1F-1 Dr. Robert Goddard, Father of Modern Rocketry......................................................... 1F-1
1F-2 Goddard’s 1926 Rocket................................................................................................ 1F-1
1F-3 Sputnik........................................................................................................................... 1F-2
1F-4 Sputnik Revealed.......................................................................................................... 1F-3
1F-5 Sputnik’s R-7 Rocket.................................................................................................... 1F-4
1F-6 Two-Stage R-7 Rocket Modified for Sputnik-1............................................................. 1F-5
1F-7 Jupiter-C and Explorer-1 History.................................................................................. 1F-6
1F-8 Jupiter-C and Explorer 1............................................................................................... 1F-7

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LIST OF FIGURES (Cont)


FIGURE TITLE PAGE
1F-9 Explorer 1...................................................................................................................... 1F-8
1G-1 Salyut 1 Station With Soyuz About To Dock................................................................ 1G-1
1G-2 Salyut-6 (1977–1982).................................................................................................... 1G-1
1G-3 Salyut 7......................................................................................................................... 1G-2
1G-4 Skylab............................................................................................................................ 1G-3
1G-5 Mir Space Station.......................................................................................................... 1G-4
1G-6 The Mir Space Station and Earth................................................................................. 1G-4
1G-7 International Space Station........................................................................................... 1G-5
1H-1 Certificate Signing of First American and Russian Docking 1975................................ 1H-1
1I-1 Yuri Gagarin’s Historic First Spacefight........................................................................ 1I-1
1I-2 James A. Chamberlin.................................................................................................... 1I-2
1I-3 Launching Apollo 11..................................................................................................... 1I-3
1J-1 Night Launch of Space Shuttle Discovery STS 116..................................................... 1J-1
1J-2 Structural Diagram of a Space Elevator....................................................................... 1J-2
1J-3 Geosynchronous Orbit.................................................................................................. 1J-2
1J-4 View From Where the Tether Would Clear the Atmosphere........................................ 1J-3
1J-5 Endohedral Fullerene or Buckyball............................................................................... 1J-4
1J-6 Carbon Nanotubes........................................................................................................ 1J-5
1J-7 Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes versus Steel.................................................................... 1J-5
1J-8 View From Geosynchronous Orbit................................................................................ 1J-6
1K-1 Ion Drive Principle......................................................................................................... 1K-1
1K-2 Ion Drive Engine........................................................................................................... 1K-1
1K-3 Deep Space 1............................................................................................................... 1K-2
1K-4 Deep Space 1 Firing the Rocket.................................................................................. 1K-2
1K-5 Subsonic Ion Drive........................................................................................................ 1K-3
1L-1 Basic Components of a Sailboat.................................................................................. 1L-1
1L-2 Balancing the Forces.................................................................................................... 1L-1
1L-3 Gaining Speed............................................................................................................... 1L-2
1L-4 Slowing Down................................................................................................................ 1L-2
1L-5 Propulsive Force........................................................................................................... 1L-3
1L-6 Patterns of Solar Sails.................................................................................................. 1L-3
1M-1 NASA Space Missions.................................................................................................. 1M-1
1T-1 Hand Measurements..................................................................................................... 1T-1
1U-1 Aquarius......................................................................................................................... 1U-1
1U-2 Aquila............................................................................................................................. 1U-1
1U-3 Aries............................................................................................................................... 1U-2
1U-4 Auriga............................................................................................................................ 1U-2
1U-5 Boötes............................................................................................................................ 1U-3
1U-6 Cancer........................................................................................................................... 1U-3
1U-7 Canis Major................................................................................................................... 1U-3
1U-8 Canis Minor................................................................................................................... 1U-4
1U-9 Capricornus................................................................................................................... 1U-4

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LIST OF FIGURES (Cont)


FIGURE TITLE PAGE
1U-10 Cassiopeia..................................................................................................................... 1U-4
1U-11 Cygnus........................................................................................................................... 1U-5
1U-12 Gemini........................................................................................................................... 1U-5
1U-13 Hercules......................................................................................................................... 1U-6
1U-14 Hydra............................................................................................................................. 1U-6
1U-15 Libra............................................................................................................................... 1U-7
1U-16 Leo................................................................................................................................. 1U-7
1U-17 Lyra................................................................................................................................ 1U-8
1U-18 Orion.............................................................................................................................. 1U-8
1U-19 Perseus.......................................................................................................................... 1U-9
1U-20 Pisces............................................................................................................................ 1U-9
1U-21 Sagittarius...................................................................................................................... 1U-10
1U-22 Scorpius......................................................................................................................... 1U-10
1U-23 Taurus............................................................................................................................ 1U-10
1U-24 Ursa Major..................................................................................................................... 1U-11
1U-25 Ursa Minor..................................................................................................................... 1U-11
1U-26 Virgo.............................................................................................................................. 1U-12
1Y-1 Layout for a Rocket Launch Site.................................................................................. 1Y-2
1Y-2 Layout for a Launch Control......................................................................................... 1Y-3
2-1-1 A Private Aerodrome (PNR)......................................................................................... 2-1-4
2-1-2 A Private Aerodrome (PPR).......................................................................................... 2-1-5
2-1-3 A Public Aerodrome...................................................................................................... 2-1-5
2-1-4 A Certified Aerodrome (Airport).................................................................................... 2-1-6
2-1-5 A Military Aerodrome.................................................................................................... 2-1-7
2-1-6 List of Aerodromes Visible on Google Earth................................................................ 2-1-10
2-1-7 NAS Airports.................................................................................................................. 2-1-12
2-2-1 Simple Taxiway System................................................................................................ 2-2-3
2-2-2 Complex Taxiway System............................................................................................. 2-2-4
2-4-1 A Bus Used at an Aerodrome...................................................................................... 2-4-3
2-4-2 A Pickup Truck Used at an Aerodrome........................................................................ 2-4-4
2-4-3 A Dump Truck Used at an Aerodrome......................................................................... 2-4-5
2-4-4 A Snowplow Used at an Aerodrome............................................................................ 2-4-6
2-4-5 A De-Icing Truck Used at an Aerodrome..................................................................... 2-4-6
2-4-6 A Ground Servicing Truck (Potable Water) Used at an Aerodrome............................. 2-4-7
2-5-1 Front Mounted Sweeper............................................................................................... 2-5-3
2-5-2 One-Way Snowplow Blade – Mounted on a Truck....................................................... 2-5-4
2-5-3 Two-Way Snowplow Blade – Mounted on a Special Chassis...................................... 2-5-4
2-5-4 Front Mounted Snow Blower (Mounted on a Tractor).................................................. 2-5-5
2-5-5 Self-Propelled Snow Blower.......................................................................................... 2-5-6
2-5-6 Above Ground Tank and Refuelling Cabinet................................................................ 2-5-7
2-5-7 Refuelling Cabinet......................................................................................................... 2-5-8
2-5-8 Mobile Tanker................................................................................................................ 2-5-9

ix
A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001

LIST OF FIGURES (Cont)


FIGURE TITLE PAGE
2-5-9 Hydrant Refueller.......................................................................................................... 2-5-10
2-6-1 Snow Removal Priority List........................................................................................... 2-6-3
2-7-1 Occurrence Category Table.......................................................................................... 2-7-7
2-10-1 ARFF Requirements...................................................................................................... 2-10-3
2-10-2 ARFF Truck................................................................................................................... 2-10-4
2-12-1 Boundaries of CDA, NDA, and SDA............................................................................. 2-12-2
2-12-2 Vertical Divisions of Airspace....................................................................................... 2-12-3
2-12-3 A Control Zone.............................................................................................................. 2-12-5
2-12-4 Control Zone, Terminal Control Area, and Transition Area.......................................... 2-12-6
2-14-1 NDB Antenna................................................................................................................ 2-14-2
2-14-2 VOR Transmitter and Antenna..................................................................................... 2-14-3
2-14-3 DME and Slant Distance............................................................................................... 2-14-4
2-14-4 ILS Glide Path Transmitter........................................................................................... 2-14-5
2-14-5 MLS Transmitter............................................................................................................ 2-14-6
2-14-6 Mobile PAR................................................................................................................... 2-14-7
2-14-7 WAAS............................................................................................................................ 2-14-11
2-14-8 LAAS.............................................................................................................................. 2-14-12
2-15-1 Typical Edge Light........................................................................................................ 2-15-2
2-15-2 Runway Lighting............................................................................................................ 2-15-3
2-15-3 Runway Lighting............................................................................................................ 2-15-4
2-15-4 VASIS............................................................................................................................ 2-15-5
2-15-5 PAPI and APAPI........................................................................................................... 2-15-6
2C-1 Runway Configurations................................................................................................. 2C-1
2D-1 Four Common Terminal Building Layouts.................................................................... 2D-1
2H-1 Refuelling Cabinet......................................................................................................... 2H-1
2H-2 Mobile Tanker................................................................................................................ 2H-1
2I-1 Aerodrome Operations Crossword Puzzle.................................................................... 2I-1
2I-2 Aerodrome Operations Crossword Puzzle Clues......................................................... 2I-2
2J-1 Aerodrome Operations Crossword Puzzle Answer Key............................................... 2J-1
2K-1 Example of a Civilian Flight Safety Report................................................................... 2K-1
2L-1 Example of a Military Flight Safety Report................................................................... 2L-1
2Q-1 Boundaries of CDA, NDA, and SDA............................................................................. 2Q-1
2Q-2 Typical Airspace Surrounding an Aerodrome............................................................... 2Q-2
2S-1 Runway Threshold Lights............................................................................................. 2S-1
2S-2 MALSR.......................................................................................................................... 2S-2
2S-3 ALSF-2........................................................................................................................... 2S-3
3-9-1 Example Schedule of Groups....................................................................................... 3-9-6
3A-1 Montréal Region Aerospace Industry............................................................................ 3A-1
3A-2 Leading Aerospace Firms............................................................................................. 3A-2
3B-1 Certificate of Airworthiness........................................................................................... 3B-1
3B-2 Special Certificate of Airworthiness.............................................................................. 3B-2
3B-3 Special Flight Permit..................................................................................................... 3B-3

x
A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001

LIST OF FIGURES (Cont)


FIGURE TITLE PAGE
3C-1 Example of a Log Book Maintenance Clearance Page 1............................................. 3C-1
3C-2 Example of a Log Book Maintenance Clearance Page 2............................................. 3C-2
3D-1 Journey Log Flight Record Page 1............................................................................... 3D-1
3D-2 Journey Log Flight Record Page 2............................................................................... 3D-2
3E-1 Aircraft Truss Structure................................................................................................. 3E-1
3E-2 Rigging a Biplane.......................................................................................................... 3E-2
3F-1 Fuel Gauge.................................................................................................................... 3F-1
3F-2 Tachometer.................................................................................................................... 3F-2
3F-3 Cylinder Head Temperature Indicator........................................................................... 3F-3
3F-4 Oil Pressure Indicator................................................................................................... 3F-4
3F-5 Oil Temperature Indicator............................................................................................. 3F-5
3F-6 Carburetor Air Temperature Indicator........................................................................... 3F-6
3F-7 Manifold Pressure Indicator.......................................................................................... 3F-7
3G-1 Rebuilding a C-130 Centre Wing.................................................................................. 3G-1
3G-2 Placing a C-130 Centre Wing....................................................................................... 3G-2
3G-3 Positioning a C-130 Centre Wing................................................................................. 3G-3
3G-4 Bombardier QR 400 Fuselage Assembly..................................................................... 3G-4
3G-5 Bombardier QR 400 Wing Assembly............................................................................ 3G-4
3G-6 Bombardier QR 400 Assembly Line............................................................................. 3G-5
3G-7 Bombardier QR 400 Assembly Activity......................................................................... 3G-5
3G-8 Bombardier QR 400 Engine Assembly......................................................................... 3G-6
3G-9 Bombardier CRJ700 Fuselage Assembly..................................................................... 3G-7
3G-10 Bombardier CRJ700 Assembly Line............................................................................. 3G-7
3G-11 Bombardier CRJ700 Assembly..................................................................................... 3G-8
3G-12 A Q400 Fuselage Arrives from MHI, Japan.................................................................. 3G-9
3H-1 Building a Pylon............................................................................................................ 3H-1
3H-2 Pylon Ready to Go....................................................................................................... 3H-1
3H-3 Pylon on Display........................................................................................................... 3H-2
3H-4 Empty Pylons................................................................................................................ 3H-2
3H-5 Engines on Pylons........................................................................................................ 3H-3
3H-6 A380 with Engines........................................................................................................ 3H-3
3H-7 Pylons at Work.............................................................................................................. 3H-4
3H-8 Airbus A380 North American Suppliers........................................................................ 3H-5
3I-1 The Black Maria Sopwith Triplane................................................................................ 3I-1
3I-2 Assessing Wood for Aircraft......................................................................................... 3I-2
3J-1 A380 Rear Pressure Bulkhead..................................................................................... 3J-1
3J-2 Testing Thermal Insulation in a Wind Tunnel............................................................... 3J-2
3J-3 Orbiter Thermal Protection System............................................................................... 3J-3
3J-4 Repairing TPS on Columbia......................................................................................... 3J-4
3K-1 Titanium Pylon for an A380 Airbus Engine.................................................................. 3K-1
3K-2 Empty Pylons on an A380 Airbus................................................................................. 3K-1
3L-1 Shop Safety Contract.................................................................................................... 3L-1

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A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001

LIST OF FIGURES (Cont)


FIGURE TITLE PAGE
3M-1 Various Drill Characteristics.......................................................................................... 3M-1
3M-2 Parts of a Drill Bit......................................................................................................... 3M-2
3M-3 Reciprocating Saw........................................................................................................ 3M-3
3M-4 Disk Sander................................................................................................................... 3M-3
3N-1 Bar Folding Machine..................................................................................................... 3N-1
3N-2 Cornice Break................................................................................................................ 3N-2
3N-3 Slip Roll Former............................................................................................................ 3N-3
3N-4 Hydropress.................................................................................................................... 3N-4
3N-5 Hydropress Die With Forged Aluminum Product.......................................................... 3N-4
3N-6 Sandbag Forming.......................................................................................................... 3N-5
3N-7 Squaring Shear............................................................................................................. 3N-5
3N-8 Scroll Shears................................................................................................................. 3N-6
3N-9 Band Saw...................................................................................................................... 3N-7
3N-10 Drill Press...................................................................................................................... 3N-8
3N-11 Metal Lathe.................................................................................................................... 3N-9
3N-12 Rotary Punch................................................................................................................. 3N-10
3O-1 Rivet Gun...................................................................................................................... 3O-1
3O-2 Rivet Cutter................................................................................................................... 3O-2
3O-3 Bucking Bars ................................................................................................................ 3O-3
3O-4 Hand Riveting................................................................................................................ 3O-4
3O-5 Squeezer....................................................................................................................... 3O-5
3O-6 Rivet Applications, Dimensions and Designations........................................................ 3O-6
3P-1 AN (Airforce Navy) Bolt Dimensions............................................................................. 3P-1
3P-2 Thread Series Parameters............................................................................................ 3P-1
3P-3 Standard Aircraft Nuts................................................................................................... 3P-2
3P-4 Aircraft Washers............................................................................................................ 3P-2
3Q-1 Rivet Dimensions and Designations............................................................................. 3Q-1
3Q-2 Before and After Driving a Rivet................................................................................... 3Q-1
3Q-3 Common Rivets............................................................................................................. 3Q-2
3Q-4 Comparison of Riveting Force...................................................................................... 3Q-2
3Q-5 Pop Rivet Placement.................................................................................................... 3Q-3
3R-1 Lock Bolts...................................................................................................................... 3R-1
3R-2 Variations of Lock Bolts................................................................................................ 3R-1
3R-3 Lock Nuts...................................................................................................................... 3R-2
3R-4 Hi-Lok® Bolt Installation................................................................................................ 3R-3
3R-5 Taper-Lok® Bolt Installation.......................................................................................... 3R-3
3S-1 Machine Screw Dimension Designations...................................................................... 3S-1
3S-2 Machine Screws............................................................................................................ 3S-1
3S-3 Self-Tapping Sheet Metal Screws................................................................................ 3S-2
3T-1 Dzus® Fastener............................................................................................................ 3T-1
3T-2 Airloc® Cowling Fastener............................................................................................. 3T-2
3T-3 Camlock® Cowling Fastener........................................................................................ 3T-3

xii
A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001

LIST OF FIGURES (Cont)


FIGURE TITLE PAGE
3U-1 Fuselage Template........................................................................................................ 3U-2
3U-2 Fuselage Template........................................................................................................ 3U-3
3U-3 Horizontal Stabilizer Bottom Template.......................................................................... 3U-4
3U-4 Left and Right Vertical Stabilizer Template.................................................................. 3U-5
3U-5 Windshield Template..................................................................................................... 3U-6
3V-1 Raw Aluminum Material Assembly Line....................................................................... 3V-1
3V-2 Un-ended Can............................................................................................................... 3V-2
3V-3 Bottomless Can............................................................................................................. 3V-2
3V-4 Can Top P-2.................................................................................................................. 3V-3
3W-1 Wood Assembly Line.................................................................................................... 3W-1
3W-2 Steps to Make Rear Fuselage Parts............................................................................ 3W-2
3X-1 Aluminum Billet Assembly Line..................................................................................... 3X-1
3Y-1 Aluminum Shearing Assembly Line.............................................................................. 3Y-1
3Y-2 Wing Top Panels........................................................................................................... 3Y-2
3Y-3 Under-Wing Panels....................................................................................................... 3Y-2
3Z-1 Cardboard Insert Assembly Line.................................................................................. 3Z-1
3AA-1 Cardboard Scissor Cutting Assembly Line................................................................... 3AA-1
3AA-2 First Bends of the Landing Gear.................................................................................. 3AA-2
3AB-1 Cardboard Scissor Cutting Assembly Line................................................................... 3AB-1
3AB-2 The Fuselage Centre-Line Hole.................................................................................... 3AB-2
3AC-1 Rear Fuselage Assembly Line...................................................................................... 3AC-1
3AC-2 Polygon Cut................................................................................................................... 3AC-2
3AC-3 Completing the Rear Fuselage..................................................................................... 3AC-2
3AD-1 Cardboard Scissor Cutting Assembly Line................................................................... 3AD-1
3AD-2 Fuselage Assembly....................................................................................................... 3AD-3
3AD-3 Fuselage Getting a Template....................................................................................... 3AD-3
3AD-4 Getting Its Wings........................................................................................................... 3AD-3
3AD-5 Cladding the Wings....................................................................................................... 3AD-4
3AD-6 Under the Wings........................................................................................................... 3AD-4
3AD-7 Cladding the Under-wing.............................................................................................. 3AD-5
3AD-8 Securing the Wing Tip.................................................................................................. 3AD-5
3AD-9 Figure J-9 Roughing the Cockpit and Windscreen....................................................... 3AD-6
3AD-10 Clearing the Centre Line............................................................................................... 3AD-6
3AD-11 Opening and Trimming the Cockpit.............................................................................. 3AD-7
3AD-12 Wing Bolt Hole Placement Template WBHPT.............................................................. 3AD-7
3AE-1 Cardboard Scissor Cutting Assembly Line................................................................... 3AE-1
3AE-2 Wing Bolt Hole Placement Template WBHPT.............................................................. 3AE-1
3AF-1 Empennage Assembly Line.......................................................................................... 3AF-1
3AF-2 Wing Bolt Hole Placement Template WBHPT.............................................................. 3AF-2
3AF-3 Forming the Empennage.............................................................................................. 3AF-2
3AF-4 Forming the Empennage.............................................................................................. 3AF-3
3AG-1 Propeller Assembly Line............................................................................................... 3AG-1

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A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001

LIST OF FIGURES (Cont)


FIGURE TITLE PAGE
3AG-2 Marking the Propeller.................................................................................................... 3AG-1
3AG-3 Fan Propeller................................................................................................................. 3AG-2
3AH-1 Interplane Struts............................................................................................................ 3AH-1
3AH-2 Senior Wings................................................................................................................. 3AH-2
3AH-3 Cabane Struts .............................................................................................................. 3AH-3
3AH-4 Landing Wires............................................................................................................... 3AH-3
3AH-5 Flying Wires................................................................................................................... 3AH-4
3AH-6 Main Landing Gear....................................................................................................... 3AH-4
3AH-7 Main Landing Gear Support Structure.......................................................................... 3AH-5
3AH-8 Crimping the Landing Gear Support............................................................................. 3AH-6
3AH-9 Propeller Shaft Installation............................................................................................ 3AH-7
3AH-10 Propeller Shaft Wire Clip Installation............................................................................ 3AH-7
3AH-11 Tail Skid Fabrication..................................................................................................... 3AH-8
3AH-12 Windscreen Installation................................................................................................. 3AH-8
3AH-13 Bottle-Cap Wheels........................................................................................................ 3AH-9
3AH-14 Tail Light........................................................................................................................ 3AH-9
3AH-15 Finishing Touch............................................................................................................. 3AH-10
3AH-16 Aluminum Model Biplane.............................................................................................. 3AH-10
3AI-1 Airframe Logbook Record of Maintenance and Elementary Work First Page............... 3AI-1
3AI-2 Airframe Logbook Record of Maintenance and Elementary Work Second Page.......... 3AI-2
3AI-3 Journey Logbook Flight Record First Page.................................................................. 3AI-3
3AI-4 Journey Logbook Flight Record Second Page............................................................. 3AI-4
3AJ-1 Example of Journey Logbook Flight Record First Page............................................... 3AJ-1
3AJ-2 Example of Journey Logbook Flight Record Second Page.......................................... 3AJ-2

xiv
A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001

CHAPTER 1
PO S240 – PARTICIPATE IN AEROSPACE ACTIVITIES
A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001

ROYAL CANADIAN AIR CADETS

BASIC AVIATION TECHNOLOGY AND AEROSPACE

INSTRUCTIONAL GUIDE

SECTION 1

EO S240.01 – WATCH A SKIT ON THE CONCEPTS OF ASTRONOMY

Total Time: 40 min

PREPARATION

PRE-LESSON INSTRUCTIONS

Resources needed for the delivery of this lesson are listed in the lesson specification located in A-CR-CCP-824/
PG-001, Royal Canadian Air Cadets, Basic Aviation Technology and Aerospace Course, Qualification Standard
and Plan, Chapter 4. Specific uses for said resources are identified throughout the instructional guide within
the TP for which they are required.

Review the lesson content and become familiar with the material prior to delivering the lesson.

Prior to instructing this lesson, the instructor shall:

create costumes for the characters; and

create multimedia projections for backgrounds for each skit.

PRE-LESSON ASSIGNMENT

N/A.

APPROACH

An in-class activity was chosen for this lesson as it is a dynamic way to present the content and the learning
objective.

INTRODUCTION

REVIEW

N/A.

OBJECTIVES

By the end of this lesson the cadet shall have watched a skit on the concepts of astronomy and can then explain
how different cultures and historical periods have viewed and used astronomy to benefit daily life.

IMPORTANCE

It is important for cadets to realize how astronomy has been an important factor in everyday life for calculating
calendars, establishing the seasons and understanding the cosmos.

1-1-1
A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001

Teaching Point 1 Watch a Skit on the Concepts of Astronomy

Time: 35 min Method: In-Class Activity

ACTIVITY

OBJECTIVE

The objective of this activity is to explain the history of astronomy using a dynamic and fun activity.

RESOURCES

Multimedia projections for backgrounds for each skit,

Sheets of fabric for robes,

Various wigs,

Beards, and

Props as required.

ACTIVITY LAYOUT

Lay out the classroom with room in front of the cadets for costume changes and prop accessibility. The
multimedia projector should be to the side of the class to leave room for the actors.

ACTIVITY INSTRUCTIONS

The skit is performed in four acts, each consisting of several short scenes that explain the
concepts of the individuals involved. The skit is located at Annex A.

SAFETY

N/A.

CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 1

QUESTIONS

Q1. Polynesian navigators were famous for what ability?

Q2. What did Egyptian pyramid builders use to align the pyramids?

Q3. What did Sir Isaac Newton establish?

ANTICIPATED ANSWERS

A1. Their navigational skills.

A2. The sun.

A3. The Universal Laws of Gravity.

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A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001

END OF LESSON CONFIRMATION

QUESTIONS

Q1. How was Stonehenge used to aid farming?

Q2. How did Plato explain the Earth was round?

Q3. What did early astronomers believe was the centre of the solar system?

Q4. What was Copernicus’s theory of the solar system.

Q5. What tool did Galileo use to search the universe?

ANTICIPATED ANSWERS

A1. It marked the beginning of planting.

A2. Boats disappear over the horizon and the Earth’s shadow on the moon during the moon’s eclipse is
curved.

A3. The Earth.

A4. The sun was the centre of the solar system.

A5. A telescope.

CONCLUSION

HOMEWORK/READING/PRACTICE

N/A.

METHOD OF EVALUATION

N/A.

CLOSING STATEMENT

Humankind has gazed at the stars forever wondering how the universe all fits together. Understanding some
of the key people who have left their mark on this field provides some answers to these questions.

INSTRUCTOR NOTES/REMARKS

The instructor will require additional staff to act out the skits.

Props and wigs can be created from arts and crafts materials or purchased at a dollar store.

REFERENCES

C3-177 (ISBN 978-1-55407-325-2) Couper, H., & Henbest, N. (2007). The History of Astronomy.
Richmond Hill, ON: Firefly Books.

1-1-3
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1-1-4
A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001

ROYAL CANADIAN AIR CADETS

BASIC AVIATION TECHNOLOGY AND AEROSPACE

INSTRUCTIONAL GUIDE

SECTION 2

EO S240.02 – DISCUSS THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PLANETS IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM

Total Time: 160 min

PREPARATION

PRE-LESSON INSTRUCTIONS

Resources needed for the delivery of this lesson are listed in the lesson specification located in A-CR-CCP-
824/PG-001, Chapter 4. Specific uses for said resources are identified throughout the instructional guide within
the TP for which they are required.

Review the lesson content and become familiar with the material prior to delivering the lesson.

Prepare a 1000 m field to be used so that it is safe for the activity.

Photocopy the handout located at Annex B for each cadet.

Photocopy the handout located at Annex D for each cadet.

PRE-LESSON ASSIGNMENT

N/A.

APPROACH

A simulation was chosen for this lesson as it allows the cadet to visualize the enormity of the solar system and
helps clarify, emphasize, and summarize the teaching points.

INTRODUCTION

REVIEW

N/A.

OBJECTIVES

By the end of this lesson the cadet shall have discussed, through simulation, the characteristics of the planets
in the solar system.

IMPORTANCE

It is important for cadets to know the characteristics of the planets in our solar system as space exploration
continues to develop. The exploration of the solar system is a long term project that will span multiple
generations. Cadets who are familiar with the solar system may be able to contribute to that exploration.

1-2-1
A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001

The purpose of the following lesson is to provide the cadets with a simulation of distances
within our solar system and should be conducted as follows:

1. Begin by describing to the cadets the 6. Cadets will have to calculate how far
sun and its position within our solar each planet is from the sun. Once the
system. cadets have done the calculations,
each group will mark off where their
2. Explain to the cadets that they are planet needs to go. The planets will be
going to build the solar system. marked using the balls or flags.
3. Divide the cadets into eight groups 7. Each group will present the information
(one per planet). about their planet to the other groups
4. Distribute the corresponding ball until all planets have been discussed.
that represents each planet to each 8. The groups will proceed to the next
group (distribute flags to the group for planet.
Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars so the
balls may be seen). Distribute to each 9. Each cadet will complete a
group pens/paper/calculator and the specification sheet on the sun and
specification sheets located at Annex B each planet as they travel through the
(the Planet Specification Answer Sheet simulated solar system.
is located at Annex C).

5. Explain that 1 m on the ground will be


scaled to 5.79 million kms.

Teaching Point 1 Locate and Discuss the Sun In the Model

Time: 20 min Method: Simulation

THE SUN

The sun is something that can be observed in everyday life using the naked eye. Human civilization has used
the sun as a means of time-keeping for thousands of years, measuring the seasons, the years, and the length
of a day based on the rising and setting of the sun. The sun has also been the centre of various religions over
the centuries, most notably in the Egyptian and Aztec civilizations.

Definition

The sun is a star, an astral body made up of gases such as hydrogen. The size of a star means that it attracts
other astral bodies around it. These are called star systems. Our sun has eight planets in orbit around it, creating
what humans call the solar system. This name stems from the Latin name for the sun, Sol.

Our sun is classified as a Yellow Dwarf star. This means that our sun is transforming hydrogen into helium
through a process known as nuclear fusion. In order to be classified as a Yellow Dwarf, a star must also meet
certain size and temperature specifications. Since our sun is the closest, most visible and therefore easiest to
study, it is used as the benchmark for these specifications.

Size
27
The sun is a huge astral body, especially when compared to Earth. The mass of the sun is approximately 2x10
tonnes. That is 2 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 tonnes or the same as 332 946 times the mass of
Earth. The sun’s diameter, measured at its equator, is 1 392 000 km.

1-2-2
A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001

The Sun’s Axis

Like all astral bodies the sun rotates around an axis. This axis is an imaginary line which passes through the
centre of the sun. Not all axes are perfectly straight up and down or across. Since humans measure time relative
to Earth, rotation is measured in standard Earth days. The angle that the axis makes as it passes through the
body is called inclination.

Rotation. The sun rotates once around its axis in 25.4 standard Earth days. Due to the gaseous nature of the
sun, it rotates slower at the poles than at the equator. At the poles the rotation takes 34 standard Earth days.

Inclination. The angle at which the sun’s axis runs through the sun is zero degrees to the perpendicular.

Surface Temperature

By its very nature the sun produces light and heat. These are the result of the nuclear reaction which is
occurring on a daily basis. Every day the sun transforms thousands of tonnes of hydrogen into helium, a
reaction which creates high temperatures at the sun’s core and surface. The core temperature is approximately
15 000 000 degress Celsius, while the surface is a cool 5500 degrees Celsius.

The Sun’s Satellites

Many astral bodies have another astral body in orbit around it. The sun has a large amount of gravitational pull
due to its large size. This pull is what keeps the sun’s satellites in orbit around it. There are nine astral bodies
in orbit around the sun and one belt of asteroids. Eight of these bodies are recognized as planets, while the
ninth (Pluto) has been recently removed from the list of planets in our solar system. This decision was based
on the latest research available.

These satellites include, in order from the sun:

Mercury (planet),

Venus (planet),

Earth (planet),

Mars (planet),

the asteroid belt (including Ceres and Vesta),

Jupiter (planet),

Saturn (planet),

Uranus (planet),

Neptune (planet), and

Pluto (micro-planet).

Each of the planets, except for Earth, is named after a Roman deity. Most of the planets above have their own
satellites, such as our moon.

CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 1

The cadets’ completion of the planet specification sheets will serve as the confirmation of this TP.

1-2-3
A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001

Teaching Point 2 Locate and Discuss the Planet Mercury in the Model

Time: 15 min Method: Simulation

MERCURY

The planet Mercury, named for the Roman messenger god, is the closest planet to the sun. It is the smallest
planet and a cratered wasteland. Since it is so close to the sun it means the planet is completely at the mercy
of solar radiation, solar flares, and other solar weather phenomena. The planet is also battered by the many
asteroids that float through space. The sun’s gravitational pull means that these free floating bodies of rock
accelerate towards the sun. Depending on Mercury’s position in orbit, these asteroids may impact its surface.
There are craters on Mercury that are 600 km wide. It should be noted that our knowledge of this planet is
still incomplete. Only one man-made satellite has ever passed by Mercury, and it was only able to collect
information about a small portion of the planet’s surface.

Distance From the Sun

Mercury is the closest planet to the sun. The range varies from 46 000 000 to 70 000 000 km. The mean
distance, or average distance is be 58 000 000 km.

Size

Mercury is the smallest planet in our solar system. Its mass is 0.055 times the mass of Earth. Mercury’s diameter
is a mere 4878 km. The planet is so small that it has a volume that is only 0.056 times that of Earth.

Orbit

Mercury has what is known as an eccentric orbit. This means that the distance the planet is from the sun varies
throughout its revolution around the sun. The actual shape that the planet would travel around the sun would
be an oval, or egg shape. This can be seen in the extreme range in the planet’s distance from the sun.

Mercury travels around the sun once every 88 standard Earth days. This means that the Mercurian year is
88 days long. Mercury’s synodic period is 115.9 days. A synodic period is the time it takes for a planet to return
to a specific spot in the night sky as observed from Earth.

Mercury has an orbital velocity of 47.87 km/s. This means that the planet travels in its orbit around the sun at
a speed of 47.87 km/s or 172 332 km/h.

The Planet’s Axis

Rotation. Despite the quick pace that the planet travels around the sun, Mercury does not rotate around its
axis own very quickly. It takes 58.6 standard Earth days for the planet to rotate around its axis, or two-thirds of
a Mercurian year. Just like the Arctic Circle here on Earth, this means that there are 58 days of total daylight
and 58 days of total darkness.

Inclination. The axis of Mercury sits at an angle of two degrees.

Surface Temperature

Since Mercury is so close to the sun, the temperature on the surface there is extremely hot. At an average
temperature of 427 degrees Celsius, it is impossible for any known life to survive on Mercury.

The Planet’s Satellites

Mercury has no satellites in orbit around it. Only one man-made satellite, Mariner 10, has ever passed by
Mercury.

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The Planet’s Colour

Since Mercury is made up of approximately 70 percent iron, there is a reddish tinge to the planet when observed.
Otherwise it is a neutral colour.

CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 2

The cadets’ completion of the planet specification sheets will serve as the confirmation of this TP.

Teaching Point 3 Locate and Discuss the Planet Venus in the Model

Time: 15 min Method: Simulation

VENUS

Travelling from the sun past Mercury, the next planet one would come across is Venus. Named for the Roman
goddess of love and beauty, Venus is constantly cloaked in cloud. This permanent cover means that scientists
know very little about the surface of the planet. Observed from Earth, Venus is the brightest planet in the night
sky. The Space Age has greatly enhanced our understanding of this planet. Prior to the 1960s, it was thought
that Venus was an oceanic planet equivalent in vegetation to Earth during pre-historic periods. Since the 1960s,
several satellites have been sent to Venus or on a path near Venus. These satellites have included Mariner
2 and 10, and the Russian Venera 7, 9, and 13 landings.

Distance From the Sun

Venus is the second closest planet to the sun at an average distance of 108.2 million km. The distance can
range from 107.4 million to 109 million km.

Size

Venus is very similar in size to Earth. Many scientists refer to Venus and Earth as near-twins. The diameter
of the planet at the equator is 12 104 km. Its mass is approximately 0.815 times the mass of Earth while its
volume is approximately 0.86 times the volume of Earth. In other words, Venus’ weight is 81 percent of Earth’s
weight and it takes up about 86 percent of the space that Earth does.

Orbit

Venus’ orbit around the sun is almost perfectly circular which explains the small range of distance from the sun.
It takes 224.7 standard Earth days for Venus to complete one revolution around the sun. This means that one
year on Venus is 224.7 days long. Venus’ synodic period is 583.92 days, meaning that the planet will return to
the same point in the Earth’s sky almost every two Earth years.

Venus has an orbital velocity of 35.02 km/s or 126 072 km/h.

The Planet’s Axis

Rotation. Venus is unique in that it is the only planet in our solar system which rotates East to West, or
clockwise. All other planets, including Earth, rotate west to east or counter-clockwise. It takes 243.16 days for
Venus to rotate around its axis. It should be noted that this is longer than the Venutian year.

Inclination. The axis of Venus sits at an angle of 178 degrees. This means that the planets north pole is actually
at the bottom of the planet.

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Surface Temperature

Being the second planet, one would expect Venus to be hot though not nearly as hot as Mercury. In fact, the
surface of the planet is significantly hotter at 480 degrees Celsius. This increase is due to the composition of
the atmosphere. Where Mercury has no atmosphere, Venus is made up almost completely of carbon dioxide
(CO2). One of the properties of CO2 is that it retains the terrestrial radiation from the surface of the planet.
Essentially, Venus is a large greenhouse.

The Planet’s Satellites

Like Mercury, Venus has no natural satellites.

The Planet’s Colour

Though most pictures shown in general reference books show Venus as a blue planet, this is not its true colour.
Most of these pictures were taken using ultra-violet light cameras, giving it a blue hue. The true colour is more
light beige, with streaks of light brown.

CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 3

The cadets’ completion of the planet specification sheets will serve as the confirmation of this TP.

Teaching Point 4 Locate and Discuss the Planet Earth in the Model

Time: 15 min Method: Simulation

EARTH

The Earth is the third planet from the sun and is the only planet known to support life as we know it. The Earth’s
atmosphere is composed mainly of nitrogen and oxygen. The temperatures are moderate, due to the ozone
layer found in our atmosphere. There is water on our planet, which in current scientific belief is an absolute
requirement for life.

Distance From the Sun

The Earth’s average distance from the sun is 149.6 million km. Due to the orbit this can range from 147 million
to 152 million km.

Size

Since humans have studied the Earth in depth, we tend to base all of our concepts of planet size relative to
the Earth. Earth is therefore the standard by which we measure the size of other planets. Earth’s diameter
is 12 756 km at the equator. Its mass and volume are both one, since we use the Earth as the standard for
measurement.

Orbit

The Earth’s orbit is very circular as seen by the small range in distance from the sun. It takes 365.3 days for
the Earth to revolve once around the sun. As such, our standard year is 365 days in length with a leap year
every four years to take into account the 0.3 days.

The Earth has an orbital velocity of 29.73 km/s or 107 028 km/h.

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The Planet’s Axis

Rotation. The Earth rotates west to east around its axis. It takes 23h 56m 04s for the Earth to complete one
rotation. This means that the standard Earth day is approximately 24 hours in length.

Inclination. The axis of Earth is tilted at an angle of 23.4 degrees.

Surface Temperature

Due to the composition of the Earth’s atmosphere, the surface of the planet is not subjected to the full force of
the sun’s radiation. As such, the average temperature on the surface of the Earth is 22 degrees Celsius.

The Planet’s Satellites

Earth has one naturally occurring satellite. We simply call it the moon, though that name is also used as a
general term to describe the satellites in orbit around other planets. The moon has a profound effect on Earth.
Not only is it a constant feature in the night sky, being the brightest object in our sky means that it can provide
light on a clear night. Being so close to the Earth (384 000 km) and with a diameter of 3476.6 km, the moon
also has a gravitational effect on our planet. This effect is most apparent in the tidal patterns of our oceans.
Many religions have given the moon a high place of honour within their belief systems.

The Planet’s Colour

Viewed from space, Earth is blue and white in colour. The blue is due to the fact that the Earth surface is
approximately 70 percent water. The white is from the clouds in the sky.

CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 4

The cadets’ completion of the planet specification sheets will serve as the confirmation of this TP.

Teaching Point 5 Locate and Discuss the Planet Mars in the Model

Time: 15 min Method: Simulation

MARS

Mars is the fourth planet from the sun. Named after the Roman god of war due to its colour, there are many
legends that claim this planet was bright in the sky on the eve of many great victories. Mars has taken a central
place in many of today’s space programs. At its closest, Mars is 59 million km away from Earth making it the
second closest planet after Venus. During the space race of the 1960s, the goal was to be the first to set foot on
the moon. Now, there is a collaborative effort by many international space agencies to send a manned mission
to Mars. The planet itself is currently deemed uninhabitable without the use of artificial environment resources.
There have been many probes sent to Mars in recent years to assess the natural environment and evaluate
what equipment would be needed in order to sustain human life on the planet.

Distance From the Sun

Mars is nearly twice the Earth’s distance from the sun. The average distance the planet is from the sun is
227.9 million km. This ranges from 206.7 million to 249 million km depending on its position in its orbit around
the sun.

Size

Mars is significantly smaller than Earth and only about half again the size of Mercury. The diameter of Mars at
the equator is 6794 km. Its mass is 0.11 times that of Earth while its volume is 0.15 times that of Earth.

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Orbit

The orbit of Mars is eccentric, as shown by the large range in distance from the sun. Mars will revolve around
the sun once every 687 standard Earth days; a little less than two Earth years.

Mars has an orbital velocity of 24.1 km/s or 86 760 km/h.

The Planet’s Axis

Rotation. Like Earth, Mars’ rotation is west to east and takes 24h 37m 22.6s. In other words, a standard Earth
day is very close in duration to a Martian day.

Inclination. The axis of Mars is also very similar to Earth’s. The axis of Mars is tilted at an angle of 24 degrees.

Surface Temperature

Being so far away from the sun without an atmosphere like Earth’s or Venus’ means that the surface of Mars
does not benefit from the heat of solar radiation. Mars is the first planet in the solar system that has an average
temperature that is below freezing. On the surface, temperatures will average minus 22 degrees Celsius.

The Planet’s Satellites

Mars has two natural satellites, small moons that are thought to be asteroids that have been captured by the
planet’s gravitational pull. These moons are called Phobos and Deimos. Named after the two servants of Ares,
Greek god of war, Phobos is Greek for panic or fear, while Deimos translates to terror or dread. Despite being
named from Greek mythology, the names are appropriate as Ares is simply a different name for Mars.

Phobos. Phobos is the nearest of the two moons orbiting in a circle just 9270 km from the centre of Mars.
It has a diameter of 27 km.

Deimos. Deimos is the farther moon orbiting in a circle at a distance of 23 400 km from the centre of Mars.
It has a diameter of 15 km.

The Planet’s Colour

Mars is named partly due to the colour of the planet. Mars is known as the “Red Planet” because of the
chemical make-up of the planet. Red is usually associated with war, so naming the planet after the God of
war is appropriate.

CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 5

The cadets’ completion of the planet specification sheets will serve as the confirmation of this TP.

Teaching Point 6 Locate and Discuss the Planet Jupiter in the Model

Time: 15 min Method: Simulation

JUPITER

After passing through the ring of the asteroid belt, the next planet is Jupiter. Named after the leader of the
Roman gods (Zeus to the Greeks), Jupiter is the largest planet in our solar system. Despite its distance from
Earth, Venus and sometimes Mars are the only planets that outshine it in the night sky. Jupiter is a gaseous
planet, in fact the first of the gas giants. This means that there is no actual hard surface to the planet.

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Distance From the Sun

Though Jupiter is the fifth planet in our solar system, the separation provided by the asteroid belt means that
Jupiter is a great distance from the sun. The average distance that Jupiter is from the sun is 778 million km.
Due to its orbit this can range from 741 million to 816 million km.

Size

Jupiter is huge when compared to Earth. Its mass is 317.9 times the mass of Earth and its volume is 1319 times
that of Earth. The diameter of Jupiter at its equator is 143 884 km, well over ten times that of Earth. Due to
the rotation of Jupiter though, there is a significant difference between the diameter at the equator and the
diameter at the poles. The polar diameter is 133 700 km, more than 10 000 km in difference. By comparison
the difference between the Earth’s equator and poles is a mere 42 km.

Orbit

Jupiter has a slightly eccentric orbit. Due to its distance from the sun, it takes the planet 4332.5 standard
Earth days to revolve around the sun. That is the equivalent of 11.86 Earth years. Jupiter’s synodic period is
398.9 days.

The orbital velocity of Jupiter is 13.06 km/s or 47 016 km/h.

The Planet’s Axis

Rotation. Jupiter rotates at an immense speed which causes the equator to bulge out. This is the reason for
the large difference between the equatorial and polar diameters. One day on Jupiter is the same as 9h 55m
30s or 10 Earth hours.

Inclination. Jupiter’s axis is only three degrees from the perpendicular, meaning that Jupiter is almost straight
up and down.

Surface Temperature

Jupiter’s atmosphere is made up of a great many gases. The core of the planet is hydrogen compressed to the
point of almost being a metal. The planet gives off energy as if it were a small sun, yet the surface temperature
is a chilling minus 150 degrees Celsius.

The Planet’s Satellites

Jupiter has 63 known natural satellites. Of these, 47 are less than 10 km in diameter, and only 4 are large
enough to be considered moons. These are identified as Galilean moons and include:

Io. Io is in orbit 421 600 km from the centre of Jupiter and takes 1.7 standard Earth days to orbit the planet.
The dimensions of Io are not exactly spherical, measuring 3660 km by 3637 km by 3631 km.

Europa. Europa is in orbit 670 900 km from the centre of Jupiter. It takes 3.5 standard Earth days for the
moon to orbit the planet once. Europa is 3130 km in diameter.

Ganymede. Ganymede is in orbit 1 070 000 km from the centre of Jupiter and it takes 7.2 standard Earth
days to complete one full orbit of the planet. Ganymede is 5268 km in diameter.

Callisto. Callisto is in orbit 1 880 000 km from the centre of Jupiter and orbits once every 16.7 standard
Earth days. Callisto is 4806 km in diameter.

The Planet’s Colour

Jupiter has a multitude of colours. There are reds mixed in with browns and shades of white. The most prominent
feature of Jupiter is the Great Red Spot.

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CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 6

The cadets’ completion of the planet specification sheets will serve as the confirmation of this TP.

Teaching Point 7 Locate and Discuss the Planet Saturn in the Model

Time: 15 min Method: Simulation

SATURN

Saturn is a very distinct planet in our solar system. It is the second of the gas giants from the sun, the sixth
planet in the system. Named after the Roman god of time because of the length of time it takes for the planet to
cross the night sky, Saturn is said to be the most beautiful object in the sky when viewed through a telescope.

Distance From the Sun

Saturn is more remote than even Jupiter. Orbiting at an average distance of 1427 million km, Saturn is almost
twice as far from the sun as Jupiter.

Size

Saturn is the second largest planet in the solar system. Its equatorial diameter is 120 536 km while at the poles
it is an ample 108 728 km across. Saturn’s mass is 95.2 times the mass of Earth and it has a volume that is
744 times that of the Earth.

Orbit

Saturn has a slightly eccentric orbital path. It travels around the sun in 10 759.2 standard Earth days or
29.46 standard Earth years. Saturn’s synodic period is 378.1 days.

The orbital velocity of Saturn is 9.6 km/s or 34 560 km/h.

The Planet’s Axis

Rotation. Saturn rotates on its axis once every 10h 13m 59s. Like Jupiter the speed at which this occurs
causes a slight bulging at the equator, causing the large distortion between the equatorial diameter and the
polar diameter.

Inclination. The axis of Saturn tilts at an angle of 26.4 degrees.

Rings

Saturn’s signature attribute are the rings that surround it. These rings are made up of particles which can range
in size from almost microscopic to over 2 m in diameter. There are actually seven distinct rings of particles
which orbit the planet. The exact distance that the rings expand outwards from the planet is in debate, but the
currently accepted value is in excess of 270 000 km.

Where the rings came from is also hotly debated, but many theories are based on the idea that the particles
may be debris from the many satellites that orbit the planet. There are five such satellites which orbit Saturn
inside the rings.

Surface Temperature

Though the core of the planet is thought to have a temperature of 15 000 degrees Celsius, the surface
temperature has been measured at minus 180 degrees Celsius.

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The Planet’s Satellites

Like Jupiter, Saturn has a large family of satellites in orbit around it. However, only one of these satellites is
really large, while another seven are of medium size. The remaining dozen satellites are small in size and most
are just captured asteroids.

Titan. Titan is the largest of the moons in orbit around Saturn. With a diameter of 5150 km it is actually
larger than the planet Mercury and almost as large as Mars. Titan orbits Saturn at a distance of 1 221
860 km, and completes one full orbit every 15.5 standard Earth days. The interesting thing about Titan is
that it has a nitrogen-based atmosphere like Earth, except instead of oxygen as the next major component
it has methane.

Rhea. Rhea is the second largest moon of Saturn with a diameter of 1528 km. It orbits the planet at a
distance of 527 040 km and completes one full orbit in 4.5 standard Earth days.

Iapetus. The third largest moon is Iapetus with a diameter of 1436 km. It orbits at a distance of 3 561
300 km and completes one full orbit every 79.3 standard Earth days.

Dione. The fourth largest moon at a diameter of 1120 km. Dione orbits Saturn at a distance of 377 420 km
and completes one full orbit every 2.7 standard Earth days.

Tethys. Tethys is the fifth largest moon in orbit around Saturn with a diameter of 1046 km. It orbits the
planet at a distance of 294 670 km and completes one full orbit once every 1.89 standard Earth days.

Enceladus. Enceladus is the sixth largest moon and is not completely spherical in shape. It has the
approximate dimensions of 421 by 395 by 395 km. Orbiting at a distance of 238 040 km, Enceladus and
completes one full orbit of Saturn once every 1.3 standard Earth days.

Hyperion. Hyperion is the seventh largest moon and is not completely spherical in shape. It has the
approximate dimensions of 360 by 280 by 225 km and has been referred to as a hamburger. It orbits
Saturn at a distance of 1 481 100 km and completes one full orbit in 21.3 standard Earth days.

Mimas. The smallest of the recognized moons. Mimas measures 194 by 190 by 154 km. It orbits at a
distance of 185 540 km and completes one full orbit every 0.9 standard Earth days.

The Planet’s Colour

Saturn is a combination of yellows with streaks of dark blue and faint purple. The rings have similar colourations.

CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 7

The cadets’ completion of the planet specification sheets will serve as the confirmation of this TP.

Teaching Point 8 Locate and Discuss the Planet Uranus in the Model

Time: 20 min Method: Simulation

URANUS

Once past Saturn, the casual traveller will happen upon Uranus. Uranus is a very distinct planet which shares
some of the characteristics of Saturn. Most prominent of these are the rings which orbit the planet, but even
here there is uniqueness. Uranus is barely visible to the naked eye and the study of Uranus actually led to the
discovery of the next planet in the solar system. The planet is named after the mythological father of Saturn.

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Distance From the Sun

Uranus is the second-farthest planet from the sun. The average distance is 2870 million km with a maximum
of 3004 million km and a minimum of 2735 million km. Compared to Saturn, Uranus is twice as far from the
sun and four times as far as Jupiter.

Size

Uranus is just over one third the size of Jupiter, but is still the third largest planet in the solar system. It has
an equatorial diameter of 51 118 km. Uranus’ mass is 14.6 times that of Earth, and its volume is 67 times the
volume of Earth.

Orbit

Uranus has an irregular orbit. There is a point in the orbit where Uranus performs two 180-degree turns. This
would look like a giant Z in the orbital path. It takes Uranus 84.01 Earth years to orbit the sun once. The synodic
period of Uranus is 369.7 standard Earth days.

The Planet’s Axis

Rotation. Uranus rotates around its axis once every 17h 14m of Earth time.

Inclination. The axis of Uranus tilts at an angle of 98 degrees. This means that it is technically on its side and
the rings of Uranus look like they are vertical compared to Saturn’s rings. It also means that the satellites orbit
Uranus on a vertical plane instead of a horizontal plane like the other planets.

Rings

Like Saturn, Uranus has its own rings. Uranus has 10 rings around it, compared to Saturn’s 7. The farthest ring
is 96 km wide and starts 51 150 km from the planet. There is also a broad sheet of space debris inside the ring
system which extends from 23 000 km to 39 500 km from the planet. The rings are made up of particles in the
same way that Saturn’s rings are made up of local particles.

Surface Temperature

The average surface temperature of Uranus is minus 214 degrees Celsius.

The Planet’s Satellites

Uranus has a large number of satellites orbiting around it. Of the 21 satellites, only four have a diameter in
excess of 1000 km.

Ariel. Ariel is the smallest of the four largest moons with a diameter of 1158 km. It orbits Uranus at a
distance of 191 000 km and takes 2.5 standard Earth days to complete one full orbit.

Umbriel. Umbriel is the next largest of the four large moons with a diameter of 1169 km. It orbits Uranus
at a distance of 256 300 km and takes 4.1 standard Earth days to complete one full orbit.

Titania. The largest of the four large moons Titania has a diameter of 1578 km. At a distance of 435 000 km,
it takes Titania 8.7 standard Earth days to complete one full orbit.

Oberon. The second largest moon of the four large moons, Oberon has a diameter of 1523 km. Orbiting
at a distance of 583 500 km it takes 13.5 days for Oberon to complete one full orbit.

The Planet’s Colour

Due to the methane in the atmosphere, Uranus is light blue in colour.

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CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 8

The cadets’ completion of the planet specification sheets will serve as the confirmation of this TP.

Teaching Point 9 Locate and Discuss the Planet Neptune in the Model

Time: 20 min Method: Simulation

NEPTUNE

Named after the Roman god of the sea, Neptune was found as a result of scientific study of Uranus. Almost all
of our knowledge of Neptune comes from one spacecraft, Voyager 2 which flew past the planet in 1989. The
atmosphere is made up predominantly of hydrogen, helium and methane. The planet is a very windy place,
with equatorial winds in excess of 450 m/s or 1620 km/h.

Distance From the Sun

Neptune is approximately half again as far as Uranus from the sun. Orbiting at an average distance of
4497 million km it is 20 times as far as Mars. Neptune is the last planet in the solar system, keeping in mind
that Pluto has been down-graded to a micro-planet.

Size

Neptune is nearly identical in diameter to Uranus at 50 538 km. The mass of the planet is almost 25 percent
more at 17.2 times the mass of Earth. The volume is 57 times that of Earth.

Orbit

Neptune’s orbit is almost perfectly circular. It takes Neptune 164.8 standard Earth years to orbit the sun, twice
as long as Uranus. Neptune’s synodic period is 367.5 standard Earth days.

The Planet’s Axis

Rotation. It takes Neptune 16h 7m to rotate once around its axis. This is the third fastest rotation of all of the
planets.

Inclination. The tilt of Neptune’s axis is 28.8 degrees, slightly more than Earth’s.

Rings

Neptune has a ring system, though it is not as evident as either Saturn or Uranus. The five rings have each
been named after astronomers who have conducted research on the planet. Each ring is approximately 50 km
wide and the farthest ring is 62 900 km from the planet.

Surface Temperature

Neptune has a surface temperature of minus 220 degrees Celsius, making it the coldest planet in our solar
system.

The Planet’s Satellites

Neptune has eight satellites in orbit around it. Of these, only Triton is larger than 1000 km.

Triton. Triton orbits Neptune at a distance of 354 800 km. It has a diameter of 2705 km and orbits the planet
once every 5.9 standard Earth days. The most interesting thing about Triton is that it has a retrograde orbit.
This means that it travels in the opposite direction to the rotation of Neptune around its axis.

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The Planet’s Colour

Like Uranus, Neptune is blue in colour. Neptune however has a much darker hue, resembling the colour of
the ocean; hence its name.

CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 9

The cadets’ completion of the planet specification sheets will serve as the confirmation of this TP.

END OF LESSON CONFIRMATION

The cadets’ completion of the planet specification sheets will serve as the confirmation of this lesson.

CONCLUSION

HOMEWORK/READING/PRACTICE

N/A.

METHOD OF EVALUATION

N/A.

CLOSING STATEMENT

The planets are more than just a individual bodies floating in space. They are part of a large system and in some
cases they are the centre of their own sub-system. Understanding the scale of this system is very important
to the understanding of space exploration. With the mission to Mars moving in to the forefront of space news,
we need to realise that this is not a small project but one that could take years just because of the distance
and equipment required.

INSTRUCTOR NOTES/REMARKS

N/A.

REFERENCES

C3-170 Ottewell, G. The national optical observatory. (1998). Thousand-Yard Model: or Earth as a
Peppercorn. Retrieved October 16, 2007, from http://noao.edu/education/peppercorn/pcmain.html.

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ROYAL CANADIAN AIR CADETS

BASIC AVIATION TECHNOLOGY AND AEROSPACE

INSTRUCTIONAL GUIDE

SECTION 3

EO S240.03 – DISCUSS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE EARTH AND THE MOON

Total Time: 40 min

PREPARATION

PRE-LESSON INSTRUCTIONS

Resources needed for the delivery of this lesson are listed in the lesson specification located in A-CR-CCP-
824/PG-001, Chapter 4. Specific uses for said resources are identified throughout the instructional guide within
the TP for which they are required.

Review the lesson content and become familiar with the material prior to delivering the lesson.

A desktop model of the sun, Earth, and moon will be used to demonstrate the relationship between the Earth
and moon.

PRE-LESSON ASSIGNMENT

N/A.

APPROACH

An interactive lecture was chosen for this lesson to orient the cadet to the relationship between the Earth and
the moon, to generate interest, present basic material, and summarize the teaching points.

INTRODUCTION

REVIEW

N/A.

OBJECTIVES

By the end of this lesson the cadet shall have discussed the relationship between the Earth and the moon.

IMPORTANCE

It is important for the cadets to know about the relationship between the Earth and the moon because of the
effects they have on the seasons and tides.

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Teaching Point 1 Discuss the Earth

Time: 10 min Method: Interactive Lecture

CHARACTERISTICS

The Earth is almost a perfect sphere. Its characteristics are as follows:

it has a radius of 6378 km (3954.4 miles),

it has a diameter of 12 756 km (7908.7 miles),

it is approximately 4.6 billion years old,


24 24 20
it has a mass of 5.98 x 10 kg (13.2 x 10 lbs) or (7 x 10 elephants!),

it has a rotation period (spinning on itself) of 23 hours, 56 minutes counter-clockwise,

it has a revolution period (around the sun) of 365.26 days counter-clockwise,

it is a terrestrial-type planet (like Mercury, Venus and Mars),

it has a distance from the sun: 149.6 million km (92.8 million miles) or 1 Astronomical Unit (AU), and

it has a inclination of 23.5 degrees.

There are four terrestrial-type planets in our solar system: Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars. They are solid
globes that are less than 400 million km (248 million miles) from the sun which allows them a moderate
temperature and they are massive enough to maintain an atmosphere. The oldest fossils on Earth can be found
in Australia and they are 3.5 billion years old.

THE SEASONS

Variations between seasons are caused by the tilt of the Earth’s axis during its revolution around the sun. The
Earth travels on an elliptical orbit around the sun and the sun is positioned at one of the ellipse’s focal points.
The distance between the Earth and the sun is greatest at the beginning of July (Aphelion: 152.5 million km
(94.6 million miles)) and least at the beginning of January (Perihelion: 147.5 million km (91.5 million miles)).

Seasons occur because of the axial tilt of the Earth which is 23.5 degrees not because of the Earth’s distance
from the sun. The Earth is closer to the sun in December when it is winter in the northern hemisphere, than
it is in June. When the north axis is in the sun’s shadow, it is winter in the northern hemisphere and summer
in the southern hemisphere as the south axis is in sunlight. The exact opposite occurs when the north axis
is in sunlight.

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Sir Patrick Moore, “Atlas of the Universe”, Firefly Books (p. 37)

Four principle occurrences mark where the Earth is in its movement through space during each year, the
equinoxes and the solstices. Equinoxes occur twice yearly (spring and fall) when day and night are of equal
length for all regions of the globe except the poles. Solstices are the opposite and occur at the two times when
the difference in time between day and night is the greatest (in summer and winter).

CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 1

QUESTIONS

Q1. What is the Earth’s diameter?

Q2. Why is it colder in the northern hemisphere in winter?

Q3. In which direction does the Earth spin?

ANTICIPATED ANSWERS

A1. 12 756 km (7908.7 miles).

A2. It is colder because of the tilt of the Earth’s axis.

A3. Counter-clockwise.

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Teaching Point 2 Discuss the Moon

Time: 15 min Method: Interactive Lecture

CHARACTERISTICS

The moon is a spherical satellite of the Earth. Its characteristics are as follows:

it has a radius of 1738 km (1077.6),

it has a diameter of 3470 km (2151.4 miles),

it is approximately 4.5 billion years old,


2 2
it has a mass of 7.35 x 10 kg (16.2 x 10 lbs),

it has a rotational period equal to its revolution period of 27 days, 7 hours, 43 minutes (this explains the
dark side of the moon),

it is a natural satellite of the Earth,

its distance from the Earth is 348 404 km (216 010.5 miles) with a variance of 50 000 km (31 000 miles),
due to its elliptical orbit,

it has no atmosphere,

it has no water in liquid form, and

its gravitational pull is one-sixth that of the Earth.

HOW THE MOON WAS FORMED

The current principle hypotheses believed to explain the formation of the moon, our natural satellite, are as
follows:

The Capture Hypothesis. The moon was formed by the accumulation of material some distance from the
Earth and later the gravity of the Earth captured it.

The Collision Hypothesis. The Earth collided with an asteroid eight times more massive than itself. The
iron core of this asteroid fused with the core of the Earth. The collision caused a huge number of lighter
particles to go into orbit around the Earth, where later they accumulated and formed the moon. This would
explain the small traces of different metals found in the moon.

PHASES OF THE MOON

The moon rotates on its axis once for every rotation around the Earth. This explains why we always see the
same side of the moon. As the moon orbits the Earth, the visible area lit by the sun varies in the moon’s 27.3-day
cycle. This is known as the phases of the moon. The Earth and moon orbit together around the sun, resulting
in the 29.5-day interval between new moon phases. The eight phases of the moon are:

new moon,

waxing crescent,

first quarter,

waxing gibbous,

full moon,

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waning gibbous,

last quarter, and

waning crescent.

TIDES ON EARTH

The gravitational pull from the moon causes the Earth’s water levels nearest to the moon to rise, as the Earth
rotates through a 24-hour period. The sun also acts on the Earth’s bodies of water but to a lesser extent. When
the moon and sun act together, the tides are stronger (spring tides). When they are at right angles, the tides
are weaker (neap tides).

CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 2

QUESTIONS

Q1. What is the moon’s diameter?

Q2. How many phases of the moon are there?

Q3. Why are certain tides stronger than others?

ANTICIPATED ANSWERS

A1. 3470 km (2151.4 miles).

A2. Eight phases.

A3. The alignment of the moon and the sun cause a combined pull on the Earth’s oceans resulting in larger
tides.

Teaching Point 3 Discuss Solar and Lunar Eclipses

Time: 10 min Method: Interactive Lecture

SOLAR AND LUNAR ECLIPSES

A solar eclipse is the result of the moon passing between the sun and the Earth, projecting the moon’s shadow
on the surface of the Earth. There are three types of solar eclipses:

total,

partial, and

annular.

A total eclipse is when the moon is completely centred in front of the sun and at the right distance from the
Earth to focus its shadow on the planet. The moon completely and accurately covers the sun. The shadow
can never be more than 272 km (168.6 miles) wide and last more that seven minutes, 31 seconds long at any
given observation point. When this happens, the atmosphere of the sun becomes visible and the sky darkens
significantly allowing for planets and bright stars to be seen, and the temperature falls sharply.

A partial eclipse is when the observer is outside the focused shadow of the moon. The observer will not witness
the effects of total eclipse as the atmosphere will not be visible and the moon will cover only part of the sun.

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An annular eclipse is when the moon’s shadow is not focused on the Earth because the moon is farther from the
Earth. This results in an eclipse that does not cover the sun precisely and allows a ring of the sun to be seen.

Using the desktop eclipse model, demonstrate the eclipses to the cadets.

For a solar eclipse to happen, the moon must be in its new phase which lies on the sun-side of the Earth. There
would be a solar eclipse each month, but because the moon’s orbit is tilted five degrees from the Earth’s orbit,
the moon passes unseen either above or below the sun in the sky.

A lunar eclipse is the result of the moon entering the cone of shadow cast by the Earth. The moon does not
generally disappear during lunar eclipses because the Earth’s atmosphere refracts some sunlight onto it. Some
lunar eclipses are bright, others are dark. Records of the moon vanishing completely during a lunar eclipse are
usually because of dust or volcanic ash in the Earth’s atmosphere.

CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 3

QUESTIONS

Q1. What causes a solar eclipse?

Q2. What are the three types of solar eclipses?

Q3. What phase will the moon be in to have a total eclipse of the sun?

ANTICIPATED ANSWERS

A1. The moon passing between the Earth and the sun casting a shadow on the Earth.

A2. Total eclipse, partial eclipse, and annular eclipse.

A3. The new phase.

END OF LESSON CONFIRMATION

QUESTIONS

Q1. How long does it take for the Earth to orbit the sun?

Q2. What is a terrestrial-type of planet?

Q3. What is an AU?

Q4. What distance is the moon from the Earth?

Q5. Is there an atmosphere on the moon?

Q6. Compared to the Earth, what is the moons gravity?

ANTICIPATED ANSWERS

A1. 365.26 days.

A2. A solid globe that is less than 400 million km (248.0 million miles) from the sun.

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A3. The distance from the Earth to the sun or 149.6 million km (92.8 million miles).

A4. 348 404 km (216 010.5 miles) with a variance of 50 000 km (31 000 miles) due to the elliptical orbit
of the moon.

A5. No.

A6. One-sixth.

CONCLUSION

HOMEWORK/READING/PRACTICE

N/A.

METHOD OF EVALUATION

N/A.

CLOSING STATEMENT

In this lesson, the cadets were familiarized with the characteristics of both the Earth and the moon. They were
also introduced to the mechanics of various phenomena such as the seasons, phases of the moon, eclipses,
and the Earth’s tides.

INSTRUCTOR NOTES/REMARKS

N/A.

REFERENCES

C3-176 (ISBN 1-55407-071-6) Moore, P. (2005). Atlas of the Universe. Richmond Hill, ON: Firefly Books.

C3-179 (ISBN 1-55209-302-6) Dickenson, T. (2001). Night Watch: A Practical Guide to Viewing the
Universe. Willowdale, ON: Firefly Books.

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ROYAL CANADIAN AIR CADETS

BASIC AVIATION TECHNOLOGY AND AEROSPACE

INSTRUCTIONAL GUIDE

SECTION 4

EO S240.04 – DISCUSS PHENOMENA WITHIN THE UNIVERSE

Total Time: 80 min

PREPARATION

PRE-LESSON INSTRUCTIONS

Resources needed for the delivery of this lesson are listed in the lesson specification located in A-CR-CCP-
824/PG-001, Chapter 4. Specific uses for said resources are identified throughout the instructional guide within
the TP for which they are required.

Review the lesson content and become familiar with the material prior to delivering the lesson.

Create colour slides of the pictures located at Annex E.

PRE-LESSON ASSIGNMENT

N/A.

APPROACH

An interactive lecture was chosen for this lesson to clarify, emphasize, and summarize the teaching points.

INTRODUCTION

REVIEW

N/A.

OBJECTIVES

By the end of this lesson the cadet shall have discussed phenomena within the universe.

IMPORTANCE

It is important for the cadets to know about the many phenomena within the universe. These phenomena have
a large effect on how the universe develops and how the objects in the universe move.

Teaching Point 1 Discuss Meteors and Meteorites

Time: 20 min Method: Interactive Lecture

METEORS

Meteors are free-floating bodies that travel through the universe. They are created from the debris of comets.
Meteors are very small, and cannot be seen until they enter the atmosphere and burn up. What is seen as

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the meteor enters the atmosphere are the small particles known as meteoroids. These are seen as “shooting
stars”; 75 million will enter the Earth’s atmosphere daily. When the Earth moves through a trail of cometary
debris, which normally follows in the wake of a comet, a shower of shooting stars will be seen. Sometimes
these can be random occurrences, but can also happen regularly.

Show a colour slide of Figure 1E-1.

“Martin 1”, by NASA, 2007. Retrieved December 4, 2007, from http://


science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2007/images/greatperseids/Martin1.jpg
Figure 1-4-1 Perseid Meteor Fireball

Composition

Since meteors are the debris of a comet, the specific composition of the comet will dictate the composition of
the meteor. Usually this will be a combination of rock and ice, though other materials have been found in meteor
dust. It is important to remember that most meteors do not survive entry into Earth’s atmosphere so scientists
are usually only able to study the dust particles that make up the shooting star.

Velocities

Meteors have been known to enter the atmosphere at speeds up to 72 km/s or 259 200 km/h. By the time
the meteor is visible, it is 115 km above the surface of the Earth. This is when the meteor starts burning up,
giving off energy in the form of light. By 70 km above the surface, the meteor has usually burned up to fine
dust, if anything at all.

Occurrence

Though there are random occurrences of meteors, a shower is typically associated with a known comet. Since
comets have regular orbits of their own, astronomers are able to predict when the next occurrence will be.
There are several annual meteor showers. These include:

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Quadrantids. This shower has no known parent comet, but does originate in the constellation known as
st th
the Herdsman. It usually begins on January 1 of each year and ends on January 6 .
th th
Lyrids. Originating from the comet Thatcher, this shower starts on April 19 and ends on April 25 .
th th
Eta Aquarids. Originating from the comet Halley, this shower starts on April 24 and ends on May 20 .
th th
Delta Aquarids. This shower has no known parent comet. It starts on July 15 and ends on August 6 .
rd th
Perseids. Originating from the Swift-Tuttle comet, this shower starts on July 23 and ends on August 20 .
th
Draconids. Originating from the Giacobini-Zinner comet, this shower starts and ends on October 10 .
th
Orionids. Like the Eta Aquarids, this shower originates from Halley’s comet. It starts on October 16 and
th
ends on October 27 .
th th
Taurids. Originating from the Encke comet. This shower starts on October 20 and ends on November 30 .
th
Leonids. Originating from the Tempel-Tuttle comet. This shower starts on November 15 and ends on
th
November 20 .
th th
Andromedids. Originating from the Biela comet. It starts on November 15 and ends on December 6 .
This shower has been weakening over the years, and is now almost extinct.

Geminids. Unique in its origin, Geminids is actually a result of the asteroid Phaethon. It starts on December
th th
7 and ends on December 16 .
th th
Ursids. Originating from the Tuttle comet. This shower starts on December 17 and ends on Dec 25 .

METEORITES

Whereas meteors are mere debris left from a comet, meteorites originate from the asteroid belt that exists
between Mars and Jupiter. In fact a large meteorite may be the same as a small asteroid. The biggest difference
between a meteor and a meteorite is that a meteorite will impact the surface of the Earth, leaving an impact
crater.

Composition

There are three classes of meteorites based on composition.

Siderites. Commonly known as “Irons”, the composition of the siderites is almost entirely iron and nickel.

Aerolites. Commonly known as “Stones”, this type of meteorite can be made up from any type of rock known,
and some that are not known. There have been meteorites which have been found with organic material on
them. Whether this was from the impact or was on the meteorite before it came to Earth is in debate, but the
implications of material not being from Earth could be profound.

Siderolites. Commonly known as “Stony-irons”, this is a mix of siderites and aerolites.

Velocity

No one has ever been able to measure the actual velocity of a meteorite. The best anyone can do is compare
the size of known meteorites with the size of the crater they leave behind. Meteorites can range in size, but there
have been some very large meteorites that have impacted Earth. One of the theories behind the disappearance
of the dinosaurs is that a large meteorite struck the Earth causing an Ice Age. Some of the largest meteorites
include:

Hoba West found in Namibia, which weighed over 60 tonnes after impact;

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Ahnighito found in Greenland, which weighed 34 tonnes after impact;

Bacuberito found in Mexico, which weighed 27 tonnes after impact;

Mbosi found in Tanzania, which weighed 26 tonnes after impact; and

Agalik found in Greenland, which weighed 21 tonnes after impact.

When a meteorite impacts the Earth it is similar to dropping a rock onto sand. The difference is the scale of
the exercise. Meteorites striking Earth is a fact of galactic history. Some of the craters that have been left are
insignificant, while others have contributed greatly to the shape of the terrain in the local area. Examples include:

Meteor Crater, Arizona, USA. This crater is old and is the largest crater on Earth. Scientists have
estimated its age to be 22 000 years old, but are now starting to re-estimate at a value that is in the millions
of years. The crater measures 1265 m across and 175 m deep.

Wolf Creek, Australia. Perhaps the most well-formed crater on Earth. It is thought to be two million years
old. It has a diameter of 675 m and is 55 m deep.

Gosse’s Bluff, Northern Territory, Australia. Also a very old crater, the structure of the impact zone has
eroded over time. The significance here is the effect it has had on the local terrain.

Occurrence

Meteorites occur randomly. There is no way of predicting when the next one will impact Earth. However, several
space agencies around the world have gone to great efforts to create an early warning system. With this,
astronomers will be able to track the meteorites that come close to Earth and advise local officials if an impact
is imminent.

CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 1

QUESTIONS

Q1. What is a meteor made of?

Q2. What is a meteorite made of?

Q3. What creates a shower of shooting stars?

ANTICIPATED ANSWERS

A1. A meteor is made of ice and rock.

A2. A meteorite is made of iron, stone, or a combination of the two.

A3. A shower of shooting stars is caused by the Earth moving through the tail of a comet.

Teaching Point 2 Discuss Comets

Time: 15 min Method: Interactive Lecture

COMETS

Comets are the least predictable bodies travelling through the solar system. They are ghost-like in appearance,
with only the nucleus being a solid object. Described as dirt balls of ice, it is the melting of the ice as the comet
nears the sun that creates the head, or coma, of the comet. The coma of the Great Comet of 1811 was actually
bigger than the sun as viewed from Earth. This is a rarity and some comets are too small to have a coma.

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Show a colour slide of Figure 1E-2.

“Schwassman-Wachmann 3”, by Hubble Telescope, 2007, NASA. Copyright 2007 by Hubble Telescope.
Retrieved December 4, 2007, from http://hubblesite.org/gallery/album/solar_system_collection/pr2006018e/
Figure 1-4-2 Comet 73P

Composition

The nucleus of the comet is composed of rocky fragments held together by ice. This ice may not necessarily
be frozen water, but could be made of methane or ammonia. The tail of the comet always points away from
the sun. This means that a comet travelling away from the sun will actually be led by its tail. Each time a comet
passes a certain point in its orbit, it loses material. This is what forms meteor showers and shooting stars.

Velocities

The velocity of a comet is measured in how long it takes to return to Earth. For example, Halley’s comet returns
to Earth once every 76 years. Since Halley’s comet cannot be followed all the way through its orbit, it cannot
be said for sure how fast it travels as it is not known how far it travels.

Occurrence

The velocity of the comet is also a measurement of its occurrence, or period. Halley’s comet occurs once every
76 years, and has been doing so since its discovery in 240 BC. Since comets lose some of their mass every
time they pass by the sun, comets will not last forever. As far as the cosmic timeline is concerned, comets are
very short-lived. Some of the comets with a regular occurrence include:

Encke. Discovered in AD 1786; Encke occurs every 3.3 years.

Giacobini-Zinner. Discovered in AD 1900; Giacobini-Zinner occurs every 6.6 years.

Wolf 1. Discovered in AD 1884; Wolf 1 occurs every 8.4 years.

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Tuttle. Discovered in AD 1790; Tuttle occurs every 13.7 years.

Halley. Discovered in 240 BC; Halley occurs every 76 years.

Tempel 2. Discovered in AD 1873; Tempel 2 occurs every 5.3 years.

CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 2

QUESTIONS

Q1. What is the head of a comet called?

Q2. What is a comet made of?

Q3. What direction does the tail of the comet point?

ANTICIPATED ANSWERS

A1. Coma.

A2. Ice and rock.

A3. Away from the sun.

Teaching Point 3 Discuss Nebulas

Time: 10 min Method: Interactive Lecture

NEBULAS

Nebulas are one of the most beautiful phenomena in the universe. Since stars are formed from a nebula, the
age of a group of stars can be estimated by the number or size of nebula. There are two types of nebulas,
depending on what their source is. There are nebulas which are formed from the remnants of stars, which have
either super-novae or are simply old and have shed their outer layers. The Crab nebula, for example, is the
remnants of the super-nova seen by the Chinese people in AD 1054. There are also true nebulas, which are
formed from gas clouds mixed with dust.

True Nebula

A true nebula is a cloud of hydrogen mixed with particles of space dust. The shine from the nebula is the result
of a nearby star or a star which is in the nebula, such as the Orion nebula.

The Orion Nebula. Formally known as M42, the Sword of Orion. The Orion nebula is located in the Orion
constellation. It is about 30 light years across, and 1500 light years away. The Orion nebula is a stellar
birthplace. All of the hydrogen and dust in the nebula are used to create new stars on a constant basis.

Show a colour slide of Figure 1E-3.

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“The Great Orion Nebua”, by Night Sky Info, 2007. Retrieved December
4, 2007, from http://www.nightskyinfo.com/archive/orion_nebula/
Figure 1-4-3 The Orion Nebula

Lagoon Nebula. Formally known as M8, the Lagoon nebula is located in the constellation Sagittarius.

Show a colour slide of Figure 1E-4.

“The Lagoon Nebula”, by Night Sky Info, 2007. Retrieved December


4, 2007, from http://www.nightskyinfo.com/archive/lagoon_nebula/
Figure 1-4-4 The Lagoon Nebula

Omega Nebula. Formally known as M17, the Omega nebula is located in the constellation Sagittarius.

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Show a colour slide of Figure 1E-5.

“A Perfect Storm of Gases”, by Space Science, 2007, European Space Agency. Copyright 2007 by Space
Science. Retrieved December 4, 2007, from http://www.esa.int/esaSC/SEM248R1VED_sensations_3.html
Figure 1-4-5 The Omega Nebula

Planetary Nebula

Planetary nebulae are not true nebulae and have nothing to do with a planet. They are the result of a star
entering the last stages of its life and shedding its layers. These layers are constantly expanding, which means
that the lifespan of a planetary nebula is brief relative to the cosmic timeline.

Helix Nebula. Formally known as C63, the Helix nebula is located in the constellation Aquarius.

Show a colour slide of Figure 1E-6.

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“Helix Nebula”, by Night Sky Info, 2007. Retrieved December 4, 2007,


from http://www.nightskyinfo.com/archive/helix_planetary_nebula
Figure 1-4-6 The Helix Nebula

CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 3

QUESTIONS

Q1. What is a true nebula made of?

Q2. List two examples of a true nebula.

Q3. What is a planetary nebula?

ANTICIPATED ANSWERS

A1. Hydrogen and space dust.

A2. Orion nebula, Helix nebula, Lagoon nebula, and Omega nebula.

A3. The result of a star that is entering the last stages of its life and shedding its layers.

Teaching Point 4 Discuss Star Clusters

Time: 10 min Method: Interactive Lecture

Star Clusters. Large groups of stars in various stages of development.

Show a colour slide of Figures 1E-7 and 1E-8.

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“Star Cluster Images”, by Hubble Telescope, 2007, NASA. Copyright 2007 by Hubble Telsecope.
Retrieved December 4, 2007, from http://hubblesite.org/gallery/album/star_collection/pr2006017c/
Figure 1-4-7 Star Cluster NGC 290

“Star Cluster Images”, by Hubble Telescope, 2007, NASA. Copyright 2007 by Hubble Telescope.
Retrieved December 4, 2007, from http://hubblesite.org/gallery/album/star_collection/pr2006017b/
Figure 1-4-8 Star Cluster NGC 265

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Types of Star Clusters

There are two types of star clusters, including:

Open or Loose Clusters. Clusters that may contain as few as a dozen stars or as many as one hundred
stars. The cluster has no definite shape. The stars in the cluster are the same age as they are formed
from the same nebula cloud.

Globular Clusters. Globular clusters are tight groups of stars that lie at the edge of the galaxy. Globular
clusters are made up of stars that are very old. The cluster has the shape of a roughly shaped globe.

Age of Star Clusters

The age of a star cluster can be determined by the amount of nebular cloud left in the cluster or by the size
and colour of the stars in the cluster. A cluster with a lot of nebular cloud will be a younger cluster, and will
eventually form a star. A cluster with stars which are red and relatively large will be an older cluster.

CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 4

QUESTIONS

Q1. What are the two types of star clusters?

Q2. What is the difference between the two types of clusters?

Q3. What is the indication of a relatively young cluster?

ANTICIPATED ANSWERS

A1. Open or loose and globular.

A2. The open is composed of younger stars while the globular is composed of older stars.

A3. The presence of a nebula cloud.

Teaching Point 5 Discuss the Phenomena of Black Holes

Time: 15 min Method: Interactive Lecture

BLACK HOLES

Despite the fact that a star is a giant nuclear fusion reaction, a star will run out of energy after a period of time
(usually billions of years). When this happens, a star is said to be dying. A dying star will usually go out with a
big bang or with a small whimper. Sometimes though, a dying star will have grown so massive that it cannot
explode. The result is that gravity takes over, and the star will collapse on itself. As it collapses it becomes
smaller and denser, until it reaches a point where the gravitational pull is so great that even light cannot escape.
This is a black hole. Since light is the fastest thing in the universe, if it cannot escape then nothing will.

The size of a black hole depends on the mass of the star. There is a boundary around the black hole which
is called an event horizon. Once material has crossed over the event horizon it is trapped by the black hole
and will never be seen again.

Black holes exist everywhere in the universe. There are massive black holes at the centre of many galaxies.
The movement of the stars at the centre of our own galaxy suggests that a very massive black hole exists there.

No one knows for sure what happens inside a black hole. There are many theories that have been created and
suggested. One of these theories is that the material which vanishes into a black hole will reappear somewhere

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else in the galaxy, or in a different part of the universe. A second theory is that a black hole is a bridge between
our universe and another. Stephen Hawking, a renowned physicist and genius has done a lot of research on
black holes. He theorizes that a black hole will eventually lose all of its energy and finally explode.

Fortunately, the sun is not large enough to become a black hole. Its life will end as a cold, dead globe.

CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 5

QUESTIONS

Q1. How is a black hole formed?

Q2. What is the name of the boundary that is around a black hole?

Q3. What suggests that a massive black hole may exist in the centre of our galaxy?

ANTICIPATED ANSWERS

A1. A star that is too massive to explode, collapsing on itself.

A2. The event horizon.

A3. The movement of the stars.

END OF LESSON CONFIRMATION

QUESTIONS

Q1. What creates a shower of shooting stars?

Q2. What is a true nebula made of?

Q3. How is a black hole formed?

ANTICIPATED ANSWERS

A1. The Earth moving through the tail of a comet.

A2. Hydrogen and space dust.

A3. A star that is too massive to explode, collapsing on itself.

CONCLUSION

HOMEWORK/READING/PRACTICE

N/A.

METHOD OF EVALUATION

N/A.

CLOSING STATEMENT

There are many phenomena in the universe, some that cannot be explained. All of these beg for exploration
and further understanding so that we may chart the universe. As the human species begins to migrate from
Earth, this understanding will guide our decisions on where to go next.

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INSTRUCTOR NOTES/REMARKS

N/A.

REFERENCES

C3-176 (ISBN 1-55407-071-6) Moore, P. (2005). Atlas of the Universe. Richmond Hill, ON: Firefly Books.

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ROYAL CANADIAN AIR CADETS

BASIC AVIATION TECHNOLOGY AND AEROSPACE

INSTRUCTIONAL GUIDE

SECTION 5

EO S240.05 – DISCUSS THE HISTORY OF SPACE EXPLORATION

Total Time: 80 min

PREPARATION

PRE-LESSON INSTRUCTIONS

Resources needed for the delivery of this lesson are listed in the lesson specification located in A-CR-CCP-
824/PG-001, Chapter 4. Specific uses for said resources are identified throughout the instructional guide within
the TP for which they are required.

Review the lesson content and become familiar with the material prior to delivering the lesson.

Create slides of Figures located at Annexes F to I.

PRE-LESSON ASSIGNMENT

N/A.

APPROACH

An interactive lecture was chosen for this lesson to orient the cadets to the history of space exploration, generate
interest, present background material, and clarify the subject.

INTRODUCTION

REVIEW

N/A.

OBJECTIVES

By the end of this lesson the cadet shall have discussed the history of space exploration.

IMPORTANCE

It is important for cadets to learn about the history of space exploration because in the near future, space
exploration will become increasingly significant as developing technologies and resource depletion move
humanity’s focus beyond Earth.

Teaching Point 1 Discuss the History of Satellites

Time: 15 min Method: Interactive Lecture

In the history of satellites, Sputnik-1 and Explorer-1 both deserve a special place. After all the developments
that have followed over the years, it is difficult to grasp the environment in which they were created. There

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was no guarantee that this investment would ever pay off—or even work—but the great faith of the engineers
and scientists was ultimately rewarded. To appreciate how much has been learned since October 4, 1957 is
to realize how little was known at that time. One thing that was known is to achieve low Earth orbit, any object
must accelerate to 8000 m/s. To do this without damaging a fragile payload was a historic accomplishment
in 1957. The stories of Sputnik-1 and Explorer-1 are the stories of two chemical rockets: the Soviet R-7 and
America’s Jupiter-C.

In 1898, a Russian schoolteacher, Konstantin Tsiolkovsky (1857–1935), proposed the idea of space exploration
by rocket. In a report published in 1903, Tsiolkovsky suggested the use of liquid propellants for rockets in order
to achieve greater range. Tsiolkovsky stated that only the exhaust velocity of escaping gases limited the speed
and range of a rocket. For his ideas, careful research and great vision, Tsiolkovsky has been called the father
of modern astronautics.
th
Early in the 20 century, an American, Robert Goddard (1882–1945), conducted practical experiments in
rocketry. He was interested in achieving higher altitudes than were possible for lighter-than-air balloons. In
1919 he published a pamphlet, A Method of Reaching Extreme Altitudes. This was a mathematical analysis of
what is today called the meteorological sounding rocket.

Goddard’s earliest experiments were with solid-propellant rockets. In 1915, he began to test various types of
solid fuels and to measure the exhaust velocities of the burning gases.

While working on solid-propellant rockets, Goddard became convinced that a rocket could be better propelled
by liquid fuel. No one had ever built a successful liquid-propellant rocket before; it was a more difficult than
building solid-propellant rockets. Fuel and oxygen tanks, turbines and combustion chambers would be needed.
In spite of the difficulties, Goddard achieved the first successful flight with a liquid-propellant rocket on March
16, 1926. Fuelled by liquid oxygen and gasoline, the rocket flew for only two and a half seconds, climbed 12.5 m
and landed 56 m away in a cabbage patch. By today’s standards the flight was unimpressive, but like the first
powered airplane flight by the Wright brothers in 1903, Goddard’s gasoline rocket was the forerunner of a new
era—the era of modern rocketry.

Goddard’s experiments in liquid-propellant rockets continued for many years. His rockets became bigger,
flew higher and carried more. He developed a gyroscope system for flight control and introduced a payload
compartment for scientific instruments. Parachute recovery systems were employed to return rockets and
instruments safely. For his achievements Robert Goddard has been called the father of modern rocketry.

Show the cadets Figures 1F-1 and 1F-2. Point out the major components of the liquid-
fuelled rocket in Figure 1F-1 corresponding to the parts listed in Figure 1F-2.

SPUTNIK

On October 4, 1957, just 12 years after Goddard’s death, the world was stunned by the news of an Earth-
orbiting artificial satellite launched by the Soviet Union. Called Sputnik-1, the satellite was the first successful
entry in a race for space.

Show the cadets Figures 1F-3 and 1F-4.

The Soviet scientists and engineers launched Sputnik-1 into a low Earth orbit by the use of a modified R-7 two-
stage rocket. This was the fifth time an R-7 was launched and it was the first entirely successful R-7 flight.

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The R-7 was developed by the military as a means of delivering warhead payloads across vast distances. The
perceived need for such a vehicle was a result of the psychology of the time—a psychology known as the
Cold War. Although nations deeply mistrusted each other, they were too civilized or too fearful, or perhaps a
combination of both, to actually fight. Like sporting events such as the Olympics, the race to get into space
provided a healthy alternative to real war.

Sputnik-1 was a very simple machine. Its mission was simply to arrive in orbit––and demonstrate that arrival––
by broadcasting repetitive radio signals. Soviet officials specified its design, to include:

the satellite would have to be of maximum simplicity and reliability while keeping in mind that methods
used for the spacecraft would be used in future projects,

the body of the satellite was to be spherical in order to determine atmospheric density in its path,

the satellite was to be equipped with radio equipment working on at least two wavelengths of sufficient
power to be tracked by amateurs and to obtain data on the propagation of radio waves through the
atmosphere,

the antennae were to be designed so as to not affect the intensity of the radio signals due to spinning,

the power sources were to be on-board batteries ensuring work for two to three weeks, and

the attachment of the satellite to the core stage would be such that there would be no failure to separate.

The five primary scientific objectives of the mission were:

to test the method of placing an artificial satellite into Earth’s orbit;

to provide information on the density of the atmosphere by calculating its lifetime in orbit;

to test radio and optical methods of orbital tracking;

to determine the effects of radio wave propagation through the atmosphere; and

to check principles of pressurization used on the satellite.

By these measures, Sputnik-1 was a resounding success that astonished the world. It also created more fear:
if the R-7 could deliver a satellite into orbit, it could also deliver warheads anywhere on Earth.

Show the cadets Figures 1F-5 and 1F-6.

EXPLORER

A few months after Sputnik-1, the United States followed with a satellite of its own, designed and built by the Jet
Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) of the California Institute of Technology. This satellite was Explorer-1, launched
into orbit by the US Army on January 31, 1958, using a Jupiter-C rocket, which was also developed with
warheads in mind. In fact, the military provided the technology for the launches of both Sputnik-1 and Explorer-
1. In addition to a radio transmitter, Explorer-1 had a scientific instrumentation package designed and built by
Dr. James Van Allen of the State University of Iowa. Those instruments were designed to measure the intensity
of cosmic radiation in space. It is now known that cosmic radiation is not actually rays, but is the result of
extremely high-energy protons that arrive individually from both the sun (solar wind) and from deep space. While
cosmic rays were a mystery in 1958, neither the Explorer program nor subsequent studies have explained this
phenomenon to everyone’s satisfaction. Once in orbit the cosmic ray equipment of Explorer-1 indicated a much
lower cosmic ray count than had been anticipated. Dr. Van Allen theorized that the equipment might have been

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saturated by a very strong field of cosmic rays caused by the existence of a belt of charged particles trapped in
space by the Earth’s magnetic field. The existence of these radioactive Van Allen Belts, discovered by Explorer-
1, was soon confirmed by Explorer-3, which was launched by another Jupiter-C rocket on March 26, 1958.

The discovery of the Van Allen Belts by the Explorer satellites was considered to be one of
the outstanding discoveries of the International Geophysical Year––1958.

The Jupiter-C launcher that boosted Explorer-1 into an elliptical orbit was a three-stage rocket. Before the
successful launch of Explorer-1 in January 1958, various configurations of the Jupiter-C was used to loft
payloads to various altitudes, dating back to 1956.

Show the cadets Figure 1F-7. Point out that a lot of work preceded the successful launch of
Explorer-1.

Like the two-stage Soviet R-7 rocket that launched Sputnik-1, the three-stage Jupiter-C is a large rocket. The
Jupiter-C, with Explorer-1 mounted on top, was over 21 m (71 feet) high, while the Soviet R-7 modified for
Sputnik-1 was over 29 m high.

Show the cadets Figures 1F-8 and 1F-9.

Nine months after the launch of Explorer-1, in October 1958, the United States formally
organized its space program by creating the National Aeronautics and Space Administration
(NASA). NASA became a civilian agency with the goal of peaceful exploration of space for
the benefit of all humankind.

Soon, many machines—manned and unmanned—were being launched into space. Astronauts orbited Earth
and landed on the moon. Robot spacecraft travelled to the planets. Space was suddenly opened up to
exploration and commercial exploitation. Satellites enabled scientists to investigate the world, forecast the
weather and to communicate instantaneously around the globe. As the demand for more and larger payloads
increased, a wide array of powerful and versatile rockets had to be built.

VANGUARD

To succeed in space, it is necessary to accept and overcome failure. Explorer-1 was far from America’s first
attempt at launching a satellite. The timing of Explorer’s successful January 1958 launch—just months after
the October 1957 Sputnik-1 launch, followed by the November 1957 launch of Sputnik-2—was at least partly
coincidental. The US Army had been working on this challenge since its Project Orbiter in 1954. It is true that
the Explorer-1 satellite was constructed by JPL immediately after Sputnik’s appearance in the skies of Earth,
but the Jupiter-C launch vehicle, the essential component, was the result of years of development.

Also, the first post-Sputnik attempt to catch up with the Soviets was a disaster. An attempt to launch a satellite
designated Test Vehicle-1 (TV-1) under the US military’s Vanguard Project, using a Juno launch vehicle on
December 6, 1957, ended badly when the rocket exploded on the launch pad. Two months later in February
1958, Vanguard had another failure to achieve orbit. Finally, in March 1958, after the civilian Explorer Program
had succeeded with Explorer-1 but failed with Explorer-2, and after the Soviets had failed with Sputnik-3, the US

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military succeeded with Vanguard-3. The Vanguard project’s patience and persistence was greatly rewarded
when Vanguard-3 discovered that the planet Earth was pear-shaped rather than perfectly spherical. Such a
thing can only ever be discovered once, and that honour goes to the Vanguard Project.

CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 1

QUESTIONS

Q1. Who has been called the father of modern astronautics?

Q2. Who has been called the father of modern rocketry?

Q3. What provided the technology for both the Explorer-1 and Sputnik-1 launch vehicles?

ANTICIPATED ANSWERS

A1. Konstantin Tsiolkovsky has been called the father of modern astronautics.

A2. Robert Goddard has been called the father of modern rocketry.

A3. The military.

Teaching Point 2 Discuss the History of Space Stations

Time: 20 min Method: Interactive Lecture

SALYUT

First-Generation Stations (1964–1977)

First-generation Soviet space stations had one docking port and could not be resupplied or refueled. The
stations were launched unmanned and later occupied by crews. There were two types: Almaz military stations
and Salyut civilian stations. To Western observers, both types were Salyut stations, including:

Salyut-1 civilian, first space station (1971),

Salyut-2 military, first Almaz station (1973) (failure),

Salyut-3 military, Almaz station (1974–75),

Salyut-4 civilian, (1974–77), and

Salyut-5 military, last Almaz station (1976–77).

Show the cadets Figures 1G-1 and 1G-2.

Salyut-1, the first space station in history, reached orbit unmanned atop a Proton rocket on April 19, 1971.
The early first-generation stations were plagued by failures. The crew of Soyuz-10, the first spacecraft sent
to Salyut-1, was unable to enter the station because of a docking mechanism problem. The Soyuz-11 crew
lived aboard Salyut-1 for three weeks, but died during the return to Earth because the air escaped from their
Soyuz spacecraft. Salyut-3, Salyut-4, and Salyut-5 supported a total of five crews. In addition to scientific and
industrial experiments, the cosmonauts performed engineering tests to help develop the second-generation
space stations.

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Second-Generation Stations (1977–1985)

Second-generation Russian space stations included:

Salyut-6 civilian (1977–1982), and

Salyut-7 civilian (1982–1991), last staffed in 1986.

With the second-generation stations, the Soviet space station program evolved from short-duration to long-
duration stays. Visiting crews relieved the monotony of a long stay in space.

Salyut-6 Key Facts

Highlights of the Salyut-6 era included:

The station received 16 cosmonaut crews, including six long-duration crews. The longest stay time for a
Salyut-6 crew was 185 days. The first Salyut-6 long-duration crew stayed in orbit for 96 days, beating the
84-day world record for space endurance established in 1974 by the last Skylab crew.

The station hosted cosmonauts from Hungary, Poland, Romania, Cuba, Mongolia, Vietnam and East
Germany.

Twelve freighters delivered equipment, supplies and fuel.

Show the cadets Figure 1G-3.

Salyut-7 Key Facts

Highlights of the Salyut-7 era included:

Salyut-7, a near twin of Salyut 6, was home to 10 cosmonaut crews, including six long-duration crews.
The longest stay time was 237 days.

Cosmonauts from France and India worked aboard the station, as did the first female space traveller since
1963.

Thirteen freighters delivered equipment, supplies, and fuel to Salyut-7.

Two experimental transport logistics spacecraft, Cosmos 1443 and Cosmos 1686, docked with Salyut-
7. Cosmos 1686 was a transitional vehicle, a transport logistics spacecraft redesigned to serve as an
experimental space station module.

Salyut-7 was abandoned in 1986 and re-entered Earth’s atmosphere over Argentina in 1991.

SKYLAB

Skylab, a science and engineering laboratory, was launched into Earth’s orbit by a Saturn 5 rocket on May
14, 1973. Three crews of three men each visited the station, with their missions lasting 28, 59, and 84 days.
Circling 50 degrees north and south of the equator at an altitude of 435 km, Skylab had an orbital period of
93 minutes. There were many ultraviolet (UV) astronomy experiments done during the Skylab lifetime, as well
as detailed X-ray studies of the sun. Skylab fell from orbit on July 11, 1979.

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Show the cadets Figure 1G-4.

MIR

Mir was a third-generation space station.

Mir means “peace” and “community” in Russian. The Mir space station contributed to world peace by hosting
international scientists and American astronauts. It also supported a community of humans in orbit and
symbolized the commonwealth of the Russian people.

Mir was constructed in orbit by connecting different modules, each launched separately from 1986–1996.
During the Shuttle-Mir Program, Russia’s Mir combined its capabilities with America’s space shuttles. The
orbiting Mir provided a large and liveable scientific laboratory in space. The visiting space shuttles provided
transportation and supplies, as well as temporary enlargements of living and working areas, creating history’s
largest spacecraft.

Magnificent to behold through the windows of a space shuttle, Mir was as big as six school buses. Inside,
it looked more like a cramped labyrinth, crowded with hoses, cables and scientific instruments—as well as
articles of everyday life, such as photos, children’s drawings, books and a guitar. Mir commonly housed three
crew members, but it sometimes supported as many as six, for up to a month. Except for two short periods,
Mir was continuously occupied until August 1999.

The journey of the 15-year-old Russian space station ended March 23, 2001, as Mir re-entered the Earth’s
atmosphere near Nadi, Fiji and fell into the South Pacific. Despite its inconveniences, many cosmonauts and
astronauts grew to love Mir, comparing it to a living being with qualities, needs, and eccentricities.

Show the cadets Figures 1G-5 and 1G-6.

Mir Key Facts

Mir module descriptions:

The Mir core resembled Salyut 7, but had six ports instead of two. Fore and aft ports were used primarily
for docking. Four radial ports in a node at the station’s front were for berthing large modules.

Kvant was added to the Mir core’s aft port in 1987. This small module contained astrophysics instruments,
life support and attitude control equipment.

Kvant 2, added in 1989, carried an EVA airlock, solar arrays and life support equipment.

Kristall, added in 1990, carried scientific equipment, retractable solar arrays, and a docking node equipped
with a special androgynous docking mechanism designed to receive spacecraft.

In 1995, Atlantis permanently attached a Docking Module to Kristall’s androgynous docking unit. The
Docking Module improved clearance between Atlantis and Mir’s solar arrays on subsequent docking flights.

Spektr was launched on a Russian Proton rocket from the Baikonur launch center in central Asia on May
20, 1995. The module was berthed at the radial port opposite Kvant 2 after Kristall was moved out of

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the way. Spektr carried four solar arrays and scientific equipment. The focus of scientific study for this
module was Earth observation, specifically natural resources and atmosphere. The equipment onboard
was supplied by both Russia and the United States.

Priroda was the last science module to be added to the Mir. Launched from Baikonur, Kazakhstan on
April 23, 1996, it docked to the space station on April 26. Its primary purpose was to add Earth remote
sensing capability to Mir. It also contained the hardware and supplies for several joint US-Russian science
experiments.

INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION (ISS)

Show the cadets Figure 1G-7.

With the end of the Cold War, Russia and the US began a number of joint scientific undertakings. Russia’s
experience with the Mir Space Station prompted the US to invite Russian participation in the International
Space Station (ISS). Russia agreed to allow US astronauts access to the Mir station to gain experience and
also undertook to use its expertise to build several elements of the ISS. The US provided the design and the
financing for construction in Russia of the Zarya (Sunrise) module, otherwise known as the Functional Cargo
Block. This, the first element of the ISS in space, functions as a storage facility.

Russia contributed two Soyuz spacecraft to act as crew-escape vehicles, as well as the use of its Proton heavy
lift vehicle (rocket) to launch elements of the station. This relieves the US of the necessity of developing its
own heavy lift vehicle, needed to supplement space shuttle flights during assembly of the ISS. However, the
1999 crash of two different Proton rockets shortly after liftoff caused NASA a great deal of concern with respect
to Russia’s ability to meet its commitments. It also delayed the launch of the Zvezda Service Module.

The Zvezda Service Module is the most complex Russian contribution. This module served as the early
living quarters for astronauts assembling the ISS and contained vital life-support and propulsion elements.
Zvezda was originally scheduled for launch on a Proton rocket in November 1999; however, lack of financial
resources and Proton rocket failures caused many delays and the launch date was repeatedly pushed back.
NASA provided additional money in the hope of getting the project on track; until Zvezda was in place, further
construction of the ISS was not possible.

Construction of the ISS

The Russian-built Zarya (Sunrise) module was launched from Baikonur on November 20, 1998. The module
contains engines, fuel and communication devices. On December 4, 1998, the second element of the space
station was launched aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. The Endeavour carried the US docking module,
Unity, into orbit. In the weeks following the launch, the space shuttle crew carried out three space walks to
connect power and data transmission cables between Zarya and Unity. Unity is a six-sided structure; each side
has an attachment port to which future modules will be connected.

In May to June 1999, Canadian astronaut Julie Payette, along with six others, travelled aboard the space shuttle
Discovery to the fledgling ISS. No new elements of the station were added, as this was a “logistics flight.” The
crew transferred parts, tools, computers, water and clothes from Discovery to the station, in preparation for
the arrival of the first permanent residents in 2000. The shuttle crew was also able to repair a communications
system on Unity and replace flawed battery packs on Zarya.

The next launch was on July 12, 2000, when Russia launched its Zvezda module aboard a Proton rocket. On
July 26, 2000, Zvezda successfully docked with the Zarya and Unity modules. Throughout the remainder of
2000 and continuing into early 2001, the pace of activity connected to the ISS increased.

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In February 2001, the space shuttle again travelled to the ISS. This time it carried the US laboratory module,
Destiny, which was one of the largest single elements to be added to the station. It was the centre for research
activities on the ISS. An unprecedented number of “space walks” were required to safely attach the Destiny
module to the truss structure and to the other modules. This task was successfully completed. During the next
shuttle flight, in March 2001, the Expedition 1 crew was exchanged for the next residents (Expedition 2). That
flight also entailed the delivery and installation of the Italian-built reusable Leonardo logistics module.

Canadarm and the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS)

In April 2001, Canada’s major contribution, the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS), was
launched and installed. The new generation of robotic arm worked with the Shuttle-based Canadarm to lift
and hold subsequent parts of the ISS as they arrived and were installed. The second Multi-Purpose Logistics
Module, Raffaello, was delivered on the same shuttle mission. This flight was followed in July 2001 by delivery
and installation of a second (Russian) docking port (airlock).

In August 2001, the Expedition 2 crew exchanged places with the Expedition 3 crew on the next space shuttle
mission to the ISS.

Other International Contributions

Kibo—The Japanese Experimental Module (JEM)

Japan, like Canada, participated in the ISS space station project, contributing a laboratory to accommodate
general scientific and technology development research activities including microgravity studies. The JEM was
given the name Kibo, which means “hope.”

Columbus—The European Space Agency’s Pressurized Module (ESA Module)

The European Space Agency (ESA) developed an attached, pressurized, “multi-purpose” laboratory as part of
its contribution to the space station. Like Japan’s Kibo and the US laboratory and habitation modules, Columbus
included storage capacity and accommodation for what is known as “crew safe-haven capability.” In other
words, in the event of an emergency, the space station crew would have sufficient supplies and accommodation
to await rescue.

The ESA also developed the automated transfer vehicle (ATV), which handles the carrying of supplies to—
and waste from—the ISS.

CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 2

QUESTIONS

Q1. Which Salyut space stations were considered to be second generation?

Q2. What does Mir mean in Russian?

Q3. Which two Canadian components worked together to construct the ISS?

ANTICIPATED ANSWERS

A1. Salyut 6 and Salyut 7.

A2. Peace and community.

A3. The Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) on the ISS and the Canadarm on the space
shuttle.

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Teaching Point 3 Discuss the Space Race

Time: 15 min Method: Interactive Lecture

If it was not a direct result of the Cold War, the space race was at least very much influenced by Cold War
thinking. Although the West, to which Canada belongs, was allied with the Soviet Union during WWII, the West
and the Soviets were never close allies; they merely agreed that the Nazis had to be stopped.

When WWII ended in 1945, Soviet relations with the West soured quickly, with actual fear taking hold for the
first time. Although the new weapons developed during WWII were deemed to be too dangerous to be used,
suspicions about the other side’s intent grew in both armed camps. Obviously, rockets capable of placing
satellites in orbit were capable of warhead delivery anywhere on the planet. The probable consequences of
conflict with the new weapons and the new delivery systems changed all international relationships.

USSR (RUSSIA)

The capability to make nuclear weapons was considered so crucial to national interests that they proliferated
from the US to the Soviet Union almost instantly. Delivery systems in the form of ballistic missiles were rushed
into production. In hindsight, it is obvious that everyone concerned viewed this arms race as a necessity of
national defence but at the time, in the 1950s, both the West and the Soviets assumed the other side planned
aggression. The R-7 rocket that was used to place Sputnik-1 into orbit was developed in this manner. The Soviet
economy, under complete control of the government, was directed into defence production at the expense of
consumer goods. The economy operated by the Soviet government took on a fortress mentality. What then
transformed into the space race had begun from the development of intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM)
technology intended for war. The Soviets meant Sputnik-1 to be a warning that the Soviet Union could protect
itself.

USA

The USA had emerged from WWII as the world’s strongest power. Although Western concerns about the new
weapons were similar to Soviet concerns regarding national defence, the results were as different as the two
economic systems. The Western economy, involving the whole world and growing rapidly in the post-war years,
was able to counter each Soviet advance in both development of the weapons themselves and their associated
delivery systems. As the years passed and the technology of the space race developed, the Western approach
to economic development accelerated growth as the developing technologies were exploited by the mainstream
economy, resulting in many consumer goods such as personal computers and wireless communications.

NORTH AMERICAN PERCEPTIONS

People in North America had felt secure prior to Sputnik-1 because of the vast oceans separating the continents.
However, Sputnik-1 changed that in a moment because the satellite was understood to be more of a threat
than a warning. It revealed the rapidly advancing Soviet weapons-delivery capability, prompting a desire to
somehow neutralize it by outdoing it; hence the arms race of the post-war era.

With the passage of time, fears of a deliberate ICBM attack changed into a fear of an accident. A desire to
cooperate, known as détent, began to take the place of military rivalry. It was hoped that this would lessen
the risk of a nuclear weapons accident. Eventually this change in attitude was recognized to be happening on
both sides. To demonstrate this new quality of détent, both the West and the Soviets favoured cooperating in
space––the place of their most intense competition. A number of cooperative ventures took place including
rendezvous, station-keeping and actual docking with the other’s spacecraft. The importance that governments
attached to this cooperation is reflected in the formality of the relationship, which had signing ceremonies as
elaborate as any change of command.

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Show the cadets Figure 1H-1, showing the astronauts and cosmonauts of the Apollo Soyuz
Test Project (ASTP) signing their names to the official joint certificate marking an historical
moment during rendezvous of the Apollo-Soyuz spacecraft on July 17, 1975.

Although the space race was certainly a substantial drain on the economy of the Soviet Union, it soon began
to be seen as an important benefit to Western economies. Due to the fact that the Western economy allowed
private ownership, entire industries rapidly grew up around technologies that came from the space race, with
computers, lasers and wireless communications being only the most obvious. So many things, from Global
Positioning Systems to new composite materials, have changed consumer goods that favour free enterprise
economies.

WORLD IMPLICATIONS

Eventually, without anyone actually admitting defeat, the economic superiority of free enterprise was accepted
because it could not be denied. When the Russian leaders realized this, the relationships that the central Soviet
government had maintained with neighbouring countries for more than a half century no longer appeared to
be useful. The result was a break up of the Soviet Union into separate sovereign nations and a drift of those
countries toward the Western economic model. The most dramatic example is that of China, where tentative
acceptance of the Western economic model soon changed a shortage of consumer goods for many consumers
into a shortage of consumers for too many goods. It is probably this human ability to always find a new problem
within any solution that drives humanity’s unrelenting progress—in just 20 years China became one of the
worlds major exporters of finished products. With new government revenues gained from their new economy,
one of China’s first moves was to join space exploration. As political and economic bonds with the West grew,
the ultimate consequence of these changes was a further acceleration of economic growth in all areas; a legacy
of the space race.

CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 3

QUESTIONS

Q1. Why did Sputnik-1 cause alarm in North America?

Q2. What was the important difference of the space race to the US and the USSR?

Q3. What change did the success of Western economies cause in the USSR?

ANTICIPATED ANSWERS

A1. It was seen as more of a threat than a warning.

A2. In the USSR it was a drain on the economy but in the US it accelerated economic growth.

A3. It caused the USSR to break up and then drift toward the Western economic model.

Teaching Point 4 Discuss the History of Manned Missions

Time: 20 min Method: Interactive Lecture

MERCURY

Specific studies and tests conducted by the US government and industry culminating in 1958 indicated the
feasibility of manned space flight.

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The movie The Right Stuff is based on the story of the Mercury Project.

Objectives and Guidelines

The objectives of the Mercury Project, as stated at the time of project commencement, were:

Place a manned spacecraft in orbital flight around the Earth.

Investigate man’s performance capabilities and his ability to function in the environment of space.

Recover the man and the spacecraft safely.

Summary

The United States’ first manned space flight project was successfully accomplished in four and two-thirds years
of dynamic activities, which saw more than 2 000 000 people from many major government agencies and much
of the aerospace industry combine their skills, initiative and experience into an international effort. In this period,
six manned space flights were accomplished as part of a 25-flight program. These manned space flights were
accomplished with complete pilot safety and without change to the basic Mercury concepts. It was shown that
man could function ably as a pilot-engineer-experimenter without undesirable reactions or deteriorations of
normal body functions for periods up to 34 hours of weightless flight. Directing this large and fast moving project
required the development of a management structure and operating mode that satisfied the requirement to
mould the many different entities into a workable structure.

VOSTOK

The Vostok program (Восток, translated as “East”) was a Soviet human spaceflight project that succeeded in
putting a person into Earth’s orbit for the first time.

Show the cadets Figure 1I-1.

Vostok manned record-breaking flights included:

1. Vostok 1 April 12, 1961 First man in space (Yuri Gagarin).

2. Vostok 2 August 6, 1961 First full day in space.

3. Vostok 3 August 11, 1962 First of two simultaneous manned spacecraft.

4. Vostok 4 August 12, 1962 Second of two simultaneous manned spacecraft.

5. Vostok 5 June 14, 1963 Longest solo orbital flight.

6. Vostok 6 June 16, 1963 First woman in space (Valentina Tereshkova).

GEMINI

The Gemini Project that laid the groundwork for the Apollo moon missions was, to a large degree, the work
of a Canadian—James Arthur Chamberlin of Kamloops, British Columbia, a mechanical engineer educated

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at the University of Toronto. After serving as the chief engineer for the Mercury Project, he became Gemini’s
Project Manager.

Show the cadets Figure 1I-2.

Before joining NASA in 1959, Chamberlin was one of the major figures in aircraft design in Canada—he was
chief of technical design for Avro Aircraft Ltd. when the CF-105 Arrow was created—and the Avro Arrow was
considered the most advanced aircraft of its time. At NASA, Chamberlin made important contributions to the
Mercury, Gemini, Apollo and space shuttle programs.

On May 25, 1961, three weeks after Mercury astronaut Alan Shepard became the first American in space,
President John F. Kennedy announced the goal of sending astronauts to the moon before the end of the decade.
To facilitate this goal, NASA expanded the existing manned space flight program in December 1961 to include
the development of a two-man spacecraft. The program was officially designated Gemini on January 3, 1962.

The Gemini Program was a necessary intermediate step between Project Mercury and the Apollo Program,
and it had four objectives:

to subject astronauts to long duration flights—a requirement for projected later trips to the moon or deeper
space;

to develop effective methods of rendezvous and docking with other orbiting vehicles and to manoeuvre
the docked vehicles in space;

to perfect methods of re-entry and landing the spacecraft at a pre-selected land-landing point; and

to gain additional information concerning the effects of weightlessness on crew members and to record
the physiological reactions of crew members during long duration flights.

VOSKHOD

While the Vostok program was dedicated toward understanding the effects of space travel and microgravity
on the human body, Voskhod’s two flights were aimed toward spectacular “firsts”. Although achieving the first
EVA (“spacewalk”) became the main success of the program, beating the US Gemini program to put the first
multi-person crew in orbit was the objective that initially motivated the program. Once both goals were realized,
the program was abandoned. This followed the change in Soviet leadership, which was less concerned about
stunt and prestige flights allowing the Soviet designers to concentrate on the Soyuz program.

SOYUZ

The Soyuz program (meaning “Union”) is a human spaceflight program that was initiated by the Soviet Union
in the early 1960s. It was originally part of a moon landing program intended to put a Soviet cosmonaut on the
Moon. Both the Soyuz spacecraft and the Soyuz launch vehicle were part of this program, which became the
responsibility of the Russian Federal Space Agency.

APOLLO

The Apollo Program was the work of another Canadian, Owen E. Maynard of Sarnia, Ontario, chief of the
systems engineering division in the Apollo Spacecraft Program Office. He was previously chief of the Lunar
Module engineering office in the Apollo Program Office at the Manned Spacecraft Center in Houston. Maynard
held an aeronautical engineering degree from the University of Toronto. He came to NASA in 1959 from Avro
Aircraft in Toronto after cancellation of the Avro Arrow project.

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On May 25, 1961, US President John F. Kennedy announced the goal of sending astronauts to the moon
before the end of the decade. Coming just three weeks after Mercury astronaut Alan Shepard became the first
American in space, Kennedy’s bold challenge set the US on a journey unlike any before in history. Maynard’s
years at NASA were rewarded on July 20, 1969, when Apollo 11 commander Neil Armstrong stepped out
of the lunar module and took “one small step” in the Sea of Tranquility, calling it “a giant leap for mankind.”
Maynard remained in charge of Apollo systems engineering until he left NASA in 1970 following the successful
achievement of Kennedy’s lunar landing goal. Thereafter he returned to private industry.

The Apollo program used the Saturn family of launch vehicles.

Show the cadets Figure 1I-3.

Six of the Apollo missions—Apollos 11, 12, 14, 15, 16 and 17—landed on the moon, studying soil mechanics,
meteoroids, seismic activity, heat flow, lunar ranging, magnetic fields and solar wind.

Apollos 7 and 9 tested spacecraft in Earth orbit; Apollo 10 orbited the moon as the dress rehearsal for the first
landing. An oxygen tank explosion forced Apollo 13 to scrub its landing, but the “can-do” problem-solving of the
crew and mission control––and Maynard’s systems engineering group–– turned the mission into a “successful
failure.”

SPACE TRANSPORT SYSTEMS (STS)

Space Shuttle Program

NASA coordinates and manages the Space Transportation System (NASA’s name for the overall shuttle
program).

The space shuttle system consists of four primary elements:

an orbiter spacecraft,

two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB),

an external tank to house fuel and oxidizer, and

three space shuttle main engines.

The shuttle will transport cargo into near Earth orbit 100–217 nautical miles above the Earth. The orbiter and
the two solid rocket boosters are reusable.

The orbiter has carried a flight crew of up to eight persons. A total of 10 persons could be carried under
emergency conditions. The basic mission is seven days in space. The crew compartment has a shirt-sleeve
environment and the acceleration load is never greater than three Gravities (Gs).

The space shuttle is launched in an upright position, with thrust provided by the three space shuttle engines
and the two SRBs. After about two minutes, the two boosters are spent and are separated from the external
tank. They fall into the ocean at predetermined points and are recovered for reuse. The space shuttle main
engines continue firing for about eight minutes. They shut down just before the craft is inserted into orbit. The
external tank is then separated from the orbiter. It follows a ballistic trajectory into a remote area of the ocean
but is not recovered.

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Launch Sites

There are two launch sites for the space shuttle. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida is used for launches
to place the orbiter in equatorial orbits (around the equator), and Vandenberg Air Force Base launch site in
California is used for launches that place the orbiter in polar orbit missions.

Mission Profile

In the launch configuration, the orbiter and two SRBs are attached to the external tank in a vertical (nose-up)
position on the launch pad.

The orbital altitude of a mission is dependent upon that mission. The nominal altitude can vary between 100–
217 nautical miles. While in space the shuttle is manoeuvred by using reaction control system (RCS) rocket
engines.

At the completion of orbital operations, the orbiter is oriented in a tail-first attitude. The engines are fired to slow
the orbiter for deorbit. The orbiter’s nose is then put forward for entry. The reaction control system controls
the orbiter until atmospheric density is sufficient for the pitch and roll aerodynamic control surfaces to become
effective. Entry interface is considered to occur at 400 000 feet altitude approximately 4400 nautical miles from
the landing site and at approximately 7620 m/s velocity.

Entry guidance must dissipate the tremendous amount of energy the orbiter possesses when it enters the
Earth’s atmosphere to assure that the orbiter does not either burn up (entry angle too steep) or skip out of the
atmosphere (entry angle too shallow) and that the orbiter is properly positioned to reach the desired touchdown
point.

The final phase reduces the sink rate of the spacecraft to less than nine feet per second. Touchdown occurs
approximately 762 m past the runway threshold at a speed of 184–196 knots.

CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 4

QUESTIONS

Q1. Who was the Gemini Project Manager?

Q2. Who was chief of systems engineering for the Apollo Project?

Q3. Who were the first man and woman in space?

ANTICIPATED ANSWERS

A1. James Arthur Chamberlin of Kamloops, British Columbia.

A2. Owen E. Maynard of Sarnia, Ontario.

A3. Yuri Gagarin and Valentina Tereshkova.

END OF LESSON CONFIRMATION

QUESTIONS

Q1. What provided the technology for both the Explorer-1 and Sputnik-1 launch vehicles?

Q2. What does Mir mean in Russian?

Q3. What was the important difference in the US and the USSR of the space race?

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ANTICIPATED ANSWERS

A1. The military.

A2. Peace and community.

A3. In the USSR it was a drain on the economy but in the US it accelerated economic growth.

CONCLUSION

HOMEWORK/READING/PRACTICE

N/A.

METHOD OF EVALUATION

N/A.

CLOSING STATEMENT

Space exploration has taken great courage and ingenuity on the part of many people, but space exploration
and the space race have changed the world for the better.

INSTRUCTOR NOTES/REMARKS

a. TPs 1 and 2 can be taught in one 40 minute period.

b. TPs 3 and 4 can be taught in one 40 minute period.

REFERENCES

C3-183 (ISBN 0-7566-2227-1) Graham, I. (2006). Space Travel. USA: DK Publishing, Inc.

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ROYAL CANADIAN AIR CADETS

BASIC AVIATION TECHNOLOGY AND AEROSPACE

INSTRUCTIONAL GUIDE

SECTION 6

EO S240.06 – DISCUSS SPACE EXPLORATION

Total Time: 40 min

PREPARATION

PRE-LESSON INSTRUCTIONS

Resources needed for the delivery of this lesson are listed in the lesson specification located in A-CR-CCP-
824/PG-001, Chapter 4. Specific uses for said resources are identified throughout the instructional guide within
the TP for which they are required.

Review the lesson content and become familiar with the material prior to delivering the lesson.

Create slides of Annexes J, K and L.

Obtain balloons and paper hole punch refuse for use in TP 1.

The content of this lesson will be updated by the instructor to reflect current space exploration.

PRE-LESSON ASSIGNMENT

N/A.

APPROACH

An interactive lecture was chosen for this lesson to orient the cadets to space exploration, generate interest,
present background material, and clarify the subject.

INTRODUCTION

REVIEW

N/A.

OBJECTIVES

By the end of this lesson the cadet shall have discussed technological advancements in the future of space
exploration.

IMPORTANCE

It is important for the cadets to learn about technological advancements in the future of space exploration so
they can make informed choices regarding career paths and fields of learning.

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Teaching Point 1 Discuss Technological Advancements in Propulsion

Time: 20 min Method: Interactive Lecture

Scientists try to find the most efficient mode of transportation for space exploration but are restricted to
technology that is available at the time. The search for efficiency constantly leads to technological improvements
causing science and technology to advance together.

Research and technological advancement have shown that a rocket is probably not the most effective mode
of transport for space exploration. Rockets are expensive and dangerous. The space shuttle reduced launch
costs to some degree, but is still dangerous.

Show the cadets Figure 1J-1.

Use of rockets restricts launch opportunities. The launch of the space shuttle Discovery (STS 116), shown in
Figure 1J-1, was delayed due to a low cloud ceiling over Kennedy Space Center. Discovery is shown here
on a second attempt to carry a truss segment to the International Space Station (at 2047 hrs December 9,
2006). The challenges that surround a rocket launch in good weather are more than enough without any added
complications. At the end of a mission, the shuttle’s atmospheric re-entry is also dangerous.

SPACE ELEVATOR

A space elevator, as proposed for space exploration, would be less dangerous and less expensive than rockets.
Operating a space elevator might be easier and safer than operating rockets, but constructing the space elevator
st
is shaping up to be a historic challenge of the 21 century.

Show the cadets Figure 1J-2.

Many versions of a space elevator have been considered. The most favoured design is an Earth satellite in
orbit with a tether descending to the edge of the atmosphere and a counterweight to maintain centre of gravity
at the geosynchronous orbit altitude.

Geosynchronous Orbit

Show the cadets Figure 1J-3.

Geosynchronous orbit is an orbit directly over the Earth’s equator at exactly 42 164 km from the centre of the
Earth, which is an altitude of 35 786 km above the Earth’s surface.

An object on the Earth’s equator travels east at 465 metres per second (m/s), allowing one full rotation of Earth’s
40 176 km circumference in 24 hours.

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Have the cadets check your math: 465 m/s X 60 sec X 60 min X 24 hours = 40 176 km.

At 35 786 km altitude, the orbital circle is much larger around than the equator, so a geosynchronous satellite
must travel much faster than 465 m/s to stay exactly over the same point on the Earth’s surface—it must fall
along its circular orbit at over 3000 m/s.

The shape of the satellite does not matter, as long as the centre of the satellite’s mass is located on the
geosynchronous orbit and the satellite is travelling east at exactly the correct speed. By making the satellite an
odd shape, a space elevator could be created. That satellite’s shape would be very long—slightly more than
35 786 km long. Most of a satellite that is a space elevator would consist of the 35 786 km long tether on the
inside of the geosynchronous orbit and the offsetting counterweight on the outside of the orbit.

Tether Design

The size of the space elevator’s counterweight is dependent on the mass of the tether, but the tether must be
very strong if it is to serve as an elevator 35 786 km high lifting tons of materials. In fact, tether design turns
out to be the critical design parameter for a space elevator. The tether must be very light and very strong. It
must be very much lighter and stronger than titanium. There are not a lot of candidate materials for a tether
to a geosynchronous space elevator.

Show the cadets Figure 1J-4.

Fullerene

Fullerene is one of the three major known forms of pure carbon. The most well-known form is diamond.
Pure carbon also occurs naturally as graphite and is commonly used in pencil lead and aerospace composite
construction. Both forms of carbon, diamond and graphite, occur naturally on the Earth’s surface. The third form
of carbon is Fullerene, which was artificially created in 1985. Fullerene is stronger than either of the first two
forms of carbon and it promises to be even more useful. It is named after architect Buckminster Fuller, inventor
of the geodesic dome, who advocated the use of technology to produce efficiency in many aspects of life. Like
the geodesic dome, the atomic structure of Fullerene carbon resembles a soccer ball and, like the geodesic
dome, a molecule of Fullerene is strong. A “buckyball” as such a molecule is commonly called, can be crashed
into a stainless steel plate at over 24 000 km/h (15 000 miles per hour) without damage.

Show the cadets Figure 1J-5.

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Carbon Nanotubes

Nano is a term derived from the Greek word nanos, meaning dwarf. It refers to a factor of
th
ten to the minus 9 power or one trillionth—in the case of nanotubes, it means one trillionth
of a metre.

In 1991, it was found that Fullerene will also form molecular tubes as well as balls. Since Fullerene is a form of
pure carbon and these tubes exist on a nano-metre scale, these tubes are referred to as Carbon Nanotubes.

Show the cadets Figure 1J-6.

Threads are being developed made from tubes of Fullerene (Carbon Nanotubes), the way cotton threads are
made from cotton fibres. Those threads would be woven into a cable, which promises to be light and strong.

Show the cadets Figure 1J-7. Draw their attention to the relative strengths and densities of
multiwall Carbon Nanotubes versus steel.

Fullerene and nanotubes have a short history. Nanotubes and buckyballs have many other unrelated properties
that make them useful as electrical insulators, electrical conductors, semiconductors, energy storage and
conversion devices. They will be used to make the strongest composite structures ever seen and that application
promises to allow fabrication of a working geosynchronous tether.

Show the cadets Figure 1J-8.

Carbon Nanotubes, because they have such low mass, are also considered to be candidates for fabricating
solar sails for space ships. If expensive and dangerous chemical rockets are to be no longer required for
climbing out of Earth’s gravity, will they be needed at all? Once high-altitude orbit can be easily and safely
attained via a space elevator, the way will be clear for the application of whole new families of interplanetary
transport.

ION ENGINES

Ion engines, or electric rockets, use electric energy to expel ions (electrically charged particles) from the rocket
nozzle. Solar panels or a nuclear reactor can provide the energy.

Show the cadets Figures 1K-1 and 1K-2.

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In one design, xenon gas passes through an electrified metal grid. The grid strips electrons from the xenon
atoms, turning them into positively-charged ions. A positively-charged screen repels the ions, focusing them
into a beam. The beam then enters a negatively-charged device called an accelerator. The accelerator speeds
up the ions and shoots them out through a nozzle at over 100 000 km/h.

The exhaust from such rockets travels extremely fast, however, the stream of xenon ions has a relatively low
mass. As a result, an electric rocket cannot produce enough thrust to overcome Earth’s gravity. Therefore,
electric rockets must be launched from high orbit. Once in space, however, the low rate of mass flow becomes
an advantage. It enables an electric rocket to operate for a long time without running out of propellant. The
xenon rocket that powered the US space probe Deep Space 1, launched in 1998, fired for a total of over
670 days using only 72 kilograms (160 pounds) of propellant.

Show the cadets Figures 1K-3 and 1K-4.

In addition, small electric rockets using xenon propellant have provided the thrust to keep communications
satellites in geosynchronous position above a designated point on Earth’s equator.

Another type of electric rocket uses electromagnets rather than charged screens to accelerate xenon ions. This
type of rocket powers the SMART-1 lunar probe, launched by the European Space Agency in 2003. All electric
rockets share the disadvantage of low instantaneous thrust and the advantage of long thrust periods. The
efficiency figure for an electric rocket, expressed as specific impulse, is actually higher than that of a chemical
rocket, because an electric rocket uses only a tiny amount of fuel compared to the tons of fuel burned by a
chemical rocket. The trade-off is in time. Chemical rocket acceleration periods might be measured in minutes
while an electric rocket needs months. A chemical rocket that runs out of fuel, however, might be space junk
while an electric rocket finishes its mission.

Have the cadets take turns rubbing a balloon in their hair and then using the electrically
charged balloons to pick up the refuse from the paper hole punch.

Explain to the cadets that this is the same ionic principle as is found in an ion rocket. The
atoms on the outside of the balloon gain electrons when rubbed, so they become negative
ions just like the focusing grid in an ionic rocket. The negatively charged electrons in the
atoms at the surface of the balloon attract the positive charges in the atoms at the surface of
the paper. Unfortunately, the paper cannot pass through holes in the balloon the way xenon
gas passes through the focusing grid. The paper just hits the balloon and stops. The energy
involved is slight, but it is strong enough to raise the paper.

SOLAR SAILS

The first suggestion that solar energy could be harnessed for propulsion came nearly 400 years ago when
astronomer Johannes Kepler observed comet tails being blown by what appeared to be a solar breeze.
Believing that this was evidence that winds blew objects about in interstellar space, he suggested that eventually
ships might be able to navigate through space using sails fashioned to catch this wind. It is now widely
recognized that because space is a vacuum, winds of any significance, do not exist. What Kepler observed
was the pressure of solar photons on dust particles that are released by the comet as it is orbiting. Photonic
pressure is a very gentle force, which is not observable on Earth because the frictional forces in the atmosphere
are so much larger. Thus, we only expect to observe and harness the force due to the pressure of light in the
vacuum of space.

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How Solar Sails Work

Solar sails do not use the solar wind. The solar wind is composed of charged particles,
electrons and protons, like the exhaust from an ion rocket. However, the solar wind is very
tenuous, producing less than 0.1 percent of the pressure of the Sun’s light.

Solar sails, as the name suggests, use sunlight to take advantage of Bernoulli’s Principle, just as an airfoil takes
advantage of the atmosphere. A sail in the atmosphere uses Bernoulli’s Principle too as shown in Figure 1L-1.

Show the cadets Figures 1L-1 and 1L-2.

On a sailboat, the net force of the wind splits between the front and back of the sail to produce a low pressure
on the front of the sail foil and the difference in pressure between the front and back pulls the boat forward.
Figure 1L-2 is a top view showing the net applied forces due to the wind and the water. Changing the angle
of the centerboard with respect to the direction of the wind changes the dynamics of the applied force. By
balancing the forces acting on a sailboat, it is possible to manoeuvre.

Although it may be possible to achieve such manoeuvring with a solar sail, applications now considered are
mostly intended to increase or decrease speed.

Show the cadets Figures 1L-3 and 1L-4.

A space ship using an ion rocket would benefit from the thrust provided by a solar sail, especially when close
to the sun, as the thrust will be comparable to the thrust of the ion rocket itself. Sailors will recognize that
Figure 1L-3 represents a Reaching manoeuvre which will increase the space ship’s speed while Figure 1L-4
represents the equivalent of Tacking, which will slow the space ship. Solar sails have a variety of designs as
shown at Figure 1L-6 but they all produce a very gentle thrust.

Show the cadets Figures 1L-5 and 1L-6.

Like an ion rocket, a solar sail will produce only slight pressure compared to a chemical rocket as shown in
Figure 1L-5. However, a solar sail requires even less fuel than an ion rocket––none in fact. Any thrust gained
from a solar sail is free and a solar sail can be used to accelerate or to slow a space ship. Also, it must be
remembered that acceleration is cumulative. That is to say, ion rockets and solar sails constantly continue to
increase the ship’s speed hour after hour. Speed thus builds up to any amount imaginable, even approaching
the speed of light itself, eventually, unless the light pressure fails as the star is left behind. In that case a laser
powered by a separate power source, such as a nuclear reactor, might be used to power the sail.

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CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 1

QUESTIONS

Q1. What are two advantages of Fullerene?

Q2. What propellant does an ion rocket use?

Q3. What does the sun radiate that solar sails use for power?

ANTICIPATED ANSWERS

A1. Light weight and great strength.

A2. Charged particles called ions.

A3. Sunlight.

Teaching Point 2 Discuss the Future of Space Exploration

Time: 15 min Method: Interactive Lecture

MANNED MISSIONS

Manned missions are fundamentally different than space probes because, while space probes are designed to
investigate the universe, manned missions tend to be an investigation of humanity. Manned missions are very
expensive and greatly limit the exploration that can take place.

It has been agreed, after lengthy debate, that manned missions are inherently worthwhile. The majority of
money spent on space exploration is devoted to manned missions.

Manned missions will focus on the Earth’s moon for the immediate future, in preparation for Mars.

Moon Missions

Purposes of manned moon missions include:

Exploration Preparation. To use the moon to prepare for future human and robotic missions to Mars
and other destinations.

Scientific Knowledge. To pursue scientific activities addressing fundamental questions about Earth, the
solar system, the universe and our place in them.

Sustained Presence. To extend human presence to the moon.

Economic Expansion. To expand Earth’s economic sphere to encompass the moon and to pursue lunar
activities with direct benefits to life on Earth.

Global Partnership. To strengthen existing international partnerships and create new ones.

Inspiration. To engage, inspire and educate the public.

Lunar Pole Location

Permanent presence on the moon will be located near the poles for the following reasons:

Polar sites have an abundance of sunlight, which alleviates concerns about energy storage. It would be
possible to operate a polar outpost on solar power.

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The environment at the poles of the moon is relatively benign, making it easier to design a habitat.
Temperatures at the poles vary no more than about 50 degrees Celsius all year round, while temperatures
at the equator can vary 250 degrees Celsius from day to night.

At the South Pole there is ample evidence of enhanced hydrogen, an important natural resource for future
development for energy generation, propellant production and other potential uses.

The poles can teach volumes about the moon. They are among the most complex regions, yet little is
known about them.

To land equipment and scientific payloads near the South Pole, specifically, as opposed to another
location, will require less propellant and could be more cost effective.

SPACE PROBES

Space probes have proven to be the most effective way to investigate the universe. They can be designed
for specific tasks with great success. They weigh very little and can be put into orbit and into deep space by
relatively inexpensive chemical rocket launch vehicles.

A few examples of the work that has been done with space probes include:

flyby missions that take pictures and measurements of a target for a brief time,

orbiting missions that take pictures and measurements for an extended time,

combined missions that fly by one target en route to subsequent targets,

atmospheric missions that enter and measure the atmosphere of a target,

solar observation missions,

landing missions that actually visit the surface of a target, and

deep space probes that never arrive anywhere but send back data about interstellar space.

Space probe missions have been so successful that scientists are flooded with data to interpret.

NASA was asked, “How do you keep up with the ever growing number of spacecraft?”

NASA replied, “We are actually oversubscribed in that we have more tracking hours
required than we are able to provide. What we do in this case is to work very closely with
the flight projects and get them to work together to try to meet the bulk of their requirements.
In addition, we are currently building a new antenna in Madrid to help with the load.”

CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 2

QUESTIONS

Q1. What is the most effective means of investigating the universe beyond Earth?

Q2. What type of mission takes the majority of funding in the space program?

Q3. What will be the focus of manned missions for the immediate future?

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ANTICIPATED ANSWERS

A1. Space probes.

A2. Manned missions.

A3. The moon.

END OF LESSON CONFIRMATION

QUESTIONS

Q1. What are two advantages of Fullerene?

Q2. What does the sun radiate that solar sails use for power?

Q3. What is the most effective means of investigating the universe beyond Earth?

ANTICIPATED ANSWERS

A1. Light weight and great strength.

A2. Sunlight.

A3. Space probes.

CONCLUSION

HOMEWORK/READING/PRACTICE

N/A.

METHOD OF EVALUATION

N/A.

CLOSING STATEMENT

Space exploration has been exciting and beneficial since the earliest missions. Rapidly improving technology
is expected to magnify both the benefits and the excitement of exploring the unknown.

INSTRUCTOR NOTES/REMARKS

N/A.

REFERENCES

C3-183 (ISBN 978-0-75662-227-5) Graham, I. (2006). DK Online, Space Travel. New York, NY: DK
Publishing, Inc.

C3-192 NASA. (2007). Solar Electric Propulsion. Retrieved October 25, 2007, from http://nmp.nasa.gov/
ds1/tech/sep.html.

C3-193 Solar Sails. (2007). Solar Sailing. Retrieved October 25, 2007, from http://www.solarsails.info/
sailing/index.html.

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C3-194 How Stuff Works. (2007). How Space Elevators Will Work. Retrieved October 25, 2007, from
http://science.howstuffworks.com/space-elevator.htm.

C3-195 Science@NASA. (2007). Audacious & Outrageous: Space Elevators. Retrieved October 26, 2007,
from http://science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2000/ast07sep_1.htm.

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ROYAL CANADIAN AIR CADETS

BASIC AVIATION TECHNOLOGY AND AEROSPACE

INSTRUCTIONAL GUIDE

SECTION 7

EO S240.07 – DISCUSS THE CURRENT SPACE MISSIONS OF DIFFERENT COUNTRIES

Total Time: 80 min

PREPARATION

PRE-LESSON INSTRUCTIONS

Resources needed for the delivery of this lesson are listed in the lesson specification located in A-CR-CCP-
824/PG-001, Chapter 4. Specific uses for said resources are identified throughout the instructional guide within
the TP for which they are required.

Review the lesson content and become familiar with the material prior to delivering the lesson.

The space missions of different countries are continuously changing. The information present in Annexes M
to R is to be used as a reference in researching current space missions. Research current advancements in
aerospace technology and collect information for this lesson from newspapers, magazines, journals or websites.

Information packages consisting of print information shall be prepared for the cadets to use when researching
their assigned country. This may include Annexes M to R, but should be supplemented with additional
information about space missions of the United States, China, Japan, Russia, India, and Europe.

Photocopy the handout located at Annex S for each group.

PRE-LESSON ASSIGNMENT

N/A.

APPROACH

An interactive lecture was chosen for TP 1 to introduce the cadets to the space programs of different countries.

An in-class activity was chosen for TP 2 as it is an interactive way to reinforce and stimulate an interest in the
current space missions of different countries.

INTRODUCTION

REVIEW

N/A.

OBJECTIVES

By the end of this lesson the cadet shall be expected to know how different countries are involved in space
exploration and the importance of this exploration to the scientific community. Discoveries and scientific
methods in the field of space exploration are constantly evolving.

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IMPORTANCE

It is important for the cadets to learn about space exploration, as it is an integral part of the air cadet aerospace
program. This topic will also stimulate an interest in the field of aerospace as the current technology constantly
evolves with intriguing topics that relate to everyday life.

Teaching Point 1 Discuss the Current Space Agencies of Different Countries

Time: 10 min Method: Interactive Lecture

CURRENT SPACE AGENCIES


st
Space activities around the world have been flourishing in the first few years of the 21 century. Leading
countries in the area of spaceflight have formulated or readjusted their development strategies, plans and goals
in this field. The role of space activities in a country’s overall development strategy is becoming increasingly
prominent and their influence on human civilization and social progress is increasing.

NASA (United States)

The largest space agency in the world is the National Aeronautics and Space and Administration (NASA) in
the United States of America (US). They have an annual budget of 16.25 billion Canadian dollars and are
nationally funded. The US is very passionate about space exploration and even provide space curriculum in
their elementary and high schools. NASA originated in the late 1950s when President John F. Kennedy made a
famous speech to his public that the US would lead the way in space exploration and would be the first country
to put a man on the moon.

NASA continues to strive for the leading edge in technological innovations.

CNSA (China)

The Chinese nation created a civilization in the early stage of mankind’s history. The gunpowder “rocket”
invented by the Chinese was the beginning of modern space rockets. After the People’s Republic of China was
founded in 1949, China has been involved in space activities and launched its first man-made satellite in 1970.
China has made important achievements and now ranks among the world’s most advanced countries in some
important fields of space technology.

The China National Space Agency (CNSA) now has a space program that includes space exploration and
manned missions.

The aims of China’s space activities are to:

explore outer space and enhance understanding of the Earth and the cosmos;

utilize outer space for peaceful purposes, promote human civilization and social progress and benefit the
whole of mankind;

meet the demands of economic construction, scientific and technological development, national security
and social progress; and

raise the scientific knowledge of the Chinese people, protect China’s national interests and rights and build
up the comprehensive national strength.

JAXA (Japan)

The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) was formed in 2003 from a merger between the Institute
of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) and the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA).
JAXA works with an annual budget of 92 billion yen (approximately 880 million Canadian dollars).

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Japan is highly involved in many international endeavors and aims to:

contribute to building a secure and prosperous society through the utilization of aerospace technologies;

contribute to advancing our knowledge of the universe and broaden the horizon of human activity;

develop the capability to carry out autonomous space activities through the best technologies in the world;

facilitate growth of the space industry with self-sustenance and world class capability; and

facilitate the growth of aviation industry and aim for technological breakthroughs for future air
transportation.

ROSKOSMOS (Russia)

The Russian Federal Space Agency (Roskosmos) is the government agency responsible for Russia’s space
science program and general aerospace research. Roskosmos’ headquarters are located in Moscow and it
operates on an annual budget of 900 million Canadian dollars. Roskosmos has a leading role in commercial
satellite launches and space tourism.

ISRO (India)

The governing space organization in India is the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). It has an
annual budget of approximately 815 million Canadian dollars and its headquarters is located in Bangalore.
The mandate of ISRO is the development of technologies related to space and their application to India’s
development.

ESA (Europe)

European Space Agency originated on October 31, 1980. It is comprised of 17 countries that pool their
resources to remain at the forefront of space science, technology and applications. ESA has an annual budget
of approximately 3.5 billion Euro (5.1 billion Canadian dollars). Programs carried out under the General Budget
and the Science Programme budget are mandatory; they include the Agency’s basic activities (studies on future
projects, technology research, shared technical investments, information systems and training programs). All
member states contribute to mandatory programs on a scale based on their Gross Domestic Product (GDP).
Other programs are optional and member states, who elect to do so shall decide on their level of involvement.

CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 1

QUESTIONS

Q1. What does NASA stand for?

Q2. JAXA is the space agency of which country?

Q3. How many countries are currently part of ESA?

ANTICIPATED ANSWERS

A1. National Aeronautics and Space and Administration.

A2. Japan.

A3. 17.

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Teaching Point 2 Conduct a Group Activity Where Cadets Present the Current
Space Missions of Different Countries

Time: 60 min Method: In-Class Activity

ACTIVITY

OBJECTIVE

The objective of this activity is to have the cadets present the current space missions of different countries.

RESOURCES

Photocopy of Annexes M to S,

Additional updated information,

Flip chart paper (two sheets per group), and

Flip chart markers.

ACTIVITY LAYOUT

Set up six tables/areas for this activity.

ACTIVITY INSTRUCTIONS

1. Divide the cadets into groups of three to four.

2. Assign each group a country, to include:

a. United States,

b. China,

c. Japan,

d. Russia,

e. India, and

f. Europe.

3. Distribute the prepared information packages about the space missions to the respective groups.

4. Have the cadets review the information packages and prepare for their presentation using the handout
located at Annex S. The cadets will have 30 minutes to prepare. Groups can use flip chart paper to illustrate
their presentation.

5. Have groups inform their peers about the current space missions of their assigned country. Each group
will have five minutes.

SAFETY

N/A.

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CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 2

The cadets’ participation in the activity will serve as the confirmation of this TP.

END OF LESSON CONFIRMATION

The cadets’ participation in the presentation of current space missions from different countries will serve as
the confirmation of this lesson.

CONCLUSION

HOMEWORK/READING/PRACTICE

N/A.

METHOD OF EVALUATION

N/A.

CLOSING STATEMENT

It is important for the cadets to learn about space exploration, as it is an integral part of the air cadet aerospace
program. This topic will also stimulate an interest in the field of aerospace as the current technology constantly
evolves with intriguing topics that relate to everyday life.

INSTRUCTOR NOTES/REMARKS

All information is correct as of 2007. It is important that the instructor researches the various organizations and
their missions prior to the delivery of this lesson.

REFERENCES

C3-185 National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). (2007). Missions. Retrieved November
28, 2007, from http://www.nasa.gov/missions/current/index.html.

C3-186 Soviet, Russian and International Spaceflight. (2007). Zarya. Retrieved October 25, 2007, from
http://www.zatya.info/index.htm.

C3-187 ESA Science and Technology. (2007). European Space Agency. Retrieved November 28, 2007,
from http://sci.esa.int/science-e/www/area/index.cfm?fareaid=1.

C3-188 Indian Space Research Organization. (2007). Indian Space Research Organization. Retrieved
November 28, 2007, from http://www.isro.org/index.htm.

C3-189 Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. (2007). Missions. Retrieved November 28, 2007, from
http://www.jaxa.jp/e/enterp/missions/index.shtml.

C3-190 The Second Mission. (2007). China’s Manned Space Program. Retrieved October 25, 2007, from
http://www.china.org.cn/English/features/fly/143412.htm.

C3-218 China National Space Agency. (2007). China National Space Agency. Retrieved November 28,
2007, from http://www.cnsa.gov.cn/n615709/cindex.html.

C3-219 Russian Federal Space Agency. (2007). Science. Retrieved November 28, 2007, from http://
www.federalspace.ru/science0615E.asp.

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ROYAL CANADIAN AIR CADETS

BASIC AVIATION TECHNOLOGY AND AEROSPACE

INSTRUCTIONAL GUIDE

SECTION 8

EO S240.08 – DISCUSS SPACE SYSTEMS

Total Time: 40 min

PREPARATION

PRE-LESSON INSTRUCTIONS

Resources needed for the delivery of this lesson are listed in the lesson specification located in A-CR-CCP-
824/PG-001, Chapter 4. Specific uses for said resources are identified throughout the instructional guide within
the TP for which they are required.

Review the lesson content and become familiar with the material prior to delivering the lesson.

The content of this lesson will be updated by the instructor to reflect the current technology used in space
systems.

PRE-LESSON ASSIGNMENT

N/A.

APPROACH

An interactive lecture was chosen for this lesson to orient the cadet to space systems, clarify, emphasize, and
summarize the teaching points.

INTRODUCTION

REVIEW

N/A.

OBJECTIVES

By the end of this lesson the cadet shall be expected to discuss concepts of space systems and how they
apply to space exploration.

IMPORTANCE

It is important for the cadets to know about space systems, as they are the basic tools used for carrying out
experiments in space.

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Teaching Point 1 Discuss the Canadarm

Time: 10 min Method: Interactive Lecture

HISTORY

One of Canada’s contributions to space exploration is the Canadarm and Canadarm2. These robotic arms are
used for manoeuvring payloads and assisting with repairs while in space.

Canadarm originated in a technical challenge issued by NASA in the early 1970s for its new Space
Transportation System (STS) known as the Space Shuttle.

The project was launched in 1974, Canada agreed to build the first Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (RMS).
It would be Canada’s contribution to NASA’s shuttle project.

There were no existing blueprints or off-the-shelf components for machines that work continually in the harsh
environment of space. NASA had stringent demands for weight, dexterity, manual and automatic operations,
versatility, precision of movement, safety and reliability. From scratch, Canada had to build a tool that functioned
flawlessly in space with the dexterity of a human arm.

To stand up to the harsh environment of space, Canadarm needed the latest in aerospace materials, including
titanium, stainless steel, carbon fibre and graphite epoxy. The Canadarm needs an insulated blanket with
thermostatically controlled heaters to maintain an acceptable working temperature in space.

Designing and building the robotic device was difficult enough but testing the final product proved to be even
more challenging. Meant for a weightless environment, the Canadarm cannot even lift itself off the ground in
Earth’s gravity. A special test room was built to allow the arm to flex its joints under operating conditions. In
addition, a computer-based simulation facility, much like a video game, was built to evaluate controllability and
provide training for astronauts.

Canadarm2 was launched in 2002, on Space Shuttle Endeavour, mission STS-100 and it has been a vital part
of the ISS construction activities.

The Canadarm2 can access hard-to-reach places because of its seven-joint flexibility and its 17 m length.
During the 2005 Return to Flight mission, an astronaut secured at the tip of the Canadarm2 demonstrated how
useful this is. With his feet fixed to Canadarm2, he performed important repair work on the underside of the
Space Shuttle so it could safely return to Earth.

With arms made of graphite fibre and electric motors for muscles, Canadarm is like the human arm. It has
rotating joints: two at the shoulder, one at the elbow and three at the wrist. At 15 m and weighing less than
480 kg, Canadarm can lift over 30 000 kg–266 000 kg in the weightlessness of space—or the mass of a fully
loaded bus, using less electricity than an electric kettle.

The Canadarm system uses a computer to control the movements of the arm. The computer also provides
essential guidance information to the astronaut. Inputs from the astronaut manipulating the controls or inputs
that are programmed into the computer allow the Canadarm computer to move the arm.

SPECIFICATIONS

The Canadarm2 has the following specifications:

its length is 15.2 m (50 feet),

its arm diameter is 38 cm (15 inches),

on Earth it weighs 410 kg (905 pounds),

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the arms speed of movement is:

unloaded: 60 cm (2 feet) per second,

loaded: 6 cm (2.5 inches) per second;

the upper and lower arms are made from graphite composite material,

the wrist joint has three degrees of movement (pitch/yaw/roll),

the elbow joint has one degree of movement (pitch),

the shoulder joint two degrees of movement (pitch/yaw),

it uses a translational hand controller that has right, left, up, down, forward, and backward movement of
the arm, and

the rotational hand controller controls the pitch, roll, and yaw of the arm.

CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 1

QUESTIONS

Q1. What are the Canadarm’s tasks?

Q2. What are the arms of the Canadarm made from?

Q3. What controls the movements of the Canadarm?

ANTICIPATED ANSWERS

A1. Canadarm is used for manoeuvring payloads and assisting in repairs while in space.

A2. Graphite fibre.

A3. A computer.

Teaching Point 2 Discuss Satellites

Time: 10 min Method: Interactive Lecture

THE FIRST SATELLITES

The definition of a satellite is a celestial body orbiting the Earth or another planet, or an artificial body placed
in orbit round the Earth or another planet.

The space race began on October 4, 1957 when the Soviet Union launched Sputnik-1, the first artificial satellite.
Early satellites were small and powered by batteries that only lasted a few weeks. The United States and Soviet
Union were the big players in this period of space exploration and competed to be the first in every aspect of
space exploration.

A satellite must reach a speed of about 28 014 km/h (17 400 miles/h) so the Earth’s gravity can no longer pull
it back down to the ground. Instead, gravity combines with the satellites’ speed to cause it to follow a curved
path around the planet. The endless path of a satellite around a planet is called an orbit and can be shaped
like a circle or an ellipse (a stretched circle). The speed of an orbiting satellite depends on how far it is from the
planet. The closer it is to the planet the faster it has to fly to balance the pull of gravity.

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NAVIGATION SATELLITES

Since the beginning of time, human beings have looked to the sky to determine their location. Traditionally,
the sun and the pattern of fixed stars have been the guides. Now, at the dawn of the second millennium,
constellations of man-made satellites have taken over as beacons to guide the way.

Using the fixed stars, position can be determined anywhere on the Earth’s surface within a few hundred metres,
providing the weather is fine. However, navigation satellites can indicate the position of the receiver to the
nearest 3–10 m, whatever the weather. Enhanced instruments can even pinpoint the position of a stationary
object to within a few centimetres by measuring the object’s position many thousands of times over several
hours and then working out the average of the measurements.

Three distinct parts make up the Global Positioning System (GPS). The first segment of the system consists
of 24 satellites, orbiting 20 000 km above the Earth in 12-hour circular orbits. This means that it takes each
satellite 12 hours to make a complete circle around the Earth. In order to make sure that they can be detected
from anywhere on the Earth’s surface, the satellites are divided into six groups of four. Each group is assigned
a different path to follow. This creates six orbital planes, which surround the Earth.

These satellites send radio signals to Earth that contain information about the satellite. Using GPS ground-
based receivers, these signals can be detected and used to determine the receivers’ positions (latitude,
longitude, height). Within each signal, a coded sequence is sent. By comparing the received sequence with the
original sequence, scientists can determine how long it takes for the signal to reach the Earth from the satellite.

The second part of the GPS system is the ground station, comprised of a receiver and antenna, as well as
communication tools to transmit data to the data centre. The omni directional antenna at each site, acting much
like a car radio antenna, picks up the satellite signals and transmits them to the site receiver as electric currents.
With this information, the receiver produces a general position (latitude, longitude, height) for the antenna.

The third part of the system is the data centre. The role of the data centre is twofold. It both monitors and
controls the global GPS stations and it uses automated computer systems to retrieve and analyze data from
the receivers at those stations.

WEATHER SATELLITES

Weather satellites are spacecraft that collect and relay weather information to Earth. Before the first weather
satellite was launched in 1960, forecasters could not reliably track weather across the oceans that cover most
of the Earth.

There are two types of weather satellites:

Polar Orbiting Satellites

Polar orbiting satellites circle the Earth from pole to pole, completing one orbit every 100 minutes. These
satellites orbit at an altitude of about 805 km (500 miles) above the Earth’s surface and provide coverage of
the entire Earth four times per day.

Geostationary Satellites

Geostationary satellites orbit the Earth at the same rate that the Earth rotates, so the satellite is always seeing
the same part of Earth. Geostationary satellites provide continuous viewing of North America and adjacent
coastal waters from their vantage points over the equator. Since geostationary satellites rotate at the same
rate as Earth, they complete one orbit every 24 hours. Geostationary satellites are located at a much higher
altitude than polar orbiting satellites, positioned at 35 903 km (22 300 miles) above the Earth’s surface. Under
normal operating conditions, two satellites observe Eastern and Western North America, adjacent oceans, and
a large part of the southern hemisphere.

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Image data collected by all satellites are transmitted down to computers on Earth, which transform the data
into the images that can be seen on the television weather broadcast.

Satellites can provide an image of the weather, day or night, by infrared images. An infrared satellite image,
taken day or night, shows the pattern of heat (or infrared radiation) released from the Earth. Chances are,
images seen on the evening television weather broadcast are infrared images. The Earth radiates heat into
space all the time. Infrared imagery shows different temperatures in black, white, and shades of grey. The
coldest temperatures show up as white and the warmest as black. Since the tops of high clouds are very cold,
those clouds show up on the infrared image as white. Lower clouds in the atmosphere are warmer, so they
show up as a darker shade of grey on the infrared image.

CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 2

QUESTIONS

Q1. When was the first artificial satellite launched?

Q2. How does a GPS receiver work?

Q3. What are the two types of weather satellites?

ANTICIPATED ANSWERS

A1. October 4, 1957.

A2. It receives signals from satellites to locate the receiver.

A3. Polar orbiting and geostationary.

Teaching Point 3 Discuss Unmanned Vehicles

Time: 5 min Method: Interactive Lecture

MARS ROVER

NASA’s twin robot geologists, know as the Mars Exploration Rovers, launched toward Mars on June 10 and
July 7, 2003, in search of answers about the history of water on Mars. They landed on Mars on January 4 and
January 25, 2004.

The mission’s primary scientific goals is to search for and characterize a wide range of rocks and soils that hold
clues to past evidence of water on Mars. The spacecraft are targeted to sites on opposite sides of Mars that
appear to have been affected by the movement of water in the past. The landing sites are at Gusev Crater, a
possible former lake in a giant impact crater, and Meridiani Planum, where mineral deposits (hematite) suggest
Mars had a wet past.

After the airbag-protected landing craft settled onto the surface and opened, the rovers rolled out to take
panoramic images. These gave scientists the information they needed to select promising geological targets
that tell part of the story of water in Mars’ past. Then, the rovers drove to those locations to perform on-site
scientific investigations.

HUBBLE TELESCOPE

Launched in April of 1990, NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope is fulfilling the hopes astronomers have long held
for a large, optically superb telescope orbiting above the Earth’s distorting atmosphere and providing uniquely
clear and deep views of the cosmos.

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Only one of NASA’s four “Great Observatories” (Hubble, Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory, Chandra X-Ray
Observatory, and Spitzer Space Telescope) is serviceable by Space Shuttle astronauts. Hubble has seen its
capabilities grow immensely in its 16 historic years of operation. This has been the direct result of the installation
of new, cutting-edge scientific instruments and more powerful engineering components. Replacement of aging
or failed parts has been an important part of servicing and has been responsible for the telescope’s longevity.

Compared to ground-based telescopes, Hubble is not particularly large. With a primary mirror diameter of 2.4 m
(94.5 inches), Hubble would be considered a medium-sized telescope on the ground. However, the combination
of its precision optics, location above the atmosphere, state-of-the-art instrumentation and unprecedented
pointing stability and control, allows Hubble to make-up for its lack of size. The most detailed look at the farthest
known galaxies in the universe have been obtained by imaging from the Hubble Space Telescope.

The installations of the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph and Wide-Field Camera 3 have provided Hubble with
more powerful capabilities than ever before.

CASSINI HUYGENS

Cassini’s journey to Saturn began on October 15, 1997, with launch on a Titan IVB/Centaur launch system
from Florida’s Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. The upper-stage booster accelerated the spacecraft out of
Earth’s orbit towards Venus for the first of four planetary “gravity assists” designed to boost Cassini toward
Saturn. In a gravity assist, the spacecraft flies close enough to a planet to be accelerated by its gravity, creating
a “slingshot” effect to boost the speed of the spacecraft.

Launched on October 15, 1997, on a journey covering 3.5 billion km (2.2 billion miles), Cassini is the most highly
instrumented and scientifically capable planetary spacecraft ever flown. It has 12 instruments on the Cassini
orbiter and six more on the Huygens probe. The mission represents the best technical efforts of 260 scientists
from the US and 17 European nations. The cost of the Cassini mission is approximately $3 billion.

The Cassini-Huygens mission is a four-year study of Saturn. The 18 highly sophisticated science instruments
have studied Saturn’s rings, icy satellites, magnetosphere and Titan, the planet’s largest moon. It will continue
into space with the possible life expectancy of 30 years.

CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 3

QUESTIONS

Q1. When was the Mars Rover mission launched into space?

Q2. What is the principle benefit of the Hubble telescope?

Q3. What type of assist did Cassini Huygens use to accelerate?

ANTICIPATED ANSWERS

A1. June 10 and July 7, 2003.

A2. Provides uniquely clear and deep views of the cosmos.

A3. Gravity assist.

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Teaching Point 4 Discuss the International Space Station (ISS)

Time: 10 min Method: Interactive Lecture

THE COUNTRIES INVOLVED

The ISS is the largest and most complex international scientific project in history. The station represents a
move of unprecedented scale off the home planet Earth, that began in 1998 with the launch of the first two
components, the Unity and Zarya modules. The ISS draws upon the scientific and technological resources of
17 nations: US, Canada, Japan, Russia, Brazil, Italy, 11 nations of the European Space Agency.

CONSTRUCTION

More than four times as large as the Russian Mir space station, the completed ISS has a mass of about
450 000 kg (1 million pounds). It measures about 110 m (360 feet) across and 88 m (290 feet) long, with almost
2
4047 m (an acre) of solar panels to provide electrical power to six state-of-the-art laboratories. The first two
station modules, the Russian-launched Zarya control module and US-launched Unity connecting module, were
assembled in orbit in late 1998.

The station is in an orbit with an altitude of 402 km (250 miles) with an inclination of 51.6 degrees. This orbit
allows the station to be reached by the launch vehicles of all the international partners to provide a robust
capability for the delivery of crews and supplies. The orbit also provides excellent Earth observations with
coverage of 85 percent of the globe and 95 percent of the population. About 225 000 kg (500 000 lbs) of station
components have been built at factories around the world. The two-module complex, now in orbit, has a mass
of more than 33 300 (74 000 lbs) and measures 23 m (76 feet) long with a 24 m (78-foot) wingspan tip to tip
of the solar arrays. The current station’s internal pressurized volume is 131 cubic metres (4635 cubic feet).
The Space Shuttle Discovery performed the first docking with the new station in May 1999 on mission STS-96,
delivering almost two tons of internal and external supplies.

The international partners, US, Canada, Japan, Russia, Brazil, Italy, 11 nations of the European Space Agency,
contributed the following key elements to the ISS:

US has provided transport and the Unity module.

Canada provided a 55-foot-long robotic arm that is used for assembly and maintenance tasks on the
Space Station.

The European Space Agency built a pressurized laboratory that is launched on the Space Shuttle and
logistics transport vehicles to be launched on the Ariane 5 launch vehicle.

Japan built a laboratory with an attached exposed exterior platform for experiments as well as logistics
transport vehicles.

Russia has provided two research modules; an early living quarters called the Service Module with its
own life support and habitation systems; a science power platform of solar arrays that can supply about
20 kilowatts of electrical power; logistics transport vehicles; and Soyuz spacecraft for crew return and
transfer.

Brazil and Italy have contributed some equipment to the station through agreements with the US.

TYPES OF RESEARCH AND EXPERIMENTS CONDUCTED

The ISS has established an unprecedented state-of-the-art laboratory complex in orbit, more than four times
the size and with almost 60 times the electrical power for experiments that Russia’s Mir station used. Research
in the station’s six laboratories has led to discoveries in medicine, materials and fundamental science that have
benefited people all over the world. Through its research and technology, the station also has served as an

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indispensable step in preparation for future human space exploration. Examples of the types of research that
are performed aboard the station include:

Protein Crystal Studies. More pure protein crystals may be grown in space than on Earth. Analysis of
these crystals helps scientists better understand the nature of proteins, enzymes and viruses, perhaps
leading to the development of new drugs and a better understanding of the fundamental building blocks of
life. This type of research could lead to the study of possible treatments for cancer, diabetes, emphysema
and immune system disorders, among other research.

Life in Low Gravity. The effects of long-term exposure to reduced gravity on humans—weakening
muscles; changes in how the heart, arteries and veins work; and the loss of bone density, among others
—have been studied aboard the station. Research of these effects may lead to a better understanding of
the body’s systems and similar ailments on Earth. A thorough understanding of such effects and possible
methods of counteracting them is needed to prepare for future long-term human exploration of the solar
system. In addition, research on the gravitational effects on plants, animals and the function of living cells
are being conducted aboard the station.

Flames, Fluids and Metal in Space. Flames, fluids, molten metal and other materials are the subject
of basic research on the station. Even flames burn differently without gravity. Reduced gravity reduces
convection currents; the currents that cause warm air or fluid to rise and cool air or fluid to sink on Earth.
This absence of convection alters the flame shape in orbit and allows studies of the combustion process
that are impossible on Earth; a research field called Combustion Science.

The Nature of Space. Some experiments aboard the station take place on the exterior of the station
modules. Such exterior experiments study the space environment and how long-term exposure to space,
the vacuum and the debris, affects materials. This research can provide future spacecraft designers and
scientists a better understanding of the nature of space and enhance spacecraft design. Some experiments
study the basic forces of nature; a field called Fundamental Physics, where experiments take advantage
of weightlessness to study forces that are weak and difficult to study when subject to gravity on Earth.
Experiments in this field may help explain how the universe developed.

Watching the Earth. Observations of the Earth from orbit help the study of large-scale, long-term changes
in the environment. Studies in this field can increase understanding of the forests, oceans and mountains.
The effects of volcanoes, ancient meteorite impacts, hurricanes and typhoons can be studied. In addition,
changes to the Earth that are caused by the human race can be observed. The effects of air pollution, such
as smog over cities, of deforestation, the cutting and burning of forests and of water pollution such as oil
spills, are visible from space and can be captured in images that provide a global perspective unavailable
from the ground.

Commercialization. As part of the commercialization of space research on the station, industries will
participate in research by conducting experiments and studies aimed at developing new products and
services. The results may benefit those on Earth not only by providing innovative new products as a result,
but also by creating new jobs to make the products.

CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 4

QUESTIONS

Q1. Where was the ISS assembled?

Q2. How many countries are involved with the ISS?

Q3. What type of research is done on the ISS?

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ANTICIPATED ANSWERS

A1. In orbit around the Earth.

A2. There are seventeen countries.

A3. The types of research are:

protein crystal studies,

life in low gravity,

flames, fluids and metal in space,

the nature of space,

watching the Earth, and

commercialization.

END OF LESSON CONFIRMATION

QUESTIONS

Q1. The Canadarm cannot lift itself off the ground when it is in Earth’s gravity. Why?

Q2. How many joints are there in Canadarm2?

Q3. What speed must a satellite reach in order to maintain orbit around the Earth?

Q4. What was used to cushion the impact of the Mars Exploration Rover when it landed on Mars?

Q5. What is Canada’s contribution to the ISS?

Q6. What is the altitude of the ISS?

ANTICIPATED ANSWERS

A1. Because it is designed to function in a weightless environment.

A2. Seven.

A3. 28 014 km/h (17 400 miles/h).

A4. Airbags.

A5. Canadarm2.

A6. 402 km (250 miles).

CONCLUSION

HOMEWORK/READING/PRACTICE

N/A.

METHOD OF EVALUATION

N/A.

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CLOSING STATEMENT

Space systems are an important part of space exploration that allows the gathering of scientific data for research
on many aspects of life.

INSTRUCTOR NOTES/REMARKS

N/A.

REFERENCES

C3-176 (ISBN 1-55407-071-6) Moore, P. (2005). Atlas of the Universe. Richmond Hill, ON: Firefly Books.

C3-178 (ISBN 1-894864-59-X) Gainor, C. (2006). Canada In Space. Canada: Folklore Publishing.

C3-183 (ISBN 978-0-75662-227-5) Graham, I. (2006). DK Online, Space Travel. New York, NY: DK
Publishing, Inc.

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ROYAL CANADIAN AIR CADETS

BASIC AVIATION TECHNOLOGY AND AEROSPACE

INSTRUCTIONAL GUIDE

SECTION 9

EO S240.09 - DISCUSS THE CANADIAN SPACE PROGRAM

Total Time: 40 min

PREPARATION

PRE-LESSON INSTRUCTIONS

Resources needed for the delivery of this lesson are listed in the lesson specification located in A-CR-CCP-
824/PG-001, Chapter 4. Specific uses for said resources are identified throughout the instructional guide within
the TP for which they are required.

Review the lesson content and become familiar with the material prior to delivering the lesson.

The information included in this lesson should be updated to reflect the latest developments in the Canadian
space program.

PRE-LESSON ASSIGNMENT

N/A.

APPROACH

An interactive lecture was chosen for this lesson to orient the cadets to the Canadian space program, to
generate interest in Canada’s space program, and emphasize the teaching points.

INTRODUCTION

REVIEW

N/A.

OBJECTIVES

By the end of this lesson the cadet shall have discussed Canadian astronauts and aspects of the Canadian
space program.

IMPORTANCE

It is important for the cadets to know about the Canadian space program to develop national pride and an
interest in the history of Canada in space.

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Teaching Point 1 Discuss the Missions of Canadian Astronauts

Time: 15 min Method: Interactive Lecture

MARC GARNEAU

The first Canadian astronaut to fly into space was Marc Garneau. He conducted a set of experiments (CANEX-1)
for Canadian investigators in space science, space technology, and life sciences during Mission 41-G, October
5 to 13, 1984, aboard the Space Shuttle Challenger. Robert Thirsk was the alternate astronaut for the mission.

Canadian talent and expertise figured prominently on Mission STS-77, May 19 to 29, 1996 when Marc Garneau
celebrated his second flight into space. Canadian scientific experiments aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour
included the Commercial Float Zone Furnace (CFZF), the Aquatic Research Facility (ARF), the Nanocrystal
Get Away Special (NANO-GAS) and the Atlantic Canada Thin Organic Semiconductors (ACTORS).

Mission STS-97, also named International Space Station (ISS) Flight 4A, was launched on November 30, 2000,
from the Kennedy Space Center with Marc Garneau aboard. Garneau’s third mission consisted of transporting
and installing solar panels to the ISS. Space Shuttle Endeavour carried the first of four sets of giant solar arrays
and batteries for the ISS. Endeavour’s crew conducted three spacewalks to complete connections of the solar
arrays. Power from this first set of arrays set the stage for a major expansion and the arrival of the first laboratory.

ROBERTA BONDAR

Canada’s first female astronaut, Roberta Bondar, was designated as the prime Canadian Payload Specialist for
the first International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-1) aboard Space Shuttle Discovery. During her first mission,
STS-42, January 22 to 30, 1992, Bondar conducted 43 experiments on behalf of 13 countries. Ken Money was
the alternate astronaut for this mission.

STEVEN (STEVE) MACLEAN

Steve MacLean was designated to fly with a set of Canadian experiments in space science, space technology,
and life sciences called CANEX-2. The primary experiment was an evaluation of the National Research
Council’s experimental Space Vision System. The alternate Payload Specialist was Bjarni Tryggvason. CANEX-
2 was scheduled for a mission in 1987 but was rescheduled following the Challenger tragedy. Steve MacLean
and the CANEX-2 payload flew from October 22 to November 1, 1992 during Mission STS-52, aboard Space
Shuttle Columbia.

CHRISTOPHER (CHRIS) HADFIELD

Colonel Chris Hadfield was the first Canadian Mission Specialist and the first and only Canadian to board
the Russian Space Station Mir during Mission STS-74, aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis, November 12 to
20, 1995. Hadfield was also the first Canadian to operate the world-famous Canadarm when he successfully
manoeuvred the arm to install docking modules.

In April 2001, aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, Chris Hadfield made history by becoming the first Canadian
astronaut to walk in space during Mission STS-100, the ISS assembly Flight 6A. The primary purpose of the
flight was to deliver, install and deploy the remote robotic arm, Canadarm2, as well as, install and retrieve
the Italian-made, Raffaello Multi-Purpose Logistics Module, on the ISS. Hadfield performed two spacewalks to
install the Canadarm2, which took 14 hours 50 minutes, 400 km (248 miles) above Earth. The new arm, which
is 17 m (56 ft) long, is the centrepiece of Canada’s contributions to the ISS.

ROBERT (BOB) THIRSK

Space Shuttle Columbia lifted off on June 20, 1996, on Mission STS-78, a 17-day Life and Microgravity
Science (LMS) mission with Robert Thirsk aboard. Thirsk actively participated in the diverse slate of life and

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microgravity experiments, conducted aboard LMS, the reusable laboratory designed to allow scientists to
perform experiments in microgravity conditions.

BJARNI TRYGGVASON

Bjarni Tryggvason, Payload Specialist for Mission STS-85 launched on August 7, 1997. His principle role on
this flight was to conduct further tests of the Microgravity Vibration Isolation Mount (MIM) and perform material
science and fluid physics experiments designed to examine sensitivity to spacecraft vibrations. This work was
directed at developing a better understanding of the need for systems such as the MIM on the ISS and on the
effect of vibrations on the many experiments to be performed on the ISS.

DAVID (DAVE) WILLIAMS

Dave Williams began a 17-day medical research mission in space on April 17, 1998, following the flawless
launch of the Space Shuttle Columbia. Williams, an emergency medical doctor, was the seventh Canadian
astronaut to fly into space aboard the shuttle. He was the first Canadian to serve as crew doctor, and the first
Canadian astronaut trained to conduct a spacewalk outside the orbiter, had the need arose. During Mission
STS-90, also known as Neurolab, Williams and his fellow crewmembers conducted 26 life science experiments
designed to study the effects of microgravity on the brain and other parts of the central nervous system. These
experiments in space may someday lead to new treatments for common neurological conditions such as sleep
disorders, motion sickness, balance disorders, and the regulation of blood pressure. Canadians designed two
of the Neurolab experiments chosen by NASA for this mission: Visuo-Motor Coordination during Space flight
and the Role of Visual Cues in Spatial Orientation. Mission STS-115 took place from September 9 to 21, 2006.
During these 12 days in space, Canadian astronaut Steve MacLean and his crewmates successfully resumed
the assembly of the International Space Station. They delivered and installed on the Station new truss segments
and solar arrays, doubling the power capacity of the orbiting laboratory. During this mission, Steve MacLean
became the first Canadian to operate Canadarm2 in space and the second Canadian to perform a spacewalk.

JULIE PAYETTE

Space Shuttle Discovery, with Julie Payette aboard, lifted off May 27, 1999, for a 10-day mission. On the third
day, the crew of Mission STS-96 performed a rendezvous with ISS for what was defined as a logistics and re-
supply mission to outfit the ISS for future flights and occupants. As Mission Specialist, Payette was responsible
for numerous tasks during the mission including operating the Canadarm, supervising astronaut spacewalks,
deploying the STARSHINE educational satellite and changing 18 units that are part of the solar battery system
of the Russian module Zarya.

CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 1

QUESTIONS

Q1. Who was Canada’s first astronaut and what year was the first mission?

Q2. Who was Canada’s first female astronaut?

Q3. Who was the first Canadian astronaut to walk in space?

ANTICIPATED ANSWERS

A1. Marc Garneau, 1984.

A2. Roberta Bondar.

A3. Chris Hadfield.

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Teaching Point 2 Describe the Microvariability and Oscillation of STars


(MOST) Telescope

Time: 5 min Method: Interactive Lecture

The MOST or Microvariability and Oscillation of STars project is a cooperative scientific partnership to create
the world’s smallest astronomical space telescope, capable of measuring the ages of stars in our galaxy and
perhaps even unlocking mysteries of the universe itself.

Sponsored by the Canadian Space Agency’s Space Science Branch, the various MOST project teams
designed, built, and monitor the microsatellite that orbits 800 km (496 miles) above the Earth, so scientists can
collect stellar data 24 hours a day.

The tiny satellite weighs only 60 km (37 miles) and carries a high-precision telescope no wider than a pie plate.
The device measures the oscillation in light intensity of stars in order to determine their composition as well
as age. Younger stars are comprised more of hydrogen than helium. Sound waves pass through hydrogen
faster because it is lighter than helium. The sound waves set up pulsations in the star’s surface, producing
changes in the light intensity of the star. The satellite’s telescope measures oscillations in intensity of the star,
thus estimating its age.

The MOST satellite is unique not only because of its small size, but because it can conduct stellar
measurements from space. Traditionally, scientists have relied on expensive, Earth-based telescopes to
provide research data. These instruments have been hampered by both the Earth’s distorting atmosphere and
its rotation, allowing for only a partial viewing of a star due to the day-night cycle. In space, the MOST telescope
has a direct and constant view of a star for up to seven weeks at a time and can downlink data to ground stations
at the University of British Columbia and the University of Toronto. The telescope is mounted in a box about
the size of a large suitcase. The ability to use such a small satellite for a space telescope is made possible
by lightweight gyroscope technology that corrects the wobbling motion of the satellite and accurately controls
where the satellite is pointing.

Canada is already a noted leader in the study of stellar pulsation and rapid variability. The MOST project builds
on this expertise, helping to answer and expand upon fundamental questions about the nature of the universe
that have intrigued scientists and non-scientists since the beginning of time.

CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 2

QUESTIONS

Q1. What does MOST stand for?

Q2. What can this telescope do?

Q3. How big is the MOST satellite?

ANTICIPATED ANSWERS

A1. Microvariability and Oscillation of STars.

A2. Measuring the ages of stars by calculating the star’s oscillation in light intensity.

A3. It is the size of a large suitcase.

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Teaching Point 3 Discuss Canada’s Involvement in the Phoenix Mission to


Mars

Time: 10 min Method: Interactive Lecture

OVERVIEW OF THE PHOENIX MISSION TO MARS

The Phoenix Mars Lander will be the first mission to explore a polar region of Mars at ground level. Phoenix
was launched from the Kennedy Space Center aboard a Delta II rocket at 5:35 a.m. EDT on August 3, 2007. It
will land near northern polar cap of Mars on May 25, 2008 in an area known as Vastitas Borealis. The lander
will then spend 90 days probing the soil and atmosphere on Mars to determine if the environment could be
hospitable to life.

Phoenix will use its 2.35 m robotic arm to dig for clues about the history of water on Mars. The Mars Exploration
Rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, have beamed back signs that water probably existed billions of years ago on
Mars. Satellites orbiting the planet have also found strong evidence of permafrost ice in the polar regions.
Phoenix will be the first mission to investigate these discoveries by scooping up samples for analysis by its
onboard chemistry set. Specifically, scientists will determine whether the soil is salty, alkaline, and/or oxidizing,
and will test for complex organic molecules necessary for life. Unlike the Spirit and Opportunity missions,
Phoenix will remain stationary, since frozen water is probably spread uniformly throughout the northern plains.

Why would we search for water? Water is a key clue to the most critical scientific questions about Mars. Water
is a precursor for life, a potential resource for human explorers and a major agent of climate and geology.

CANADA’S CONTRIBUTION

Canada’s contribution to the Phoenix mission is a meteorological station that will record the daily weather of
the Martian northern plains using temperature, wind and pressure sensors, as well as a light detection and
ranging (LIDAR) instrument. The weather station will help improve models of the Martian climate and predict
future weather processes, paving the way for future exploration missions. This information may also improve
scientists’ understanding of Earth’s dynamic polar regions by comparison between the two planets. Resembling
a brilliant green laser, the lidar will probe what is known as the “boundary layer” of the Martian atmosphere (the
turbulent layer of the atmosphere about 7 to 10 km (4.3 to 6.2 miles) above the surface) and provide information
about the structure, composition and optical properties of clouds, fog and dust in the lower atmosphere (up to
20 km (12.4 miles) above the landing site).

The Phoenix mission is a collaboration between government, industry, and academia. The mission is led by the
University of Arizona in partnership with NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Lockheed Martin of Denver.
The Canadian Space Agency is one of the international partners that include the University of Neuchatel
(Switzerland), the University of Copenhagen (Denmark), and the Max Planck Institute (Germany).

CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 3

QUESTIONS

Q1. What is the mission of the Phoenix?

Q2. Will the Phoenix mission be capable of moving about on Mars?

Q3. Why would we search for water on Mars?

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ANTICIPATED ANSWERS

A1. To explore the soil and atmosphere of the polar regions of Mars to determine if the environment could
be hospitable to life.

A2. No.

A3. Water is a precursor for life, a potential resource for human explorers and a major agent of climate
and geology.

Teaching Point 4 Discuss Canada’s Involvement in the Far Ultraviolet


Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) Mission

Time: 5 min Method: Interactive Lecture

Astronomers have been observing the Universe for centuries. In the past, they could only study visible light
with the naked eye. Telescopes aided studying the cosmos by magnifying objects in the sky. Unfortunately,
the Earth’s atmosphere distorts and pollutes the images as seen from Earth based telescopes. Satellites
orbiting above the atmosphere eliminate this atmospheric distortion. With increasingly sophisticated telescopes,
astronomers could observe a much broader portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, beyond what the human
eye can see. This spectrum includes everything from X-rays and radio waves to infrared and ultraviolet radiation.

These other wavelengths reveal a lot about the universe. Starting from this principle, a number of international
partners, including Canada, France, and the United States, have joined forces to create the Far Ultraviolet
Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) Telescope. Their aim is to discover our cosmic origins.

With its high sensitivity and great powers of resolution, unequalled at the time of its design, FUSE is providing
Canadian astronomers with new perspectives. They can now explore many unanswered questions.

FUSE is orbiting 775 km (480.5 miles) above Earth. Its ground receiving station is located in Puerto Rico. One
orbit of the Earth takes 100 minutes. FUSE was launched on June 24, 1999.

The FUSE science team is addressing these questions by studying deuterium, an extremely rare gas. This
heavy form of hydrogen was a direct product of the Big Bang. Astronomers believe that traces of deuterium in
the universe are decreasing over time, but they do not know how fast and how much deuterium has already
disappeared.

CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 4

QUESTIONS

Q1. How does the atmosphere hamper studying stars in the universe?

Q2. What are some of the non-visible electromagnetic spectrum that the new telescopes can see?

Q3. How high is the orbit of the FUSE satellite?

ANTICIPATED ANSWERS

A1. The Earth’s atmosphere distorts and pollutes the images as seen from Earth-based telescopes.

A2. X-rays, radio waves, infrared, and ultraviolet radiation.

A3. 775 km (480.5 miles) above Earth.

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END OF LESSON CONFIRMATION

QUESTIONS

Q1. Who was the first Canadian astronaut to use the Canadarm?

Q2. What does FUSE stand for?

Q3. What is Canada’s contribution to the Phoenix mission?

ANTICIPATED ANSWERS

A1. Chris Hadfield.

A2. Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer.

A3. A meteorological station.

CONCLUSION

HOMEWORK/READING/PRACTICE

N/A.

METHOD OF EVALUATION

N/A.

CLOSING STATEMENT

Knowledge of the Canadian space program will give a sense of national pride to the cadets as well as a basic
understanding of what the Canadian Space Agency is implicated in with regards to space exploration and
science.

INSTRUCTOR NOTES/REMARKS

N/A.

REFERENCES

C3-178 (ISBN 1-894864-59-X) Gainor, C. (2006). Canada In Space. Canada: Folklore Publishing.

C3-184 Canadian Space Agency. (2007). Missions. Retrieved October 20, 2007, from http://
www.space.gc.ca/asc/eng/missions/default.asp.

C3-196 Canadian Space Agency. (2007). MOST (Microvariability and Oscillation of Stars). Retrieved
October 25, 2007, from http://space.gc.ca/asc/eng/satellites/most_bkgrnd.asp.

C3-199 Canadian Space Agency. (2007). FUSE (Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer). Retrieved
October 30, 2007, from http://www.space.gc.ca/asc/eng/satellites/fuse.asp.

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ROYAL CANADIAN AIR CADETS

BASIC AVIATION TECHNOLOGY AND AEROSPACE

INSTRUCTIONAL GUIDE

SECTION 10

EO S240.10 – SIMULATE LIFE IN SPACE

Total Time: 200 min

PREPARATION

PRE-LESSON INSTRUCTIONS

Resources needed for the delivery of this lesson are listed in the lesson specification located in A-CR-CCP-
824/PG-001, Chapter 4. Specific uses for said resources are identified throughout the instructional guide within
the TP for which they are required.

Review the lesson content and become familiar with the material prior to delivering the lesson.

PRE-LESSON ASSIGNMENT

N/A.

APPROACH

An in-class activity was chosen for TPs 1 and 2 as it is an interactive way to provoke thought and experience
some of the aspects of living in space.

A practical activity was chosen for TP 3, as it is an interactive way to introduce cadets to life in space. This activity
contributes to the development of skills and knowledge needed for living in space in a fun and challenging
setting.

INTRODUCTION

REVIEW

N/A.

OBJECTIVES

By the end of this lesson, the cadet shall have experienced some simulated aspects of life in space.

IMPORTANCE

It is important for cadets to realize the challenges of living in space environment. A space environment requires
many considerations for the human body to exist comfortably including eating, washing, and working.

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Teaching Point 1 Have the Cadets Simulate Aspects of Life In Space

Time: 15 min Method: In-Class Activity

EATING IN SPACE

There are many factors to consider when humans live in a space environment. One of these factors is food
for astronauts. The preparation of the food itself requires special considerations. Storage and transport require
the product to be lightweight and have a long shelf life without refrigeration. Weight is critical during a space
mission due to transport cost and efficiency. Some methods of food preparation and storage include freeze-
drying, retort packing, vacuum packing, and dehydrating. Preservation of taste and texture can be difficult with
some of these methods. An example of space food is freeze-dried ice cream or freeze-dried strawberries.

Demonstrate how light the package of space freeze-dried ice cream or strawberries are by
allowing the cadets to feel the weight of the still wrapped product.

Some dehydrated foods require rehydration, such as macaroni and cheese or spaghetti. The water is kept
contained during the transfer from reservoir to food package to avoid loss. Of course, an oven is provided in
the space shuttle and the space station to heat foods to the proper temperature.

Condiments are provided such as ketchup, mustard, and mayonnaise. Salt and pepper are available but only
in a liquid form. This is because astronauts cannot sprinkle salt and pepper on their food in space. The salt and
pepper would simply float away. The particles could clog air vents, contaminate equipment or become stuck
in an astronaut’s eyes, mouth, or nose.

Astronauts eat three meals a day—breakfast, lunch and dinner. Nutritionists ensure the food they eat provides
them with a balanced supply of vitamins and minerals. Calorie requirements differ for astronauts. For instance,
a small woman weighing approximately 54 kg would require only about 1900 calories a day, while a large man
weighing 100 kg would require about 3200 calories. There are also many types of foods an astronaut can
choose from such as fruits, nuts, peanut butter, chicken, beef, seafood, candy, brownies, etc. Drinks range
from coffee, tea, orange juice, fruit punches, and lemonade.

As on Earth, space food comes in packages that must be disposed of. Astronauts must throw their packages
away in a trash compactor inside the space shuttle when they are done eating. Some packaging actually
prevents food from flying away. The food package is designed to be flexible, easy to use, as well as maximize
space when being stowed or disposed of.

WASHING IN SPACE

In space, you cannot wash with water, as water is very difficult to contain in a zero gravity environment. If water
drops were left floating in the space vehicle, they could cause serious problems with the equipment. Astronauts
use rinseless soap during space missions to clean themselves. Rinseless soap applies easily the same way
as regular soap or hair shampoo, and does not require recovery in a space environment as water base soaps
would. The alcohol in the rinseless soap kills bacteria effectively and almost immediately.

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ACTIVITY

Time: 10 min

OBJECTIVE

The objective of this activity is to have the cadets experience how astronauts eat and wash during missions
in space.

RESOURCES

Freeze-dried strawberries,

Freeze-dried ice cream, and

Rinseless soap.

ACTIVITY LAYOUT

Group the tables together to create a work surface large enough for this activity.

ACTIVITY INSTRUCTIONS

1. Divide the cadets into groups of six.

2. Distribute one package of freeze-dried ice cream or strawberries to each group of cadets.

3. Allow the cadets to taste the freeze-dried ice cream or strawberries.

4. Distribute rinseless soap to each group of cadets.

5. Have the cadets wash their hands with rinseless soap.

SAFETY

Lactose intolerant cadets and staff should be warned that the ice cream contains milk product.

Warn cadets and staff with an allergic reaction to strawberries that the freeze-dried strawberries are real
strawberries.

CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 1

QUESTIONS

Q1. Why are dehydrated foods used by astronauts for some of their meals?

Q2. What do astronauts use to wash their hands or hair?

Q3. Why would salt and pepper as we know it on Earth possibly be a problem in a space environment?

ANTICIPATED ANSWERS

A1. Some of the food used by astronauts is dehydrated for weight and preservation.

A2. They use rinseless soap or shampoo.

A3. The grains of salt or pepper could clog air vents, contaminate equipment or get stuck in an astronaut’s
eyes, mouth, or nose.

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Teaching Point 2 Have the Cadets Simulate Working In Space by Installing a


Nut on a Bolt Wearing Two Pairs of Thick Work Gloves

Time: 20 min Method: In-Class Activity

Working in zero gravity is a challenge. The only resistance felt by astronauts is the spacesuit itself. For example,
when turning a bolt the force applied in one direction results in an equal force in the opposite direction. In
space, any movement in a given direction experiences Newton’s Third Law, and has an equal movement in
the opposite direction. Astronauts must attach themselves to or hold on to an object to work on it so they can
control the opposite reaction effect.

Newton’s third law: for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.

The pressure in an astronaut’s spacesuit is 4.3 pounds per square inch (psi). That is less than one-third of the
pressure of Earth’s atmosphere at sea level (14.7 psi). The air pressure outside an airplane flying at 35 000 feet
is near 4.3 psi. It is also about the same as the extra pressure that keeps a football inflated, and like a football,
the suit is hard to bend.

The gloves are one place where the pressure is especially noticeable. The gloves are designed so that there
is little strain when the hand is at rest, but as a result, when the hand is open, the resistance of the glove can
be felt. This makes manipulating objects difficult when working in the spacesuit.

Tools used in a space environment must be two to three times larger than normal because the gloves are bulky
and make manipulating the regular-sized tools difficult. In space, it becomes difficult to do tasks that would be
easy to do on Earth. Small details like threading nuts onto bolts require more effort and dropped objects can
be hazardous as they continuously float around and may damage other instruments, controls, or surfaces.

ACTIVITY

Time: 15 min

OBJECTIVE

The objective of this activity is to have the cadets experience what astronauts do to manipulate objects in a
space environment.

RESOURCES

Work gloves,

1/2-inch National Course nuts, and

1/2-inch by 2-inch National Course bolts.

ACTIVITY LAYOUT

Group the tables together to create a work surface large enough for this activity.

ACTIVITY INSTRUCTIONS

1. Divide the cadets into groups of six.

2. Have one cadet from each group put on two pairs of work gloves and try to pick up the nut.

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3. Now put the nut in the cadets’ gloved hand and ask the cadet to attempt to put the nut on the bolt.

4. Rotate through the entire group.

SAFETY

N/A.

CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 2

QUESTIONS

Q1. What are some of the constraints of the space suit?

Q2. What law of motion applies to moving around in space?

Q3. Why are tools two to three times larger than tools used on Earth?

ANTICIPATED ANSWERS

A1. The suit is pressurized, and it is bulky.

A2. Newton’s third law of motion: for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.

A3. The gloves are bulky which restricts the ability to manipulate smaller objects.

Teaching Point 3 Conduct a Daily Exercise Routine to Simulate the Exercise


that Astronauts Must Perform to Maintain Bone Density and
Muscle Mass

Time: 160 min Method: Practical Activity

EXERCISE IN SPACE

On Earth, gravity pulls everything down. Thus, the lower torso and legs carry the weight of the body. In space,
because of zero gravity, astronauts float and the legs are basically not used.

In space, the lower back and leg muscles are affected the same way as muscles that have been in a cast for
a while. Muscles become flabby and lose tone and mass. In this case, what the astronaut experiences is the
“bird leg syndrome”. This is called muscular atrophy, and makes the limbs affected look skinnier. The bones
also become weaker because of the loss of minerals like calcium, potassium, and sodium.

Space also affects the cardiovascular system of the human body. On Earth, because of gravity, blood naturally
pools in the legs, therefore, the heart has to pump against gravity to supply enough blood to the brain. In space,
the heart acts the same as it would on Earth. However, because there is no gravity, the blood rushes to the
torso and head. In this case, what the astronaut experiences is the “puffy face syndrome”. The veins in the
neck and face stand out more, and the eyes become red and swollen.

Astronauts try to lessen the puffy face and the bird leg syndromes by exercising as often as possible. Astronauts
must exercise at least two hours every day to keep their muscles healthy. Astronauts use a stationary bicycle
and a treadmill to exercise both the lower and the upper body muscles. They use a series of straps and restraints
to remain secure against the exercise equipment.

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ACTIVITY

Time: 15 x 10 min

OBJECTIVE

The objective of this activity is to have the cadets experience what astronauts do to maintain bone density and
muscle mass when living in a space environment.

RESOURCES

N/A.

ACTIVITY LAYOUT

N/A.

ACTIVITY INSTRUCTIONS

Exercises should be simple and are only to demonstrate the requirement of exercise during space missions.

1. Have the cadets stretch for two minutes before exercising.

2. Have the cadets alternate between running on the spot and jumping jacks for eight minutes.

3. Have the cadets stretch for two minutes after exercising.

SAFETY

N/A.

CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 3

QUESTIONS

Q1. What kind of exercise can astronauts do in space?

Q2. What happens to an astronaut in zero gravity?

Q3. How does the cardiovascular system react to a space environment?

ANTICIPATED ANSWERS

A1. Astronauts use a stationary bicycle and a treadmill to exercise both the lower and the upper body
muscles.

A2. Astronauts float and their legs are basically not used.

A3. Due to the lack of gravity the blood rushes to the torso and head.

CONCLUSION

HOMEWORK/READING/PRACTICE

N/A.

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METHOD OF EVALUATION

N/A.

CLOSING STATEMENT

Astronauts living in a space environment face many challenges. With careful planning and consideration of
these challenges, we can make life in space comfortable and fun.

INSTRUCTOR NOTES/REMARKS

N/A.

REFERENCES

C3-183 (ISBN: 978-0-75662-227-5) Graham, I. (2006). DK Online, Space Travel. New York, NY: DK
Publishing, Inc.

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ROYAL CANADIAN AIR CADETS

BASIC AVIATION TECHNOLOGY AND AEROSPACE

INSTRUCTIONAL GUIDE

SECTION 11

EO S240.11 – IDENTIFY ELEMENTS OF THE NIGHT SKY

Total Time: 160 min

PREPARATION

PRE-LESSON INSTRUCTIONS

Resources needed for the delivery of this lesson are listed in the lesson specification located in A-CR-CCP-
824/PG-001, Chapter 4. Specific uses for said resources are identified throughout the instructional guide within
the TP for which they are required.

Review the lesson content and become familiar with the material prior to delivering the lesson.

Photocopy handouts located at Annexes T and V for each cadet.

Set up telescopes.

Check flashlights for red filters and ensure functionality. Attain replacement batteries if possible.

PRE-LESSON ASSIGNMENT

N/A.

APPROACH

A practical activity was chosen for this lesson as it is an interactive way to introduce the cadet to elements
of the night sky. This activity contributes to the development of astronomy skills and knowledge in a fun and
challenging setting.

INTRODUCTION

REVIEW

The review from this lesson will be from EO S240.02 (Discuss Characteristics of the Planets in the Solar System,
Section 2) and EO S240.08 (Discuss Space Systems, Section 8).

QUESTIONS

Q1. What are the eight recognized planets of our solar system?

Q2. What is a satellite?

Q3. What is a star?

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ANTICIPATED ANSWERS

A1. Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune.

A2. A celestial body orbiting the Earth or another planet or an artificial body placed in orbit around the Earth
or another planet.

A3. An astral body made up of gases such as hydrogen.

OBJECTIVES

By the end of this lesson the cadet shall have identified elements of the night sky.

IMPORTANCE

It is important for cadets to be able to identify the elements of the night sky so they can apply the knowledge
acquired in a practical setting. Observing the night sky will allow the cadets to observe the stars, planets and
satellites that were previously discussed. This may generate and maintain an interest in astronomy.

Teaching Point 1 Describe and Have the Cadets Identify Elements of the Night
Sky

Time: 150 min Method: Practical Activity

The best time to look for stars is between the moon’s last quarter and the first, and three
hours after sunset so the sky is dark enough to see the low intensity stars.

Light pollution exists near built-up areas and makes the sky appear yellowish-gray as opposed to black. This
happens because outdoor lighting illuminates the air as well as the ground. To clearly see stars at night, find a
location that is free from lights. This includes individual lights, like streetlights, as well as the glow that appears
from built-up areas.

Elements of the night sky can be identified with the naked eye, star charts, a planisphere star chart, binoculars
or a telescope.

Planisphere Star Chart. Analog computer for calculating the position of stars. It has this name because the
celestial sphere is represented on a flat plane, such as paper. Since the Earth is constantly in motion, the time
of day, time of year and location influence the appearance of the sky. An individual star chart cannot accurately
represent all of these combinations. This would take many different star charts. A preferable method is to use
a planisphere star chart which allows the user to twist a dial to show the true position of the stars.

Distribute a planisphere star chart to each cadet. Instruct the cadets on the utilization of
the specific planisphere star chart according to directions provided with the planisphere.
Distribute one red-filtered flashlight per four cadets and have the cadets orient their
planisphere.

Telescope. Makes objects appear closer and gathers light to produce a useful image. In astronomy it is
important to collect as much light as possible, making this more of a concern than magnification. It is important
to ensure that the telescope is secure on a tripod or is mounted to ensure that the telescope does not wobble
or move, losing the object. There are two main types of telescopes:

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Refractor Telescope. Light collected by an objective lens at one end of the telescope and formed into an
image that is magnified by the eyepiece lens at the other end.

Reflector Telescope. Uses a mirror or a combination of mirrors to reflect light and view an image. Most
astronomical telescopes are of this type since light-gathering power is crucial in astronomy and it is easier
to make and support a big mirror than a big lens.

Instruct the cadets on how to use the provided telescope according to the operating manual.
Divide the cadets into six groups and have them observe the seas and craters of the moon.
Allow 10 minutes for the observation.

VISIBLE STARS

For mid-northern hemisphere observing, the Big Dipper is considered the key to the night sky. It can be seen
on a clear night at any time of the year and at any time of night from everywhere in Canada. The Big Dipper is
made up of seven stars and is the most prominent stellar configuration in the night sky. The Big Dipper is not
a constellation but rather a guide for viewing other stars. The Big Dipper can easily be identified by untrained
observers, making it the ideal reference point for finding other elements of the night sky.

T. Dickinson, NightWatch: A Practical Guide to Viewing the Universe, Firefly Books Ltd. (p. 31)
Figure 1-11-1 Orientation of the Big Dipper

Orion is also used to locate other stars but it is only seen in Canada from November to April.

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T. Dickinson, NightWatch: A Practical Guide to Viewing the Universe, Firefly Books Ltd. (p. 31)
Figure 1-11-2 The Big Dipper as the Key to the Night Sky

Month Location Altitude

January NE 25°

February NE 40°

March NE 55°

April N 65°

May N 70°

June N 65°

July NW 55°

August NW 40°

September NW 25°

October N 15°

November N 10°

December N 15°

D Cdts 3, 2007, Ottawa, ON: Department of National Defence


Figure 1-11-3 Location of the Big Dipper

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The information provided in Figure 1-11-3 is valid:

between 40 degrees and 55 degrees of latitude, and

between 2000 hrs and 2200 hrs local standard time (2100 hrs and 2300 hrs local
daylight savings time).

Distribute photocopies of Annex T to the cadets. Have the cadets find the Big Dipper and
measure angular distance of the various legs. Have the cadets compare their span from
small finger to thumb to against the widest span of the Big Dipper. This should take no
longer than five minutes.

D Cdts 3, 2007, Ottawa, ON: Department of National Defence


Figure 1-11-4 Stars of Our Galaxy Visible From Earth

The Greek second century B.C. astronomer Hipparchus decided to classify stars into six categories. The
brightest stars were classified as first magnitude and the faintest were classified as sixth magnitude. This scale
has been amended for use today and now includes telescopic stars that are fainter than sixth magnitude and
objects brighter than first magnitude. Certain stars have been reclassified since Hipparchus. An increase of
one magnitude corresponds with a change of 2.5 times in brightness. For example, a magnitude two star is
2.5 times as bright as a magnitude three star. Therefore a first magnitude star is 2.5 times brighter than a
second magnitude, six times brighter than a third magnitude, 16 times brighter than a fourth magnitude, 40 times
brighter than a fifth magnitude and 100 times brighter than a sixth magnitude star.

The lower the magnitude, the brighter the object.

Presently, the scale spans from a faint magnitude 30 which are objects that can be detected by the Hubble
Space Telescope to a bright magnitude -27 which corresponds with the sun. The scale includes objects other
than stars. The sun is 16 trillion times brighter than a sixth magnitude star.

The brightest star visible in the night sky is Sirius. It is classified as a magnitude of −1.

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Except for the sun, all stars appear as a dot of light because they are so far away. Approximately 99 percent
of all the stars visible to the unaided eye in the night sky are brighter and larger than the sun. This gives a
distorted image because 95 percent of stars in our galaxy are less luminous than our sun and cannot be seen
without advanced technology.

CONSTELLATIONS

Constellations are patterns of stars partitioned and named long ago by our ancestors.

Of the 88 constellations recognized by the International Astronomical Union approximately one quarter of these
are in the southern sky and not visible from mid-northern latitudes. About half of the remaining constellations
are faint and hard to distinguish.

Information about 25 constellations visible from Canada is located at Annex U. This


information can be shared with the cadets as a concurrent activity or when time permits.

In their groups, allow the cadets 30 minutes to try and find constellations using the
telescopes and planisphere sky charts. A beginning astronomer should try and identify 15–
20 of the brightest constellations. The cadets should also try to identify major stars within
constellations.

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Constellations, by National Research Council of Canada. Retrieved December 3,


2007, from http://www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/docs/education/planisphere_e.pdf
Figure 1-11-5 Constellations

OBJECTS

Satellites

There are many moving lights in the sky other than stars, including aircraft, meteors, comets and satellites.
Aircraft have a flashing white light to identify their position as well as red and green wing tip lights. Meteors
incinerate in a darting flash, comets move rapidly with a gaseous tail whereas satellites are a solid mass that
orbit the sky. Man-made satellites orbiting the Earth are star-like and do not twinkle, though they appear to
shine with a steady white glow due to sunlight reflecting off their metal surfaces. Satellites are more prominent
during the spring and summer when the Earth’s shadow is lower in the sky. Sightings are greater just after dark
and drop off close to midnight. Satellites move in a linear fashion at a regular pace, though most observers
tend to view their motion as wavy or jerky.

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Planets

The easiest way to identify planets is to know when and where to expect them. This information is readily
available on astronomical calendars, observer handbooks and most astronomy resource books or can be easily
found on the internet.

Planets, like satellites, do not twinkle.

Five planets are visible to the naked eye: Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn. Uranus and Neptune must
be viewed through binoculars or a telescope.

Planet Magnitude Description

Mercury 0 Mercury is only visible for a few weeks each year because of its orbit. It is
yellow and can be seen just after sunset or just before sunrise.

Venus -4 Venus is visible in the early-evening or the early-morning for several months
each year. It cannot be seen for more than four hours after sunset or before
sunrise. Venus appears white and is very bright.

Mars -3 to 1 Because the distance from Earth varies, so too does the apparent brightness
of Mars. It appears to be a rusty colour due to the light reflecting off of the red
planet. Mars travels across half the sky in one year, making it interesting to
track.

Jupiter -2 to -3 Jupiter is brighter than any visible star but it is still not as bright as Venus.
Jupiter appears creamy white and can occasionally be seen all night long.

Saturn 0 Saturn is often mistaken for a star since its brightness matches that of some of
the brighter stars. Saturn appears as a pale yellow orb.

Uranus 6 Uranus has a distinct blue-green hue.

Neptune 8 Neptune appears to be approximately the same size of Uranus, though it has
a deeper blue hue. They can be differentiated by their position in the sky.

D Cdts 3, 2007, Ottawa, ON: Department of National Defence


Figure 1-11-6 Stars of our Galaxy Visible From Earth

Inform the cadets of the location of any planets that may be visible at this time. Have the
cadets find these planets. Allow five minutes.

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ACTIVITY

Time: 40 min

OBJECTIVE

The objective of this activity is to have the cadets use the skills and tools instructed to observe elements of
the night sky.

RESOURCES

Dobsonian-mounted six-inch reflector telescope (one per six cadets),

Red-filtered flashlight (one per two cadets),

Photocopies of Annex V (one per cadet), and

Planisphere star chart (one per cadet).

ACTIVITY LAYOUT

Set up one telescope for every six cadets.

ACTIVITY INSTRUCTIONS

1. Divide the cadets into groups of six.

2. Assign one group to each telescope.

3. Distribute one photocopy of Annex V to each cadet.

4. Have the cadets complete the top portion of the Observation Record.

5. Have the cadets observe and record elements of the night sky. This could include elements seen with the
naked eye or through the telescope. Allow 35 minutes for this.

SAFETY

N/A.

CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 1

The cadets’ participation in this activity will serve as the confirmation of this TP.

END OF LESSON CONFIRMATION

The cadets’ participation in identifying elements of the night sky will serve as the confirmation of this lesson.

CONCLUSION

HOMEWORK/READING/PRACTICE

N/A.

METHOD OF EVALUATION

N/A.

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CLOSING STATEMENT

It is important for cadets to be able to identify the elements of the night sky so that they can apply the knowledge
acquired in a practical setting. This may generate and maintain an interest in astronomy.

INSTRUCTOR NOTES/REMARKS

N/A.

REFERENCES

C3-179 (ISBN 1-55209-302-6) Dickenson, T. (2001). Night Watch: A Practical Guide to Viewing the
Universe. Willowdale, ON: Firefly Books.

C3-180 (ISBN 1-55297-853-2) Firefly staff. (2004). Planisphere, Shows the Position of the Stars for Every
Night of the Year. Willowdale, ON: Firefly Books.

C3-220 Tapping, K. (2005). Picking a Telescope. Retrieved December 3, 2007, from http://www.nrc-
cnrc.gc.ca/eng/education/astronomy/tapping/2005/2005-12-07.html.

C3-221 National Research Council of Canada. (2007). Constellations. Retrieved December 3, 2007, from
http://www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/eng/education/astronomy/constellations/html.html.

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ROYAL CANADIAN AIR CADETS

BASIC AVIATION TECHNOLOGY AND AEROSPACE

INSTRUCTIONAL GUIDE

SECTION 12

EO S240.12 – DESCRIBE MODEL ROCKETRY

Total Time: 80 min

PREPARATION

PRE-LESSON INSTRUCTIONS

Resources needed for the delivery of this lesson are listed in the lesson specification located in A-CR-CCP-
824/PG-001, Chapter 4. Specific uses for said resources are identified throughout the instructional guide within
the TP for which they are required.

Review the lesson content and become familiar with the material prior to delivering the lesson.

PRE-LESSON ASSIGNMENT

N/A.

APPROACH

An interactive lecture was chosen for this lesson to present basic information on model rocketry, and summarize
the teaching points.

INTRODUCTION

REVIEW

N/A.

OBJECTIVES

By the end of this lesson the cadet shall have described the parts of a model rocket, the flight profile of a model
rocket, and model rocket safety.

IMPORTANCE

It is important that the cadets know the parts of a model rocket, how a model rocket engine works, and model
rocket safety, so they can plan the flight profile of their model rocket.

Teaching Point 1 Describe Model Rocket Engine Materials

Time: 20 min Method: Interactive Lecture

Model rocket engines are composed of six basic parts.

paper case,

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clay nozzle,

black powder propellant,

delay composition,

ejection charge, and

igniter.

“Apogee Peak of Flight Newsletter”, 2003, How Black Powder Rocket Motors Work. Retrieved
November 16, 2007, from http://www.apogeerockets.com/educator/downloads/newsletter114.pdf
Figure 1-12-1 Cut-a-Way of a Rocket Engine

PAPER CASE

The case keeps the engine together and under the correct pressure. Without pressure, the reaction will proceed
too slowly and the fuel will burn without producing enough gas for efficient thrust. If the case is not strong enough
and the pressure gets too high, the engine will explode. The engine case can be made of paper, cardboard,
plastic or aluminum. Paper cases are rolled from paper to form a solid tube of cardboard.

CLAY NOZZLE

The nozzle directs the gas that is formed by the reaction of the oxidant out the back of the rocket. The nozzle
is formed so the gasses are accelerated as they pass through the nozzle and provide efficient thrust. Nozzles
can be made of clay, ceramic and metal.

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BLACK POWDER PROPELLANT

The propellant is the substance, which actually burns or is oxidized. This reaction between the oxidizer and
fuel generates gas and heat, which provides the power for the rocket.

Model rocket engines use black powder as both the oxidizer and fuel. The black powder is mixed with other
components and is packed or molded into a solid form inside the engine case. These engines are easy to
use and safe to transport because the components do not require special containers and the engines are very
unlikely to ignite accidentally.

The propellant burns at a prescribed rate and propels the rocket through the atmosphere. The propellant burns
stronger at takeoff and has less force towards the end of the power stage. This can be represented in a time-
to-thrust graph.

“Estes Rocketry”, 2007, by T. Beach, 1993, Model Rocketry Technical Manual. Retrieved
October 10, 2007, from http://www.estesrockets.com/assets/downloads/roecketrytechniques.pdf
Figure 1-12-2 Time/Thrust Curves

Average thrust is calculated by dividing the total impulse by the duration of the propellant burning.

Depending on the depth of the igniter hole, rocket engines can burn two different ways. Shallow holes in the
propellant result in end burn where the propellant burns from one end to the other. Engines requiring more lift
use deep holes in the propellant causing the fuel to burn quickly resulting in extra lift earlier on in the flight.

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“Estes Rocketry”, 2007, by T. Beach, 1993, Model Rocketry Technical Manual. Retrieved
October 10, 2007, from http://www.estesrockets.com/assets/downloads/roecketrytechniques.pdf
Figure 1-12-3 Model Rocket Engine Codes

Model rocket engines are labelled with a three-part classification code (“B6-4”, for example) that describes the
performance parameters of the engine. This code must be understood in order to choose the proper engine for
the model rocket. The first part of the engine code is a letter designating the motor’s total impulse class (the
“B” in B6-4). Engine size is determined by the amount of propellant and case size. As engine size increases,
the letter in the engine code changes to the next letter of the alphabet, and the engine is twice as powerful as
the previous letter (eg. A series engines have 1.26 to 2.5 Newton seconds of force and B series engines 2.5 to
5 Newton seconds of force). Total impulse is the total power the engine produces. Total impulse is a measure
of the momentum change the engine can impart to the rocket, measured in Newton-seconds. An engine with
greater total impulse can lift a rocket higher and faster, and can lift heavier rockets, than an engine with lower
total impulse. The table below gives the total impulse ranges and typical rocket performance for each class.

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“Estes Rocketry”, 2007, by T. Beach, 1993, Model Rocketry Technical Manual. Retrieved
October 10, 2007, from http://www.estesrockets.com/assets/downloads/roecketrytechniques.pdf
Figure 1-12-4 Impulse Classification for Model Rocket Engines

THE DELAY COMPOSITION

After the propellant has burned entirely the delay composition starts burning to allow the rocket to coast to the
highest point in the flight or the apogee. As the delay composition burns, it emits smoke, allowing tracking of
the rocket in its flight. Delay composition burn times can vary from 3–10 seconds and are linked to the weight
and size characteristics of the rocket. A heavy and slow rocket would require a shorter burn time, as it would
not be moving through the air as fast as a smaller lighter rocket with the same code engine. It is important to
calculate the delay as deployment of the parachute or streamer during high speed before or after apogee can
result in destruction of the parachute or streamer.

EJECTION CHARGE

The parachute or streamer is deployed by the ejection charge. This black powder charge ignites immediately
after the delay composition has completed burning. It pushes the parachute or streamer and nose cone out
of the front of the rocket.

IGNITER

The igniter uses an electrically activated fuse to ignite the propellant. An electrical source supplies power to
the control panel and control switch. Switching on the power at the control switch causes the igniter to burn,
which ignites the propellant.

CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 1

QUESTIONS

Q1. The engine case of a model rocket engine can be made from what materials?

Q2. Why does a model rocket require an ejection charge?

Q3. How does an igniter work?

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ANTICIPATED ANSWERS

A1. Paper, cardboard, plastic or aluminum.

A2. To deploy the parachute or streamer.

A3. Switching on the power at the control switch causes the igniter to burn, which ignites the propellant.

Teaching Point 2 Describe the Parts of a Model Rocket

Time: 15 min Method: Interactive Lecture

A model rocket consists of the following parts:

nose cone,

body tube,

fins,

launch lug,

engine stop,

engine restraint,

shock cord, and

parachute.

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“Estes Rocketry”, 2007, by T. Beach, 1993, Model Rocketry Technical Manual. Retrieved
October 10, 2007, from http://www.estesrockets.com/assets/downloads/roecketrytechniques.pdf
Figure 1-12-5 Parts of a Model Rocket

NOSE CONE

The nose cone helps the rocket cut through the air during flight. It is important that the nose cone be
aerodynamic to offer the least resistance when moving through the air. There are several different styles of
nose cones, some for specific speeds. The nose cone is fitted to the body tube so that it can easily be ejected to
deploy the parachute. It has an attachment point on one end for the shock cord and can be made from plastic,
wood, Styrofoam™, fibreglass or carbon fibre.

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BODY TUBE

All the parts of the rocket attach to or are contained within the body tube. The tube must be rigid to maintain its
form during flight and can be made of cardboard, plastic, fibreglass or carbon fibre.

FINS

The fins help stabilize the rocket during flight. They are usually placed near the engine and are usually made
of balsa wood, plastic, cardboard, fibreglass or carbon fibre. They must be attached securely and accurately
to the body tube as any misalignment will result in an unpredictable flight. Fins on a rocket should be handled
with care to avoid damage and misalignment.

LAUNCH LUG

The launch lug guides the rocket off the launch pad for the first metre of flight until the rocket has reached
enough speed for the fins to stabilize the rocket. In order to launch the rocket the launch lug is placed on the
launch rod of the tower. The lug slides the rocket down the launch rod and is held there until launch. When the
launch button is pressed, the rocket engine accelerates the rocket up the launch rod guided by the lug and can
quickly achieve over 50 km/h before it leaves the launch rod. The lug can be made of cardboard or metal.

ENGINE STOP

The engine stop prevents the engine from being pushed through the body tube by the engine’s thrust. The
engine stop is usually made of cardboard.

ENGINE RESTRAINT

The restraint keeps the engine from being ejected out the tail of the rocket by the parachute deploying an
explosive charge. Restraints can be a metal strap, screws or strong tape.

Both the engine stop and restraint prevent the effects of Newton’s third law: for every action there is an equal
and opposite reaction.

SHOCK CORD

The ejection of the parachute must happen when the rocket reaches apogee or the highest point in the flight.
The shock cord absorbs the force of the explosion that ejects the parachute. One end of the shock cord is
attached to the nose cone, the other end to the body tube and the parachute is attached to the nose cone or
the middle of the shock cord.

PARACHUTE

The descent of the rocket must be controlled to avoid damage to people, property or the rocket. There are
several ways to slow the descent of the rocket. The most common is the parachute, which traps air in a canopy
to slow the decent. Parachute canopies are made of light flexible sheet material, in the form of a cross or circle.
Shroud lines are made of string or cord, with one end attached to the edges of the canopy and the other end
of the shroud lines are attached together to the shock cord or nose cone. Parachute sizes and shroud line
length are carefully calculated to control the descent. A parachute will allow the wind to carry the rocket far from
the launch tower. A parachute that is too small will cause the rocket to descend too quickly, possibly causing
damage to the rocket.

Other forms of descent can be used on different rockets. Streamers can be used with lightweight rockets and
act as a drag on the rocket. Free fall can only be used by the lightest rockets and has no additional equipment to
slow the rocket. The drag from the rocket’s body and fins will slow the rocket. Glide recovery involves attaching
a wing to the rocket to allow the rocket to glide to the Earth.

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CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 2

QUESTIONS

Q1. What purpose does the nose cone serve?

Q2. What does the launch lug do?

Q3. How do the fins affect the flight of the rocket?

ANTICIPATED ANSWERS

A1. It helps the rocket cut through the air.

A2. It guides the rocket off the launch pad.

A3. The fins stabilize the rocket during flight.

Teaching Point 3 Describe the Flight Profile of a Model Rocket

Time: 20 min Method: Interactive Lecture

The burn stages of a model rockets engine allow one to predict the flight profile of the rocket. The flight profile
of a model rocket consists of six stages:

1. ignition,

2. power,

3. coast/delay,

4. ejection,

5. descent, and

6. landing.

IGNITION

Ignition is the result of an electrical current lighting from the control panel and launch switch. The actual device
that starts the engine burning is the “igniter.” It looks like a match with wires coming off the tip. When the
electrical current passes through the igniter, it heats it up and causes it to burst into a flame. This flame is what
actually starts the propellant burning in the rocket engine.

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“Apogee Peak of Flight Newsletter”, 2003, How Black Powder Rocket Motors Work. Retrieved
November 16, 2007, from http://www.apogeerockets.com/educator/downloads/newsletter114.pdf
Figure 1-12-6 The Igniter

After ignition, the rocket will leave the launch tower under thrust. The launch tower guides the rocket during
low speed to ensure the rocket remains aligned on the prescribed course. The stabilizer fins on the rocket take
over as it leaves the launch rod on the tower, usually at around 50 km/h.

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“Apogee Peak of Flight Newsletter”, 2003, How Black Powder Rocket Motors Work. Retrieved
November 16, 2007, from http://www.apogeerockets.com/educator/downloads/newsletter114.pdf
Figure 1-12-7 The Propellant Ignited

POWER

The propellant inside the engine burns quickly. In most engines, the propellant is consumed in less than three
seconds, at which point burnout occurs. This means the engine is no longer producing a thrust force. By the
time the engine burns out, the rocket has already reached its top speed and begins decelerating. While the
rocket may reach hundreds of metres in the air, the burnout location on most rockets is about 15–25 m (50–
80 feet) in the air.

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“Apogee Peak of Flight Newsletter”, 2003, How Black Powder Rocket Motors Work. Retrieved
November 16, 2007, from http://www.apogeerockets.com/educator/downloads/newsletter114.pdf
Figure 1-12-8 Thrust Phase

COAST/DELAY

When the engine burns out, the rocket may be travelling hundreds of kilometres per hour. The parachute or
streamer can be destroyed if it is ejected at this speed. The model will coast upward and lose airspeed as gravity
and air friction slow it down. The period of time that starts at engine burnout and ends when the parachute is
ejected out of the rocket is called the coast phase. The delay composition is now burning at a prescribed rate
and produces smoke. The rocket moves so fast, that it is hard to follow visually and the smoke helps give a
visual indication of the location of the rocket.

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“Apogee Peak of Flight Newsletter”, 2003, How Black Powder Rocket Motors Work. Retrieved
November 16, 2007, from http://www.apogeerockets.com/educator/downloads/newsletter114.pdf
Figure 1-12-9 Delay or Coast Phase

EJECTION

When the delay composition is done burning, the rocket should be at apogee. As the delay composition finishes
burning it ignites the ejection charge. This ejection charge burns quickly, and is directed forward inside the
rocket body tube. Its goal is to push off the nose cone, and eject the parachute out of the rocket. Ejection
should occur right at apogee when the rocket has reached its slowest speed. Engine selection controls when
the ejection charge pushes out the parachute. If the delay composition burns too long, the rocket will arc over,
and will eject the chute while the rocket has begun accelerating in free fall descent. If the delay composition
burns too quickly, the rocket may still be moving too fast as it has not coasted to its highest point.

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“Apogee Peak of Flight Newsletter”, 2003, How Black Powder Rocket Motors Work. Retrieved
November 16, 2007, from http://www.apogeerockets.com/educator/downloads/newsletter114.pdf
Figure 1-12-10 Beginning of the Ejection Phase

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“Apogee Peak of Flight Newsletter”, 2003, How Black Powder Rocket Motors Work. Retrieved
November 16, 2007, from http://www.apogeerockets.com/educator/downloads/newsletter114.pdf
Figure 1-12-11 Ejection Phase

DESCENT

After the parachute has ejected, it fully inflates, and the rocket begins its descent phase. The rocket drifts slowly
to the ground under the canopy of the parachute or drag of the streamer. The wind will affect the descent of
the rocket and this will result in the model drifting away from the launch pad. Descent should not be more than
4.5 m/s (15 feet per second) or it is possible to damage the rocket. If the descent is too slow, the rocket will
drift farther from the launch pad affecting recovery.

LANDING

After landing, the rocket should be fully inspected before the next launch. The engine case should be discarded.

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“Estes Rocketry”, 2007, by T. Beach, 1993, Model Rocketry Technical Manual. Retrieved
October 10, 2007, from http://www.estesrockets.com/assets/downloads/roecketrytechniques.pdf
Figure 1-12-12 Model Rocket Flight Profile

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CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 3

QUESTIONS

Q1. How is a model rocket tracked during its flight?

Q2. When is the optimum time during a rocket’s flight profile to deploy the parachute or streamer?

Q3. Why is there a delay or coast phase during the rocket’s flight?

ANTICIPATED ANSWERS

A1. Smoke is emitted by the delay composition and parachute or streamer can track the flight of rockets.

A2. At apogee.

A3. To allow the rocket to slow down enough to deploy the parachute without destroying it.

Teaching Point 4 Explain Model Rocketry Safety Rules

Time: 15 min Method: Interactive Lecture

The hobby of model rocketry originated at the dawn of the space age in the late 1950s. Seeing space boosters
carry the first artificial satellites into Earth’s orbit inspired many enthusiastic young people to try to emulate
the rocket pioneers by building their own rockets. Unfortunately, these homemade rockets involved stuffing
flammable chemicals into metal pipes, very often with tragic results. Newspapers told stories of fingers and
eyes lost and all too frequently of lives lost.

What was needed was a safe alternative that would allow young people to experience constructing and
launching their own rockets and provide them with the opportunity to explore the science of rocketry.

Several companies developed engines that did not explode and provided a safe flight for model rockets. This
style of engine is still in use today.

Safety is important when flying model rockets. It is impossible to get out of the way of a rocket going over
400 km/h. The flame produced by the engine is extremely hot and capable of inflicting serious burns or setting
objects on fire. Therefore, there are rules in place for launching rockets. The Canadian Aviation Regulations
(CARs) and the Canadian Association of Model Rocketry (CAR) have rules for launching model rockets.

Distribute photocopies of Annexes W and X to the cadets.

The CARs establish that a model rocket equipped with a model rocket engine will not have a total impulse
exceeding 160 Newton-seconds and will not exceed 1500 grams, and will be equipped with a parachute or
recovery device capable of retarding its descent. Anything above these parameters requires a high power
model rocketry license and permission to fly from Transport Canada.

The CAR model rocket rules cover launch site size, model rocket construction and launch procedures.

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CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 4

QUESTIONS

Q1. Who establishes the rules for model rocketry in Canada?

Q2. Why is safety important when launching model rockets?

Q3. What is the maximum weight of a model rocket?

ANTICIPATED ANSWERS

A1. Canadian Association of Rocketry.

A2. Because of the potential dangers from the rocket engine’s flame and the high velocity of the rocket.

A3. 1500 grams.

END OF LESSON CONFIRMATION

QUESTIONS

Q1. When do the fins help guide the rocket during its flight?

Q2. How are rocket engines classified?

Q3. How do we slow a rocket’s descent?

Q4. What purpose does the nose cone serve?

Q5. What is apogee?

ANTICIPATED ANSWERS

A1. When the rocket achieves over 50 km/h or when it leaves the launch rod.

A2. By letter, each successive letter doubles the force of the engine.

A3. By using a parachute or streamer.

A4. It helps the rocket cut through the air.

A5. The highest point of a flight.

CONCLUSION

HOMEWORK/READING/PRACTICE

N/A.

METHOD OF EVALUATION

N/A.

CLOSING STATEMENT

Model rocketry is a fun and exciting sport. The cadets will apply the knowledge in this lesson to their model
rockets ensuring a safe and successful rocket launch. The cadets will continue flying larger model rockets in

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the Advanced Aerospace Course that will include payloads. It is important that the cadets know the parts of
a model rocket, how a model rocket engine works, and model rocket safety, so they can plan the flight profile
of their model rocket.

INSTRUCTOR NOTES/REMARKS

N/A.

REFERENCES

C3-162 Beach, T. (1993). Model Rocketry Technical Manual. Retrieved October 10, 2007, from http://
www.estesrockets.com/assets/downloads/roecketrytechniques.pdf.

C3-163 Cannon, R. L. (1999). A Learning Guide for Model Rocket Launch Systems. Retrieved October
10, 2007, from http://www.estesrockets.com/assets/downloads/launchsystemguide.pdf.

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ROYAL CANADIAN AIR CADETS

BASIC AVIATION TECHNOLOGY AND AEROSPACE

INSTRUCTIONAL GUIDE

SECTION 13

EO S240.13 – ASSEMBLE A MODEL ROCKET

Total Time: 40 min

PREPARATION

PRE-LESSON INSTRUCTIONS

Resources needed for the delivery of this lesson are listed in the lesson specification located in A-CR-CCP-
824/PG-001, Chapter 4. Specific uses for said resources are identified throughout the instructional guide within
the TP for which they are required.

Review the lesson content and assemble one of the rocket kits to become familiar with the kit and its components
prior to delivering the lesson.

Read the instruction sheet included with the model rocket and follow the directions for assembly.

PRE-LESSON ASSIGNMENT

N/A.

APPROACH

A practical activity was chosen for this lesson as it is an interactive way to introduce the cadets to building
model rockets.

INTRODUCTION

REVIEW

N/A.

OBJECTIVES

By the end of this lesson the cadet shall have assembled a model rocket.

IMPORTANCE

It is important for the cadets to assemble the model rocket as it will allow them to launch their respective model
rocket in EO S240.14 (Launch a Model Rocket, Section 14).

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Teaching Point 1 Demonstrate and Have the Cadets Assemble a Model Rocket

Time: 35 min Method: Practical Activity

ACTIVITY

OBJECTIVE

The objective of this activity is to have the cadets assemble a model rocket.

RESOURCES

Quest Aerospace: Item Number 5583 Starhawk bulk pack of 25 rockets, or

Estes Rockets: Item Number 1793 UP Aerospace Spaceloft bulk pack of 12 rockets,

No. 11 hobby knives,

Cement for plastic models,

Scissors, and

Pencil.

ACTIVITY LAYOUT

N/A.

ACTIVITY INSTRUCTIONS

1. Familiarize the cadets with the parts of the rocket.

2. Distribute one model rocket kit to each cadet.

3. Demonstrate and have the cadets in groups of two, complete the steps in building a model rocket.

SAFETY

Caution is required when using sharp tools.

Provide adequate ventilation when using solvent based glues.

CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 1

The cadets’ participation in this activity will be the confirmation of this TP.

END OF LESSON CONFIRMATION

The cadets’ participation in the construction of a model rocket will be the confirmation of this lesson.

CONCLUSION

HOMEWORK/READING/PRACTICE

N/A.

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METHOD OF EVALUATION

N/A.

CLOSING STATEMENT

This lesson builds on the cadets’ knowledge of model rocketry by allowing them to put it into practice. This
lesson also provides a model rocket for each cadet to launch.

INSTRUCTOR NOTES/REMARKS

N/A.

REFERENCES

C3-162 Beach, T. (1993). Model Rocketry Technical Manual. Retrieved October 10, 2007, from http://
www.estesrockets.com/assets/downloads/roecketrytechniques.pdf.

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ROYAL CANADIAN AIR CADETS

BASIC AVIATION TECHNOLOGY AND AEROSPACE

INSTRUCTIONAL GUIDE

SECTION 14

EO S240.14 – LAUNCH A MODEL ROCKET

Total Time: 40 min

PREPARATION

PRE-LESSON INSTRUCTIONS

Resources needed for the delivery of this lesson are listed in the lesson specification located in A-CR-CCP-
824/PG-001, Chapter 4. Specific uses for said resources are identified throughout the instructional guide within
the TP for which they are required.

Review the lesson content and become familiar with the material prior to delivering the lesson.

The set up of the launch site must be completed IAW the Launch Site Set Up located at Annex Y of this lesson.

Prepare and gather resources as required to run concurrent activities.

Practice rocket engine and igniter installation.

Assemble the rocket launch controllers and launch tower.

Three additional assistant instructors are required for this activity.

PRE-LESSON ASSIGNMENT

N/A.

APPROACH

A practical activity was chosen for this lesson as it is an interactive way to introduce cadets to model rocketry
in a safe, controlled environment.

INTRODUCTION

REVIEW

N/A.

OBJECTIVES

By the end of this lesson the cadet shall have launched a model rocket.

IMPORTANCE

It is important for cadets to experience the thrill of launching a model rocket as it will stimulate an interest in
aerospace, model rocketry and the cadet program. This lesson in model rocketry expands on what the cadet
has seen in EO M140.01 (Build and Launch a Model Rocket, A-CR-CCP-801/PF-001, Royal Canadian Air

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Cadets Level One, Instructional Guides, Chapter 13, Section 1) and EO S140.02 (Launch a Bottle Rocket, A-
CR-CCP-811/PF-001, Royal Canadian Air Cadets General Training Course, Instructional Guides, Chapter 9,
Section 2). It will also develop a sense of pride of accomplishment in seeing a project through to the end.

Teaching Point 1 Have the Cadet Launch a Model Rocket

Time: 150 min Method: Practical Activity

ACTIVITY

OBJECTIVE

The objective of this activity is to have the cadets launch the model rockets they assembled in EO
S240.13 (Assemble a Model Rocket, Section 13).

RESOURCES

Preassembled model rockets from EO S240.13 (Assemble a Model Rocket, Section 13),

3 model rocket launch towers,

3 model rocket launch controllers,

80 m safety tape,

18 modular tent pegs or a suitable substitute,

Safety glasses,

Voltmeter,

Pliers,

Screwdriver,

Electrical tape, and

Items for concurrent activities.

ACTIVITY LAYOUT

Set up the launch site IAW instructions located at Annex Y.

ACTIVITY INSTRUCTIONS

1. Have the cadets press the launch buttons and launch their rockets.

2. Have the cadets track the rockets through their flights; and

3. After the rockets have landed, the cadets recover them.

Occasionally there are moments when the rocket launches are delayed. Be prepared to run
concurrent activities during these delays.

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Model rocket launch procedure is located at Annex Z.

SAFETY

Ensure control at all times of the entire rocket site.

Only the instructor and the cadets launching the rockets will be in the launch control area.

Spectators will remain at least 20 m from the launch tower.

Engines should be kept in a steel box and only distributed when the rockets are ready to be launched.

Horseplay will not be tolerated at any time during the launching of model rockets.

Recovery should be done quickly as delay may prevent the launching of all the rockets.

CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 1

The cadets’ participation in the activity will serve as the confirmation of this TP.

END OF LESSON CONFIRMATION

The cadets’ participation in the model rocket launch will serve as the confirmation of this lesson.

CONCLUSION

HOMEWORK/READING/PRACTICE

N/A.

METHOD OF EVALUATION

N/A.

CLOSING STATEMENT

Model rocketry is a fun and exciting sport. Launching these rockets is an introductory lesson in model rocketry.
The cadets on the Advanced Aerospace Course will launch larger rockets that can reach 600 km/h (372 miles/
h) in flight with an apogee above 610 m (2000 feet).

INSTRUCTOR NOTES/REMARKS

N/A.

REFERENCES

C3-162 Beach, T. (1993). Model Rocketry Technical Manual. Retrieved October 10, 2007, from http://
www.estesrockets.com/assets/downloads/roecketrytechniques.pdf.

C3-163 Cannon, R. L. (1999). A Learning Guide for Model Rocket Launch Systems. Retrieved October
10, 2007, from http://www.estesrockets.com/assets/downloads/launchsystemguide.pdf.

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Chapter 1, Annex A

HISTORY OF ASTRONOMY

ACT 1: ANCIENT ASTRONOMY

Narrator: Welcome to a journey through the history of astronomy. Astronomy is one of man’s
oldest subjects. For thousands of years we have gazed at the stars and planets in
wonderment, trying to understand our place in the universe. Mathematics played an
important role for early astronomers as man calculated the movement of the stars and
planets.
We begin our journey through history of astronomy in the Pacific Islands about four or
five thousand years ago.

SCENE I: POLYNESIAN TRAVELLERS


Cast:
Narrator
Helmsman
Captain
Navigator
Scene I takes place on the open Pacific Ocean at night. The helmsman steers as the Captain and the
navigator discuss their course.

Narrator: A cool breeze carries the ship across the Pacific. Polynesian navigators were infamous
for their navigational skills.

Captain: It is a dark night.

Navigator: Yes but the sky is clear and the guide stars shine bright.

Captain: Are you sure this is the right direction?

Navigator: Yes, I am sure this is the right direction. The guide stars have never let us down. For
many generations our ancestors have used the guide stars to navigate these waters
and I trust our ancestor’s experience. This IS the way!

Captain: I trust you…as long as you remember our ancestor’s directions that have been passed
down through the generations.

Helmsman: (to the audience) I don’t trust him; we should be going that way! (pointing in the
opposite direction).

Narrator: Before recorded time, humankind used the stars for navigation.

SCENE II: EGYPTIAN BUILDERS


Cast:
Narrator
Head Engineer
Foreman
Worker
Scene II takes place on the desert sand as the preparation for construction of a pyramid begins.

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Narrator: Egyptians are famous for the pyramids. These buildings are magnificent in their
construction and leave modern day engineers baffled by their immensity and accuracy.
Let us listen in on a conversation as they were being built.

Head Engineer: I believe the sun is almost in the right position. We must hurry or it will be too late for us
to align the foundation. The alignment is critical!

Foreman: Hurry with those ropes! Get those poles ready!


(To the Head Engineer) Can you verify the alignment as we set up?

Head Engineer: Yes, I can, but the sun will be in position for just a moment. We must hurry or we will
have to wait another year. This will make the Gods angry. Do YOU want to make the
Gods angry?

Foreman: We will be ready for the sun. (To the workers) Hurry! That’s it now hold it steady…

Head Engineer: Perfect! Everything is aligned by the sun and Earth. The Gods will be pleased. Thank
the workers for me. I need to tell the Pharaoh of our success.

Worker: The work is done, let us celebrate! (Cheers as the group departs).

Narrator: The Egyptians used the sun to align their pyramids and buildings. They were very
accurate in their alignment to the north and south. The pyramids were level within the
thickness of your finger over their entire base!

SCENE III: THE BABYLONIANS 2000 BC


Cast:
Narrator
Chief Astronomer
Apprentice
Scene III takes place at night with the apprentice talking with the Chief astronomer while gazing at the stars.

Narrator: Without television or Internet to distract them, the Babylonians had the time to calculate
a seasonal calendar.

Apprentice: Master, how does the moon help us with the calendar?

Chief Astronomer: The moon tells us the length of one month with its different crescent pattern each night.
The planets as well help us with our calendar. They tell us when to plant and when to
prepare for rain and floods.

Apprentice: Have they always been true?

Chief Astronomer: As far back as has been written they have always been true. Our three most prominent
Gods, Venus, the goddess of love, Mars, the god of war, and Jupiter, the god of
Babylon, guide us through the year while the moon gives us our months.

Apprentice: We must keep the gods happy.

Narrator: Our time system based on 60 comes from the Babylonian mathematical system, which
based on 60, or 360 degrees in a circle, allowed them to calculate when and where the
planets would appear in the night sky. Each year the Babylonians would create a guide
for the occurrences of the planets.

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SCENE IV: STONEHENGE


Cast:
Narrator
Chief Priest
Priest
Scene IV takes place in the centre of Stonehenge during the night.

Narrator: Stonehenge is regarded as one of the most intriguing examples of our obsession with
the stars and planets. Let’s eavesdrop on the chief priest and a priest as they discuss
some of the aspects of Stonehenge.

Chief Priest: You see how the alignment of the moon marks the beginning of planting. We must let
the farmers know of this.

Priest: Will there be a sacrifice this evening?

Chief priest: We will ask the clan chief if this is necessary.

Narrator: The placement of the stones in Stonehenge at first aligned the phases of the moon but
were later altered to align with solar solstices. This is how the people who constructed
Stonehenge kept track of the different seasons and were able to plant their crops early
enough to have the best yields.

ACT 2: THE ANCIENT GREEK CONCEPTS OF ASTRONOMY


SCENE 1: THE GATHERING OF THE ASTRONOMERS
Cast:
Narrator
Plato
Aristotle
Ptolemy
Pythagoras
Scene I takes place in the Parthenon. The Greek philosophers are sitting down and discussing their personal
views of the universe.
(The astronomers are each wearing a large nametag that reads “Hello my name is ___”. (eg. Hello my name
is PLATO))

Narrator: Humankind’s quest for understanding the universe had its odd moments. Some thought
the world was flat and most thought the Earth was the centre of the universe. They
provided proof of this by using early mathematics. Fortunately, someone always
doubts the current theories. Here we will listen to a conversation between some of the
important early Greek astronomers as they discuss there theories on the cosmos.

Pythagoras: The ancient people use to explain natural phenomena through myths and gods. We
are looking into philosophy and physics to explain the world around us. We believe that
mathematics and numbers are the key to unlock the universe’s secrets.

Plato: Everyone knows that the Earth is round. Here is proof: We can plainly see boats
disappear over the horizon, and, the Earth’s shadow on the moon during the moon’s

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eclipse is curved. The Universe, the domain of the gods, must be made of perfect
spheres. Each planet has is own sphere, and the highest sphere is the constellation.

Pythagoras: I was talking to Heraclites and he believes that the Earth must rotate on itself!

Aristotle: No you foolish man! The Earth is not turning! No, I Aristotle, Plato’s apprentice,
believes that the perfect movement is a circular motion because the universe is perfect
and so is the symmetry of the circle. This is how I see the universe: it is made of four
elements, earth, water, fire and air. Each of these elements tries to reach its natural
place in the universe. For air and fire, the outside is their natural place, and for water
and earth, the inside. In addition, because the stars turn without falling, there must be a
fifth element …

Plato: While Eratosthenes worked as the director of the great library of Alexandria, he found
a way to calculate the Earth’s circumference. He had heard that during the longest day
of the year, in the city of Syrene, at noon, the sun is exactly at the top of the sky. At
the same time, in Alexandria, when we look at the shadow of an object, we can see
that the solar rays are at an angle of seven degrees. Since the Earth has 360 degrees
around it, the distance between the two cities is seven divided by the 360 degrees of
the Earth. He hired somebody to measure, on foot, the distance between the two cities
and he found it to be 820 km. Therefore, he concluded the Earth’s circumference is 820
times 360 divided by seven, which equals 42 000 km.

Ptolemy: Gentleman, all of your theories are very nice, but they do not explain certain things…
for example, the retrograde movement of the planets and their variable speed. I have
calculated a system that explains everything. It is based on the combination of many
circular movements. Each planet turns around a little circle called an epicycle, and the
epicycle turns around Earth on a bigger circle.

Narrator: This theory of the Earth being the centre of the universe would come back to haunt
humankind in the future. When this theory reappears, it will impede astronomical
discoveries for hundreds of years!

ACT 3: RENAISSANCE YEARS


SCENE I: Copernicus
Cast:
Narrator
Copernicus
Friend
Scene I takes place in Copernicus’s observatory.

Narrator: Copernicus was born in 1492 in Torun, Poland and attended the university in Cracow
followed by several other universities. This is where his obsession with astronomy
started.

Friend: Nicolas! Are you still working? It is almost two o’clock in the morning!

Copernicus: I am just finishing a new theory on astronomy.

Friend: I see…and what have you found?

Copernicus: I do not think Ptolemy’s model is correct. If we consider that the planets are turning
around the sun, retrograde movement is possible, and we can see the closer the

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planets are to the sun, the shorter their period of revolution. Clearly the sun is the
centre of the solar system

Friend: That is extraordinary! You must write a book and publish it and let the world know!

Copernicus: Are you crazy? I will be accused of heresy! Ptolemy’s system is so old and well
established, no one will believe me.

Friend: You have powerful friends in the Church, Nicolas. You will not be sentenced! You know
it takes nothing to try.

Copernicus: Maybe you are right, but would you mind publishing it?

Friend: Of course I will!

Narrator: Copernicus was right. His heliocentric system went against Christian beliefs which may
have resulted in dire consequences. The publisher changed the introduction so that it
read that the new system is not the truth, but would be a useful tool for calculating the
movements of the planets.

SCENE II: Galileo


Cast:
Narrator
Scientist
Galileo
Scene II takes place in the streets of a small town in Italy.

Narrator: Galileo was born in 1564 in Italy. He made use of the latest technology for his time,
the telescope. It was amazing that he could see the things in the sky that he recorded
considering his telescope was very rudimentary compared to today’s telescopes. Let’s
listen to a chance meeting with this famous astronomer.

Scientist: Excuse me sir, are You Mr. Galilei?

Galileo: Yes… Do you know me?

Scientist: Of course I do! You have quite a reputation you know! Is that the astronomic glass that
you built?

Galileo: Yes it is. A traveller came to sell a set to the rulers of the city. The rulers refused to buy
it from the poor man and then asked me to build a more powerful one. This one is 33
times more powerful than the one the traveller was selling. What is most extraordinary
is that I have actually observed the sky with it.

Scientist: Why is that so extraordinary?

Galileo: To look at the sky, the domain of God, with this toy is probably sacrilegious! Many
people still think that my astronomic glasses deform reality. I am certain of the exact
opposite! Look for yourself to see what I have discovered. First, look over here at the
moon. You see it is not the perfect sphere the Greeks thought it was, but rather there
are some mountains and holes on it like the Earth. There, Venus, with its phases as
Copernicus predicted. There, my biggest discovery, around Jupiter we can clearly
see some other planets in orbit. That means that everything must not necessarily turn
around the Earth. It proves that the Copernican system works!

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Scientist: Congratulation’s Sir, I hope that your idea will be well received in the scientific
community.

(Later, before a judge in a courtroom.)

Narrator: Galileo now faces a judge over his published book.

Judge: Galileo, you are accused of disseminating ideas against the Holy words regarding the
conception of the universe. Your books are now prohibited. Renounce your beliefs and
put your faith in the Holy Bible.

Galileo: I renounce, but I want you to know that when I renounce this, my spirit dies.

Judge: Very good, this inquisition tribunal orders you to spend the rest of your days under
house arrest.

Narrator: Galileo avoided astronomy until his death in 1642.

SCENE III: Johannes Kepler and his three orbital laws


Cast:
Narrator
Kepler
Scene III takes place in Kepler’s lab as he goes over mathematical formulas.

Narrator: Kepler was excellent at calculating things. He established that the planets moved in
elliptical orbits.

Kepler: It has been six years since I began trying to find the correct orbit of Mars using one
astronomer’s observations. According to my calculations, it is supposed to be here,
(pointing to the left) but according to his observations, it is supposed to be there
(pointing 15 degrees from the first). The difference is not very important, but I have
absolute trust in his observations. Unless… yes! The orbits could be elliptical instead of
perfect circles.

(More calculating…)

Kepler: There it is … using the three laws that I have discovered, it is now possible to calculate
and predict the exact positions of the planets with a simple system of seven ellipses
instead of Copernicus’ 48 circles. I have succeeded and have found a reliable system!

ACT 4: MODERN ASTRONOMERS


SCENE I: Sir Isaac Newton
Cast:
Narrator
Interviewer
Newton
Scene I takes place in Sir Isaac Newton’s study.

Narrator: Now let’s have someone prove that the Earth is not the centre of the universe. Sir Isaac
Newton came up with some interesting theories regarding gravity and how objects in

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space orbit other objects. Let’s eavesdrop on an interview between Sir Isaac and a
journalist.

Interviewer: People everywhere are talking about this new theory. Can you tell us how you came to
these conclusions?

Newton: Let me explain how it happened. I was sitting under a tree in my garden when an apple
fell on my head. I said to myself that the apple had fallen down because the Earth
attracted it, and the apple should have attracted the Earth as well. Then, I asked myself
if it could be possible that the Earth attracts the moon with the same force as it attracts
the apple, and that the moon attracts the Earth too. It could be the same for all the
other stars in the universe. Thus, I developed the Universal Law of Gravity!

Interviewer: This new law, how did you prove it?

Newton: I calculated it and proved it mathematically using a new type of mathematics that I
invented. If the orbits obey this law, they should be elliptic.

Narrator: Thanks to Sir Isaac, this is how we now understand how things in our universe move.
They may seem like simple concepts but before this, humans could not pinpoint exactly
how the universe worked.

SCENE II: Einstein’s Theory of Relativity


Cast:
Narrator
Einstein
Hubble
Scene II takes place at a desk in the observatory.

Narrator: Albert Einstein was born in Württemberg, Germany in 1879. He was a professor
of physics and enjoyed calculating the mysteries of the universe. Here he is in
conversation with Edwin Hubble, a fellow astronomer.

Einstein: This is crazy! The consequences of the application of my new theory on the universe
are unbelievable! First, it shows that Newton’s Law of Gravity is not the absolute truth.
Gravity is actually very different! Newton’s Law of Gravity is just an approximation of
what is really happening and is useful only in specific situations. My Law of Gravity
does not only rely on the attraction between objects; it curves space and slows down
time! Could it be possible?

However, what I really cannot believe is that my theory predicts that the universe is in
constant expansion… I cannot believe it! I will introduce a constant into my calculation
in order to obtain a static universe…

Hubble: My dear Einstein, here are the results of the latest observations and research about
the expansion of the universe… and the conclusion is clear: the universe is in constant
expansion.

Narrator: Actually Newton’s laws apply for most of the universe with the exception of black holes.
This concludes our presentation. Thank you.

All take a bow.

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PLANET SPECIFICATIONS SHEET

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PLANET SPECIFICATIONS ANSWER KEY

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PLANET DESCRIPTION SHEET

SUN DESCRIPTION SHEET

THE SUN

The sun is something that can be observed in everyday life using the naked eye. Human civilization has used
the sun as a means of time-keeping for thousands of years, measuring the seasons, the years, and the length
of a day based on the rising and setting of the sun. The sun has also been the centre of various religions over
the centuries, most notably in the Egyptian and Aztec civilizations.

Definition

The sun is a star, an astral body made up of gases such as hydrogen. The size of a star means that it attracts
other astral bodies around it. These are called star systems. Our sun has eight planets in orbit around it, creating
what humans call the solar system. This name stems from the Latin name for the sun, Sol.

Our sun is classified as a Yellow Dwarf star. This means that our sun is transforming hydrogen into helium
through a process known as nuclear fusion. In order to be classified as a Yellow Dwarf, a star must also meet
certain size and temperature specifications. Since our sun is the closest, most visible and therefore easiest to
study, it is used as the benchmark for these specifications.

Size
27
The sun is a huge astral body, especially when compared to Earth. The mass of the sun is approximately 2x10
tonnes. That is 2 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 tonnes or the same as 332 946 times the mass of
Earth. The sun’s diameter, measured at its equator, is 1 392 000 km.

The Sun’s Axis

Like all astral bodies the sun rotates around an axis. This axis is an imaginary line which passes through the
centre of the sun. Not all axes are perfectly straight up and down or across. Since humans measure time relative
to Earth, rotation is measured in standard Earth days. The angle that the axis makes as it passes through the
body is called inclination.

Rotation. The sun rotates once around its axis in 25.4 standard Earth days. Due to the gaseous nature of the
sun, it rotates slower at the poles than at the equator. At the poles the rotation takes 34 standard Earth days.

Inclination. The angle at which the sun’s axis runs through the sun is zero degrees to the perpendicular.

Surface Temperature

By its very nature the sun produces light and heat. These are the result of the nuclear reaction which is
occurring on a daily basis. Every day the sun transforms thousands of tonnes of hydrogen into helium, a
reaction which creates high temperatures at the sun’s core and surface. The core temperature is approximately
15 000 000 degress Celsius, while the surface is a cool 5500 degrees Celsius.

The Sun’s Satellites

Many astral bodies have another astral body in orbit around it. The sun has a large amount of gravitational pull
due to its large size. This pull is what keeps the sun’s satellites in orbit around it. There are nine astral bodies
in orbit around the sun and one belt of asteroids. Eight of these bodies are recognized as planets, while the
ninth (Pluto) has been recently removed from the list of planets in our solar system. This decision was based
on the latest research available.

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These satellites include, in order from the sun:

Mercury (planet),

Venus (planet),

Earth (planet),

Mars (planet),

the asteroid belt (including Ceres and Vesta),

Jupiter (planet),

Saturn (planet),

Uranus (planet),

Neptune (planet), and

Pluto (micro-planet).

Each of the planets, except for Earth, is named after a Roman deity. Most of the planets above have their own
satellites, such as our moon.

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MERCURY DESCRIPTION SHEET

MERCURY

The planet Mercury, named for the Roman messenger god, is the closest planet to the sun. It is the smallest
planet and a cratered wasteland. Since it is so close to the sun it means the planet is completely at the mercy
of solar radiation, solar flares, and other solar weather phenomena. The planet is also battered by the many
asteroids that float through space. The sun’s gravitational pull means that these free floating bodies of rock
accelerate towards the sun. Depending on Mercury’s position in orbit, these asteroids may impact its surface.
There are craters on Mercury that are 600 km wide. It should be noted that our knowledge of this planet is
still incomplete. Only one man-made satellite has ever passed by Mercury, and it was only able to collect
information about a small portion of the planet’s surface.

Distance from the Sun

Mercury is the closest planet to the sun. The range varies from 46 000 000 to 70 000 000 km. The mean
distance, or average distance is be 58 000 000 km.

Size

Mercury is the smallest planet in our solar system. Its mass is 0.055 times the mass of Earth. Mercury’s diameter
is a mere 4 878 km. The planet is so small that it has a volume that is only 0.056 times that of Earth.

Orbit

Mercury has what is known as an eccentric orbit. This means that the distance the planet is from the sun varies
throughout its revolution around the sun. The actual shape that the planet would travel around the sun would
be an oval, or egg shape. This can be seen in the extreme range in the planet’s distance from the sun.

Mercury travels around the sun once every 88 standard Earth days. This means that the Mercurian year is
88 days long. Mercury’s synodic period is 115.9 days. A synodic period is the time it takes for a planet to return
to a specific spot in the night sky as observed from Earth.

Mercury has an orbital velocity of 47.87 km/s. This means that the planet travels in its orbit around the sun at
a speed of 47.87 km/s or 172 332 km/h.

The Planet’s Axis

Rotation. Despite the quick pace that the planet travels around the sun, Mercury does not rotate around its
axis own very quickly. It takes 58.6 standard Earth days for the planet to rotate around its axis, or two-thirds of
a Mercurian year. Just like the Arctic Circle here on Earth, this means that there are 58 days of total daylight
and 58 days of total darkness.

Inclination. The axis of Mercury sits at an angle of two degrees.

Surface Temperature

Since Mercury is so close to the sun, the temperature on the surface there is extremely hot. At an average
temperature of 427 degrees Celsius, it is impossible for any known life to survive on Mercury.

The Planet’s Satellites

Mercury has no satellites in orbit around it. Only one man-made satellite, Mariner 10, has ever passed by
Mercury.

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The Planet’s Colour

Since Mercury is made up of approximately 70 percent iron, there is a reddish tinge to the planet when observed.
Otherwise it is a neutral colour.

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VENUS DESCRIPTION SHEET

VENUS

Travelling from the sun past Mercury, the next planet one would come across is Venus. Named for the Roman
goddess of love and beauty, Venus is constantly cloaked in cloud. This permanent cover means that scientists
know very little about the surface of the planet. Observed from Earth, Venus is the brightest planet in the night
sky. The Space Age has greatly enhanced our understanding of this planet. Prior to the 1960s, it was thought
that Venus was an oceanic planet equivalent in vegetation to Earth during pre-historic periods. Since the 1960s,
several satellites have been sent to Venus or on a path near Venus. These satellites have included Mariner 2
and 10, and the Russian Venera 7, 9, and 13 landings.

Distance from the Sun

Venus is the second closest planet to the sun at an average distance of 108.2 million km. The distance can
range from 107.4 million to 109 million km.

Size

Venus is very similar in size to Earth. Many scientists refer to Venus and Earth as near-twins. The diameter
of the planet at the equator is 12 104 km. Its mass is approximately 0.815 times the mass of Earth while its
volume is approximately 0.86 times the volume of Earth. In other words, Venus’ weight is 81 percent of Earth’s
weight and it takes up about 86 percent of the space that Earth does.

Orbit

Venus’ orbit around the sun is almost perfectly circular which explains the small range of distance from the sun.
It takes 224.7 standard Earth days for Venus to complete one revolution around the sun. This means that one
year on Venus is 224.7 days long. Venus’ synodic period is 583.92 days, meaning that the planet will return to
the same point in the Earth’s sky almost every two Earth years.

Venus has an orbital velocity of 35.02 km/s or 126 072 km/h.

The Planet’s Axis

Rotation. Venus is unique in that it is the only planet in our solar system which rotates East to West, or
clockwise. All other planets, including Earth, rotate west to east or counter-clockwise. It takes 243.16 days for
Venus to rotate around its axis. It should be noted that this is longer than the Venutian year.

Inclination. The axis of Venus sits at an angle of 178 degrees. This means that the planets north pole is actually
at the bottom of the planet.

Surface Temperature

Being the second planet, one would expect Venus to be hot though not nearly as hot as Mercury. In fact, the
surface of the planet is significantly hotter at 480 degrees Celsius. This increase is due to the composition of
the atmosphere. Where Mercury has no atmosphere, Venus is made up almost completely of carbon dioxide
(CO2). One of the properties of CO2 is that it retains the terrestrial radiation from the surface of the planet.
Essentially, Venus is a large greenhouse.

The Planet’s Satellites

Like Mercury, Venus has no natural satellites.

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The Planet’s Colour

Though most pictures shown in general reference books show Venus as a blue planet, this is not its true colour.
Most of these pictures were taken using ultra-violet light cameras, giving it a blue hue. The true colour is more
light beige, with streaks of light brown.

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EARTH DESCRIPTION SHEET

EARTH

The Earth is the third planet from the sun and is the only planet known to support life as we know it. The Earth’s
atmosphere is composed mainly of nitrogen and oxygen. The temperatures are moderate, due to the ozone
layer found in our atmosphere. There is water on our planet, which in current scientific belief is an absolute
requirement for life.

Distance from the Sun

The Earth’s average distance from the sun is 149.6 million km. Due to the orbit this can range from 147 million
to 152 million km.

Size

Since humans have studied the Earth in depth, we tend to base all of our concepts of planet size relative to
the Earth. Earth is therefore the standard by which we measure the size of other planets. Earth’s diameter
is 12 756 km at the equator. Its mass and volume are both one, since we use the Earth as the standard for
measurement.

Orbit

The Earth’s orbit is very circular as seen by the small range in distance from the sun. It takes 365.3 days for
the Earth to revolve once around the sun. As such, our standard year is 365 days in length with a leap year
every four years to take into account the 0.3 days.

The Earth has an orbital velocity of 29.73 km/s or 107 028 km/h.

The Planet’s Axis

Rotation. The Earth rotates west to east around its axis. It takes 23h 56m 04s for the Earth to complete one
rotation. This means that the standard Earth day is approximately 24 hours in length.

Inclination. The axis of Earth is tilted at an angle of 23.4 degrees.

Surface Temperature

Due to the composition of the Earth’s atmosphere, the surface of the planet is not subjected to the full force of
the sun’s radiation. As such, the average temperature on the surface of the Earth is 22 degrees Celsius.

The Planet’s Satellites

Earth has one naturally occurring satellite. We simply call it the moon, though that name is also used as a
general term to describe the satellites in orbit around other planets. The moon has a profound effect on Earth.
Not only is it a constant feature in the night sky, being the brightest object in our sky means that it can provide
light on a clear night. Being so close to the Earth (384 000 km) and with a diameter of 3476.6 km, the moon
also has a gravitational effect on our planet. This effect is most apparent in the tidal patterns of our oceans.
Many religions have given the moon a high place of honour within their belief systems.

The Planet’s Colour

Viewed from space, Earth is blue and white in colour. The blue is due to the fact that the Earth surface is
approximately 70 percent water. The white is from the clouds in the sky.

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MARS DESCRIPTION SHEET

MARS

Mars is the fourth planet from the sun. Named after the Roman god of war due to its colour, there are many
legends that claim this planet was bright in the sky on the eve of many great victories. Mars has taken a central
place in many of today’s space programs. At its closest, Mars is 59 million km away from Earth making it the
second closest planet after Venus. During the space race of the 1960s, the goal was to be the first to set foot on
the moon. Now, there is a collaborative effort by many international space agencies to send a manned mission
to Mars. The planet itself is currently deemed uninhabitable without the use of artificial environment resources.
There have been many probes sent to Mars in recent years to assess the natural environment and evaluate
what equipment would be needed in order to sustain human life on the planet.

Distance from the Sun

Mars is nearly twice the Earth’s distance from the sun. The average distance the planet is from the sun is
227.9 million km. This ranges from 206.7 million to 249 million km depending on its position in its orbit around
the sun.

Size

Mars is significantly smaller than Earth and only about half again the size of Mercury. The diameter of Mars at
the equator is 6794 km. Its mass is 0.11 times that of Earth while its volume is 0.15 times that of Earth.

Orbit

The orbit of Mars is eccentric, as shown by the large range in distance from the sun. Mars will revolve around
the sun once every 687 standard Earth days; a little less than two Earth years.

Mars has an orbital velocity of 24.1 km/s or 86 760 km/h.

The Planet’s Axis

Rotation. Like Earth, Mars’ rotation is west to east and takes 24h 37m 22.6s. In other words, a standard Earth
day is very close in duration to a Martian day.

Inclination. The axis of Mars is also very similar to Earth’s. The axis of Mars is tilted at an angle of 24 degrees.

Surface Temperature

Being so far away from the sun without an atmosphere like Earth’s or Venus’ means that the surface of Mars
does not benefit from the heat of solar radiation. Mars is the first planet in the solar system that has an average
temperature that is below freezing. On the surface, temperatures will average minus 22 degrees Celsius.

The Planet’s Satellites

Mars has two natural satellites, small moons that are thought to be asteroids that have been captured by the
planet’s gravitational pull. These moons are called Phobos and Deimos. Named after the two servants of Ares,
Greek god of war, Phobos is Greek for panic or fear, while Deimos translates to terror or dread. Despite being
named from Greek mythology, the names are appropriate as Ares is simply a different name for Mars.

Phobos. Phobos is the nearest of the two moons orbiting in a circle just 9270 km from the centre of Mars.
It has a diameter of 27 km.

Deimos. Deimos is the farther moon orbiting in a circle at a distance of 23 400 km from the centre of Mars.
It has a diameter of 15 km.

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The Planet’s Colour

Mars is named partly due to the colour of the planet. Mars is known as the “Red Planet” because of the
chemical make-up of the planet. Red is usually associated with war, so naming the planet after the God of
war is appropriate.

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JUPITER DESCRIPTION SHEET

JUPITER

After passing through the ring of the asteroid belt, the next planet is Jupiter. Named after the leader of the
Roman gods (Zeus to the Greeks), Jupiter is the largest planet in our solar system. Despite its distance from
Earth, Venus and sometimes Mars are the only planets that outshine it in the night sky. Jupiter is a gaseous
planet, in fact the first of the gas giants. This means that there is no actual hard surface to the planet.

Distance from the sun

Though Jupiter is the fifth planet in our solar system, the separation provided by the asteroid belt means that
Jupiter is a great distance from the sun. The average distance that Jupiter is from the sun is 778 million km.
Due to its orbit this can range from 741 million to 816 million km.

Size

Jupiter is huge when compared to Earth. Its mass is 317.9 times the mass of Earth and its volume is 1319 times
that of Earth. The diameter of Jupiter at its equator is 143 884 km, well over ten times that of Earth. Due to
the rotation of Jupiter though, there is a significant difference between the diameter at the equator and the
diameter at the poles. The polar diameter is 133 700 km, more than 10 000 km in difference. By comparison
the difference between the Earth’s equator and poles is a mere 42 km.

Orbit

Jupiter has a slightly eccentric orbit. Due to its distance from the sun, it takes the planet 4332.5 standard
Earth days to revolve around the sun. That is the equivalent of 11.86 Earth years. Jupiter’s synodic period is
398.9 days.

The orbital velocity of Jupiter is 13.06 km/s or 47 016 km/h.

The Planet’s Axis

Rotation. Jupiter rotates at an immense speed which causes the equator to bulge out. This is the reason for
the large difference between the equatorial and polar diameters. One day on Jupiter is the same as 9h 55m
30s or 10 Earth hours.

Inclination. Jupiter’s axis is only three degrees from the perpendicular, meaning that Jupiter is almost straight
up and down.

Surface Temperature

Jupiter’s atmosphere is made up of a great many gases. The core of the planet is hydrogen compressed to the
point of almost being a metal. The planet gives off energy as if it were a small sun, yet the surface temperature
is a chilling minus 150 degrees Celsius.

The Planet’s Satellites

Jupiter has 63 known natural satellites. Of these, 47 are less than 10 km in diameter, and only 4 are large
enough to be considered moons. These are identified as Galilean moons and include:

Io. Io is in orbit 421 600 km from the centre of Jupiter and takes 1.7 standard Earth days to orbit the planet.
The dimensions of Io are not exactly spherical, measuring 3660 km by 3637 km by 3631 km.

Europa. Europa is in orbit 670 900 km from the centre of Jupiter. It takes 3.5 standard Earth days for the
moon to orbit the planet once. Europa is 3130 km in diameter.

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Ganymede. Ganymede is in orbit 1 070 000 km from the centre of Jupiter and it takes 7.2 standard Earth
days to complete one full orbit of the planet. Ganymede is 5268 km in diameter.

Callisto. Callisto is in orbit 1 880 000 km from the centre of Jupiter and orbits once every 16.7 standard
Earth days. Callisto is 4806 km in diameter.

The Planet’s Colour

Jupiter has a multitude of colours. There are reds mixed in with browns and shades of white. The most prominent
feature of Jupiter is the Great Red Spot.

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SATURN DESCRIPTION SHEET

SATURN

Saturn is a very distinct planet in our solar system. It is the second of the gas giants from the sun, the sixth
planet in the system. Named after the Roman god of time because of the length of time it takes for the planet to
cross the night sky, Saturn is said to be the most beautiful object in the sky when viewed through a telescope.

Distance from the Sun

Saturn is more remote than even Jupiter. Orbiting at an average distance of 1427 million km, Saturn is almost
twice as far from the sun as Jupiter.

Size

Saturn is the second largest planet in the solar system. Its equatorial diameter is 120 536 km while at the poles
it is an ample 108 728 km across. Saturn’s mass is 95.2 times the mass of Earth and it has a volume that is
744 times that of the Earth.

Orbit

Saturn has a slightly eccentric orbital path. It travels around the sun in 10 759.2 standard Earth days or
29.46 standard Earth years. Saturn’s synodic period is 378.1 days.

The orbital velocity of Saturn is 9.6 km/s or 34 560 km/h.

The Planet’s Axis

Rotation. Saturn rotates on its axis once every 10h 13m 59s. Like Jupiter the speed at which this occurs
causes a slight bulging at the equator, causing the large distortion between the equatorial diameter and the
polar diameter.

Inclination. The axis of Saturn tilts at an angle of 26.4 degrees.

Rings

Saturn’s signature attribute are the rings that surround it. These rings are made up of particles which can range
in size from almost microscopic to over 2 m in diameter. There are actually seven distinct rings of particles
which orbit the planet. The exact distance that the rings expand outwards from the planet is in debate, but the
currently accepted value is in excess of 270 000 km.

Where the rings came from is also hotly debated, but many theories are based on the idea that the particles
may be debris from the many satellites that orbit the planet. There are five such satellites which orbit Saturn
inside the rings.

Surface Temperature

Though the core of the planet is thought to have a temperature of 15 000 degrees Celsius, the surface
temperature has been measured at minus 180 degrees Celsius.

The Planet’s Satellites

Like Jupiter, Saturn has a large family of satellites in orbit around it. However, only one of these satellites is
really large, while another seven are of medium size. The remaining dozen satellites are small in size and most
are just captured asteroids.

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Titan. Titan is the largest of the moons in orbit around Saturn. With a diameter of 5150 km it is actually
larger than the planet Mercury and almost as large as Mars. Titan orbits Saturn at a distance of 1 221
860 km, and completes one full orbit every 15.5 standard Earth days. The interesting thing about Titan is
that it has a nitrogen-based atmosphere like Earth, except instead of oxygen as the next major component
it has methane.

Rhea. Rhea is the second largest moon of Saturn with a diameter of 1528 km. It orbits the planet at a
distance of 527 040 km and completes one full orbit in 4.5 standard Earth days.

Iapetus. The third largest moon is Iapetus with a diameter of 1436 km. It orbits at a distance of 3 561
300 km and completes one full orbit every 79.3 standard Earth days.

Dione. The fourth largest moon at a diameter of 1120 km. Dione orbits Saturn at a distance of 377 420 km
and completes one full orbit every 2.7 standard Earth days.

Tethys. Tethys is the fifth largest moon in orbit around Saturn with a diameter of 1046 km. It orbits the
planet at a distance of 294 670 km and completes one full orbit once every 1.89 standard Earth days.

Enceladus. Enceladus is the sixth largest moon and is not completely spherical in shape. It has the
approximate dimensions of 421 by 395 by 395 km. Orbiting at a distance of 238 040 km, Enceladus and
completes one full orbit of Saturn once every 1.3 standard Earth days.

Hyperion. Hyperion is the seventh largest moon and is not completely spherical in shape. It has the
approximate dimensions of 360 by 280 by 225 km and has been referred to as a hamburger. It orbits
Saturn at a distance of 1 481 100 km and completes one full orbit in 21.3 standard Earth days.

Mimas. The smallest of the recognized moons. Mimas measures 194 by 190 by 154 km. It orbits at a
distance of 185 540 km and completes one full orbit every 0.9 standard Earth days.

The Planet’s Colour

Saturn is a combination of yellows with streaks of dark blue and faint purple. The rings have similar colourations.

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URANUS DESCRIPTION SHEET

URANUS

Once past Saturn, the casual traveller will happen upon Uranus. Uranus is a very distinct planet which shares
some of the characteristics of Saturn. Most prominent of these are the rings which orbit the planet, but even
here there is uniqueness. Uranus is barely visible to the naked eye and the study of Uranus actually led to the
discovery of the next planet in the solar system. The planet is named after the mythological father of Saturn.

Distance from the Sun

Uranus is the second-farthest planet from the sun. The average distance is 2870 million km with a maximum
of 3004 million km and a minimum of 2735 million km. Compared to Saturn, Uranus is twice as far from the
sun and four times as far as Jupiter.

Size

Uranus is just over one third the size of Jupiter, but is still the third largest planet in the solar system. It has
an equatorial diameter of 51 118 km. Uranus’ mass is 14.6 times that of Earth, and its volume is 67 times the
volume of Earth.

Orbit

Uranus has an irregular orbit. There is a point in the orbit where Uranus performs two 180-degree turns. This
would look like a giant Z in the orbital path. It takes Uranus 84.01 Earth years to orbit the sun once. The synodic
period of Uranus is 369.7 standard Earth days.

The Planet’s Axis

Rotation. Uranus rotates around its axis once every 17h 14m of Earth time.

Inclination. The axis of Uranus tilts at an angle of 98 degrees. This means that it is technically on its side and
the rings of Uranus look like they are vertical compared to Saturn’s rings. It also means that the satellites orbit
Uranus on a vertical plane instead of a horizontal plane like the other planets.

Rings

Like Saturn, Uranus has its own rings. Uranus has 10 rings around it, compared to Saturn’s 7. The farthest ring
is 96 km wide and starts 51 150 km from the planet. There is also a broad sheet of space debris inside the ring
system which extends from 23 000 km to 39 500 km from the planet. The rings are made up of particles in the
same way that Saturn’s rings are made up of local particles.

Surface Temperature

The average surface temperature of Uranus is minus 214 degrees Celsius.

The Planet’s Satellites

Uranus has a large number of satellites orbiting around it. Of the 21 satellites, only four have a diameter in
excess of 1000 km.

Ariel. Ariel is the smallest of the four largest moons with a diameter of 1158 km. It orbits Uranus at a
distance of 191 000 km and takes 2.5 standard Earth days to complete one full orbit.

Umbriel. Umbriel is the next largest of the four large moons with a diameter of 1169 km. It orbits Uranus
at a distance of 256 300 km and takes 4.1 standard Earth days to complete one full orbit.

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Titania. The largest of the four large moons Titania has a diameter of 1578 km. At a distance of 435 000 km,
it takes Titania 8.7 standard Earth days to complete one full orbit.

Oberon. The second largest moon of the four large moons, Oberon has a diameter of 1523 km. Orbiting
at a distance of 583 500 km it takes 13.5 days for Oberon to complete one full orbit.

The Planet’s Colour

Due to the methane in the atmosphere, Uranus is light blue in colour.

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NEPTUNE DESCRIPTION SHEET

NEPTUNE

Named after the Roman god of the sea, Neptune was found as a result of scientific study of Uranus. Almost all
of our knowledge of Neptune comes from one spacecraft, Voyager 2 which flew past the planet in 1989. The
atmosphere is made up predominantly of hydrogen, helium and methane. The planet is a very windy place,
with equatorial winds in excess of 450 m/s or 1620 km/h.

Distance from the Sun

Neptune is approximately half again as far as Uranus from the sun. Orbiting at an average distance of
4497 million km it is 20 times as far as Mars. Neptune is the last planet in the solar system, keeping in mind
that Pluto has been down-graded to a micro-planet.

Size

Neptune is nearly identical in diameter to Uranus at 50 538 km. The mass of the planet is almost 25 percent
more at 17.2 times the mass of Earth. The volume is 57 times that of Earth.

Orbit

Neptune’s orbit is almost perfectly circular. It takes Neptune 164.8 standard Earth years to orbit the sun, twice
as long as Uranus. Neptune’s synodic period is 367.5 standard Earth days.

The Planet’s Axis

Rotation. It takes Neptune 16h 7m to rotate once around its axis. This is the third fastest rotation of all of the
planets.

Inclination. The tilt of Neptune’s axis is 28.8 degrees, slightly more than Earth’s.

Rings

Neptune has a ring system, though it is not as evident as either Saturn or Uranus. The five rings have each
been named after astronomers who have conducted research on the planet. Each ring is approximately 50 km
wide and the farthest ring is 62 900 km from the planet.

Surface Temperature

Neptune has a surface temperature of minus 220 degrees Celsius, making it the coldest planet in our solar
system.

The Planet’s Satellites

Neptune has eight satellites in orbit around it. Of these, only Triton is larger than 1000 km.

Triton. Triton orbits Neptune at a distance of 354 800 km. It has a diameter of 2705 km and orbits the planet
once every 5.9 standard Earth days. The most interesting thing about Triton is that it has a retrograde orbit.
This means that it travels in the opposite direction to the rotation of Neptune around its axis.

The Planet’s Colour

Like Uranus, Neptune is blue in colour. Neptune however has a much darker hue, resembling the colour of
the ocean; hence its name.

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PHENOMENA WITHIN THE UNIVERSE

“Martin 1”, by NASA, 2007. Retrieved December 4, 2007, from http://


science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2007/images/greatperseids/Martin1.jpg
Figure 1E-1 Perseid Meteor Fireball
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“Schwassman-Wachmann 3”, by Hubble Telescope, 2007, NASA. Copyright 2007 by Hubble Telescope.
Retrieved December 4, 2007, from http://hubblesite.org/gallery/album/solar_system_collection/pr2006018e/
Figure 1E-2 Comet 73P

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“The Great Orion Nebua”, by Night Sky Info, 2007. Retrieved December 4,
2007, from http://www.nightskyinfo.com/archive/orion_nebula/
Figure 1E-3 The Orion Nebula

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“The Lagoon Nebula”, by Night Sky Info, 2007. Retrieved December


4, 2007, from http://www.nightskyinfo.com/archive/lagoon_nebula/
Figure 1E-4 The Lagoon Nebula

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“A Perfect Storm of Gases”, by Space Science, 2007, European Space Agency. Copyright 2007 by Space
Science. Retrieved December 4, 2007, from http://www.esa.int/esaSC/SEM248R1VED_sensations_3.html
Figure 1E-5 The Omega Nebula

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“Helix Nebula”, by Night Sky Info, 2007. Retrieved December 4, 2007,


from http://www.nightskyinfo.com/archive/helix_planetary_nebula
Figure 1E-6 The Helix Nebula

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“Star Cluster Images”, by Hubble Telescope, 2007, NASA. Copyright 2007 by Hubble Telescope.
Retrieved December 4, 2007, from http://hubblesite.org/gallery/album/star_collection/pr2006017c/
Figure 1E-7 Star Cluster NGC 290

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“Star Cluster Images”, by Hubble Telescope, 2007, NASA. Copyright 2007 by Hubble Telescope.
Retrieved on December 4, 2007, from http://hubblesite.org/gallery/album/star_collection/pr2006017b/
Figure 1E-8 Star Cluster NGC 265

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ROCKETS

Dr. Robert Goddard, Father of Modern Rocketry “A Beginner’s Guide to Rockets”, Rocket Gallery.
Retrieved March 24, 2007, from http://exploration.grc.nasa.gov/education/rocket/gallery.html
Figure 1F-1 Dr. Robert Goddard, Father of Modern Rocketry

“Rockets”, A Brief History of Rockets. Retrieved March 24, 2007, from http://
www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/K-12/TRC/Rockets/history_of_rockets.html
Figure 1F-2 Goddard’s 1926 Rocket

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“Sputnik: The Fiftieth Anniversary”, 2007, Photo Gallery. Retrieved November


29, 2007, from http://www.history.nasa.gov/sputnik/gallerysput.html
Figure 1F-3 Sputnik

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“Sputnik: The Fiftieth Anniversary”, 2007, Photo Gallery. Retrieved November


29, 2007, from http://www.history.nasa.gov/sputnik/gallerysput.html
Figure 1F-4 Sputnik Revealed

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“Roscosmos”, Space Programs Rocket Families R-7. Retrieved March


25, 2007, from http://www.roscosmos.ru/Roket1Show.asp?RoketID=8
Figure 1F-5 Sputnik’s R-7 Rocket

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Russian Space Web: Rockets, 2007. Retrieved December 2, 2007, from http://www.russianspaceweb.com/r7.html
Figure 1F-6 Two-Stage R-7 Rocket Modified for Sputnik-1

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Flight History JUPITER-C (three-stage configuration):

September 20, 1956: Lofted a payload to an altitude of 1095 km and a range of 5313 km from Cape
Canaveral, Florida.

May 15, 1957: Lofted an ablative nose cone to an altitude of 563 km and a range of 1143 km.

August 8, 1957: Lofted a 1/3-scale Jupiter nose cone to an altitude of 459 km and a range of 2141 km.

January 31, 1958: Orbited Explorer-1 satellite:

March 5, 1958: Attempted orbit of Explorer-II failed because fourth stage did not ignite.

March 26, 1958: Orbited Explorer-III satellite.

July 26,1958: Orbited Explorer-IV satellite.

August 24,1958: Attempted orbit of Explorer-V satellite failed because booster collided with second stage
after separation, causing upper stage firing angle to be off.

October 23, 1958: Attempted orbit of inflatable Beacon satellite failed when second stage separated
prematurely from booster.

“Sputnik: The Fiftieth Anniversary”, Sputnik and The Dawn of the Space Age.
Retrieved March 25, 2007, from http://history.nasa.gov/sputnik/expinfo.html
Figure 1F-7 Jupiter-C and Explorer-1 History

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“Sputnik: The Fiftieth Anniversary”, Sputnik and The Dawn of the Space Age.
Retrieved March 25, 2007, from http://history.nasa.gov/sputnik/expinfo.html
Figure 1F-8 Jupiter-C and Explorer 1

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“Sputnik: The Fiftieth Anniversary”, Sputnik and The Dawn of the Space Age.
Retrieved March 25, 2007, from http://history.nasa.gov/sputnik/expinfo.html
Figure 1F-9 Explorer 1

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SPACE STATIONS

“NASA Facts”, 1997, International Space Station: Russian Space Stations. Retrieved
December 1, 2007, from http://spaceflight.nasa.gov/history/shuttle-mir/spacecraft/to-s-mir.htm
Figure 1G-1 Salyut 1 Station With Soyuz About To Dock

“NASA Facts”, 1997, International Space Station: Russian Space Stations. Retrieved
December 1, 2007, from http://spaceflight.nasa.gov/history/shuttle-mir/spacecraft/to-s-mir.htm
Figure 1G-2 Salyut-6 (1977–1982)

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“Wikipedia”, 2007, Salyut Program. Retrieved November 30, 2007,


from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Salyut_7_from_Soyuz_T-13.jpg
Figure 1G-3 Salyut 7

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“NASA Heasarc: Observatories”, 2007, Skylab Above the Earth as Seen During Skylab 4 Mission.
Retrieved November 30, 2007, from http://heasarc.gsfc.nasa.gov/Images/skylab/skylab4_orbit.gif
Figure 1G-4 Skylab

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“NASA Facts”, 1997, International Space Station: Russian Space Stations. Retrieved
December 1, 2007, from http://spaceflight.nasa.gov/history/shuttle-mir/spacecraft/to-s-mir.htm
Figure 1G-5 Mir Space Station

NASA “Multimedia Photo Gallery”, 1998, STS 89. Retrieved December 2,


2007, from http://spaceflight.nasa.gov/history/shuttle-mir/spacecraft/s-mir.htm
Figure 1G-6 The Mir Space Station and Earth

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NASA “Human Space Flight: International Space Station Imagery”, 2000, S97-E-5010. Retrieved
December 1, 2007, from http://spaceflight.nasa.gov/gallery/images/station/assembly/html/s97e5010.html
Figure 1G-7 International Space Station

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CERTIFICATE SIGNING OF FIRST AMERICAN AND RUSSIAN DOCKING 1975

“Great Images in NASA”, 2002, AST-03-171. Retrieved December 1,


2007, from http://grin.hq.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/GPN-2000-001053.html
Figure 1H-1 Certificate Signing of First American and Russian Docking 1975

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MANNED SPACEFLIGHT

“Great Images in NASA”, 2002, GPN-2002-000224. Retrieved December


1, 2007, from http://grin.hq.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/GPN-2000-001053.html
Figure 1I-1 Yuri Gagarin’s Historic First Spacefight

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“Friendship 7: Biographies”, by Chris Gainor, 2007, James A. Chamberlin. Retrieved


December 1, 2007, from http://history.nasa.gov/friendship7/pages/bios.html
Figure 1I-2 James A. Chamberlin

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“Great Images in NASA”, 2002, GPN-2000-000629. Retrieved December


1, 2007, from http://grin.hq.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/GPN-2000-001053.html
Figure 1I-3 Launching Apollo 11

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FUTURE SPACE EXPLORATION

“Media Gallery: Images”, 2006, Kennedy Space Center, KSC-06PP-2757.


Retrieved November 28, 2007, from http://mediaarchive.ksc.nasa.gov/search.cfm
Figure 1J-1 Night Launch of Space Shuttle Discovery STS 116

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“Reasonable Deviations”, 2007, The Space Elevator. Retrieved November 24,


2007, from http://stochastix.wordpress.com/2007/01/03/building-a-space-elevator/
Figure 1J-2 Structural Diagram of a Space Elevator

“Lift off to Space Exploration”, by B. Bray and P. Meyer, 1995, Geosynchronous Orbit. Retrieved
November 24, 2007, from http://liftoff.msfc.nasa.gov/academy/rocket_sci/satellites/geo-high.html
Figure 1J-3 Geosynchronous Orbit

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“Accelerating Future”, by M. Anissimov, 2007, Space Elevator. Retrieved


November 27, 2007, from http://www.acceleratingfuture.com/michael/blog/?cat=23
Figure 1J-4 View From Where the Tether Would Clear the Atmosphere

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“Nanotechnology Now”, by O. Kreylos, 2006, Nanotubes and Buckyballs. Retrieved


November 28, 2007, from http://www.nanotech-now.com/nanotube-buckyball-sites.htm
Figure 1J-5 Endohedral Fullerene or Buckyball

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“Audacious and Outrageous: Space Elevators”, by NASA, 2000, Carbon Nanotube (CNT).
Retrieved November 27, 2007, from http://science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2000/ast07sep_1.htm
Figure 1J-6 Carbon Nanotubes

3
Materiel Tensile Strength (GPa) Density (g/cm )

Single wall nanotube 150

Multiwall nanotube 150 2.6

Steel 0.4 7.8

Epoxy 0.005 1.25

Wood 0.008 0.6

“Basic Properties of Carbon Nanotubes”, by Applied Nanotechnologies, Inc., 2005. Retrieved


November 27, 2007 from http://www.applied-nanotech.com/cntproperties.htm#Mechanical%20Properties
Figure 1J-7 Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes versus Steel

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“Audacious and Outrageous: Space Elevators”, by P. Rawling, 2000. Retrieved


November 27, 2007, from http://science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2000/ast07sep_1.htm
Figure 1J-8 View From Geosynchronous Orbit

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ION DRIVES

Science at NASA, Houston, Are We There Yet? Retrieved March 24, 2007,
from http://science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2002/09sept%5Fspacepropulsion.htm
Figure 1K-1 Ion Drive Principle

World Book At NASA, Rocket. Retrieved March 24, 2007, from http://www.nasa.gov/worldbook/rocket_worldbook.html
Figure 1K-2 Ion Drive Engine

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Science at NASA, 1999, PIA04247. Retrieved November 26, 2007, from http://nmp.jpl.nasa.gov/ds1/gen/spacecraft.html
Figure 1K-3 Deep Space 1

Planetary Photojournal, 1999, Deep Space 1: Spacecraft. Retrieved November


26, 2007, from http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/jpegMod/PIA04247_modest.jpg
Figure 1K-4 Deep Space 1 Firing the Rocket

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Space Place, Ions in Action. Retrieved March 24, 2007, from http://spaceplace.jpl.nasa.gov/en/kids/balloon.shtml
Figure 1K-5 Subsonic Ion Drive

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SOLAR SAILS

“Solar Sail Technology Development”, by NASA: Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 2002, Introduction: How Sails
Work. Retrieved November 27, 2007, from http://solarsails.jpl.nasa.gov/introduction/how-sails-work.html
Figure 1L-1 Basic Components of a Sailboat

“Solar Sail Technology Development”, by NASA: Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 2002, Introduction: How Sails
Work. Retrieved November 27, 2007, from http://solarsails.jpl.nasa.gov/introduction/how-sails-work.html
Figure 1L-2 Balancing the Forces

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“Solar Sail Technology Development”, by NASA: Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 2002, Introduction: How Sails
Work. Retrieved November 27, 2007, from http://solarsails.jpl.nasa.gov/introduction/how-sails-work.html
Figure 1L-3 Gaining Speed

“Solar Sail Technology Development”, by NASA: Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 2002, Introduction: How Sails
Work. Retrieved November 27, 2007, from http://solarsails.jpl.nasa.gov/introduction/how-sails-work.html
Figure 1L-4 Slowing Down

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“Solar Sail Technology Development”, by NASA: Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 2002, Introduction: How Sails
Work. Retrieved November 27, 2007, from http://solarsails.jpl.nasa.gov/introduction/how-sails-work.html
Figure 1L-5 Propulsive Force

“Solar Sail Technology Development”, by NASA: Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 2002, Introduction: How Sails
Work. Retrieved November 27, 2007, from http://solarsails.jpl.nasa.gov/introduction/how-sails-work.html
Figure 1L-6 Patterns of Solar Sails

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SPACE MISSIONS OF THE UNITED STATES

Current as of November 28, 2007, from http://www.nasa.gov/missions/current/index.html

There are many missions currently underway. Some examples include:

Mission Purpose Mission Duration


The Dawn mission will study the asteroid Vesta
and dwarf planet Ceres, celestial bodies believed
to have originated early in the history of the solar
system. Ceres and Vesta are the two biggest
Launch: September 2007
Dawn residents of the asteroid belt. Vesta is a rocky body,
Mission end: July 2015
while Ceres is believed to contain large quantities
of ice. The mission will characterize the early
solar system and the processes that dominated its
formation.
The New Horizons spacecraft is on track to study
Pluto up-close in 2015. It will characterize the
global geology and geomorphology of Pluto and
its moon Charon, map their surface compositions
and temperatures and examine Pluto’s atmospheric
composition and structure. New Horizons also
Launch: January 2006
New Horizons will study the small moons recently discovered in
Mission end: 2015
the Pluto system. In 2007, New Horizons passed
through the Jovian (Jupiter) system where other
spacecraft could not go, and returned important data
that adds tremendously to the understanding of the
solar system’s largest planet and its moons, rings
and atmosphere.
The Landsat Program is a series of Earth-observing
satellite missions jointly managed by NASA and
the U.S. Geological Survey. Since 1972, Landsat First launch: 1972
Landsat
satellites have collected information about Earth Ongoing.
from space. This science, known as remote sensing,
has matured with the Landsat Program.
NASA’s Orion spacecraft now in development
is America’s first new manned spacecraft since
development of the space shuttle 30 years ago. It is
the centrepiece of NASA’s Constellation program,
which aims to take the next generation of human
explorers to the moon, human explorers back to
the moon, and then onward to Mars and other
Constellation destinations in the solar system. Orion will be Proposed first launch: 2014
capable of carrying crew and cargo to the space
station. It will be able to rendezvous with a lunar
landing module. It will have an Earth departure
stage in low-Earth orbit to carry crews to the moon.
One day, to Mars-bound vehicles assembled in low-
Earth orbit. Orion will be the Earth entry vehicle for
lunar and Mars returns.
D Cdts 3, 2007, Ottawa, ON: Department of National Defence.
Figure 1M-1 NASA Space Missions

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SPACE MISSIONS OF CHINA

Current as of November 28, 2007, from http://www.cnsa.gov.cn/n615709/cindex.html

There are many missions currently underway. Some examples include:

Man-Made Satellites

From 2002 to 2007, China has independently developed and launched 22 different types of man-made
satellites, upgrading its overall ranking in this field. China has seven satellite series, including:

recoverable remote-sensing satellites,

telecommunications and broadcasting satellites,

meteorological satellites,

scientific research and technological experiment satellites,

Earth resource satellites,

navigation and positioning satellites, and

oceanic satellites.

China is currently implementing the plan to establish a constellation of small satellites for environment and
disaster monitoring and forecasting. Research and development of the payload of some new high-performance
satellites have been successful and many application satellites have begun regular operation. The Fengyun
I and Fengyun II meteorological satellites have been listed by the World Meteorological Organization in the
international satellite series for meteorological services. Important breakthroughs have been made in key
technologies related to the common platform for big geostationary orbit satellites. Periodical achievements have
been made in the research and development of large-capacity telecommunications and broadcasting satellites.
Substantial progress has been made in the research and development and application of small satellites.

Launching Vehicles

“Long March” rockets independently developed by China have made numerous consecutive successful flights
and their major technological functions and reliability have been notably upgraded. From October 1996 to the
end of 2005, “Long March” rockets made 46 consecutive successful flights. Important breakthroughs have been
made in key technologies of the new-generation launching vehicles. Research and development of the 120-ton
thrust liquid-oxygen/kerosene engine and the 50-ton thrust hydrogen-oxygen engine are proceeding smoothly.

Launching Sites

The construction of three launching sites at Jiuquan, Xichang and Taiyuan, is making progress, and their
comprehensive test and launch capabilities are enhancing. Various launching vehicles, man-made satellites,
unmanned experimental spacecraft and manned spacecraft have been successfully launched from the three
launching sites many times.

Telemetry, Tracking and Command (TT&C)

The overall performance of the country’s TT&C network is improving and expanding. It has provided TT&C
support to man-made satellites travelling in different orbits, and to unmanned experimental spacecraft and
manned spacecraft during launch, operation in orbit, return and landing.

Manned Spaceflight

On November 20 and 21, 1999, China launched and retrieved the first “Shenzhou” unmanned experimental
spacecraft. Three more “Shenzhou” unmanned experimental spacecrafts were launched not long afterwards.

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On October 15 and 16, 2003, China launched and retrieved the “Shenzhou V” manned spacecraft, China’s first
of its kind. Having mastered the basic technologies for manned spacecraft, China became the third country
in the world to develop manned spaceflight independently. From October 12 to 17, 2005, the “Shenzhou VI”
manned spacecraft completed a five-day flight with two astronauts on board. This was the first time for China
to have men engage in experiments in space, another major achievement in the sphere of manned spaceflight.

Deep-Space Exploration

Advance studies and engineering work of the lunar-orbiting project has been conducted, making important
progress.

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SPACE MISSIONS OF JAPAN

Current as of November 28, 2007, from http://www.isas.jaxa.jp/e/enterp/missions/index.shtml

There are many missions currently underway. Some examples include:

KAGUYA (SELENE)

JAXA launched KAGUYA (SELENE) on September 14, 2007 from Tanegashima Space Center. The major
objectives of the KAGUYA mission are to obtain scientific data of the lunar origin and evolution and to develop
the technology for the future lunar exploration. KAGUYA consists of a main orbiting satellite at about 100
km altitude and two small satellites (Relay Satellite and VRAD Satellite) in polar orbit. The orbiters will carry
instruments for scientific investigation of the Moon.

HINODE (SOLAR-B)

HINODE (SOLAR-B) is a project to study the Sun, led by JAXA in collaboration with NASA, the Particle Physics
and Astronomy Research Council (PPARC) and the European Space Agency (ESA). The SOLAR-B was given
a nickname of HINODE (meaning sunrise).

HINODE (SOLAR-B) satellite aboard the M-V Launch Vehicle No. 7 (M-V-7) was launched on September 23,
2006 from the Uchinoura Space Center (USC). HINODES’s three-year mission is to explore the magnetic fields
of the Sun and improve our understanding of the mechanisms that power the solar atmosphere and drive solar
eruptions.

ASTRO-F

The ASTRO-F satellite was launched on February 22, 2006, from the Uchinoura Space Center (USC). The
ASTRO-F was given a nickname of AKARI (meaning light.)

HAYABUSA (MUSES-C)

The HAYABUSA (MUSES-C) mission will investigate an asteroid known as an Earth-approaching type. Through
this mission, JAXA intends to establish the technology to bring back samples of an asteroid’s surface to Earth
(sample return). However small the sample amount may be, it will enable detailed analysis on Earth. Its scientific
significance is enormous.

There are several sample return missions in progress in the world. While these missions require a large-scale
rocket, Japan has realized a mission that employs a small spacecraft owing to a discovery of more approachable
asteroid and the development of a highly efficient electric propulsion system for the spacecraft.

The main objective of the MUSES-C mission is to acquire and verify the leading-edge technology required
for a sample return mission. We are convinced that this mission will provide us with valuable technical and
technological data that will promote and enable ambitious sample-return missions in the future in the world.

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SPACE MISSIONS OF RUSSIA

Current as of November 27, 2008, from http://www.federalspace.ru/science0615E.asp

There are many missions currently underway. Some examples include:

Mission Purpose Mission Duration

Used to carry cosmonauts to and from


Soyuz missions the Salyut, Mir and International Space Ongoing
Station.

Take paying tourists to the International


Space tourism Ongoing
Space Station.

Will return samples of matter from


Phobos, one of the moons of
Mars. Analyzing the structure and
characteristics will provide insight into the
Phobos-Grunt Projected launch: 2009
origin of Mars satellites and interaction of
small bodies of the solar system with the
solar wind. This mission will also conduct
remote studies of Mars.

Unmanned mission to the moon including


Luna-Glub an orbiter as well as a landing module Projected launch: 2012
with 12 ground penetrating sensors.

Study the physical state of biological


objects under the influence of space
Projected launch: 2010, 2012
Bion-M during orbit for up to 45 days. This will
and 2016.
provide biological information useful for
long-term manned space flights.

A space probe to make remote-sensing


Venera-D observations around the planet Venus Projected launch: 2016
and map future landing sites.

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SELECT SPACE MISSIONS OF INDIA

Current as of November 28, 2007, from http://www.isro.org/index.htm

There are many missions currently underway. Some examples include:

Mission Purpose Mission Duration

This mission features an unmanned


spacecraft orbiting around the moon
for two years at an altitude of 100
Chandrayaan-1 Projected launch: April 2008
km mapping the topography and the
mineralogical content of the lunar
surface.

A joint lunar mission with Russia


Chandrayaan-2 involving a lunar orbiting spacecraft and a Projected launch: 2011–2012
Lander/Rover on the moon’s surface.

Indian National Satellite Designed to improve capacity for


Ongoing
System (INSAT) communication and television services.

A series of Earth observation satellites


Indian Remote Sensing
that provides remote sensing services to Ongoing
Satellite
the country.

Intended to demonstrate the technology


of an orbiting platform for performing
experiments in microgravity conditions.
SRE-1 mission provides valuable
experience in such important fields
like navigation, guidance and control
Space capsule Recovery
during the re-entry phase, hypersonic Launch: January 2007
Experiment (SRE-1)
aero-thermodynamics facilitating the
development of reusable thermal
protection system (TPS), recovery
through deceleration and floatation
besides acquisition of basic technology
for reusable launch vehicles.

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SELECT SPACE MISSIONS OF EUROPE

Current as of November 28, 2007, from http://www.esa.int/SPECIALS/ESOC/SEMEFCW4QWD_0.html

There are many missions currently underway. Some examples include:

Name Purpose Mission Duration

Radar on the spacecraft allows for the


evaluation of the characteristics of the Launch: June 2003
Mars Express
subsurface layers and their constituent Ongoing
material.

SMART-1 is the European Space


Agency’s first trip to the moon. The Launch: September 2003
SMART-1 spacecraft’s primary mission is to test
new technologies, including an ion Mission end: September 2006
engine and minaturized electronics.

A 10-year journey to the comet 67p as it


travels towards the sun. The spacecraft Launch: Mar 2004
Rosetta
will also pass by two asteroids. This will Ongoing
enable the study of the origin of comets.

Cassini-Huygens is an international
collaboration between three space
agencies. NASA, ESA, and the Italian
Space Agency. The Cassini spacecraft
is the first to explore the Saturn system
of rings and moons from orbit. Cassini
entered orbit on June 30, 2004 and
immediately began sending back Launch: October 1997
Huygens
intriguing images and data. The Ongoing
European Space Agency’s Huygens
Probe dove into Titan’s thick atmosphere
in January 2005. The sophisticated
instruments on both spacecraft are
providing scientists with vital data and the
best views ever of this mysterious, vast
region of our solar system.

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PRESENTATION CHART

Presentation Chart

Country:

Organization:

Mission:
Important points:

Mission:
Important points:

Mission:
Important points:

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MEASURING DISTANCES

Measuring Distances

Celestial guide maps show the apparent distance from one star to another. This measure is calibrated in
degrees as there are 360 degrees in a circle.
The system is reasonably accurate and anyone can become proficient at gauging the distances in degrees
from one star or star group to another in minutes.

1° The width of the end of the little finger held at an arm's length.

5° The width of three fingers held at an arm’s length.

10° The width of a fist held at an arm’s length.

15° The span between the little finger and first finger held at an arm’s length.

25° The span between the little finger and the thumb held at an arm’s length.

T. Dickinson, NightWatch: A Practical Guide to Viewing the Universe, Firefly Books Ltd. (p. 31)

Figure 1T-1 Hand Measurements

Important notes:
Larger dimensions can be measured by using multiple hand measurements.
The distance from the horizon to overhead is 90 degrees.
Some people can extend their thumb and little finger wider than others, these measurements can be
verified against the Big Dipper which is 25 degrees between the furthest point.

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CONSTELLATIONS

Constellation Description Picture

Aquarius (young To the Babylonians, Aquarius was the ruler of all the
man pouring water watery constellations—Pisces, Capricornus, Piscis
from a pitcher) Austrinus and Cetus. To the Egyptians, Aquarius
caused the yearly flooding of the river Nile. The
Greeks personified Aquarius, drawing him as a
young man pouring water from a pitcher.

Constellations, by National
Research Council of Canada.
Retrieved December 3, 2007,
from http://www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/
docs/education/planisphere_e.pdf

Figure 1U-1 Aquarius

Aquila (the eagle) Various cultures have seen the constellation Aquila
as a bird.
Aquila was responsible for finding the most beautiful
youth in the world, who would bring the gods
their nectar. Aquila searched high and low and
eventually saw Ganymede, a beautiful shepherd. He
swooped down, picked him up and took him back
to Zeus. Aquila was so devoted to finding a suitable
cupbearer that he forgot to rest. When he arrived
back with Ganymede, Aquila was so tired that he
died. Zeus placed him in the stars to thank him for
his efforts.
th
Altair, the brightest star in Aquila, is the 11 brightest
star in the sky. It rotates once every six hours, which Constellations, by National
causes the star to be flattened. Our sun rotates Research Council of Canada.
once every 28 days. Altair is part of the “Summer Retrieved December 3, 2007,
from http://www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/
Triangle”, along with Vega and Deneb. docs/education/planisphere_e.pdf

Figure 1U-2 Aquila

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Constellation Description Picture

Aries (the ram) Aries was a magical ram who could speak, think
and fly. The god Hermes gave Aries two children,
Helle and Phrixus, who wanted to escape their
evil stepmother. Helle fell off of Aries during the
escape, but Phrixus made it to safety and sacrificed
Aries to show his thanks. He gave Aries’ fleece to
King Aeetes, who sent Draco the dragon to guard
it. Eventually, Aries’ Golden Fleece was stolen by Constellations, by National
Jason and the Argonauts. Research Council of Canada.
Retrieved December 3, 2007,
Aries’ brightest star is Hamal, which means “the from http://www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/
lamb.” It is one of the few stars that has had its docs/education/planisphere_e.pdf
apparent size measured. Most stars are so far away Figure 1U-3 Aries
they appear as just a point of light, but astronomers
have measured the size of Hamal to be 0.00680
arcseconds. That is the same size as a penny would
seem to be if you held it 60 km away.

Auriga (the Auriga was originally known as Erichthonius. His


charioteer) father was Hephaestus, the god of fire, but he
had no mother. When he was a young boy, the
goddess Athene found him and decided to bring
him up, teaching him the skills of horsemanship.
Erichthonius learned well and went on to invent the
four-horse chariot. Later, he became the king of
Athens and convinced all of his people to worship
his friend and mentor Athene.
The brightest star in Auriga is Capella, a yellowish
star 10 times bigger and 100 times brighter than our
sun. Capella means “she-goat”, and Auriga is often
drawn carrying a goat on his left shoulder. Constellations, by National
Research Council of Canada.
Retrieved December 3, 2007,
from http://www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/
docs/education/planisphere_e.pdf

Figure 1U-4 Auriga

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Constellation Description Picture

Boötes (the Many different stories exist about the identity of


herdsman) Boötes. One story is that he was Icarius, a Greek
shepherd who was taught how to make wine
by the god Dionysus. Icarius wanted to share
this wonderful discovery, so he gave the other
shepherds some wine to taste. He warned them
to mix the wine with water, but the shepherds did
not listen and became sick the next day. Thinking
they had been poisoned, they killed Icarius. When Constellations, by National
Dionysus heard what had happened, he raised Research Council of Canada.
Icarius to the sky to become the constellation Retrieved December 3, 2007,
Boötes. from http://www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/
docs/education/planisphere_e.pdf
The brightest star in Boötes is called Arcturus.
Figure 1U-5 Boötes
This star is found by following the arc of the tail of
Ursa Major. A helpful saying to remember is “Arc to
Arcturus.”

Cancer (the crab) Cancer represents a crab that played a small role
in the story of Hercules whose stepmother, the
goddess Hera, was his mortal enemy. Hera sent the
crab to try to distract Hercules who was battling the
dreaded Hydra. The crab grabbed on to Hercules’
toe with its claws, but Hercules just shook him off
and crushed him underfoot. To thank the crab for its
brave attempt, Hera placed it in the sky.

Constellations, by National
Research Council of Canada.
Retrieved December 3, 2007,
from http://www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/
docs/education/planisphere_e.pdf

Figure 1U-6 Cancer

Canis Major (the Canis Major is the larger of Orion’s two hunting
big dog) dogs. Canis Major helped Orion chase Lepus, the
hare, and battle the great bull, Taurus.
Sirius is sometimes called the “dog star” as it
resides in the constellation Canis Major. Sirius is the
brightest visible star after the sun. It is 8.6 light years
Constellations, by National
away from Earth. Research Council of Canada.
Retrieved December 3, 2007,
from http://www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/
docs/education/planisphere_e.pdf

Figure 1U-7 Canis Major

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Constellation Description Picture

Canis Minor (the Canis Minor was the smaller of Orion’s two hunting
little dog) dogs.
The brightest star in Canis Minor is called Procyon,
which means “before the dog.” It probably received
that name because it rises just before Sirius, the
Dog Star. Procyon is part of the “Winter Triangle”,
Constellations, by National
along with Sirius in Canis Major and Betelgeuse in Research Council of Canada.
Orion. Retrieved December 3, 2007,
from http://www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/
docs/education/planisphere_e.pdf

Figure 1U-8 Canis Minor

Capricornus Capricornus is one of the oldest known


(the goat-fish) constellations. The ancient Babylonians called it the
goat-fish and said it ruled the part of the sky from
which the mighty Tigris and Euphrates rivers flowed.
The Greeks also saw Capricornus as a creature
that was half-goat and half-fish. They associated
it with the god Pan, who had a human torso and
face, but goat legs and goat horns. One story about
Pan is that he jumped in the river Nile to escape
the sea monster, Typhon. The part of him below the
water turned into a fish, while the rest of his body
remained a goat.
Capricornus is a hard constellation to find because it
does not have any bright stars and it never gets very
Constellations, by National
high in the sky. Research Council of Canada.
Retrieved December 3, 2007,
from http://www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/
docs/education/planisphere_e.pdf

Figure 1U-9 Capricornus

Cassiopeia (the When Cassiopeia died, she was placed next to


Queen of Ethopia) her husband, Cepheus, in the sky. Her vanity and
cruelty had never been forgotten by her enemy
Poseidon who tilted her throne as she was placed
in the sky. For half the night Cassiopeia is sitting
upright, but for the rest of the night she must cling to Constellations, by National
Research Council of Canada.
her throne as she hangs upside-down in the sky. Retrieved December 3, 2007,
from http://www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/
docs/education/planisphere_e.pdf

Figure 1U-10 Cassiopeia

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Constellation Description Picture

Cygnus (the swan) Cygnus flies south along the band of the Milky
Way galaxy and is sometimes referred to as the
Northern Cross. Phaethon bragged to his friends
that Helios, the Greek god of the sun, was his father.
To prove this, he asked Helios if he could drive the
sun chariot across the sky for a day. Helios said yes
but gave his son some advice about how to drive
the chariot. Phaethon, however, did not listen and
lost control, burning a streak across the sky, which
is now seen as the Milky Way. Phaethon then fell
from the sky and landed in a river. His friend Cygnus Constellations, by National
Research Council of Canada.
jumped in to save him, but it was too late. Cygnus Retrieved December 3, 2007,
was so overcome with grief that he also died. Helios from http://www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/
felt sorry for Cygnus and put him in the sky as a docs/education/planisphere_e.pdf
swan. Figure 1U-11 Cygnus
Deneb, the star at the end of the swan, is 63 000
th
times brighter than the sun. As the 18 brightest star
in our sky, Deneb literally means “bottom of the hen”
in Arabic. Deneb is part of the “Summer Triangle”
along with Vega and Altair.

Gemini (the twins) The Twins, Castor and Pollux, were born to Leda,
who was seduced by Zeus in the form of a beautiful
swan. Every December, meteors appear to spray
out of this constellation. This event is called the
“Geminid meteor shower.”
Castor and Pollux, the heads of the Twins, are
the two brightest stars in the constellation Gemini.
Castor, “the Beaver” and Pollux, “much wine” are
th th
the 20 and 16 brightest stars in our night sky
respectively.

Constellations, by National
Research Council of Canada.
Retrieved December 3, 2007,
from http://www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/
docs/education/planisphere_e.pdf

Figure 1U-12 Gemini

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Constellation Description Picture

Hercules Hercules is one of the most famous of all Greek


heroes. He was a demi-god: his father was the god
Zeus and his mother was a human. The goddess
Hera, Zeus’ wife, raised Hercules, but when she
discovered that he was not her son, she became
enraged. After Hercules was married, Hera made
him go mad, and he killed his wife and children. To
atone for this great sin, Hercules had to perform
12 nearly impossible tasks. Some of these tasks
involved other constellations visible in the night
sky: he strangled the Nemean lion, represented by
the Leo; he killed the Lernean hydra, represented
by Hydra, and he crushed a crab, represented by Constellations, by National
Research Council of Canada.
Cancer.
Retrieved December 3, 2007,
from http://www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/
docs/education/planisphere_e.pdf

Figure 1U-13 Hercules

Hydra The Hydra was a nine-headed water snake with


deadly, poisonous breath. Hercules was told to kill
the Hydra as one of his 12 labours. He drove the
Hydra out of hiding and started to smash its heads
with his club, but soon discovered that every time
he knocked off a head, two more would grow back
in its place. Eventually, his chariot-driver started
burning off the stump of each severed head, which
kept them from regenerating. Hercules finally cut off
the last head and buried it under a rock. Then he
dipped his arrows in the blood of the Hydra, to make
them even more deadly.
Hydra is the largest and longest constellation: it
snakes a quarter of the way around the sky. Hydra
has only one bright star.

Constellations, by National
Research Council of Canada.
Retrieved December 3, 2007,
from http://www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/
docs/education/planisphere_e.pdf

Figure 1U-14 Hydra

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Constellation Description Picture

Libra (the scales) To the ancient Babylonians, Libra represented


scales or balance. This might be because the
sun was in front of the stars of Libra during their
autumnal equinox, when days and nights were of
equal length. To the Greeks, the stars of Libra were
not their own constellation but rather the claws of
the scorpion Scorpio. The Romans resurrected the
idea of Libra representing scales and sometimes
drew Virgo holding the scales, just like the goddess
of justice.
The two brightest stars in Libra have interesting
Arabic names: Zubenelgenubi, “the southern claw,” Constellations, by National
and Zubenelchemale, “the northern claw.” Research Council of Canada.
Retrieved December 3, 2007,
from http://www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/
docs/education/planisphere_e.pdf

Figure 1U-15 Libra

Leo (the lion) Leo was a lion that was sent from the moon down
to Earth by Hera, the stepmother and mortal enemy
of Hercules. Leo lived in a cave and would attack
the people who lived nearby. Hercules was sent to
fight Leo but his spears and arrows just bounced off
the lion’s invincible skin. Hercules finally decided to
wrestle Leoand eventually managed to strangle the
lion to death. Hercules then made a cloak from the
lion’s skin so that he could be invincible too.
Regulus, the brightest star in the constellation Leo,
th
means “the little king” in Latin. It is the 25 brightest
star in our night sky and is relatively close to the
Earth at a distance of 77 light years. Regulus is
much brighter than our own star; it shines 350 times
more brightly than the sun.
The easiest way to find Leo in the sky is to look for a
backwards question mark. This shape, often called
The Sickle, marks the head and front paws of the Constellations, by National
lion. Research Council of Canada.
Retrieved December 3, 2007,
from http://www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/
docs/education/planisphere_e.pdf

Figure 1U-16 Leo

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Constellation Description Picture

Lyra (the lyre) Orpheus was a gifted musician and would often
play his lyre. His wife, Eurydice, was killed by a
poisonous snake and taken to the underworld.
Orpheus, overcome with grief, followed Eurydice
to Hades to convince the gods to send her back.
Enchanted by his beautiful music, the gods gave
Orpheus one chance to save Eurydice: he could
lead her out of Hades by playing his lyre, but could
not look back to see if she was actually following
him. As he was leaving the underworld, Orpheus
took a quick look at Eurydice and she was sucked
back into Hades forever. Constellations, by National
th Research Council of Canada.
Vega, the 5 brightest star in the sky, is a well- Retrieved December 3, 2007,
known part of the “Summer Triangle”, seen in the from http://www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/
docs/education/planisphere_e.pdf
summer months, along with Deneb and Altair.
In about 13 000 years, Vega will be our pole star Figure 1U-17 Lyra
rather than the North Star, Polaris.

Orion (the hunter) Orion was a famous hunter who claimed he could
kill any animal. Nothing could protect him from the
scorpion that stung his heel and killed him. Orion
and Scorpius are placed at opposite ends of the sky
so they will not fight again.
Look for a star with a fuzzy appearance just below
Orion’s belt as this is the Orion Nebula where baby
stars are born.
Betelgeuse, or the “armpit” of Orion, is a red
supergiant star that is 300–400 times the diameter
of our sun and is among the best candidates to
Constellations, by National
become a supernova in northern skies. Betelgeuse Research Council of Canada.
is a variable star; its brightness varies, but on Retrieved December 3, 2007,
th
average it is the 12 brightest star in our sky. from http://www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/
docs/education/planisphere_e.pdf

Figure 1U-18 Orion

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Constellation Description Picture

Perseus (the hero) Perseus led a very exciting life. One of his first
adventures was to slay the Medusa, a hideous
woman with snakes for hair who could turn people
into stone with one glance. Perseus cleverly used
his shining shield as a mirror, so that he could attack
the Medusa without looking directly at her. Perseus
cut off the Medusa’s head and from her blood the
winged horse Pegasus was born. Perseus was
flying home on Pegasus when he saw Andromeda.
The princess was chained to a rock and about to
be eaten by the sea monster Cetus. Perseus killed
the sea monster and rescued Andromeda, whom he
later married. After many happy years together, they
died and were put into the sky by the gods. Constellations, by National
Research Council of Canada.
The second brightest star in Perseus is Algol. Retrieved December 3, 2007,
Known as “the ghoul” or “the demon,” it marks the from http://www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/
head of the Medusa. About every three days, Algol docs/education/planisphere_e.pdf
suddenly gets much dimmer and then brightens Figure 1U-19 Perseus
up again a few hours later. This happens because
Algol is actually two stars going around each other.
One of the stars is much larger and much dimmer
than the other. When it passes in front of its brighter
companion, Algol appears to dim.

Pisces (two fish) Pisces represents two fish in the sky. One day, the
goddess Aphrodite and her son Eros were fleeing
the terrible sea monster Typhon. They hid in the
rushes along the bank of the river Euphrates but
could not escape. The monster was just about to
attack when two fish swam up and carried Aphrodite
and Eros to safety. As a reward for their help, the
fish were placed in the sky as the constellation
Pisces.
Pisces is a hard constellation to find. The easiest
way is to locate the square of Pegasus and look
underneath it towards the south. A ring of stars,
Constellations, by National
called the Circlet of Pisces may be seen. This Research Council of Canada.
represents the body of one of the fish. Retrieved December 3, 2007,
from http://www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/
docs/education/planisphere_e.pdf

Figure 1U-20 Pisces

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Constellation Description Picture

Sagittarius (the Sagittarius was the ultimate archer, keen-eyed


archer) and with deadly aim. He is usually drawn as the
Babylonians saw him, a centaur: half-man and half-
horse. To the Greeks, though, he was a satyr: half-
man and half-goat. He was the son of the pipe-
playing god Pan and invented archery.

Constellations, by National
Research Council of Canada.
Retrieved December 3, 2007,
from http://www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/
docs/education/planisphere_e.pdf

Figure 1U-21 Sagittarius

Scorpius (the Scorpius represents the scorpion that killed the


scorpion) hunter Orion. Orion was so proud of his hunting
skills that he boasted he could track down and kill
any animal on Earth. His claim was so outrageous
that the Earth trembled in rage and cracked open.
Out of the crack crawled a scorpion which stung and
killed Orion. Out of pity, the gods placed Orion and
Scorpius on opposite sides of the sky so there could Constellations, by National
be no more trouble between them. Research Council of Canada.
Retrieved December 3, 2007,
The brightest star in Scorpius is called Antares. from http://www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/
This star is quite red and many people mistake it for docs/education/planisphere_e.pdf
Mars. Figure 1U-22 Scorpius

Taurus (the bull) Taurus represents a bull. When Zeus fell in love with
Europa, he transformed himself into a white bull.
One day, as Europa was playing near the seashore,
she noticed the new white bull. She went over for
a closer look, and the bull knelt down to allow her
to climb up. Once she was on, the bull leapt into to
the sea and swam to the island of Crete. Then Zeus
Constellations, by National
changed back into human form and told Europa of Research Council of Canada.
his love for her. Retrieved December 3, 2007,
from http://www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/
Taurus is easy to spot from the constellation Orion. docs/education/planisphere_e.pdf
Follow the three stars of Orion’s belt towards the
west until a bright red-orange star is encountered. Figure 1U-23 Taurus
This is Aldebaran, the Eye of the Bull.
Nearby are five more stars that make a V with
Aldebaran and trace out the face of the bull.

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Constellation Description Picture

Ursa Major (the The Big Bear was actually a beautiful nymph named
big bear) and Ursa Callisto. Callisto was turned into a bear by Zeus to
Minor (the little protect her from his jealous wife Hera. One day,
bear) Callisto ran into her son Arcas who was hunting
in the woods. Arcas raised his spear towards the
bear, his mother. Zeus, watching from above, acted
quickly to save his beloved Callisto. He turned Arcas
into a bear and hoisted them both into the sky by
their tails. In doing so, Zeus stretched the bears’
tails and they now appear that way in the sky.
The legends of some Canadian First Nations, Constellations, by National
including the Micmac and Iroquois, also identify this Research Council of Canada.
constellation as a bear. Retrieved December 3, 2007,
from http://www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/
Ursa Major includes the Big Dipper which is also docs/education/planisphere_e.pdf
known as “The Plough” in Europe. The Big Dipper’s Figure 1U-24 Ursa Major
handle is the bear’s tail, while its scoop is the bear’s
side.
The second star from the end of the Big Dipper’s
handle is really two stars. In ancient times these
stars were used to test eyesight. An individual had
good eyesight if they could see two distinct stars.
At the end of the Little Dipper, Ursa Minor, is our
pole star, Polaris. Polaris, also known as the North
Star, is about 50 times larger than our sun but it
appears very faint as it is 600 light years away.
Polaris is due north and was important in early
Constellations, by National
northern hemisphere navigation. Research Council of Canada.
Retrieved December 3, 2007,
from http://www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/
docs/education/planisphere_e.pdf

Figure 1U-25 Ursa Minor

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Constellation Description Picture

Virgo (the goddess To the ancient Greeks, Virgo represented Demeter,


of agriculture) the goddess of agriculture. Demeter’s daughter,
Persephone, was kidnapped by Hades, the god of
the underworld, and taken to be his wife. Demeter
searched high and low for her daughter neglecting
the crops. Eventually, Zeus persuaded Hades to
release Persephone.
While she was in the underworld, Persephone had
eaten some pomegranate seeds and could never
fully leave. Each year Persephone returns to the
underworld for a time and winter occurs as the crops
die and her mother mourns. When Persephone
returns, her mother rejoices and the Earth becomes
fruitful again.
The brightest star in Virgo is called Spica. It is easy
to find by following the arc of the Big Dipper’s handle
to Arcturus and then continuing in a straight line:
“Arc to Arcturus, then speed on to Spica”. Constellations, by National
Research Council of Canada.
Retrieved December 3, 2007,
from http://www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/
docs/education/planisphere_e.pdf

Figure 1U-26 Virgo

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OBSERVATION RECORD

Observation Record

Date: Time:

Place: Instruments used:

Conditions:

Observations:

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Chapter 1, Annex W

CANADA MODEL ROCKET SAFETY CODE

CANADIAN ASSOCIATION OF ROCKETRY: CANADA MODEL ROCKET SAFETY CODE

1. CONSTRUCTION: I will always build my model rocket using only lightweight materials such as paper,
wood, plastics and rubber without any metal airframe components. My model shall include aerodynamic
surfaces or a mechanism to assure a safe, stable flight.

2. ENGINES: I will use only pre-loaded, commercially available model rocket engines approved safe by
Energy, Mines and Resources Canada. I will never subject these engines to excessive shock, extremes
of temperature, nor will I ever attempt their reloading or alteration. I shall always employ recommended
manufacturer handling and ignition procedures.

3. RECOVERY: My model rocket will always utilize a recovery system to return it safely to the ground so
that my model rocket may be reflown. I shall prepare the recovery system with due care to assure that
it will properly deploy.

4. WEIGHT LIMITS: My model rocket will not weigh more than 1500 grams at liftoff and the model rocket
engine(s) will contain no more than 125 grams of propellant.

5. FIRING SYSTEM: I will always use a remote, electrical system to ignite the model rocket engine(s). My
firing system will include an ignition switch that will return to “OFF” when released, and a safety interlock
key switch to prevent accidental ignition. I will never leave the safety interlock key in my firing system
between launches.

6. LAUNCH SYSTEM: My model rocket will always be launched from a stable platform having a device to
initially guide its motion. My launch system will have a jet deflector to prevent the engine exhaust from
directly contacting the ground, or inflammable launcher components. To protect others and myself from
eye injury, I will position the launch rod or rail so that the upper end is above eye level, or else I will place
a large guard on the upper end between launches. I will never place my body or hand directly over my
loaded model rocket mounted on the launch system.

7. LAUNCH SITE: I will never launch my model rocket near buildings, power lines or within 9.1 kilometres from
the centre of an airport. The area immediately around the launch system will be cleared of any flammable
materials. I will always obtain the permission of the launch site owner prior to using the launch site for
my model rocket activities.

8. LAUNCH CONDITIONS: I will never launch my model rocket in high winds or under conditions of low
visibility that may impair the observation of my model rocket in flight, or in a direction below 30 degrees
from the vertical.

9. LAUNCH SAFETY: I will remain at least five metres away from any model rocket about to be launched.
I will always announce to persons within the launch site that I am about to launch my model rocket, and
I shall give a loud countdown of at least five seconds duration. I shall immediately remove the safety
interlock key from my firing system after the launch of my model rocket.

10. MISFIRE: In the event of an ignition misfire, I shall not immediately approach my model rocket, but remove
the safety interlock key and remain back for a safe period until assured that no ignition will occur.

11. ANIMAL PAYLOADS: I will never endanger live animals by launching them in my model rocket.

12. TARGETS: I will never launch my model rocket so that it will fall on or strike ground or air targets, nor will
I include any explosive or incendiary payload.

13. HAZARDOUS RECOVERY: I will never attempt to recover my model rocket from a power line, high place
or other dangerous location.

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14. PRE-FLIGHT TESTS: Whenever possible, I will, always test the stability, operation and reliability of my
model rocket designs prior to flight. I will launch unproven designs in complete isolation from other persons.

15. PERSONAL CONDUCT: I will always conduct myself in a responsible manner, conscious that the
maintenance of safety for others and myself rests with my ability to design and construct sound, working
models, and to enthusiastically abide by the Canada Model rocket Safety Code.

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Chapter 1, Annex X

MODEL ROCKET STANDARDS

2. CANADIAN ASSOCIATION OF ROCKETRY: MODEL ROCKET STANDARDS

2.1 A “model rocket” is defined as a heavier-than-air flying rocket having a substantially non-metallic airframe,
employing the reaction force of a model rocket engine as its sole source of lift and incorporating an
automatically initiated system that will assure a safe descent and model reusability.

2.2 The model rocket shall be constructed of wood, paper, plastic or similar lightweight materials. No
substantial metal components shall be incorporated in the model rocket airframe.

2.3 The model rocket shall embody aerodynamic surfaces and/or a guidance system, which will develop the
necessary stabilizing and restoring forces to produce and maintain a safe, predictable and substantially
vertical flight path. Model rockets, which employ an internally or externally controlled guidance system,
shall incorporate sufficient inherent stability to fail safe any malfunction or disabling of the guidance
system.

2.4 The model rocket shall incorporate a reliable and effective means, of retarding its descent so that no
hazard shall be presented to persons or property on the ground, and to prevent model damage upon
touchdown so as to enable reflight. All engine casings and/or portions of the model jettisoned from the
model rocket during flight shall descend with a fully deployed streamer or parachute, or by aerodynamic
surfaces, which will induce rapid tumbling or a shallow glide. Minimum loading requirements shall be five
(5) square centimetres per gram for parachutes, and ten (10) square centimetres per gram for streamers.

2.5 A model rocket shall utilize no more than three powered stages. A “powered stage” shall be defined as a
unit of the whole model rocket airframe which contains one or more model rocket engines, and which is
designed to and/or actually separates as a unit in flight after the burnout of its contained engine(s). The
number of powered stages used shall be assessed from the staged model configuration at the instant
of its first motion on the launcher.

2.6 A model rocket incorporating a self-energized firing system shall contain a safety interlock switch that will
disable the firing circuit when “OFF”. Activation of the firing system shall occur only immediately prior to
launch. The self-energized firing system shall include a safe and reliable provision to test circuit continuity.

2.7 All combustible materials subject to high temperature developed by the function of any model rocket
engine, burning-wick dethermalizer or other auxiliary devices operating at higher than 200 degrees
Celsius shall be flame proofed or similarly protected to prevent their ignition. Any on board device, which
initiates ignition and/or employs combustion, shall be self-extinguishing upon termination of actual or
intended function.

2.8 A model rocket shall never contain an explosive or pyrotechnic payload, nor shall it be used to launch
a living animal.

2.9 The maximum or gross mass of a model rocket at launch shall not exceed 1500 grams.

2.10 The model rocket shall contain no more than 125 grams of propellant grain.

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Chapter 1, Annex Y

LAUNCH SITE SET-UP

The area required for launching model rockets should be at least 100 m square. It should not have any tall
buildings, trees, power lines or other tall objects close by. If launching near an aerodrome, the aerodrome
operator should be notified before the launch day. The cadets and spectators should be located in an area at
least 20 m from the launch tower. Bleachers at a baseball field or soccer field are suitable.

If the site is within 9 km (5.6 miles) from an aerodrome, the aerodrome must be advised of the date and time
the rockets will be launched. The rocket will reach a height of 60–120 m (200–400 feet) at apogee and can be
flown safely from the suggested field size.

Wind will play an important factor in the rocket's recovery. The descending rocket will drift with the wind and
if descending too slowly will land far from the launch site. Rockets should not be launched in winds stronger
than 35 km / h (28 miles / h).

Layout rocket launch site as per Figure 1Y-1. Wind direction should be accounted for by placing the tower
closer to the windward side of the field.

Using modular tent pegs or a suitable substitute as posts, cordon off a 10 m by 10 m security tape border
around the launch tower and a 10 m by 10 m security tape border around the launch control site leaving a 1
m opening for access.

Assemble the launch towers as per directions included with the towers. Place the launch towers in a line
perpendicular to the wind. The launch rods should point slightly into the wind.

Place the launch control panels on the launch control tables and run the wire from each of the launch control
boxes to the launch towers ensuring the wires are not tangled and in good working order.

Make sure all the connections are clean and tight.

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Chapter 1, Annex Y

D Cdts 3, 2007, Ottawa, ON: Department of National Defence


Figure 1Y-1 Layout for a Rocket Launch Site

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Chapter 1, Annex Y

D Cdts 3, 2007, Ottawa, ON: Department of National Defence


Figure 1Y-2 Layout for a Launch Control

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Chapter 1, Annex Z

MODEL ROCKET LAUNCH PROCEDURES

1. Place the launch control switches on safe mode until step 7.

2. Collect three rockets from the cadets and prepare them for launch by following the directions included with
the model rocket, launch control and launch tower.

The igniters should be handled with care, as damaged igniters are the cause of most
misfires.

3. Following the launch towers directions, install one rocket on each of the three launch towers.

4. Verify the launch controls switches are in the safe position.

5. Connect the two alligator clips from each launch controller to the igniter leads on each of the three rockets.

6. Make sure everyone stands back from the launch tower and have the cadets start a countdown from ten,
backwards to zero.

7. Place the safe switches in the launch position.

8. Have the cadets press the launch buttons and launch their rockets.

If the rocket does not lift off the pad, wait at least one minute before approaching the pad.
See Annex AA for troubleshooting the launch system.

9. Have the cadets track the rockets through their flights.

10. After the rockets have landed, allow the cadets to recover them.

After each flight, the alligator clips at the launch towers should be cleaned with 280-grit
sandpaper and replaced when they can no longer be cleaned effectively.

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Chapter 1, Annex AA

IF THE ROCKET ENGINE DOES NOT IGNITE

1. Place the launch control button in the safe mode.

2. Wait one minute before approaching launch tower. This will ensure the engine is no longer able to ignite.

3. Undo the alligator clips from the igniter and remove the rocket from the launch tower

4. At the launch tower, test the power with a voltmeter to ensure there is voltage present by setting the
voltmeter to V and placing the towers alligator clips on the leads of the voltmeter, red to red and black
to black.

5. With all the wires connected and the launch button pressed the launch control lights should be on and the
voltmeter should read approximately the voltage of the combined batteries (eg, three batteries at 1.5 volts
each equals 4.5 volts).

6. If the lights on the launch control do not light or the voltmeter registers low voltage or no voltage at all,
the batteries are weak or dead, one of the wires is broken or there is a loose connection at the launch
control or the launch pad.

7. To trace the problem, start at the launch control and ensure there are fresh batteries. If the batteries are
fresh and correctly installed, proceed to the launch tower and verify if there is voltage at the launch tower.
Repair any breaks in the wire or loose connections.

8. Verify that the igniter leads are not touching each other and that the igniter tip is not broken. If the igniter
appears to be unserviceable, install a new igniter and restart the launch process

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CHAPTER 2
PO S260 – PARTICIPATE IN AERODROME OPERATIONS ACTIVITIES
A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001

ROYAL CANADIAN AIR CADETS

BASIC AVIATION TECHNOLOGY AND AEROSPACE

INSTRUCTIONAL GUIDE

SECTION 1

EO S260.01 – IDENTIFY TYPES OF AERODROMES

Total Time: 80 min

PREPARATION

PRE-LESSON INSTRUCTIONS

Resources needed for the delivery of this lesson are listed in the lesson specification located in A-CR-CCP-
824/PG-001, Chapter 4. Specific uses for said resources are identified throughout the instructional guide within
the TP for which they are required.

Review the lesson content and become familiar with the material prior to delivering the lesson.

If access to the internet and a multimedia projector are available in the classroom, become familiar with the
following items, as they can be used to interactively illustrate different types of aerodromes:

Google Earth,

Google Maps (with satellite view enabled), and

Canadian Airport Charts.

If internet access is not available, the Canadian Airport Charts can be downloaded to removable media (eg,
USB memory stick) and used without an internet connection.

If a multimedia projector is not available, create slides or photocopy an aerodrome layout chart of each type
of aerodrome for each cadet.

Photocopy the activity sheet located at Annex A for each cadet.

Photocopy the answer key located at Annex B.

PRE-LESSON ASSIGNMENT

N/A.

APPROACH

An interactive lecture was chosen for TPs 1–4 to review, clarify, emphasize and summarize the types of
aerodromes.

An in-class activity was chosen for TP 5 as an interactive way to review the types of aerodromes.

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INTRODUCTION

REVIEW

Review the following from EO M160.01 (Identify Major Aerodrome Components, A-CR-CCP-801/PF-001, Royal
Canadian Air Cadets, Level One, Instructional Guides, Chapter 14, Section 1):

an aerodrome is any area of land or water designed for the arrival, departure and movement of aircraft; and

an airport is a licensed aerodrome, which possesses a certificate stating it has met all of the airport safety
standards.

OBJECTIVES

By the end of this lesson the cadet shall have identified types of aerodromes.

IMPORTANCE

It is important for the cadets to be able to differentiate between aerodromes and airports. Being able to identify
the type of aerodrome is critical as it directly affects all aspects of operations at the aerodrome. The type of
aerodrome dictates what is required to operate the aerodrome in terms of facilities, equipment, and human
resources.

Teaching Point 1 Review the Definitions of Aerodrome and Airport

Time: 10 min Method: Interactive Lecture

AERODROME

An aerodrome is defined by the Aeronautics Act as:

“Any area of land, water (including the frozen surface thereof) or other supporting surface used, designed,
prepared, equipped or set apart for use either in whole or in part for the arrival, departure, movement or servicing
of aircraft and includes any buildings, installations and equipment situated thereon or associated therewith.”

This has a very broad application for Canada where there are no general restrictions preventing landings or
takeoffs. There are defined exceptions, but, for the most part, all of Canada can be an aerodrome.

Any area designated or set aside for aircraft to use can be considered an aerodrome.

AIRPORT

An airport is an aerodrome for which a certificate has been issued under Subsection 302 of the Canadian
Aviation Regulations (CARs). The objective is to protect those that do not have the knowledge or ability to
protect themselves—the fare paying public and the resident in the vicinity of an airport that could be affected
by unsafe operations. This is done by ensuring the site is inspected periodically for compliance with Transport
Canada Standards for obstruction surfaces, physical characteristics, marking and lighting. Certified aerodromes
must also maintain an Airport Operations Manual and conduct operations in accordance with the manual.

An aerodrome that has been certified by Transport Canada can be considered an airport.

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There are three situations in which an aerodrome must be certified. They are:

an aerodrome located within the built-up area of a city or town;

a land aerodrome used for scheduled passenger service; or

any aerodrome that the Minister of Transportation (the Minister) deems it to be in the public interest.

The only exemptions are:

military aerodromes, and

aerodromes for which the Minister has written an exemption.

CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 1

QUESTIONS

Q1. What is an aerodrome?

Q2. What is an airport?

Q3. When must an aerodrome be certified?

ANTICIPATED ANSWERS

A1. Any area designated or set aside for aircraft to use.

A2. An aerodrome that has been certified by Transport Canada.

A3. An aerodrome must be certified if:

it is located within the built-up area of a city or town,

it is a land aerodrome used for scheduled passenger service, or

the Minister of Transportation deems it to be in the public interest.

Teaching Point 2 Explain Public and Private Aerodromes

Time: 20 min Method: Interactive Lecture

PUBLIC USE

A public use aerodrome is open to the general public for use and does not require prior permission from the
aerodrome operator prior to use. Most airports operated by any level of government (eg, municipal, provincial,
or federal), are open for public use.

PRIVATE USE

A private aerodrome may have restrictions on its use, depending on the wishes of the aerodrome operator.
Examples of restrictions may include:

specific aircraft types (eg, ultralights, gliders),

club members,

company aircraft, and

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A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001

friends.

Prior Notice Required (PNR)

If an aerodrome is listed as PNR, then the aircraft operator must notify (contact) the aerodrome operator before
using the aerodrome. This gives the aerodrome operator the chance to ensure that the most current information
on the aerodrome is provided to the aircraft operator.

Prior Permission Required (PPR)

If an aerodrome is listed as PPR, then the aircraft operator must receive permission from the aerodrome
operator before using the aerodrome. All military aerodromes require PPR for use by civilian aircraft.

If an aircraft is in distress (experiencing an emergency), any aerodrome may be utilized for


a safe landing—public or private.

The Canada Flight Supplement (CFS) can be used to determine if an aerodrome is for public or private use.
In the Operator (OPR) section of a listing, the inclusion of the term PPR or PNR indicates a private aerodrome
(as illustrated in Figures 2-1-1 and 2-1-2) while the absence of PPR or PNR indicates a public aerodrome (as
illustrated in Figure 2-1-3).

Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, Canada Flight Supplement, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada (p. B149)
Figure 2-1-1 A Private Aerodrome (PNR)

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A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001

Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, Canada Flight Supplement, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada (p. B667)
Figure 2-1-2 A Private Aerodrome (PPR)

Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, Canada Flight Supplement, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada (p. B149)
Figure 2-1-3 A Public Aerodrome

If an aerodrome has been issued a certificate (making it an airport), then the term Cert appears in the OPR
section of the listing (as illustrated in Figure 2-1-4).

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Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, Canada Flight Supplement, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada (p. B276)
Figure 2-1-4 A Certified Aerodrome (Airport)

If the aerodrome is operated by the military, the operator is listed as DND and Mil PPR is shown in the OPR
section (as illustrated in Figure 2-1-5).

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Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, Canada Flight Supplement, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada (p. B146)
Figure 2-1-5 A Military Aerodrome

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A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001

CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 2

QUESTIONS

Q1. What is a public use aerodrome?

Q2. What does PNR stand for?

Q3. What does PPR stand for?

ANTICIPATED ANSWERS

A1. An aerodrome that is open to the general public and does not require permission in advance from the
aerodrome operator to use.

A2. Prior Notice Required.

A3. Prior Permission Required.

Teaching Point 3 Explain Military Aerodromes

Time: 5 min Method: Interactive Lecture

All military aerodromes require PPR for civilian aircraft, except in the case of an emergency. PPRs may be
obtained on an “as needed” basis, or for recurring use by way of a written agreement. Authority to grant the
PPR rests with the base/wing commander, although that authority is often delegated further to the base/wing
operations officer. Before approving a PPR, the base/wing commander will take into account such factors as:

impact on flying operations,

air traffic congestion,

ramp space availability,

security risks,

administrative and technical facilities, and

competition with civil facilities.

For further details on authorization for civil aircraft to use DND aerodromes, refer to CFAO
55-6.

As the operational tempo increases at most DND aerodromes, it is growing more difficult for
civilian operators to get a PPR to land or operate.

As a result of Canada’s participation in the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan (BCATP) during WWII,
many air bases were built across the country, all with a very similar design (three runways, arranged in a
triangle). As the military began disposing of these air bases after the war, many municipalities took over their
operations and have kept them operational. In other cases, the air bases were simply abandoned, and in a few
cases, private operators took them over.

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CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 3

QUESTIONS

Q1. What do civilian aircraft require prior to landing at a military aerodrome?

Q2. Why did the military need many air bases during WWII?

ANTICIPATED ANSWERS

A1. Prior Permission (PPR).

A2. Due to Canada’s participation in the BCATP.

Teaching Point 4 Explain Types of Civilian Aerodromes

Time: 20 min Method: Interactive Lecture

PRIVATE

The most common type of aerodrome in Canada is the private aerodrome (often called a “farmer’s field”).
Usually consisting of just a single grass runway, these aerodromes can be found in almost every part of the
country, often just miles apart. They are primarily used by the owners of light single-engine aircraft. Usually,
the owner lives at the aerodrome, making it very convenient to go flying.

These aerodromes generally offer little to no service to visiting aircraft, and are usually listed as PPR or PNR
in the CFS. They are not certified.

MUNICIPAL

Many municipalities in Canada (large towns and small cities) are involved in the operation of an aerodrome
located in (or just outside) the city limits. These aerodromes usually have a hard surfaced runway and provide
year-round operations. Generally, a municipal aerodrome is for public use.

Certification of the aerodrome used to be common practice for municipal aerodromes, but in recent years it has
become very expensive to maintain the certification. As a result, many municipal aerodromes are no longer
certified.

A municipal aerodrome typically provides the following types of services:

aircraft storage,

fuel sales, and

multi-purpose terminal building.

Small aviation businesses may operate from a municipal airport. They may include any or all of the following:

flight training unit (FTU),

air charter operator, and

aviation maintenance facility.

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At many municipal aerodromes, the main function of the aerodrome is to provide a fast and
reliable method of transportation for an important industry or employer in the area. A local
company may transport clients and executives using corporate aircraft, and the ability to
land at an aerodrome within a few miles of the factory can often save enormous amounts of
time and money.

If possible, use Google Earth (or Google Maps with satellite view turned on) to zoom in on
the different types of aerodromes. Ask the cadets to provide the names and locations of
aerodromes near their home towns. A short list of aerodromes visible with Google Earth is
shown at Figure 2-1-6.

Aerodrome Location (Best


Aerodrome Type
Way to Find on Google Earth)

Private (PNR) Cookstown, ON (N44 14 20 W79 38 20)

Private (PPR) Roland, MB (N49 24 30 W97 59 26)

Municipal Oshawa, ON (CYOO)

Municipal Dauphin, MB (CYDN)

Regional Hamilton, ON (CYHM)

Regional Val-d’Or, QC (CYVO)

Regional Lethbridge, AB (CYQL)

International Toronto, ON (CYYZ)

International Vancouver, BC (CYVR)

International Halifax, NS (CYHZ)

D Cdts 3, 2007, Ottawa, ON: Department of National Defence


Figure 2-1-6 List of Aerodromes Visible on Google Earth

REGIONAL

An aerodrome can be considered to be a regional airport if:

it has scheduled passenger traffic,

it is not a national, provincial, or territorial capital, and

it has a scheduled passenger traffic volume of less than 200 000 passengers per year for three consecutive
years.

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A land aerodrome that is used for scheduled passenger services must be certified as an
airport. As such, an aerodrome that meets the requirements to be considered as a regional
aerodrome could also be called a regional airport. Many civilian publications will use the
term regional airport.

Regional airports often serve as the starting/ending point in a passenger’s air travel. Passengers prefer to fly
from the closest regional airport to their home, especially for domestic flights. Arriving and departing from a
regional airport has the following benefits:

closer to home,

easier (and usually lower cost) parking, and

less crowded terminals.

Regional/local airports serve six percent of the total annual passenger/cargo traffic in
Canada.

Using a regional airport has the following disadvantages:

fewer choices of airlines;

fewer choices of destinations;

non-stop flights to the final destination are not always available;

fewer services available in the terminal; and

more flight delays due to poor weather.

In addition to passenger and cargo traffic, regional airports often support a significant amount of general aviation
traffic, including:

personal travel,

flight training, and

corporate/business travel.

INTERNATIONAL

International airports form the backbone of a country’s air transportation system. Many flights that originate
from a regional airport, terminate at an international airport, where passengers can make connections to other
regional airports domestically, or to international destinations.

At most international airports, cargo flights make up a much higher percentage of the traffic than at a regional
airport.

In Canada, there are 26 international airports that are part of the National Airports System (NAS) (as illustrated
in Figure 2-1-7). These airports are owned by Transport Canada. Although they are owned by the Government,
they are leased and operated by locally controlled airport authorities. In a few special cases (northern and arctic
airports), the provincial (territorial) government is the airport operator.

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At the larger international airports, the entire facility can be compared to a small city. Many of the same items
found in a city, can also be found at the aerodrome:

administration building,

operations centre,

police/security force,

fire hall,

water and sewer systems, and

network of roads and parking lots.

Transport Canada, 2006, National Airports Policy. Retrieved September 27,


2007, from http://www.tc.gc.ca/programs/airports/policy/nap/NAP.htm
Figure 2-1-7 NAS Airports

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International airports serve 94 percent of the total annual passenger/cargo traffic in Canada.

CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 4

QUESTIONS

Q1. Who is the main user of a private aerodrome?

Q2. What types of services are generally offered at a municipal aerodrome?

Q3. What types of aviation businesses may be found at a municipal aerodrome?

ANTICIPATED ANSWERS

A1. Owners of small single-engine aircraft.

A2. The following services are generally offered at a municipal aerodrome:

aircraft storage,

fuel sales, and

multi-purpose terminal building.

A3. The following aviation businesses might be found at a municipal aerodrome:

flight training unit (FTU),

air charter operator, and

aviation maintenance facility.

Teaching Point 5 Conduct a Matching Activity Based on Definitions and Types


of Aerodromes

Time: 15 min Method: In-Class Activity

ACTIVITY

OBJECTIVE

The objective of this activity is for the cadets to review the types of aerodromes.

RESOURCES

Matching activity handout located at Annex A.

ACTIVITY LAYOUT

N/A.

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ACTIVITY INSTRUCTIONS

1. Distribute the activity handout to each cadet.

2. Have the cadets complete the handout using their reference material as required.

3. Provide assistance and guidance as required.

4. Correct the answers as a group using Annex B.

SAFETY

N/A.

CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 5

The cadets’ participation in the activity will serve as the confirmation of this TP.

END OF LESSON CONFIRMATION

The cadets’ participation in the matching activity in TP 5 will serve as the confirmation of this lesson.

CONCLUSION

HOMEWORK/READING/PRACTICE

N/A.

METHOD OF EVALUATION

N/A.

CLOSING STATEMENT

Knowing the different types of aerodromes forms the basis of aerodrome operations. The similarities and
differences between the different types of aerodromes is a key aspect of appreciating the operational
requirements of the aerodrome. This is particularly true when it comes to discerning the requirements for
facilities, equipment, and human resources.

INSTRUCTOR NOTES/REMARKS

TPs 1–3 are to be taught in one 40-minute period.

TPs 4 and 5 are to be taught in one 40-minute period.

The time allocated for the introduction and conclusion is to be divided between the periods as required.

REFERENCES

A3-058 GPH 205. Department of National Defence. (2007). Canada Flight Supplement. Ottawa, ON:
Department of National Defence.

C2-044 Transport Canada. (2007). Aeronautical Information Manual. Retrieved October 2, 2007, from
http://www.tc.gc.ca/publications/EN/TP14371/PDF/HR/TP14371E.PDF.

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C3-147 NAV CANADA. (2007). Canadian Airport Charts. Retrieved October 9, 2007, from http://
www.navcanada.ca/ContentDefinitionFiles/Publications/AeronauticalInfoProducts/
CanadianAirportCharts/CanadianAirportCharts_current.pdf.

C3-148 (ISBN 0-9739866-0-3) Syme, E.R., & Wells, A.T. (2005). Airport Development, Management and
Operations In Canada: Second Edition. Barrie, ON: Aviation Education Services.

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ROYAL CANADIAN AIR CADETS

BASIC AVIATION TECHNOLOGY AND AEROSPACE

INSTRUCTIONAL GUIDE

SECTION 2

EO S260.02 – IDENTIFY THE MAJOR COMPONENTS OF AN AERODROME

Total Time: 40 min

PREPARATION

PRE-LESSON INSTRUCTIONS

Resources needed for the delivery of this lesson are listed in the lesson specification located in A-CR-CCP-
824/PG-001, Chapter 4. Specific uses for said resources are identified throughout the instructional guide within
the TP for which they are required.

Review the lesson content and become familiar with the material prior to delivering the lesson.

Photocopy the handouts located at Annexes C and D for each cadet.

PRE-LESSON ASSIGNMENT

N/A.

APPROACH

An interactive lecture was chosen for this lesson to review, clarify, emphasize and summarize the major
components of aerodromes.

INTRODUCTION

REVIEW

The review for this lesson is of EO M160.01 (Identify Major Aerodrome Components, A-CR-CCP-801/PF-001,
Chapter 14, Section 1).

OBJECTIVES

By the end of this lesson the cadet shall have identified the major components of an aerodrome.

IMPORTANCE

It is important for the cadet to be able to identify the various components of an aerodrome because this
knowledge will be required during the aerodrome tour. Also, for those considering a career in aviation, being
able to identify and describe the components of an aerodrome is a fundamental requirement.

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Teaching Point 1 Explain the Major Components of an Aerodrome

Time: 10 min Method: Interactive Lecture

RUNWAYS

The runway is the area where aircraft takeoff and land. A runway can be made of pavement (asphalt), concrete,
grass, gravel, dirt or a combination of these materials. Ideally, a runway is aligned to point into the prevailing
winds. At some locations, the natural terrain may make it too costly to build the runway in the ideal direction.

Runway Identification

Each end of the runway is assigned a number, based on the direction it is pointing (degrees magnetic in the
Southern Domestic Airspace and degrees true in the Northern Domestic Airspace). The runway number is
obtained by rounding the three digit heading to the nearest 10 degrees, and removing the last digit.

Examples of runway headings and numbers are listed below:

Runway Heading Runway Number Runway Heading Runway Number

011 Degrees 01 201 Degrees 20

090 Degrees 09 276 Degrees 28

123 Degrees 12 334 Degrees 33

141 Degrees 14 360 Degrees 36

Distribute photocopies of Annex C to the cadets.

Runway Configuration

Runways can be arranged in a variety of ways. How the runways are arranged can have an impact on the
number of aircraft that are able to takeoff and land in a given time period (the capacity). At large aerodromes,
it is common to see a mix of configurations (eg, parallel and intersecting).

Single Runway. This is the simplest configuration. The major disadvantage is that light aircraft may not be
able to use the aerodrome during periods when the wind is not aligned with the runway.

Parallel Runways. This configuration is commonly found at large airports (such as an international airport).
The main advantage is that both runways can be used at the same time, increasing the capacity of the airport.

Intersecting Runways. The main advantage of intersecting runways is to allow aircraft to use the runway that
is most closely aligned with the wind. During light winds, both runways can be used to increase the capacity of
the aerodrome, but during high winds, only one runway will be used.

Open-V Runways. This configuration has runways that diverge from each other, but do not intersect. This
configuration is sometimes encountered at aerodromes with runways of different construction (eg, pavement
and grass).

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A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001

TAXIWAYS

Taxiways provide access to and from the runways for departing and arriving aircraft. At a small aerodrome with
only one runway, a single taxiway may be all that is required. At a large aerodrome with multiple runways a
complex system of taxiways is required to ensure that aircraft can move around the airfield without conflicting
with aircraft using the runways.

Taxiways are typically provided at each end of a runway and for long runways, at regular intervals along the
length. The width of a taxiway generally only permits one-way traffic, so parallel taxiways are provided where
two-way traffic is expected.

Figure 2-2-1 illustrates a simple taxiway configuration and Figure 2-2-2 illustrates a complex
taxiway system.

Nav Canada, Canadian Airport Charts, Nav Canada (p. 245)


Figure 2-2-1 Simple Taxiway System

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A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001

Nav Canada, Canadian Airport Charts, Nav Canada (p. 294)


Figure 2-2-2 Complex Taxiway System

APRONS

Aprons are basically parking lots for aircraft. While the aircraft is parked on the apron, passengers get on and
off, cargo is loaded and unloaded, aircraft are refuelled and basic pre-/post-flight servicing takes place.

At large aerodromes, there may be multiple and/or specialized aprons. Common specialized areas include:

de-icing,

general aviation,

parking/storage,

isolation, and

cargo.

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A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001

CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 1

QUESTIONS

Q1. What are runways made of?

Q2. What are taxiways used for?

Q3. What are aprons used for?

ANTICIPATED ANSWERS

A1. Pavement (asphalt), concrete, grass, gravel, dirt or a combination of these materials.

A2. Taxiways provide access to and from the runways for departing and arriving aircraft.

A3. Parking aircraft.

Teaching Point 2 Explain Buildings at an Aerodrome

Time: 25 min Method: Interactive Lecture

At most aerodromes, buildings are a key part of the facilities. They typically have a primary function, and
sometimes several secondary functions. At small aerodromes, it is more common to have a multi-purpose
building, while at large aerodromes, buildings are generally built for a single purpose.

HANGARS

Hangars are considered garages for aircraft. For large aircraft (eg, jumbo jet, B757, A330), the hangar is where
major maintenance tasks are carried out. The building provides shelter for the aircraft and the maintenance
personnel.

For smaller aircraft (eg, business jets and light aircraft), the hangar is utilized both as a storage area between
flights, and as shelter during maintenance tasks.

Hangars typically have additional space allocated for offices and storage areas, as well as other functions such
as washrooms and lounges.

A hangar designed for large aircraft typically only holds one or two aircraft at a time, while a hangar designed
for smaller aircraft may have space for up to 20–30 aircraft of various shapes and sizes.

TERMINALS

Terminal buildings are designed to create an orderly flow of passengers, both arriving and departing, while
maintaining all of the necessary security requirements. Regardless of the design, the purpose of the terminal
building is to process and move passengers (or cargo) from the groundside area of the aerodrome to the aircraft
and vice versa.

A secondary function of most terminal buildings is to provide office space for the aerodrome operator and
aircraft operators.

At small aerodromes, one terminal building is generally sufficient to meet everyone’s requirements. At large
aerodromes, multiple terminals are often used.

Terminals come in a variety of layouts. At many aerodromes, the terminal is originally constructed as a
linear building. Over time, as the aerodrome grows and terminal expansion is required, it becomes more
representative of a pier finger, or pier satellite layout.

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A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001

Distribute photocopies of Annex D to the cadets.

Arriving at/Departing From the Terminal Building

All passengers must use some form of transportation to get to/from the aerodrome (unless they are departing
the aerodrome on a connecting flight). The design of the terminal building must provide access to the road
system, and in some cases, provide adequate space for public transportation, taxis, and parking. As the size of
the aerodrome and the number of passengers being processed increases, this becomes even more important.

Security Requirements

The layout of the terminal must ensure that all of the security requirements can be met, that secure areas remain
secure, and that passengers and non passengers have access to the required areas, with minimum hassle.

Security requirements will be covered in further detail in EO S260.09 (Explain Aspects of


Aerodrome Security, Section 9).

Baggage Handling

Almost all passengers travelling by air will have baggage. The terminal building must also be able to process
the baggage. In most cases, the baggage handling is done by the aircraft operator. The baggage must be
properly tagged to ensure that it is directed to the correct aircraft, properly screened to maintain security, and
then loaded on the correct aircraft. All of these steps have to happen between the time that the passenger
arrives at the aerodrome, and the time that the aircraft departs.

For arriving passengers, the baggage must be unloaded from the aircraft, moved to the terminal building, and
reunited with the passenger, all within a reasonable time frame.

ADMINISTRATION

At a small municipal aerodrome, the operations staff (typically a manager and one or two employees) have
office space in the terminal building. At a large aerodrome, there may be hundreds of employees involved in
the operations and administration of the facilities. To accommodate them, there is usually a separate building
for aerodrome operations and administration. There will be some space utilized in the main terminal building,
but the majority of employees will be in the administration building.

MAINTENANCE

At most aerodromes, a separate building (or buildings in the case of a large aerodrome) are used to store the
equipment used to maintain the facilities (eg, sweepers, snowblowers, tractors, mowers). In addition to providing
a clean and dry storage area, these buildings also serve as maintenance garages. Most routine maintenance
and minor repairs are done on site by aerodrome staff.

CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 2

QUESTIONS

Q1. What kind of building is used to store small aircraft between flights?

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A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001

Q2. What is the purpose of the terminal building?

Q3. At a large aerodrome, what building houses most of the aerodrome staff?

ANTICIPATED ANSWERS

A1. A hangar.

A2. To process and move passengers (or cargo) from the groundside area of the aerodrome to the aircraft
(and vice versa).

A3. Administration Building.

END OF LESSON CONFIRMATION

QUESTIONS

Q1. What are three main components used by aircraft that might be made of asphalt or concrete?

Q2. What are four main buildings found at aerodromes?

Q3. What kind of runway configuration could be used for two runways that do not intersect?

ANTICIPATED ANSWERS

A1. Runways, taxiways, and aprons.

A2. Hangars, terminals, administration and maintenance buildings.

A3. Parallel or Open-V.

CONCLUSION

HOMEWORK/READING/PRACTICE

N/A.

METHOD OF EVALUATION

N/A.

CLOSING STATEMENT

Any aviation related career requires an understanding of the major components of an aerodrome. All other
aerodrome operations topics build on this basic knowledge.

INSTRUCTOR NOTES/REMARKS

N/A.

REFERENCES

C3-147 NAV CANADA. (2007). Canadian Airport Charts. Retrieved October 9, 2007, from http://
www.navcanada.ca/ContentDefinitionFiles/Publications/AeronauticalInfoProducts/
CanadianAirportCharts/CanadianAirportCharts_current.pdf.

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A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001

C3-148 (ISBN 0-9739866-0-3) Syme, E.R., & Wells, A.T. (2005). Airport Development, Management and
Operations in Canada: Second Edition. Barrie, ON: Aviation Education Services.

2-2-8
A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001

ROYAL CANADIAN AIR CADETS

BASIC AVIATION TECHNOLOGY AND AEROSPACE

INSTRUCTIONAL GUIDE

SECTION 3

EO S260.03 – CONSTRUCT A MODEL OF AN AERODROME

Total Time: 120 min

PREPARATION

PRE-LESSON INSTRUCTIONS

Resources needed for the delivery of this lesson are listed in the lesson specification located in A-CR-CCP-
824/PG-001, Chapter 4. Specific uses for said resources are identified throughout the instructional guide within
the TP for which they are required.

Review the lesson content and become familiar with the material prior to delivering the lesson.

Photocopy the handout located at Annex E for each cadet.

Set up the classroom IAW the activity layout.

PRE-LESSON ASSIGNMENT

N/A.

APPROACH

An in-class activity was chosen for this lesson as an interactive way to reinforce the major components of an
aerodrome.

INTRODUCTION

REVIEW

The review for this lesson is of EO S260.02 (Identify Major Components of Aerodromes, Section 2).

OBJECTIVES

By the end of this lesson the cadet shall have constructed a model of an aerodrome, including all of the major
components.

IMPORTANCE

It is important to be able to identify the various components of an aerodrome because this knowledge will be
required during aerodrome tours. Also, for those considering a career in aviation, being able to identify and
describe the components of an aerodrome is a fundamental requirement. It also contributes to the safety of
all personnel at the aerodrome.

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A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001

Teaching Point 1 Have the Cadet, as a Member of a Group, Construct a Model


of an Aerodrome

Time: 110 min Method: In-Class Activity

ACTIVITY

OBJECTIVE

The objective of this activity is for the cadet to construct a model aerodrome.

RESOURCES

Aerodrome construction checklist located at Annex E,

Coloured construction paper,

Transparent tape,

Scissors,

Coloured chalk,

Coloured markers, and

Glue.

Other materials may be used in addition to this list if available at the CSTC. The amount of
materials that are needed will depend on class size and number of groups.

ACTIVITY LAYOUT

Group the tables/desks together as necessary to form a large enough work surface to support the base of
the model.

ACTIVITY INSTRUCTIONS

1. Divide the cadets into groups of three to five.

2. Inform the cadets of the materials available for them to use.

3. Inform the cadets they are all to start with a base of four large pieces of construction paper, arranged in
a square (two by two taped together).

4. Have each group create their own model aerodrome, using the checklist located at Annex A, ensuring all
of the required components are included.

While it is not important for the model to be built exactly to scale, care should be taken to
construct items that are the correct size, relative to the other components of the aerodrome.

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A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001

While cadets are encouraged to be creative with the materials provided, recommend the
following uses for the resources listed above:

Brown or green paper should be used for the base.

Black or grey paper should be used for pavement (runways, taxiways, aprons).

Construction paper can be folded and taped/glued together to create buildings.

White chalk can be used for runway numbering and markings to represent white lines.

Coloured markers can be used for adding specific details to components.

SAFETY

N/A.

CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 1

The cadets’ participation in the activity will serve as the confirmation of this TP.

END OF LESSON CONFIRMATION

The cadets’ participation in the construction of a model aerodrome will serve as the confirmation of this lesson.

CONCLUSION

HOMEWORK/READING/PRACTICE

N/A.

METHOD OF EVALUATION

N/A.

CLOSING STATEMENT

Constructing a model aerodrome is a fun and interactive way to demonstrate knowledge of the major
components of an aerodrome. Any aviation related career requires a complete understanding of these
components. The safety of all personnel working at an aerodrome is also dependent upon this knowledge.

INSTRUCTOR NOTES/REMARKS

Cadets will have participated in a similar activity during EO M160.03 (Construct a Model Aerodrome, A-CR-
CCP-801/PF-001, Chapter 14, Section 3). During this activity, they should concentrate on making their model
more accurate, and with more detail.

The model aerodrome that is constructed will be used in later EOs. Space must be left around the runway in
order to add runway and approach lights at another time.

It is recommended that the three periods required for this EO be scheduled consecutively.

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A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001

REFERENCES

N/A.

2-3-4
A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001

ROYAL CANADIAN AIR CADETS

BASIC AVIATION TECHNOLOGY AND AEROSPACE

INSTRUCTIONAL GUIDE

SECTION 4

EO S260.04 – IDENTIFY HOW VEHICLES ARE USED AT AN AERODROME

Total Time: 40 min

PREPARATION

PRE-LESSON INSTRUCTIONS

Resources needed for the delivery of this lesson are listed in the lesson specification located in A-CR-CCP-
824/PG-001, Chapter 4. Specific uses for said resources are identified throughout the instructional guide within
the TP for which they are required.

Review the lesson content and become familiar with the material prior to delivering the lesson.

Photocopy the activity sheet located at Annex F for each cadet.

Photocopy the answer key located at Annex G.

PRE-LESSON ASSIGNMENT

N/A.

APPROACH

An interactive lecture was chosen for this lesson to clarify, emphasize and summarize the vehicles used at
an aerodrome.

INTRODUCTION

REVIEW

N/A.

OBJECTIVES

By the end of this lesson the cadet shall have identified how vehicles are used at an aerodrome.

IMPORTANCE

It is important for the cadets to be able to identify the vehicles at an aerodrome and how they are used. At
most aerodromes each vehicle has a specific purpose. To carry out specialized tasks, certain vehicles have
additional equipment added to them.

2-4-1
A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001

Teaching Point 1 Explain How Cars Are Used at an Aerodrome for Inspections
and as Courtesy Cars

Time: 5 min Method: Interactive Lecture

INSPECTIONS

Throughout the course of the day, aerodrome operations staff must conduct inspections of the following areas:

runways,

taxiways,

aprons, and

roads.

Most of the time, the only equipment required to conduct these inspections is a vehicle with a rotating amber
beacon and a two-way radio. A car is usually the most economical vehicle for this kind of task.

COURTESY CARS

Many small municipal aerodromes are located outside the community that they serve. Visiting pilots
and passengers that arrive at the aerodrome may need to travel to the town for meals and overnight
accommodations. It is not uncommon for the aerodrome operator to have a courtesy car that can be borrowed
to make the trip. This saves the visiting pilot the additional expense of a taxi. The main disadvantage of this is
that there is usually only one vehicle available, and it is loaned out on a first come, first served basis.

In recent years, many aerodromes have eliminated their courtesy vehicles. The reason is a growing concern
over liability issues. Most staff at a small aerodrome without a courtesy car are more than willing to give a ride
to a visiting pilot, as it will help create a more enjoyable experience, and hopefully ensure a return visit.

CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 1

QUESTIONS

Q1. What kind of vehicle is often used for inspections at an aerodrome?

Q2. What parts of the aerodrome are often inspected using a car?

Q3. What will aerodrome staff usually do for a visiting pilot if a courtesy car is not available?

ANTICIPATED ANSWERS

A1. A car.

A2. Runways, taxiways, aprons, and roads.

A3. Give the pilot a ride.

2-4-2
A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001

Teaching Point 2 Explain How Buses Are Used at an Aerodrome to Move


Passengers Between the Terminal and the Aircraft

Time: 5 min Method: Interactive Lecture

At some large aerodromes, there are satellite (remote) terminals. Passengers need a way to get from the main
terminal building to the satellite terminal. They must be able to do this without worrying about the weather or
interfering with aircraft operations. One way to do this is by building underground tunnels or concourses but
this is a very expensive option. A much more cost effective way is to use a bus.

Passengers board the bus at the main terminal building, then the bus is moved to the satellite terminal.
Passengers then leave the bus, move into the satellite terminal and from there they board the aircraft.

Buses can also be used to transport passengers from the terminal building to an aircraft that is not parked at
the terminal (eg, parked in a remote location).

When an arriving aircraft cannot be parked at a terminal building (eg, security concerns or lack of space), a bus
can be used to pick up the passengers and move them to the terminal building.

Another use of buses at an aerodrome is to shuttle passengers from terminal to terminal (where multiple
terminals exist). This reduces the walking that passengers have to do and can make it easier for them to catch
connecting flights. Similarly, buses can be used to transport people from parking lots that located far away
from the terminals.

It is not unusual for a large international airport to have an entire fleet of buses (and the associated maintenance
facilities and staff) dedicated to moving passengers around the aerodrome.

Cumberland Industries UK, Products. Retrieved November 15, 2007, from


http://www.cumberlandindustries.com/images/neoplan-airport-bus-lauda-a.jpg
Figure 2-4-1 A Bus Used at an Aerodrome

CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 2

QUESTIONS

Q1. What kind of terminal building layout makes use of a bus?

Q2. When an aircraft cannot be parked at the terminal building, how do passengers get to the terminal?

Q3. What is used to shuttle passengers from terminal to terminal?

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A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001

ANTICIPATED ANSWERS

A1. Remote or satellite.

A2. By bus.

A3. A bus.

Teaching Point 3 Explain How Trucks Are Used at an Aerodrome

Time: 25 min Method: Interactive Lecture

One of the most common vehicles found at an aerodrome is a truck. The trucks found at an aerodrome can
be broken down into three general categories:

pickup truck,

dump truck, and

specialty truck.

INSPECTIONS

While most of the regular inspections at an aerodrome can be conducted using a car, pickup trucks are required
for some specific inspections. Specifically, the guidelines for conducting runway friction testing require the use of
a pickup truck to conduct the tests when using a portable decelerometer (a device that measures deceleration).

Another reason to use a pickup truck for inspections is that tools and equipment to correct deficiencies can be
more easily transported (compared to a car).

Finally, there may also be areas of the aerodrome that need inspections, but that do not have proper roads. In
these cases, a four-wheel drive pickup truck may be required to safely reach these areas.

Enfield Auto Body, Major Clients and Services. Retrieved November


15, 2007, from http://www.enfieldautobody.com/majorclients.htm
Figure 2-4-2 A Pickup Truck Used at an Aerodrome

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A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001

MAINTENANCE

Pickup trucks are used extensively for ongoing maintenance tasks around the aerodrome. The main reason for
this is that they are well-suited to carrying the tools and equipment necessary to perform maintenance. Typical
maintenance tasks that might be carried out include:

replacement and repair of lights,

fence repairs,

sign repairs, and

minor pavement and turf repairs.

CONSTRUCTION

During any period of construction at an aerodrome, trucks of all shapes and sizes will be used. Flatbed trucks
deliver materials and equipment to the site, as well as move them around the facilities. Dump trucks will be
used wherever excavations or earth moving occurs. Pickup trucks will be used to move people and smaller
tools and equipment around.

While most of these vehicles will not be owned by the aerodrome, the aerodrome operator will be responsible for
ensuring that operators are properly trained, that the vehicles are properly equipped (eg, two-way radio, rotating
amber beacon/strobe light), and that the vehicles move about the aerodrome in a safe and efficient manner.

NRRA, Airport Vehicles. Retrieved November 15, 2007, from http://www.nrairport.com/equipment/airport_vehicles.htm


Figure 2-4-3 A Dump Truck Used at an Aerodrome

SNOW REMOVAL

At most Canadian airports, winter is a busy time of year for trucks. All of the snow that falls on the movement
areas and the road system has to be cleared in a timely manner to allow operations to continue with minimal
disruption.

Large trucks often form the base to which snowplows are attached. Even pickup trucks can have plow blades
attached to them for clearing small areas. Piles of snow that accumulate can be moved using dump trucks.
Dump trucks or pickup trucks can have hoppers in the back that can be used for spreading chemicals for melting
ice or grit to increase traction.

2-4-5
A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001

Sioux Gateway Airport, Photo Gallery. Retrieved November 15, 2007,


from http://www.flysiouxgateway.com/index.php/gallery/image_full/107/
Figure 2-4-4 A Snowplow Used at an Aerodrome

PLATFORMS FOR SPECIALTY EQUIPMENT

Many specialized vehicles at an aerodrome are basic truck frames with the addition of special equipment.
Examples of these include:

de-icing trucks,

air stairs,

rapid response emergency vehicles, and

ground servicing equipment (eg, catering truck).

Chisholm/Hibbing, 2007, Airport Deicing Service, Copyright 2007 by Chisholm/Hibbing Airport.


Retrieved November 15, 2007, from http://www.hibbingairport.com/services/deicer.php
Figure 2-4-5 A De-Icing Truck Used at an Aerodrome

2-4-6
A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001

Stinar Corporation, Stinar Lavatory and Water Trucks. Retrieved


November 19, 2007, from http://www.stinar.com/lav_water_trucks.shtml
Figure 2-4-6 A Ground Servicing Truck (Potable Water) Used at an Aerodrome

ACTIVITY

Time: 5 min

OBJECTIVE

The objective of this activity is to have the cadets match the vehicle pictures with the correct name and/or
purpose.

RESOURCES

Aerodrome vehicle handout located at Annex F, and

Pens or pencils.

ACTIVITY LAYOUT

N/A.

ACTIVITY INSTRUCTIONS

1. Distribute the handout located at Annex F.

2. Have the cadets complete the handout using their reference material as required.

3. Provide assistance and guidance as required.

4. Correct the answers as a group using Annex G.

SAFETY

N/A.

2-4-7
A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001

CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 3

The cadets’ participation in the activity will serve as the confirmation of this TP.

END OF LESSON CONFIRMATION

The cadets’ participation in the matching activity in TP 3 will serve as the confirmation of this lesson.

CONCLUSION

HOMEWORK/READING/PRACTICE

N/A.

METHOD OF EVALUATION

N/A.

CLOSING STATEMENT

It is important for the cadets to be able to identify the vehicles at an aerodrome and how they are used. Each
vehicle has a specific purpose, and is outfitted with specialized equipment to help it perform the required tasks.

INSTRUCTOR NOTES/REMARKS

N/A.

REFERENCES

C3-148 (ISBN 0-9739866-0-3) Syme, E.R., & Wells, A.T. (2005). Airport Development, Management and
Operations in Canada: Second Edition. Barrie, ON: Aviation Education Services.

2-4-8
A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001

ROYAL CANADIAN AIR CADETS

BASIC AVIATION TECHNOLOGY AND AEROSPACE

INSTRUCTIONAL GUIDE

SECTION 5

EO S260.05 – IDENTIFY HOW EQUIPMENT IS USED AT AN AERODROME

Total Time: 40 min

PREPARATION

PRE-LESSON INSTRUCTIONS

Resources needed for the delivery of this lesson are listed in the lesson specification located in A-CR-CCP-
824/PG-001, Chapter 4. Specific uses for said resources are identified throughout the instructional guide within
the TP for which they are required.

Review the lesson content and become familiar with the material prior to delivering the lesson.

Photocopy the handout located at Annex H for each cadet.

PRE-LESSON ASSIGNMENT

N/A.

APPROACH

An interactive lecture was chosen for this lesson to clarify, emphasize and summarize the equipment used at
an aerodrome.

INTRODUCTION

REVIEW

N/A.

OBJECTIVES

By the end of this lesson the cadet shall have identified how equipment is used at an aerodrome.

IMPORTANCE

It is important for the cadets to be able to identify the equipment at an aerodrome and how it is used. At most
aerodromes, each piece of equipment has a specific purpose and has been customized for the task.

Teaching Point 1 Describe Equipment and How It Is Used at an Aerodrome

Time: 15 min Method: Interactive Lecture

In addition to the vehicles discussed in EO S260.04 (Identify How Vehicles Are Used at an Aerodrome,
Section 4) there are several important pieces of equipment that are used extensively at aerodromes: sweepers,
snowplows and snow blowers.

2-5-1
A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001

The equipment used at an aerodrome is similar to what is used for highways. Equipment designed for use on
a road has to be built with the 3.5 m (11 ft) width of a lane of traffic as a limiting factor. At an aerodrome this
limitation is not a factor. In fact, because runways and taxiways are much wider than a typical road, wider is
better.

Equipment designed for aerodrome use is usually designed to be mounted on a special chassis. The chassis
will have a standardized mounting bracket and common hydraulic connections which allow different types of
equipment to be mounted, depending on the task to be done.

SWEEPERS

Sweepers come in three main configurations:

self-propelled,

front mounted, and

towed.

When there has been a light accumulation of snow or slush but not enough to require a snowplow, a sweeper
can be used. Sweepers are also effective at removing debris such as dirt or sand, so that it will not cause
foreign object damage (FOD) to propellers or turbine engines.

The rotating brush can have bristles made of stainless steel or synthetic materials (usually nylon or
polypropylene). Steel bristles cut through ice and snow effectively and synthetic bristles work well on wet snow
or slush.

Some sweepers have hot air blowers which direct a steady stream of hot air onto the surface being swept. In
addition to blowing away any small particles left behind by the bristles, the hot air can melt small ice deposits.

2-5-2
A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001

NRRA, Airport Vehicles. Retrieved November 15, 2007, from http://www.nrairport.com/equipment/airport_vehicles.htm


Figure 2-5-1 Front Mounted Sweeper

SNOWPLOWS

Any aerodrome that expects snow over the winter months will have a snowplow, either owned by the aerodrome,
or contracted by a third party. A snowplow is the most effective way to remove snow from aircraft movement
areas.

Small aerodromes may use snowplows that were designed for highway use, but any aerodrome with a large
or long runway will have a snowplow designed specifically for aerodrome use. These kinds of snowplows have
blades that are two times wider than a highway snowplow. In order to be able to push the larger amount of
snow, these snowplows will also have bigger, more powerful engines.

Snowplow blades can be mounted on trucks, tractors, or on a special chassis. Snowplow blades designed for
roads usually have a one-way blade (the snow is always pushed to the same side—the right side in North
America). Snowplow blades designed for aerodromes are usually two-way blades (reversible) which allows the
operator to push snow to either side.

Figure 2-5-2 shows a 4.3 m (14 ft) one-way snowplow blade mounted on a truck.

Figure 2-5-3 shows a 8.2 m (27 ft) two-way snowplow mounted on special chassis that also
includes a sweeper and a hot air blower.

2-5-3
A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001

Viking Cives, Photo Gallery. Retrieved November 16, 2007, from http://vcl.vikingcives.com/ViewPage.aspx?pg=35
Figure 2-5-2 One-Way Snowplow Blade – Mounted on a Truck

Patria, Airport Equipment. Retrieved November 16, 2007, from http://patria.fi/


products/PatriaProductsPublic/search.aspx?selectedcategory=CD498
Figure 2-5-3 Two-Way Snowplow Blade – Mounted on a Special Chassis

SNOW BLOWERS

When a snowplow pushes snow to the side of a runway, it creates a pile of snow known as a windrow. The
preferred method of removing the windrow is with a snow blower. The snow blower can move along the edge
of the runway blowing the snow in the windrow over the runway edge lights and away from the runway. It is not
unusual for a large snow blower to blow snow a distance of 15 m (50 ft) or more. Snow blowers designed for
this have a discharge chute that can be rotated to blow snow to either the left or right side.

In addition to removing windrows, snow blowers are also used when the amount of snow that has accumulated
is more than the snowplow can push (eg, snow drifts or after a very large storm).

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Similar to sweepers, snow blowers can be front mounted, rear mounted or self-propelled. The large self-
propelled versions have two engines: one for driving, and the other for powering the snow blower. Rear mounted
blowers are commonly attached to tractors.

Front or rear mounted snow blowers usually have an articulated discharge chute that provides a high degree
of control over where the snow is blown. Snow blowers of this type can be used near buildings and vehicles.

NRRA, Airport Vehicles. Retrieved November 15, 2007, from http://www.nrairport.com/equipment/airport_vehicles.htm


Figure 2-5-4 Front Mounted Snow Blower (Mounted on a Tractor)

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Eagle Airfield, Used Equipment Inventory. Retrieved November 16, 2007, from http://www.eagleairfield.com/Used.html
Figure 2-5-5 Self-Propelled Snow Blower

CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 1

QUESTIONS

Q1. What configurations do sweepers come in?

Q2. What are the differences between a highway snowplow and an aerodrome snowplow?

Q3. What is the primary purpose of a snow blower at an aerodrome?

ANTICIPATED ANSWERS

A1. Self-propelled, front mounted or towed.

A2. An aerodrome snowplow has a wider blade that is reversible (two-way).

A3. Removing windrows left behind by snowplows.

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Teaching Point 2 Describe Refuelling Equipment at an Aerodrome

Time: 15 min Method: Interactive Lecture

REFUELLING EQUIPMENT

At most public aerodromes, aviation fuel is available for purchase from the aerodrome operator, or from a third
party (or parties at a large aerodrome). Fuel is dispensed in two main ways: from a fixed location or from a mobile
refueller. A fixed location refuelling system is made up of three main components: tanks, pumps and hoses.

Aviation fuel is regularly checked for contaminants to ensure a high level of quality. The fuel is monitored upon
delivery, on a regular basis at various points in the storage system and before and after refuelling activities.

Tanks

Tanks for aviation fuel can be grouped into two categories: above ground or underground. Above ground tanks
are common where only a small quantity of fuel needs to be stored (eg, 20 000 L). The main advantage of an
above ground tank is a lower cost of installation or replacement. Disadvantages include a higher susceptibility
to product evaporation and the loss of the space underneath the tanks.

Underground tanks are more costly to install or replace but do not experience the same degree of product loss
due to evaporation. It is much harder to detect a leak in an underground tank, creating a much higher potential
for an environmental disaster. In return, the space above the tanks can be utilized for other activities, providing
that the appropriate weight restrictions are in place.

Most tanks are built with a double wall (a tank inside a tank) and the space in between the two walls has the
air removed to create a vacuum. A pressure gauge is installed to monitor the vacuum. If a loss of the vacuum
happens, it indicates a leak in the inner tank, but the fuel remains contained, without leaking out of the outer
tank. Once the leak has been detected a repair or replacement of the tank can occur.

Velcon Canada, 2003, Engineered Products and Systems, Copyright 2003 by Velcon Canada.
Retrieved November 19, 2007, from http://www.velconcanada.ca/specialprojects.html
Figure 2-5-6 Above Ground Tank and Refuelling Cabinet

Pumps

A pump is used to draw the fuel from the tank and deliver it to the aircraft. The pump has a meter to measure
the volume of fuel dispensed (in litres). There is also a series of filters designed to remove contaminants such

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as dirt and water from the fuel, before it gets to the aircraft. The pump, hose, anti-static cable and meter are
usually located together in a cabinet (as illustrated in Figure 2-5-7) at the edge of the apron.

Velcon Canada, 2003, Engineered Products and Systems, Copyright 2003 by Velcon Canada.
Retrieved November 19, 2007, from http://www.velconcanada.ca/specialprojects.html
Figure 2-5-7 Refuelling Cabinet

Distribute photocopies of Annex H to each cadet.

On a daily basis, the pumps are inspected to ensure that they are functioning properly, readings from the meters
are taken to monitor the volume of fuel dispensed, and samples of fuel are taken as part of a quality control
program. On a regular basis, the elements of the filtering system are inspected and replaced when necessary.

Hoses

After the pump has drawn the fuel from the tank, it is pressurized and pumped through a hose into the aircraft.
The hose has to be large enough to deliver a high flow rate, strong enough to withstand high pressures, flexible
enough to be used in all temperatures, and light enough to be dragged out by one person.

Hoses experience a lot of wear and tear from being dragged out and reeled back in each time they are used
and must be inspected on a regular basis to spot any problems that could lead to a leak. It is recommended
that they be replaced every 10 years.

CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 2

QUESTIONS

Q1. What are the three main components of a refuelling system?

Q2. Why are tanks built with a double wall?

Q3. How often should a fuel hose be replaced?

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ANTICIPATED ANSWERS

A1. Tanks, pumps and hoses.

A2. To detect and contain fuel leaks.

A3. Every 10 years.

Teaching Point 3 Describe Mobile Refuelling Equipment Used at an


Aerodrome

Time: 5 min Method: Interactive Lecture

At a large aerodrome, or at an aerodrome with large aircraft, having the aircraft move to the refuelling facility is
not a viable option. In these cases, refuelling is carried out by mobile equipment that brings fuel to the aircraft.

Commonly, the fuel is stored in large tanks in a remote location (known as a fuel farm) at the aerodrome. The
mobile tanker is filled from the bulk tanks, driven to the aircraft and refuelling is carried out. The tanker can then
move on to the next aircraft and repeat the process. When the tanker no longer carries enough fuel to service
the next aircraft, it returns to the bulk tank and is refilled.

The main advantage of this system is that the aircraft can be parked in one spot (eg, at the gate) rather than
parking at the gate to unload passengers, then moving to the refuelling area, and then moving back to the
gate to load passengers for the next flight. The main disadvantage is the additional maintenance on the mobile
tanker, but this is only an issue for small aerodromes.

Bosserman Aviation Equipment, New Refuelers. Retrieved November 19,


2007, from http://www.bossermanaviationequip.com/refuelers.htm
Figure 2-5-8 Mobile Tanker

Every time fuel is transferred from one tank to another, the possibility for contamination exists. The more
transfers that happen, the higher the probability of contamination. To reduce this probability at large aerodromes
that serve large aircraft, fuel is pumped underground through pipelines to various locations (known as hydrants)
around the aerodrome. Instead of using a mobile tanker, a mobile hose and pump system is used (as illustrated
in Figure 2-5-9). A hydrant refeuller can be self-propelled or towed. It consists of a hose that connects to the
hydrant, a flow control/pump system, and a hose with nozzle that delivers the fuel to the aircraft.

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Bosserman Aviation Equipment, New Refuelers. Retrieved November 19,


2007, from http://www.bossermanaviationequip.com/refuelers.htm
Figure 2-5-9 Hydrant Refueller

CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 3

QUESTIONS

Q1. How is fuel moved from a fuel farm to the aircraft?

Q2. What could happen to fuel each time it is transferred from one tank to another?

ANTICIPATED ANSWERS

A1. With a mobile tanker or underground pipelines.

A2. It could become contaminated.

END OF LESSON CONFIRMATION

QUESTIONS

Q1. What are three types of equipment used at an aerodrome?

Q2. How is fuel stored at an aerodrome?

Q3. What components are found in a refuelling cabinet?

ANTICIPATED ANSWERS

A1. Sweepers, snowplows and snow blowers.

A2. In above ground or underground tanks.

A3. Pump, fuel hose, filter, meter and anti-static cable.

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CONCLUSION

HOMEWORK/READING/PRACTICE

N/A.

METHOD OF EVALUATION

N/A.

CLOSING STATEMENT

Even small aerodromes have an interesting collection of equipment. Large aerodromes will have an even
larger collection of equipment. Each piece of equipment is designed with a specific purpose in mind and has
been customized to perform that task. Being able to identify equipment and how it is used is a key aspect of
aerodrome operations.

INSTRUCTOR NOTES/REMARKS

N/A.

REFERENCES

C3-148 (ISBN 0-9739866-0-3) Syme, E.R., & Wells, A.T. (2005). Airport Development, Management and
Operations in Canada: Second Edition. Barrie, ON: Aviation Education Services.

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ROYAL CANADIAN AIR CADETS

BASIC AVIATION TECHNOLOGY AND AEROSPACE

INSTRUCTIONAL GUIDE

SECTION 6

EO S260.06 – DISCUSS SEASONAL OPERATIONS AT AERODROMES

Total Time: 80 min

PREPARATION

PRE-LESSON INSTRUCTIONS

Resources needed for the delivery of this lesson are listed in the lesson specification located in A-CR-CCP-
824/PG-001, Chapter 4. Specific uses for said resources are identified throughout the instructional guide within
the TP for which they are required.

Review the lesson content and become familiar with the material prior to delivering the lesson.

Photocopy the crossword puzzle located at Annex I for each cadet.

Photocopy the answer key located at Annex J.

PRE-LESSON ASSIGNMENT

N/A.

APPROACH

A group discussion was chosen for TPs 1 and 2 as it allows the cadet to interact with their peers and share their
knowledge, experiences, opinions, and feelings about the differences in seasonal operations at an aerodrome.

An in-class activity was chosen for TP 3 as an interactive way to reinforce the aerodrome operations material
and confirm the cadet’s level of comprehension.

INTRODUCTION

REVIEW

N/A.

OBJECTIVES

By the end of this lesson the cadet shall have discussed seasonal operations at aerodromes.

IMPORTANCE

It is important for the cadets to know about the different operations that occur at an aerodrome. The changing
seasons in most parts of Canada can create challenging situations and dictate the operational tempo of an
aerodrome.

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Teaching Point 1 Discuss the Types of Activities That Happen During the
Winter Months at Most Canadian Aerodromes

Time: 20 min Method: Group Discussion

Facilitate a discussion about activities that happen during the winter months at most
Canadian aerodromes, to include:

snow removal,

runway and taxiway closures, and

facility maintenance.

BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE

The point of the group discussion is to draw the following information from the group using
the tips for answering/facilitating discussion and the suggested questions provided.

SNOW REMOVAL

Snow removal at most Canadian aerodromes represents a significant portion of an aerodrome’s operating
budget. Snow removal is a three-sided balancing act between safe operations (keeping snow off the runway),
efficient operations (keeping aircraft using the runways) and controlling costs (using only the equipment,
manpower and supplies that are required).

Most aerodromes include a snow plan as part of the Aerodrome Operations Manual (AOM). This plan outlines
the standard operating procedures for snow removal. The snow plan includes the following:

list of personnel involved in snow removal and their contact information,

standards and procedures (eg, when to start and stop, priority of areas),

training plan for personnel,

traffic management procedures, and

Notice To Airmen (NOTAM) procedures.

As part of the snow plan, the aerodrome operator must establish a list of priorities. This list defines the areas
that get the snow cleared first. While most aerodromes follow a standard list (as illustrated in Figure 2-6-1),
specific situations may require slight modifications to the list.

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Priority
Area Comments
Level

1 Primary runway This is the runway in use (or expected to be in use) based on
prevailing or forecasted winds.

2 Primary taxiway and This is the taxiway from the primary runway to the main apron.
apron

3 Runway and approach Snow around the lights must be removed to make them visible to
lights pilots.

4 Access roads and Some aerodromes have separate crews and equipment for these
parking lots areas, and snow removal may happen concurrently with Priority 1
and 2 areas.

5 Secondary runway(s), Once sufficient snow has been removed to make the aerodrome
taxiway(s) and apron(s) safe for operations, snow removal operations can be focused on
secondary areas.

6 Other areas It is not uncommon for aerodrome operators to enter into contracts
(eg, private taxiways, with users on the aerodrome to remove snow from private areas.
hangars, parking lots) This can be an additional source of revenue for the aerodrome.
The contract will state the snow removal priority of the area under
contract.

D Cdts 3, 2007, Ottawa, ON: Department of National Defence


Figure 2-6-1 Snow Removal Priority List

Large aerodromes may have 20 (or more) pieces of specialized snow removal equipment. When snowfall is
expected the operating crews are brought in. When the snow starts to fall the equipment is put into action,
removing the snow before it has time to accumulate to any significant depth. To minimize the disruptions to
aircraft taking off and landing, a runway will be temporarily closed while several snowplows, sweepers and
snow blowers all move into action. With the right equipment and well trained operators, this can be completed
in less than 15 minutes for a 3000 m (9800 ft) runway. The runway will be reopened, and the equipment will
move onto the next runway. During the winter months, crews and equipment will be on standby 24 hours a
day to respond to any snowfall.

At smaller aerodromes, there may only be one snowplow and one snow blower available. There may even
be only one operator who has to go back and forth between the two pieces of equipment. Instead of closing
the runway for the entire duration required to clean it (30–60 minutes or more) the aerodrome operator will
issue a NOTAM stating that snow removal operations are in progress. If an aircraft is arriving or departing, the
snowplow operator will relay the runway condition to the aircraft and vacate the manoeuvring area if necessary.
During the winter months, snow removal happens during specified hours (not usually overnight) unless special
arrangements for after hours service are made.

While specific procedures vary at each aerodrome, the following list outlines the general procedures:

1. Runways and taxiways:

a. snowplows push the snow off the runways and taxiways creating windrows;

b. snow blowers move the snow from the windrows over the edge lights and onto the shoulders; and

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A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001

c. snowplows and snow blowers move the snow as far away as practical from the the shoulders to
prevent it drifting back in;

2. Aprons and parking lots:

a. snowplows push the snow to the edges;

b. snowblowers move the snow further away, or front-end loaders place the snow into dump trucks to
be hauled away; and

3. Roadways:

a. snowplows push the snow to the edges; and

b. snowblowers move the snow further away, or front-end loaders place the snow into dump trucks to
be hauled away.

At all times during snow removal operations, the equipment operators must take care not to cause damages.
Snowplow blades, snow blowers and flying snow can easily destroy light fixtures. The cost of replacing a runway
edge light can easily be in the hundreds of dollars. The cost of repairing or replacing an approach light system
would be in the thousands of dollars. Extreme care must also be taken near aircraft and buildings.

RUNWAY AND TAXIWAY CLOSURES

During the winter months it is not uncommon for runways, taxiways and aprons to be closed and reopened
several times a day. Many medium to large aerodromes operate a snow desk during the winter. The snow
desk coordinates the crews and equipment and acts as a communications centre for snow removal status
updates. The snow desk will be in regular contact with the local Air Traffic Services (ATS) unit to issue and
revise NOTAMS. This is a crucial job of the snow desk, as it is the NOTAMS that arriving pilots will be given
when they make contact with the ATS unit.

At smaller aerodromes, secondary runways (especially those made of grass) are often closed after the first
snowfall. They are reopened in the spring. This can save the aerodrome operator a large amount of money.
Tertiary taxiways and aprons may also be closed during the winter as a cost saving option.

FACILITY MAINTENANCE

Any area where people are walking must be properly maintained during the winter. In addition to being cleared
of snow, ice patches must be prevented or removed. Snow and ice control (SNIC) can be challenging. The
equipment used to clear the runway is often too big to be used effectively near the buildings. Snow removal
must be done with small equipment (eg, walk-behind snow blower) or in most cases, by hand with a shovel.

There are two methods to deal with ice. One way is to improve the traction on the ice by spreading a layer of
fine sand or grit on top. This method can be used on the aircraft movement areas as well as in the parking lots
and on the sidewalks. The other method is to melt the ice by applying a chemical to it (spreading a dry chemical
over it, or spraying a liquid chemical onto it). Calcium chlorides (road salt) are never used at aerodromes as
they are very corrosive to metal. Their use is also avoided on groundside areas (parking lots and sidewalks)
as the salts can be tracked onto the airside areas and onto the aircraft.

The most common chemical in use at aerodromes is urea. It is effective from -10 degrees Celsius and above,
and can be used as both a de-icer and an anti-icer. Due to environmental concerns (increased nitrate levels due
to runoff), the use of urea at aerodromes has been banned in England and most of western Europe. Alternatives
to urea include potassium acetates and calcium-magnesium acetates.

Other challenges during winter months include:

dealing with the mess that people track into the buildings with their feet,

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A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001

heat loss from constant door openings, and

a climate that is not conducive to working outside.

To reduce the amount of snow tracked into a building, grates and mats are used at all doorways. They must
be kept as clean and dry as possible to make them effective. Any snow tracked into the building will melt and
become a safety hazard. The janitorial staff is kept busy during the winter keeping the floors clean, dry and safe.

To reduce the amount of heat lost at doorways, and to prevent temperature swings inside the building from
drafts due to open doors, most buildings will be built with a double door at the entrance way. The concept
behind this is to allow the exterior door to be opened, people come into the entrance way, and the exterior
door is closed before the interior door is opened. This concept works well with doorways that experience a low
traffic flow (one or two people at a time), but it becomes less effective as more and more people come through
the door during peak traffic flows.

At many aerodromes in Canada, working outside during the winter to perform maintenance is not a favourite
task. When something breaks down and outside work is required, it is not uncommon to do a temporary fix
immediately, and then perform a proper and full repair in the spring/summer when the conditions outside are
more favourable.

The winter months are also a good time to do major repairs and overhauls of equipment used during the summer
months (eg, mowers).

GROUP DISCUSSION

TIPS FOR ANSWERING/FACILITATING DISCUSSION

Establish ground rules for discussion, Listen and respond in a way that
eg, everyone should listen respectfully; indicates you have heard and
don’t interrupt; only one person speaks understood the cadet. This can be
at a time; no one’s ideas should be done by paraphrasing their ideas.
made fun of; you can disagree with
ideas but not with the person; try to Give the cadets time to respond to your
understand others as much as you questions.
hope they understand you; etc. Ensure every cadet has an opportunity
Sit the group in a circle, making sure all to participate. One option is to go
cadets can be seen by everyone else. around the group and have each
cadet answer the question with a short
Ask questions that will provoke answer. Cadets must also have the
thought; in other words avoid questions option to pass if they wish.
with yes or no answers.
Additional questions should be
Manage time by ensuring the cadets prepared ahead of time.
stay on topic.

SUGGESTED QUESTIONS

Q1. What happens during the winter that has an impact on aerodrome operations?

Q2. What types of equipment are required at aerodromes during the winter?

Q3. How is the equipment specialized for use at an aerodrome?

Q4. What factors limit snow removal operations at an aerodrome?

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Q5. What areas typically have the highest priority for snow removal?

Q6. How do snow removal procedures differ between large and small aerodromes?

Q7. What happens when there is too much snow to use a snowplow?

Q8. What happens when it is snowing too hard to operate the equipment safely?

Q9. What challenges does winter present to maintaining terminal buildings?

Q10. What kind of equipment can be overhauled during the winter months?

Other questions and answers will develop throughout the group discussion. The group
discussion should not be limited to only those suggested.

Reinforce those answers given and comments made during the group discussion, ensuring
the teaching point has been covered.

CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 1

The cadets’ participation in the group discussion will serve as the confirmation of this TP.

Teaching Point 2 Discuss the Types of Activities That Happen During the Rest
of the Year at Most Canadian Aerodromes

Time: 15 min Method: Group Discussion

Facilitate a discussion about activities that happen during the rest of the year at
aerodromes, to include:

grass cutting,

construction, and

facility maintenance.

BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE

The point of the group discussion is to draw the following information from the group using
the tips for answering/facilitating discussion and the suggested questions provided.

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GRASS CUTTING

Areas of the aerodrome that are not paved usually have grass planted or wild grass has been allowed to grow.
These areas must be monitored and maintained on an ongoing basis throughout the spring and fall.

In areas near the public portions of the aerodrome (roads, parking lots, buildings, sidewalks) the grass is
maintained to create a pleasant view. It is kept fairly short at a height of less than 15 cm (6 inches). Grassed
areas at aerodromes are not usually watered.

Further away from the public view (along runways and taxiways, infield and remote areas) the height of the
grass is maintained to keep lighting systems visible and in accordance with the wildlife management plan.
Maintaining the grass at a specific height can help reduce the amount of wildlife (birds and small mammals)
that try to make the aerodrome their home.

Different wildlife species have specific preferences and dislikes with respect to grass heights. Some birds like
longer grass as the grass hides them from predators. Other birds prefer shorter grass so that they can see
approaching predators. The aerodrome operator must select the height that best matches the dislikes of the
wildlife that causes the most problems.

Most aerodromes have a variety of terrain that needs grass cutting and as a result will have several different
types of mowers in use. Large gang mowers that are towed behind a tractor will be used on grass runways,
in large open areas or over rougher terrain. Large self-propelled mowers will be used in areas where more
precision is needed. Small walk-behind mowers are used next to buildings or in areas where the other mowers
cannot be used.

CONSTRUCTION

Once the spring thaw has occurred, new construction projects can commence. This includes new runways and
taxiways, extensions (length and/or width) to runways and taxiways, new buildings, and additions to buildings.
In all cases, the projects must be carefully planned and managed to minimize disruptions to aircraft operations.
At smaller aerodromes (especially those with a single runway) it may be necessary to close the aerodrome for
several weeks. In this case the aerodrome operator must carefully coordinate the project with all aerodrome
users.

When a runway is being lengthened it is sometimes possible to keep the runway open while the construction
equipment is in place. It will usually be necessary to temporarily displace the threshold to ensure that aircraft
have sufficient clearance over the construction area during takeoff and landing.

A plan will have to be designed and implemented to allow the construction vehicles and crews safe access to
and from the construction site.

Pavement Repairs and Resurfacing

The freeze/thaw cycles experienced between the fall and spring can cause cracks and depressions to appear in
paved and concrete surfaces. To maintain a safe operating area for aircraft and to prevent further deterioration,
these problems must be repaired. If cracks are not sealed, additional moisture can seep into the ground causing
more cracks or depressions the next year. If depressions are not filled in, water can pond causing ice patches
in the winter.

For minor cracks, the aerodrome maintenance staff will likely be the ones sealing them. If there is significant
cracking a crew with specialized equipment will be brought in and all of the cracks in the runway will be sealed
(takes up to a day for an average runway). To minimize operation restrictions due to the closure of the runway,
this kind of repair will be carefully scheduled to avoid having to close the runway during peak air traffic times.

Over time, pavement will degrade to the point that it is no longer economically viable to keep repairing it and
replacement of the surface becomes a necessity. In most cases, it is sufficient to resurface the pavement.

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This can be done by placing a new layer on top, or by removing a portion of the top layer before placing the
new layer. If the underlying structure of the pavement has been damaged or degraded, it may be necessary
to excavate it and rebuild the entire structure.

Line Painting

The painted surface markings at an aerodrome fade over time and must be restored. Markings that are faded
and hard to see can be a safety hazard, especially during poor weather. Like a major crack sealing project, it
is necessary to close the runway or taxiway for up to a day.

FACILITY MAINTENANCE

The summer months provide a chance for the aerodrome operator to correct any deficiencies that arose during
the winter which have not been properly fixed. It is also a chance to prepare for the upcoming winter months.

At large aerodromes the traffic levels may be fairly constant throughout the year. At a small aerodrome there
are usually significantly larger numbers of users during the summer months. This makes the scheduling and
conducting of maintenance very important. Disruptions to the traffic capacity during peak times can have a
negative effect on the aerodrome’s revenue.

Equipment Maintenance

The summer months are also the best time to do major repairs and overhauls to the snow removal equipment.
Any deficiencies noted over the winter can be corrected and the equipment prepped for the upcoming winter.
Care must be taken to ensure that all of the overhauls and preventative maintenance is completed prior to the
start of the winter. Nothing is worse for an aerodrome than to experience the first snowfall of the year while the
snowplows are sitting in the garage partway through an overhaul or repair.

GROUP DISCUSSION

TIPS FOR ANSWERING/FACILITATING DISCUSSION

Establish ground rules for discussion, Listen and respond in a way that
eg, everyone should listen respectfully; indicates you have heard and
don’t interrupt; only one person speaks understood the cadet. This can be
at a time; no one’s ideas should be done by paraphrasing their ideas.
made fun of; you can disagree with
ideas but not with the person; try to Give the cadets time to respond to your
understand others as much as you questions.
hope they understand you; etc. Ensure every cadet has an opportunity
Sit the group in a circle, making sure all to participate. One option is to go
cadets can be seen by everyone else. around the group and have each
cadet answer the question with a short
Ask questions that will provoke answer. Cadets must also have the
thought; in other words avoid questions option to pass if they wish.
with yes or no answers.
Additional questions should be
Manage time by ensuring the cadets prepared ahead of time.
stay on topic.

SUGGESTED QUESTIONS

Q1. What covers most of the area at an aerodrome that is not paved?

Q2. What has to be done on a regular basis to the grassed areas at an aerodrome?

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Q3. What would be different about the grass near buildings and parking lots compared to grass in a remote
area of the aerodrome?

Q4. What does the height of the grass mean to birds and small animals?

Q5. What kind of equipment is used at an aerodrome to maintain grassed areas?

Q6. What factors must be taken into account when planning major construction at an aerodrome?

Q7. What happens to a paved surface if cracks are not filled in?

Q8. What can happen in the winter if a depression in pavement is not filled in?

Q9. What happens to pavement markings over time?

Q10. What equipment can be overhauled during the summer months?

Other questions and answers will develop throughout the group discussion. The group
discussion should not be limited to only those suggested.

Reinforce those answers given and comments made during the group discussion, ensuring
the teaching point has been covered.

CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 2

The cadets’ participation in the group discussion will serve as the confirmation of this TP.

Teaching Point 3 Conduct a Crossword Puzzle Activity Based on Aerodrome


Operations

Time: 35 min Method: In-Class Activity

ACTIVITY

OBJECTIVE

The objective of this activity is to have the cadets complete a crossword puzzle activity based on aerodrome
operations.

RESOURCES

Aerodrome operations crossword puzzle located at Annex I, and

Pens/pencils.

ACTIVITY LAYOUT

N/A.

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ACTIVITY INSTRUCTIONS

1. Distribute the aerodrome operations crossword puzzle located at Annex I.

2. Have the cadets complete the puzzle using their reference material as required.

3. Provide assistance and guidance as required.

4. Correct the answers as a group using Annex J.

SAFETY

N/A.

CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 3

The cadets’ participation in the activity will serve as the confirmation of this TP.

END OF LESSON CONFIRMATION

The cadets’ completion of the crossword puzzle will serve as the confirmation of this lesson.

CONCLUSION

HOMEWORK/READING/PRACTICE

N/A.

METHOD OF EVALUATION

N/A.

CLOSING STATEMENT

The changing seasons experienced at most Canadian aerodromes create challenging conditions for aerodrome
operators. Each season has specific activities that must occur and extreme weather (such as snow storms)
can have a huge impact on the operational tempo.

INSTRUCTOR NOTES/REMARKS

TPs 1 and 2 are to be taught in one 40-minute period.

If this EO is not scheduled as consecutive periods, the time allocated for the introduction and conclusion is to
be divided between the periods as required.

REFERENCES

C3-147 NAV CANADA. (2007). Canadian Airport Charts. Retrieved October 9, 2007, from http://
www.navcanada.ca/ContentDefinitionFiles/Publications/AeronauticalInfoProducts/
CanadianAirportCharts/CanadianAirportCharts_current.pdf.

C3-148 (ISBN 0-9739866-0-3) Syme, E.R., & Wells, A.T. (2005). Airport Development, Management and
Operations in Canada: Second Edition. Barrie, ON: Aviation Education Services.

2-6-10
A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001

ROYAL CANADIAN AIR CADETS

BASIC AVIATION TECHNOLOGY AND AEROSPACE

INSTRUCTIONAL GUIDE

SECTION 7

EO S260.07 – EXPLAIN ASPECTS OF FLIGHT SAFETY

Total Time: 40 min

PREPARATION

PRE-LESSON INSTRUCTIONS

Resources needed for the delivery of this lesson are listed in the lesson specification located in A-CR-CCP-
824/PG-001, Chapter 4. Specific uses for said resources are identified throughout the instructional guide within
the TP for which they are required.

Review the lesson content and become familiar with the material prior to delivering the lesson.

Photocopy the handouts located at Annexes K and L for each cadet.

PRE-LESSON ASSIGNMENT

N/A.

APPROACH

An interactive lecture was chosen for this lesson to clarify, emphasize and summarize aspects of flight safety.

INTRODUCTION

REVIEW

N/A.

OBJECTIVES

By the end of this lesson the cadet shall have explained aspects of flight safety.

IMPORTANCE

It is important for the cadets to know about flight safety as everyone involved in an aviation operation is part of
the flight safety team. Many incidents and accidents are a direct result of something that did (or did not) happen
on the ground at an aerodrome. Knowing aspects of flight safety can help someone make a contribution to
safe operations.

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A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001

Teaching Point 1 Explain the Purpose of Flight Safety

Time: 10 min Method: Interactive Lecture

The goal of flight safety is to reduce the loss of aviation resources by learning from previous
occurrences and preventing reoccurrences.

CIVIL AVIATION

Flight safety in civil aviation is overseen by System Safety (a department of Transport Canada). Their mission
is to provide Transport Canada Civil Aviation and the Canadian aviation community with timely, relevant and
reliable safety information and guidance to manage risks.

Private and commercial aviation operators in Canada are implementing a Safety Management System (SMS).
A SMS is a set of beliefs, practices and procedures for monitoring and improving safety. It includes a feedback
loop to allow participants to provide input to improve the system.

A safety concern, problem, hazard or occurrence is identified and reported IAW the SMS. It is then analyzed and
a corrective measure is implemented followed by an evaluation of the effectiveness of the corrective measure.
If the problem is resolved then it is documented. If it is not resolved it must be reanalyzed, resulting in a different
corrective measure followed by another evaluation.

MILITARY AVIATION

In the Canadian Forces (CF), the Flight Safety (FS) program is designed to reduce the accidental loss of aviation
resources. By investigating safety occurrences and determining the causes of the occurrence, preventative
measures can be implemented to reduce the risk of the same occurrence happening again.

The aim of the FS program is to prevent accidental loss of aviation resources while
accomplishing the mission at an acceptable level of risk.

The FS program is based on the following four fundamental principles:

Occurrences are preventable.

All FS occurrences and FS concerns are to be openly reported.

Personal errors and omissions are to be voluntarily acknowledged.

FS reports cannot be used for legal, administrative, disciplinary or other proceedings.

Occurrences are reported and investigated, cause factors are determined and preventative measures are
developed. Completed reports are distributed throughout the organization to be used in an ongoing FS
education program.

Learn from the mistakes of others. You will not live long enough to make them all yourself.

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A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001

CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 1

QUESTIONS

Q1. Who oversees flight safety in civil aviation?

Q2. What does SMS stand for?

Q3. What is the aim of the CF FS program?

ANTICIPATED ANSWERS

A1. System Safety.

A2. Safety Management System.

A3. To prevent accidental loss of aviation resources while accomplishing the mission at an acceptable level
of risk.

Teaching Point 2 Explain Types of Reportable Aviation Occurrences in Civil


Aviation

Time: 5 min Method: Interactive Lecture

AVIATION OCCURRENCES

An aviation occurrence is any accident or incident associated with the operation of aircraft and any situation or
condition that could, if left unattended, induce an accident or incident.

Reportable accidents and incidents must be reported to the Transportation Safety Board (TSB).

Reportable Aviation Incident

Any occurrence resulting directly from the operation of an airplane having a maximum certificated takeoff weight
greater than 5700 kg (12 500 lbs) or from the operation of a rotorcraft having a maximum certificated takeoff
weight greater than 2250 kg (5000 lbs) is considered a reportable aviation incident and must be reported.
Incidents that occur to smaller aircraft do not have to be reported, but may be reported voluntarily. Examples
of reportable aviation incidents include:

engine failure or precautionary shutdown,

smoke or fire,

a declared emergency that requires priority handling by ATC,

a risk of collision, or

depressurization followed by an emergency descent.

Reportable Aviation Accident

A reportable aviation accident is an occurrence resulting directly from the operation of an aircraft where:

a person sustains a serious injury or is killed as a result of:

being on board the aircraft;

coming into contact with any part of the aircraft or its contents; or

2-7-3
A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001

being directly exposed to the jet blast or rotor downwash of the aircraft;

the aircraft sustains damage or failure that adversely affects the structural strength, performance or flight
characteristics of the aircraft and that requires major repair or replacement of any affected component
part; or

the aircraft is missing or inaccessible.

CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 2

QUESTIONS

Q1. What is an aviation occurrence?

Q2. What type of occurrence is it if a person sustains a serious injury?

ANTICIPATED ANSWERS

A1. Any accident or incident associated with the operation of aircraft and any situation or condition that
could, if left unattended, induce an accident or incident.

A2. A reportable aviation accident.

Teaching Point 3 Explain System Safety and the Transportation Safety Board
(TSB) and Their Roles in Flight Safety

Time: 10 min Method: Interactive Lecture

SYSTEM SAFETY

System Safety is responsible for monitoring and evaluating the level of safety within civil aviation by:

monitoring and evaluating all facets of the system;

reviewing and analyzing accident and incident data, as well as other safety related information;

assessing risk and providing risk management advice;

determining safety priorities;

developing safety promotion programs to enhance the level of safety awareness, and to reduce the
probability of injuries to persons or loss of resources; and

preparing and coordinating emergency response to national or international emergencies affecting


aviation.

System Safety produces a number of regular newsletters, posters and videos as part of the
safety promotion program. Many of these are available free of charge from their website.

During the year, System Safety conducts safety seminars throughout the country. These seminars may focus
on specific topics (eg, upcoming regulatory changes) or be of a more general nature.

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A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001

System Safety is responsible for flight safety education and accident prevention.

TSB

The TSB was created to advance transportation safety in Canada for all modes of transportation (marine,
pipeline, rail and air). The TSB achieves this by:

conducting independent investigations and public inquiries;

identifying safety deficiencies;

making recommendations to eliminate or reduce safety deficiencies; and

reporting publicly on investigations and findings.

The objective of an aviation safety investigation into an aircraft accident or incident is the prevention of
recurrences. It is not the purpose of the investigation to determine blame or liability. The TSB, established under
the Canadian Transportation Accident Investigation and Safety Board Act, is responsible for investigating all
transportation occurrences in Canada, including aviation occurrences involving civil aircraft, both of Canadian
and foreign registry. A team of investigators is on 24-hour standby, 365 days a year.

The TSB is responsible for investigations and determining causes.

Distribute photocopies of Annex K to the cadets.

CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 3

QUESTIONS

Q1. Who is responsible for safety education and accident prevention?

Q2. Who is responsible for investigating civil aviation accidents?

Q3. When are TSB investigators on standby?

ANTICIPATED ANSWERS

A1. System Safety.

A2. The TSB.

A3. 24 hours a day, 365 days a year.

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A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001

Teaching Point 4 Explain Flight Safety Education and Reporting in the


Canadian Forces

Time: 10 min Method: Interactive Lecture

EDUCATION

FS education is achieved through formal and informal methods. Informal methods of education include:

FS publications,

magazines,

bulletins,

videos,

posters, and

web-based materials.

Formal methods of education include:

FS briefings,

aviation conferences and seminars, and

FS training programs.

One of the most effective but often overlooked methods of FS education is the passing of lessons learned from
leaders and experienced personnel to those with less experience. An effective flight safety program encourages
and affords opportunities to facilitate the exchange of information between personnel.

REPORTING

FS reports are initiated by the unit that is operating the aircraft at the time of the occurrence. There are several
different types of reports. Each report has a specific timeline for completion and a specific level of detail.

Initial Report. The Initial Report describes the immediately available particulars of the occurrence and must
be sent within 12 hours of the event.

Supplementary Report. The Supplementary Report is the report normally produced by the wing or unit for
aircraft incidents. It is submitted within 30 calendar days of the occurrence.

Combined Report. The Combined Report is the combination of the Initial Report and Supplementary Report
in a single report submitted for minor occurrences requiring limited or cursory investigation, provided it can be
released within 48 hours of the occurrence.

Enhanced Supplementary Report. An Enhanced Supplementary Report is used for occurrences that are
sufficiently complex to warrant a more thorough investigation than a normal Supplementary Report, but do not
require the same degree of scrutiny that is required for an FS Investigation Report.

FS Investigation Report. An FS Investigation Report is a comprehensive report on an FS occurrence and all


related aspects, so that the reviewing authorities have detailed information on which to base recommended
preventative measures. An accident requires a FS Investigation Report under almost all circumstances.

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A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001

FS Occurrence. FS occurrence is any event involving the operation of an aircraft or support to flying operations
that causes damage or injury or had the potential to cause damage or injury. Occurrences are further classified
as happening in the air or on the ground.

Air Occurrence. An air occurrence involves an aircraft between the time the first power plant start is attempted
with intent for flight and the time the last power plant or rotor stops (for a glider, from the time the hook-up is
complete until the glider comes to rest after landing).

Ground Occurrence. A ground occurrence involves an aircraft where there is no intent for flight, when there is
intent for flight but no power plant start has been attempted or after the power plants and rotors have stopped.

Occurrence Categories

Occurrences are categorized based on the damage to the aircraft or the injuries to personnel (as illustrated in
Figure 2-7-1). Categories A, B and C are considered accidents. Categories D and E are incidents.

Personnel
Aircraft Damage Level Occurrence Category
Casualty Level

Destroyed or missing Fatal injury or missing A

Very serious
Accident Very serious damage B
injury/illness

Serious damage Serious injury/illness C

Minor damage Minor injury/illness D


Incident
Nil Nil E

Directorate of Flight Safety, A-GA-135-001/AA-001 Flight Safety for


the Canadian Forces, Department of National Defence (p. 9-A1)
Figure 2-7-1 Occurrence Category Table

Distribute photocopies of Annex L to the cadets.

CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 4

QUESTIONS

Q1. How is FS education presented?

Q2. What are two types of occurrences?

Q3. What occurrence categories are considered accidents?

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A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001

ANTICIPATED ANSWERS

A1. Informally and formally.

A2. Air and ground.

A3. Categories A, B and C.

END OF LESSON CONFIRMATION

QUESTIONS

Q1. What is the goal of flight safety?

Q2. What two organizations are responsible for civilian flight safety?

Q3. What occurrence categories are considered incidents?

ANTICIPATED ANSWERS

A1. To reduce the loss of aviation resources by learning from previous occurrences and preventing
reoccurrences.

A2. System Safety and the TSB.

A3. Categories D and E.

CONCLUSION

HOMEWORK/READING/PRACTICE

N/A.

METHOD OF EVALUATION

N/A.

CLOSING STATEMENT

Although civilian and military flight safety programs are conducted differently, they both have the same goal:
to reduce the risk of aviation occurrences and prevent aviation losses. Everyone involved in aviation (aircrew,
ground crew, maintenance, ATS and aerodrome personnel) is part of the Flight Safety team.

INSTRUCTOR NOTES/REMARKS

N/A.

REFERENCES

A3-045 A-GA-135-001/AA-001 Directorate of Flight Safety. (2007). Flight Safety for the Canadian Forces.
Ottawa, ON: Department of National Defence.

C2-044 Transport Canada. (2007). Aeronautical Information Manual. Retrieved October 2, 2007, from
http://www.tc.gc.ca/publications/EN/TP14371/PDF/HR/TP14371E.PDF.

2-7-8
A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001

ROYAL CANADIAN AIR CADETS

BASIC AVIATION TECHNOLOGY AND AEROSPACE

INSTRUCTIONAL GUIDE

SECTION 8

EO S260.08 – EXPLAIN ASPECTS OF WORKPLACE SAFETY AT AN AERODROME

Total Time: 40 min

PREPARATION

PRE-LESSON INSTRUCTIONS

Resources needed for the delivery of this lesson are listed in the lesson specification located in A-CR-CCP-
824/PG-001, Basic Aviation Technology and Aerospace QSP, Chapter 4. Specific uses for said resources are
identified throughout the instructional guide within the TP for which they are required.

Review the lesson content and become familiar with the material prior to delivering the lesson.

Photocopy the handouts located at Annexes M and N for each cadet.

Photocopy and cut out the cards located at Annex O.

PRE-LESSON ASSIGNMENT

N/A.

APPROACH

An interactive lecture was chosen for TPs 1 and 2 to clarify, emphasize and summarize aspects of workplace
safety at an aerodrome.

A group discussion was chosen for TPs 3 and 4 as it allows the cadet to interact with their peers and share
their knowledge, experiences, opinions, and feelings about the PPE and safety equipment at an aerodrome.

INTRODUCTION

REVIEW

N/A.

OBJECTIVES

By the end of this lesson the cadet shall have explained aspects of workplace safety at an aerodrome.

IMPORTANCE

It is important for the cadets to learn about workplace safety as it is a subject area that not only applies to
aviation, but to any career. To have a safe workplace it is necessary not only to be aware of the regulations
that apply to workplace safety but to recognize essential pieces of safety equipment and hazardous situations
and materials.

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A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001

Teaching Point 1 Explain That Aviation Is a Federally Regulated Industry


and That Provincial and Municipal Laws Are Normally
Superseded by Federal Regulations

Time: 5 min Method: Interactive Lecture

There are a number of industries in Canada that are considered federal work and as such are regulated by
federal laws. These industries are within the legislative authority of Parliament (the Aeronautics Act for aviation).
Examples of industries that are federally-regulated are:

railways,

ships,

canals,

aerodromes,

aircraft,

air transportation,

radio broadcasting stations, and

banks.

For other industries, municipal and provincial regulations generally take priority and must be followed. For
industries designated as federal work, federal regulations take priority. Typical federal regulations that would
apply include:

labour laws,

health and safety regulations,

building codes, and

fire safety codes.

The applicable labour code for employers and employees at aerodromes is the Canada
Labour Code.

The Aviation Occupational Safety and Health Regulations are specifically for employees
employed on aircraft.

CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 1

QUESTIONS

Q1. What kind of work is aviation?

Q2. Which labour code applies to aerodrome employees?

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A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001

ANTICIPATED ANSWERS

A1. Federal work.

A2. The Canada Labour Code.

Teaching Point 2 Explain Government Regulations That Concern Workplace


Safety at Aerodromes

Time: 10 min Method: Interactive Lecture

CANADA LABOUR CODE

The Canada Labour Code is the legislation that governs federal work (eg, aerodromes and aviation) and it
takes precedence over municipal and provincial labour laws and regulations. It is divided into three parts:

Part I - Industrial Relations,

Part II - Occupational Health and Safety, and

Part III - Standard Hours, Wages, Vacations and Holidays.

Part II - Occupational Health and Safety

It is the duty of the employer to ensure that the health and safety of every employee is protected at work. The
Canada Labour Code has an extensive list of the employer’s specific duties.

Distribute photocopies of Annex M to each cadet.

The employer is required to provide a safe workplace.

Notwithstanding the duties of the employer, the employee also has a list of duties that they are required to follow.

Distribute photocopies of Annex N to each cadet.

The employee is required to work safely and notify the employer of any hazardous
situations.

The employee has the right to refuse dangerous work, IAW the Canada Labour Code.

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A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001

AVIATION OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH (AOS&H) REGULATIONS

The AOS&H regulations are specifically designed to deal with the unique situations that may arise on board an
aircraft where the provisions of the Canada Labour Code are not well suited (eg, refusal to work in a dangerous
situation).

It is important to know that these regulations exist, as there are aerodromes that are operated by an aircraft
operator under a special agreement with the aerodrome owner. In these cases, it is possible that employees
may work on the aerodrome and on-board an aircraft.

ACTIVITY

Time: 5 min

OBJECTIVE

The objective of this activity is to have the cadets identify duties of employers and employees.

RESOURCES

Health and safety cards located at Annex O,

Container for cards, and

Transparent or masking tape.

ACTIVITY LAYOUT

1. Place the headings “Employer Duties” and “Employees Duties” on a blackboard, whiteboard or flip chart
at the front of the room.

2. Place small strips of tape around the edges of the board.

ACTIVITY INSTRUCTIONS

1. Place the scenario cards into a container.

2. Have a cadet select a card from the container.

3. Have the cadet read the card to the group and place it on the board under the correct heading using a
small piece of tape.

4. Select another cadet and repeat steps 2 and 3.

5. Continue until all of the cards are placed on the board or time runs out.

SAFETY

N/A.

CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 2

The cadets’ participation in the activity will serve as the confirmation of this TP.

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A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001

Teaching Point 3 Discuss Common Types of Personal Protective Equipment


(PPE) Found at Aerodromes

Time: 10 min Method: Group Discussion

BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE

The point of the group discussion is to draw the following information from the group using
the tips for answering/facilitating discussion and the suggested questions provided.

PPE

Workers employed at an aerodrome use several different types of PPE on a daily basis. The exact pieces of
PPE used will depend on the tasks being performed or the hazards being encountered. PPE can help protect
the employee from a harsh environment, contact with hazardous material, and can improve the visibility of the
employee under low light or low visibility conditions.

Many organizations have developed standard operating procedures (SOPs) that explicitly list the types of PPE
required for the equipment to be used and the tasks to be performed. Lost PPE should be reported immediately
to a supervisor so that replacement equipment can be obtained. Damaged PPE should not be used as it may
not provide adequate protection.

Boots

Wearing the correct type of boots helps protect the feet of aerodrome personnel. The boots must be suited
for the work environment. Non-slip soles are required for most areas and special traction aids should be used
when working in icy areas. Steel toes should be worn whenever possible, especially for personnel working with
or near mobile support equipment. For personnel that handle fuel as part of their duties, the boots should also
be fuel-resistant.

Gloves

In addition to providing warmth when working outdoors, gloves are also required when working with many
different types of materials to provide protection. Leather work gloves are often sufficient for most situations,
but specialized gloves are available for some tasks. Fuel-resistant gloves should be worn whenever handing
fuel. Mechanic’s gloves can protect against cuts and scrapes when performing maintenance tasks. Extreme
cold-weather gloves should be worn when working outside for long periods of time during the winter.

Aural Protection

Aerodrome personnel must take appropriate precautions when working in a noisy environment. Many pieces of
equipment (eg, snow blowers, snowploughs and tractors) require that the operator wear some sort of hearing
protection (eg, ear plugs or ear defenders). In addition to those who operate the equipment, those working near
the equipment (eg, marshallers and refuellers) may also need protection.

Eye Protection

Proper eye protection protects the eyes from flying particles and splashed liquids. Goggles or a face shield
should be worn whenever operating power tools or pouring liquids.

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A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001

GROUP DISCUSSION

TIPS FOR ANSWERING/FACILITATING DISCUSSION

Establish ground rules for discussion, Listen and respond in a way that
eg, everyone should listen respectfully; indicates you have heard and
don’t interrupt; only one person speaks understood the cadet. This can be
at a time; no one’s ideas should be done by paraphrasing their ideas.
made fun of; you can disagree with
ideas but not with the person; try to Give the cadets time to respond to your
understand others as much as you questions.
hope they understand you; etc. Ensure every cadet has an opportunity
Sit the group in a circle, making sure all to participate. One option is to go
cadets can be seen by everyone else. around the group and have each
cadet answer the question with a short
Ask questions that will provoke answer. Cadets must also have the
thought; in other words avoid questions option to pass if they wish.
with yes or no answers.
Additional questions should be
Manage time by ensuring the cadets prepared ahead of time.
stay on topic.

SUGGESTED QUESTIONS

Q1. What jobs or tasks at an aerodrome expose workers to hazardous materials or situations?

Q2. What body parts are most commonly at risk of injury?

Q3. What kind of protection can boots provide?

Q4. What kind of protection can gloves provide?

Q5. What kind of protection can ear plugs provide?

Q6. What kind of protection can a face shield provide?

Q7. Who should wear/use PPE?

Q8. What should you do if your PPE becomes lost?

Q9. What should you do if your PPE becomes damaged?

Q10. Who is responsible for using the PPE correctly?

Other questions and answers will develop throughout the group discussion. The group
discussion should not be limited to only those suggested.

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A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001

Reinforce those answers given and comments made during the group discussion, ensuring
the teaching point has been covered.

CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 3

The cadets’ participation in the group discussion will serve as the confirmation of this TP.

Teaching Point 4 Discuss Common Types of Safety Equipment Found at


Aerodromes

Time: 10 min Method: Group Discussion

BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE

The point of the group discussion is to draw the following information from the group using
the tips for answering/facilitating discussion and the suggested questions provided.

SAFETY EQUIPMENT

There will be many different types of safety equipment located at various points around an aerodrome. The
exact type, location and quantity of the equipment will be determined by a number of factors, including:

aerodrome size,

number of employees,

number of visitors (eg, passengers),

type and quantity of equipment in use, and

resources available to the aerodrome operator.

Fire Extinguishers

Fire extinguishers will be found at refuelling points, inside buildings and inside (or attached to) vehicles and
equipment. The extinguishers have to be inspected on a regular basis (most extinguishers have an inspection
tag attached to them to record inspections). Personnel need training (both initial and refresher) on the use of
fire extinguishers.

First Aid Kits

First aid kits will be located near areas where injuries are likely to occur (eg, workshops). The contents of the
kit are generally listed on the outside. Similar to fire extinguishers, the kits are inspected on a regular basis to
ensure that all of the components are still in place and to replace any items that have expired.

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A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001

Eyewash Equipment

Adjacent to areas where employees work with liquids or chemicals that could come into contact with their eyes,
there should be an eyewash bottle or irrigation system. The eyewash stations must be inspected and tested
regularly to ensure that they will be available to flush out an employee’s eye should the need arise.

GROUP DISCUSSION

TIPS FOR ANSWERING/FACILITATING DISCUSSION

Establish ground rules for discussion, Listen and respond in a way that
eg, everyone should listen respectfully; indicates you have heard and
don’t interrupt; only one person speaks understood the cadet. This can be
at a time; no one’s ideas should be done by paraphrasing their ideas.
made fun of; you can disagree with
ideas but not with the person; try to Give the cadets time to respond to your
understand others as much as you questions.
hope they understand you; etc. Ensure every cadet has an opportunity
Sit the group in a circle, making sure all to participate. One option is to go
cadets can be seen by everyone else. around the group and have each
cadet answer the question with a short
Ask questions that will provoke answer. Cadets must also have the
thought; in other words avoid questions option to pass if they wish.
with yes or no answers.
Additional questions should be
Manage time by ensuring the cadets prepared ahead of time.
stay on topic.

SUGGESTED QUESTIONS

Q1. What kind of safety equipment is found at an aerodrome?

Q2. Where are fire extinguishers found?

Q3. What happens to fire extinguishers on a regular basis?

Q4. What do personnel need with respect to fire extinguishers?

Q5. Where are first aid kits located?

Q6. Where are eyewash stations located?

Other questions and answers will develop throughout the group discussion. The group
discussion should not be limited to only those suggested.

Reinforce those answers given and comments made during the group discussion, ensuring
the teaching point has been covered.

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A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001

CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 4

The cadets’ participation in the group discussion will serve as the confirmation of this TP.

END OF LESSON CONFIRMATION

The cadets’ participation in the group discussions on PPE and safety equipment will serve as the confirmation
of this lesson.

CONCLUSION

HOMEWORK/READING/PRACTICE

N/A.

METHOD OF EVALUATION

N/A.

CLOSING STATEMENT

Recognizing hazardous situations and materials is part of having a safe workplace. It is also necessary to
identify safety equipment and to be aware of the regulations that apply to workplace safety. Workplace safety
not only applies to aerodromes, but to all workplaces.

INSTRUCTOR NOTES/REMARKS

N/A.

REFERENCES

C3-148 (ISBN 0-9739866-0-3) Syme, E.R., & Wells, A.T. (2005). Airport Development, Management and
Operations in Canada: Second Edition. Barrie, ON: Aviation Education Services.

C3-157 Department of Justice Canada. (2007). Canada Labour Code. Retrieved October 10, 2007, from
http://laws.justice.gc.ca/en/ShowFullDoc/cs/L-2///en.

C3-158 Department of Justice Canada. (2007). Aviation Occupational Safety and Health Regulations.
Retrieved October 10, 2007, from http://laws.justice.gc.ca/en/ShowFullDoc/cr/SOR-87-182///en.

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ROYAL CANADIAN AIR CADETS

BASIC AVIATION TECHNOLOGY AND AEROSPACE

INSTRUCTIONAL GUIDE

SECTION 9

EO S260.09 – EXPLAIN ASPECTS OF AERODROME SECURITY

Total Time: 80 min

PREPARATION

PRE-LESSON INSTRUCTIONS

Resources needed for the delivery of this lesson are listed in the lesson specification located in A-CR-CCP-
824/PG-001, Chapter 4. Specific uses for said resources are identified throughout the instructional guide within
the TP for which they are required.

Review the lesson content and become familiar with the material prior to delivering the lesson.

Review the mandate of the Canadian Air Transport Security Authority (CATSA) and update the information
presented in the guide if necessary.

Obtain and photocopy an updated list of allowed and prohibited carry-on items from http://www.catsa-
acsta.gc.ca for each cadet.

PRE-LESSON ASSIGNMENT

N/A.

APPROACH

An interactive lecture was chosen for this lesson to clarify, emphasize and summarize aerodrome security, the
role of CATSA, and types of screening at an aerodrome.

INTRODUCTION

REVIEW

N/A.

OBJECTIVES

By the end of this lesson the cadet shall have explained aspects of aerodrome security.

IMPORTANCE

It is important for the cadets to be aware of the security requirements of aerodromes. Security requirements vary
depending on the type of aerodrome. The level of security has been increasing in recent years. Recognizing the
role of CATSA and the types of screening that are being performed at an aerodrome will be of special interest
to cadets who travel through major Canadian airports.

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Teaching Point 1 Explain Components of Aerodrome Security

Time: 25 min Method: Interactive Lecture

AERODROME SECURITY DEFINITIONS

Restricted Area. A portion of an aerodrome where access is only granted to authorized persons.

Restricted Area Access Point. A location in a security barrier at which a control system is in place that controls
access to a restricted area from a non-restricted area.

Screening. The checking, identification, observation, inspection or authorized search of persons, goods and
other things in the possession or control of persons. Screening prevents the carrying or transport, of weapons,
explosive substances, incendiary devices or their components or other dangerous items that could jeopardize
the security of an aerodrome or aircraft.

Security Barrier. A physical structure or natural feature used to prevent or deter access by unauthorized
persons to a restricted area.

Sterile Area. A restricted area, including any passenger loading bridges attached to it. It is used to separate
passengers who have been screened, or are exempt from screening, and other authorized persons from
unauthorized persons at the aerodrome.

RESTRICTED AREAS

All aircraft movement areas (runways, taxiways and aprons) are restricted areas and only those who are
authorized have access to these areas. Authorization (permission) is only granted to those who have a
legitimate need as a result of their employment duties. Restricted areas also exist inside the terminal building.
The area used by passengers between the time they are screened and the time they board the aircraft is a
restricted area (specifically a sterile area). Other areas inside the terminal building that will be a restricted area
include:

aerodrome and airline operations,

baggage handling areas,

ATC, and

emergency response.

At aerodromes where an identity verification system is in place, the only way to gain access to a restricted
area is to pass through a restricted area access point. It is at these locations that identity is confirmed and
that the authorization to access the restricted area is still valid. Some locations may be automated through a
combination of personal identification numbers (PINs), keys, magnetically-coded cards and biometrics. Other
locations will use personnel who check the identification badge before allowing access.

For passengers, photo identification cards are used to confirm identity and boarding passes issued by the airline
(with a matching name) are used to confirm authorization to enter the sterile area.

FENCES

The fences most commonly used as security measures at an aerodrome are chain-link fences erected around
the perimeter of the aircraft movement areas. Access through the fence is provided by gates for vehicles and
people or through buildings adjacent to the movement areas.

At some aerodromes fences play a dual role by preventing large animals such as deer from entering the
movement areas and becoming a hazard for aircraft.

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At some aerodromes, the fence will have lights installed along some or all portions to aid security during low
light conditions. Electronic surveillance (video cameras) may also be used. Another common feature found
along aerodrome fencing is a perimeter road. This road is located on the inside of the fence allowing security
patrols to drive along the fence. The road also allows maintenance crews to easily inspect the fence. In all
cases, the fence line must be kept clear of long grass, shrubs or any other growth that might obstruct the view
of security or maintenance personnel.

Erecting a fence around an aerodrome can be a major expense. Care must be taken to plan the layout, select
the correct style of fence and to strategically locate the access points to ensure maximum security while keeping
costs reasonable.

GATES

The gates found in aerodrome fencing can be categorized in several ways: routine, emergency, or occasional
access points and vehicle or personnel access points. Additionally, they can be operated manually or
mechanically. Gates designed to be operated mechanically should also be able to be opened manually in case
of failure.

Emergency and occasional access points are generally secured with chains and locks. Personnel requiring
access through these gates would obtain the key(s) in advance from the aerodrome operations office. In the
case of an emergency, the gate would be designed to allow a vehicle to crash through it (most emergency
response vehicles would have equipment on the front of the vehicle to aid in this).

In the case of aerodromes with an identity verification system in place, gates designed to be used by personnel
and vehicles for routine (regular) access to restricted areas would be controlled by an automated system to
open and close the gate when the proper combination of information is presented to the control system (PINs,
keys, magnetically coded cards and biometrics). Other methods include manning the gate with personnel to
verify identity and authorization before opening the gate, and by using remote video and audio technologies
to control access.

In all cases, a gate that remains open can become a major security problem.

CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 1

QUESTIONS

Q1. What is a restricted area?

Q2. In addition to identity, what must be confirmed prior to allowing access to a restricted area?

Q3. How can gates be operated?

ANTICIPATED ANSWERS

A1. A portion of an aerodrome where access is only granted to authorized persons.

A2. Authorization.

A3. Manually or mechanically.

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Teaching Point 2 Explain Security Requirements at Different Types of


Aerodromes

Time: 10 min Method: Interactive Lecture

INTERNATIONAL AND REGIONAL AIRPORTS

The security requirements at the following airports are governed by and subject to Part 3 of the Canadian
Aviation Security Regulations (CASR):

Calgary International Airport Regina Airport


Charlottetown Airport Saint John Airport
Edmonton International Airport St. John’s International Airport
Fredericton Airport Saskatoon/John G. Diefenbaker International
Gander International Airport Airport

Greater Moncton International Airport Sudbury Airport

Halifax/Robert Stanfield International Airport Thunder Bay Airport

Iqaluit International Airport Toronto City Centre Airport

Kelowna Airport Toronto/Lester B. Pearson International Airport

London Airport Vancouver International Airport

Montréal/Pierre Elliott Trudeau International Victoria International Airport


Airport Whitehorse International Airport
Montréal International/Mirabel Airport Windsor Airport
Ottawa/Macdonald-Cartier International Airport Winnipeg International Airport
Prince George Airport Yellowknife Airport
Québec/Jean-Lesage International Airport

CASR

The CASR are the part of the Aeronautics Act which deals with aviation security in Canada and are divided
into five parts:

Part 1 – General Provisions

Part 2 – Aviation Security

Part 3 – Aerodrome Security

Part 4 – Response to Threats and Information Reporting

Part 5 – Repeals and Coming Into Force

Parts 1, 2, and 4 are applicable to all aspects of aviation and aerodromes. Part 3 is only applicable to the
airports listed above.

CASR Part 3 – Aerodrome Security

This part of the CASR outlines the processes and requirements for controlling access to restricted areas at an
aerodrome. It details identity verification systems and restricted area pass control.

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Part 3 requires that:

access to restricted areas be controlled by an identity verification system,

restricted area passes are only issued to those that require them on an ongoing basis, and deactivated
when they are no longer required, and

restricted areas can only be accessed through a restricted area access point.

MUNICIPAL AND PRIVATE AERODROMES

The measures that are implemented depend on the resources available, the types of security risks expected
by the aerodrome operator and the level of risk that the aerodrome operator is willing to accept.

Most aerodromes of this type will implement measures such as fences, gates, signs and locked doors to prevent
unauthorized persons from inadvertently accessing restricted areas. Aerodromes with more resources and
those that anticipate a higher degree of security related risks and incidents will implement more formal and
stringent procedures.

CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 2

QUESTIONS

Q1. What part of the CASR pertains only to a specific list of airports?

Q2. How can access to restricted areas be controlled?

Q3. Where can a restricted area be accessed?

ANTICIPATED ANSWERS

A1. Part 3 – Aerodrome Security.

A2. By an identity verification system.

A3. At a restricted area access point.

Teaching Point 3 Explain the Role of the Canadian Air Transport Security
Authority (CATSA)

Time: 10 min Method: Interactive Lecture

Updated information on the role and mandate of CATSA can be found at http://www.catsa-
acsta.gc.ca

CATSA

CATSA’s mission is to protect the public by securing critical elements of the air transportation system as
assigned by the government. CATSA was established in April 2002 as part of a comprehensive aviation security
initiative. It is a crown corporation that reports to Parliament through the Minister of Transportation.

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CATSA’s responsibilities fall into six major areas:

pre-board screening of passengers and their belongings;

acquisition, deployment, operation and maintenance of explosives detection systems at airports;

contracting for RCMP policing services on selected flights and all flights to Reagan National airport;

implementation of a restricted area identification card;

the screening of non-passengers entering airport restricted areas; and

contributions for supplemental airport policing services.

CATSA operates a number of programs to ensure that airports and aircraft are secure:

airport policing,

Non-Passenger Screening (NPS),

Hold Baggage Screening (HBS),

Pre-Board Screening (PBS),

Canadian Air Carrier Protection Program (CACPP),

Restricted Area Identification Card (RAIC), and

training.

Airport Policing

After 9/11, the government of Canada required enhanced police presence at certain airports. In order to offset
a portion of these costs, CATSA provides funding to these airports to allow the aerodrome operator to maintain
the required level of police presence.

Canadian Air Carrier Protection Program (CACPP)

Aircraft Protective Officers from the RCMP are present on many commercial flights, ensuring the security of
the aircraft. CATSA provides funding for this program.

Restricted Area Identification Card (RAIC)

The RAIC is an identification program to make sure that all workers entering aerodrome restricted areas
are permitted to be there. Using state-of-the-art biometric technology, incorporating both fingerprint and iris
recognition, the RAIC is granted only to those airport workers for whom Transport Canada has provided
clearance at major airports. The RAIC program, in conjunction with Non-Passenger Screening, ensures that
restricted areas at airports are kept secure.

Training

All screening officers in Canada are security cleared and rigorously trained on a program built on the principle
of continuous improvement. The classroom, on-the-job and computer and web-based training never stops and
evaluations—both written and practical are conducted frequently. Screening officers must be CATSA certified
and recertification on an annual basis is required.

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CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 3

QUESTIONS

Q1. When was CATSA established?

Q2. What programs does CATSA operate?

Q3. What is the RAIC?

ANTICIPATED ANSWERS

A1. April 2002.

A2. Airport policing, Non-Passenger Screening, Hold Baggage Screening, Pre-Board Screening, Canadian
Air Carrier Protection Program, Restricted Area Identification Card, and training.

A3. It is the Restricted Area Identification Card.

Teaching Point 4 Explain the Types of Screening for Which CATSA is


Responsible

Time: 25 min Method: Interactive Lecture

TYPES OF SCREENING

Pre-Board Screening (PBS)

Distribute the list of allowed and prohibited carry-on items. The list of prohibited items and
dangerous goods changes from time to time. An updated list can be obtained from http://
www.catsa-acsta.gc.ca/english/travel_voyage/list.shtml

CATSA is responsible for the delivery of consistent, effective and professional screening of passengers and
their belongings. Security is CATSA’s number one priority. Screening officers screen both passengers and their
carry-on baggage for prohibited items or dangerous goods.

Passengers and carry-on baggage must pass through screening devices before entering the sterile area. These
devices provide a way for screening officers to identify passengers and baggage that should be subjected to a
more thorough search. Objects that are not permissible can also be identified with these devices. Passengers
and baggage may also be selected at random for a more in-depth search.

In addition to imaging devices (such as X-ray) new high-technology equipment is being introduced to detect
explosive materials.

Hold Baggage Screening (HBS)

HBS is the screening of checked baggage using explosives detection systems at airports. In 2006 CATSA
announced full deployment of HBS at 89 airports across Canada. This state-of-the-art baggage system is multi-
level and involves the screening of all checked baggage. HBS is in effect for all domestic and international
flights.

This system relies not only on equipment but on a combination of technology and people. State-of-the-art
technology scans densities and tests for trace amounts of chemicals. CATSA provided financial support to
airports to cover the installation, renovations and deployment of the new equipment.

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Most of the HBS equipment at major airports in Canada are of the inline variety. Equipment of this style screens
the baggage as it moves from the check-in counter towards the aircraft. Suspect baggage is diverted and
screened further. If necessary, screening officers will contact the passenger who owns the baggage to complete
the screening process. This inline processing is more efficient than attempting to inspect individual pieces of
baggage at the check-in point.

Positive Passenger Bag Matching (PPBM) is a process of matching all baggage that is loaded onto an aircraft
to a passenger that has boarded the aircraft. Should a passenger not board the aircraft, their baggage must
be identified and removed from the aircraft.

Non-Passenger Screening (NPS)

CATSA screens individuals, goods and possessions requiring access to the restricted areas at aerodromes
where it is responsible for screening services. Flight crews and airport workers such as caterers, maintenance
workers and baggage handlers are randomly selected for screening at Canada’s 29 largest airports. Over
1000 screenings of non-passengers and any goods or possessions occur nationally, at random, on a daily basis.

NPS adds another layer of security to Canada’s air transport security system. The purpose of NPS is to
enhance both aerodrome and civil aviation security by operating random and unpredictable security screening
checkpoints at entry points to or within airport restricted areas.

NPS is largely conducted at mobile checkpoints providing entry into restricted areas. Several permanent
checkpoints have been constructed at some of the eight largest airports. These checkpoints are equipped
with state-of-the-art technology, similar to equipment at pre-board screening, which expedites and streamlines
service.

Cooperation is needed between screening officers and non-passengers to make the process hassle-free. The
vast majority of screenings at NPS are quick and routine, however non-passenger cooperation helps to ensure
that screening is carried out quickly and efficiently.

CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 4

QUESTIONS

Q1. What does PBS stand for?

Q2. What does HBS stand for?

Q3. What does NPS stand for?

ANTICIPATED ANSWERS

A1. Pre-Board Screening.

A2. Hold Baggage Screening.

A3. Non-Passenger Screening.

END OF LESSON CONFIRMATION

QUESTIONS

Q1. What part of the Aeronautics Act regulates security at major Canadian aerodromes?

Q2. Who is responsible for screening passengers at major Canadian aerodromes?

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Q3. What is CATSA’s mission?

ANTICIPATED ANSWERS

A1. The Canadian Aviation Security Regulations (CASR).

A2. Canadian Air Transport Security Authority (CATSA).

A3. To protect the public by securing critical elements of the air transportation system as assigned by the
government.

CONCLUSION

HOMEWORK/READING/PRACTICE

N/A.

METHOD OF EVALUATION

N/A.

CLOSING STATEMENT

Aerodrome security is an ever-changing field that is modified in response to significant events around the
world. Governments and aerodrome operators must react accordingly and attempt to become more proactive in
anticipating the security requirements at aerodromes. Security requirements must be balanced with the security
risks and the resources available to the aerodrome operator.

INSTRUCTOR NOTES/REMARKS

TPs 1 and 2 are to be taught in one 40-minute period.

TPs 3 and 4 are to be taught in one 40-minute period.

The time allocated for the introduction and conclusion is to be divided between the periods as required.

REFERENCES

C3-098 Canadian Air Transport Security Authority. (2007). Mandate. Retrieved October 10, 2007, from
http://www.catsa-acsta.gc.ca/English/about_propos/mandat.shtml.

C3-148 (ISBN 0-9739866-0-3) Syme, E.R., & Wells, A.T. (2005). Airport Development, Management and
Operations In Canada: Second Edition. Barrie, ON: Aviation Education Services.

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ROYAL CANADIAN AIR CADETS

BASIC AVIATION TECHNOLOGY AND AEROSPACE

INSTRUCTIONAL GUIDE

SECTION 10

EO S260.10 – EXPLAIN ASPECTS OF EMERGENCY RESPONSES AT AERODROMES

Total Time: 40 min

PREPARATION

PRE-LESSON INSTRUCTIONS

Resources needed for the delivery of this lesson are listed in the lesson specification located in A-CR-CCP-
824/PG-001, Chapter 4. Specific uses for said resources are identified throughout the instructional guide within
the TP for which they are required.

Review the lesson content and become familiar with the material prior to delivering the lesson.

PRE-LESSON ASSIGNMENT

N/A.

APPROACH

An interactive lecture was chosen for this lesson to clarify, emphasize and summarize aircraft and aerodrome
emergencies.

INTRODUCTION

REVIEW

N/A.

OBJECTIVES

By the end of this lesson the cadet shall have explained aspects of emergency responses at aerodromes.

IMPORTANCE

It is important for the cadets to know about emergency response at aerodromes. Being able to identify
emergency scenarios allows the selection of the appropriate type and level of response. Being aware of the
possible emergency scenarios allows for the allocation of the appropriate emergency resources.

Teaching Point 1 Discuss Aircraft Emergencies

Time: 20 min Method: Interactive Lecture

AIRCRAFT RESCUE AND FIRE FIGHTING (ARFF)

The primary responsibility of an ARFF service is to provide a fire-free escape route for the evacuation of
passengers and crew following an aircraft accident. This service is also known as:

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A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001

Crash, Fire and Rescue (CFR), and

Emergency Response Services (ERS).

As with many other aerodrome services, the type and level of ARFF available depends on the type of
aerodrome. For airports with more than 180 000 passengers emplaned/deplaned per year, the Canadian
Aviation Regulations (CARs) specify the level of ARFF that must be provided. Other aerodromes may provide
ARFF if the need and resources exist. An aerodrome that provides ARFF services (mandated or voluntarily)
must publish the hours of operation and the level of service in the Canada Flight Supplement (CFS).

Aerodromes that do not have their own ARFF service must make arrangements with the local fire department to
respond to emergencies at the aerodrome. Information and training must be provided to ensure the firefighters
are able to deal with the challenges presented by aircraft emergencies.

All airports must have an emergency plan. It details what resources the airport has to deal with emergencies, the
basic steps to follow for specific types of emergencies, contact information for key personnel and departments
and directions on how to test their emergency response capabilities.

ARFF Vehicles

ARFF must be able to respond within a specific timeframe (acceleration, speed and manoeuvrability), carry
the types and volumes of specified extinguishing agents (water and foam) and be able to dispense the agents
in sufficient quantities. The requirements are based on the size of the aircraft using the aerodrome and are
specified in the CARs (as illustrated in Figure 2-10-1).

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Minimum Total
Quantity of
Maximum Quantity Number of Discharge
Aeroplane Aeroplane Complementary
Fuselage of Water Aeroplane Capacity
Category Overall Length Agents
Width (in litres) Fire-fighting (in litres
(in kilograms)
Vehicles per minute)

1 less than 9 m 2m 230 45 1 230

at least 9 m but
2 2m 670 90 1 550
less than 12 m

at least 12 m but
3 3m 1200 135 1 900
less than 18 m

at least 18 m but
4 4m 2400 135 1 1800
less than 24 m

at least 24 m but
5 4m 5400 180 1 3000
less than 28 m

at least 28 m but
6 5m 7900 225 1 4000
less than 39 m

at least 39 m but
7 5m 12 100 225 2 5300
less than 49 m

at least 49 m but
8 7m 18 200 450 2 7200
less than 61 m

at least 61 m but
9 7m 24 300 450 3 9000
less than 76 m

10 at least 76 m 8m 32 300 450 3 11 200

Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, Aeronautical Information Manual, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada (p. 68)
Figure 2-10-1 ARFF Requirements

ARFF vehicles are based on standard fire trucks, but have been built specifically for aerodromes (as illustrated
in Figure 2-10-2). They can handle rough terrain while accelerating quickly to their top speed. The use of
turrets to dispense water and foam allows the operator to drive to the edge of the fire and begin dispensing
extinguishing agents immediately. Two turrets (nose and roof) are standard equipment and are controlled by
the operator inside the cabin. A turret can be combined with a piercing device on the end of a boom. This boom
can be extended to the aircraft to create an opening in the aircraft skin and an extinguishing agent can then
be delivered directly into the aircraft.

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Oshkosh Truck Corporation, 2007, Striker 4500, Copyright 2007 by Oshkosh Truck Corporation.
Retrieved November 28, 2007, from http://www.oshkoshtruck.com/pdf/Oshkosh_Striker4500.pdf
Figure 2-10-2 ARFF Truck

STANDBY REQUESTS

Local Standby. The level of response when an aircraft has or is suspected to have, an operational defect that
would cause serious difficulty for the aircraft to achieve a safe landing.

Full Emergency Standby. The level of response when an aircraft has or is suspected to have, an operational
defect that affects normal flight operations to the extent that there is possibility of an accident.

When an emergency has been declared by a pilot, the ARFF vehicles will take up emergency positions adjacent
to the landing runway and stand by to provide assistance. Once response to an emergency situation has been
initiated, the ARFF unit will remain at the increased state of alert until informed that the pilot-in-command has
terminated the emergency.

ON-SITE CRASHES

If a crash occurs at an aerodrome, the primary role of the ARFF service is to suppress any fire and provide a
safe evacuation route out of the aircraft for the passengers. Many ARFF departments also include paramedics,
vehicles and equipment to provide first aid and triage services to the passengers.

In the event of a major crash, additional resources from the local area may be required.

The ability to respond to an on-site crash is determined by the ability of the ARFF department to arrive at the
scene within four minutes of the alarm being sounded with sufficient vehicles to discharge the extinguishing
agent at 50 percent of the required capacity. Additional vehicles must arrive within four minutes to reach
100 percent capacity. To test the response time, Canadian regulations use the midpoint of the furthest runway
serving commercial passenger-carrying aircraft or another predetermined point of comparable distance and
terrain. At large aerodromes, it may be necessary to have ARFF units at two or more separate locations in
order to meet the required response times.

OFF-SITE CRASHES

If an aircraft crash occurs near an aerodrome with ARFF, the ARFF services from that aerodrome may be
dispatched to the scene. If ARFF services from an aerodrome are not readily available, local fire departments
and paramedics will respond. Most aircraft crashes occur during takeoff and landing; the ERS for the
municipalities surrounding an aerodrome should be prepared to respond to a crash. ERS personnel should
receive special training on aircraft firefighting and passenger rescue techniques.

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JOINT RESPONSES

Aerodromes with ARFF services usually have an agreement with the surrounding municipalities to assist in
off-site aircraft crashes. The agreement will also cover non-aviation related emergencies near the aerodrome.
An example of this would be a fuel tanker crash and fire on a nearby highway. The foam extinguishing agent
dispensed by ARFF vehicles would be well suited to control this type of fire.

If ARFF vehicles are dispatched away from the aerodrome to a non-aviation emergency, the aerodrome
operator must ensure that if the ARFF capabilities of the aerodrome have been reduced below the required
minimum level, that the appropriate Notice To Airmen (NOTAM) is issued.

To ensure the interoperability of ARFF and municipal ERS, joint exercises (both on and off the aerodrome)
are held on a regular basis.

CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 1

QUESTIONS

Q1. What does ARFF stand for?

Q2. How do ARFF vehicles dispense water and/or foam?

Q3. When do most aircraft crashes occur?

ANTICIPATED ANSWERS

A1. Aircraft Rescue and Fire Fighting.

A2. Through turrets.

A3. During takeoff and landing.

Teaching Point 2 Discuss Aerodrome Emergencies

Time: 15 min Method: Interactive Lecture

AERODROME EMERGENCIES

In addition to aircraft emergencies, the aerodrome’s emergency plan should include other non-aviation
emergencies. Where possible, the ARFF unit is the responding agency. In other cases, local ERS (fire,
paramedics and police) would respond. In all cases, simulated emergency exercises are held to test the
emergency plan and provide training opportunities for all personnel.

During emergencies there is the potential for people to panic. The threat of a fire or bomb can trigger panic and
confusion; the resulting chaos could cause injuries.

Building Fires

A fire in a terminal building at a large aerodrome would be handled much the same way as a fire in any large
building with lots of people (such as a shopping mall). In addition to fire extinguishers throughout the building
(designed to put out and control small fires) there is usually water pipes, hoses and standpipe connections.

As with any emergency in a location with large numbers of people, preparations to deal with injuries and
casualties are necessary.

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Bomb Threats

The emergency plan includes a section on bomb threats, both in the terminal and on-board an aircraft. In the
case of an aircraft, the first thing that would happen is that the aircraft would be moved away from the terminal/
gate area to an isolated apron location.

In the terminal, suspicious or unattended baggage is treated seriously. Large international airports usually have
personnel and equipment on site to respond. Many state-of-the-art baggage screening systems have isolation
chambers that suspicious baggage can be routed to. This chamber is designed to contain an explosion and
prevent injuries and damage.

In Canada, making a false declaration that could jeopardize the safety or security of an
aircraft or aerodrome can result in a fine up to $5000.

Medical Crises

Heart attacks, panic attacks and allergic reactions are common in areas where large numbers of people
congregate. Large aerodromes have paramedics on site to deal with medical crises. Small aerodromes must
ensure that aerodrome personnel have the appropriate first aid qualifications and training to deal with common
crises until paramedics can arrive.

Advances in technology have resulted in the development of Automated External Defibrillators (AEDs). These
machines make it possible for non-medical personnel to restore heart rhythms and save lives.

It is interesting to note that:

40 000 cardiac arrests occur in Canada each year.

80 percent of cardiac arrests occur outside of a hospital setting.

AEDs combined with Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) increase survival rates to


50 percent or more.

CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 2

QUESTIONS

Q1. Who can help aerodrome ARFF units respond to emergencies?

Q2. How much could you be fined for making a false declaration that jeopardizes safety or security?

Q3. What machine can help increase the survival rate of heart attack victims?

ANTICIPATED ANSWERS

A1. Local ERS.

A2. $5000.

A3. AEDs.

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END OF LESSON CONFIRMATION

QUESTIONS

Q1. What are two common types of extinguishing agents carried by ARFF vehicles?

Q2. What are two levels of standby response?

Q3. What are three types of medical crises that are common where large numbers of people congregate?

ANTICIPATED ANSWERS

A1. Water and foam.

A2. Local standby and full emergency standby.

A3. Heart attacks, panic attacks and allergic reactions.

CONCLUSION

HOMEWORK/READING/PRACTICE

N/A.

METHOD OF EVALUATION

N/A.

CLOSING STATEMENT

ERS at aerodromes is primarily ARFF services. Secondary duties may include responding to emergencies in the
terminal building including fires, bomb threats and medical crises. Emergency plans also include agreements
with local ERS agencies for joint responses and regular training exercises must be held. All personnel at an
aerodrome must be aware of the potential for emergencies and be ready to respond at any time.

INSTRUCTOR NOTES/REMARKS

N/A.

REFERENCES

C2-044 Transport Canada. (2007). Aeronautical Information Manual. Retrieved October 2, 2007, from
http://www.tc.gc.ca/publications/EN/TP14371/PDF/HR/TP14371E.PDF.

C3-148 (ISBN 0-9739866-0-3) Syme, E.R., & Wells, A.T. (2005). Airport Development, Management and
Operations in Canada: Second Edition. Barrie, ON: Aviation Education Services.

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ROYAL CANADIAN AIR CADETS

BASIC AVIATION TECHNOLOGY AND AEROSPACE

INSTRUCTIONAL GUIDE

SECTION 11

EO S260.11 – EXPLAIN ASPECTS OF AIR TRAFFIC SERVICES (ATS)

Total Time: 40 min

PREPARATION

PRE-LESSON INSTRUCTIONS

Resources needed for the delivery of this lesson are listed in the lesson specification located in A-CR-CCP-
824/PG-001, Chapter 4. Specific uses for said resources are identified throughout the instructional guide within
the TP for which they are required.

Review the lesson content and become familiar with the material prior to delivering the lesson.

Photocopy the handout located at Annex P for each cadet.

PRE-LESSON ASSIGNMENT

N/A.

APPROACH

An interactive lecture was chosen for this lesson to clarify, emphasize and summarize aspects of ATS.

INTRODUCTION

REVIEW

N/A.

OBJECTIVES

By the end of this lesson the cadet shall have explained aspects of ATS.

IMPORTANCE

It is important for the cadets to know ATS is the provision of control and information services and are required to
maintain a safe and efficient air transport system. Personnel working at an aerodrome need to be aware of the
types of services provided at the aerodrome and be prepared to communicate with the appropriate ATS unit.

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A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001

Teaching Point 1 Explain Types of ATS

Time: 15 min Method: Interactive Lecture

ATS

ATS is the term that covers a wide variety of services that are provided to pilots and aircraft. Control and
information services are both included in this category. Flight information will be made available, whenever
possible, to a pilot in communication with an ATS unit. Many factors (such as volume of traffic, controller
workload, communications frequency congestion and limitations of radar equipment) may prevent these
services from being provided to all pilots.

Air Traffic Control (ATC)

ATC service has been established primarily for the prevention of collisions and the efficient flow of traffic. The
provision of ATC service will take precedence over the provision of flight information services. ATC services
provide separation between aircraft, especially those that are operating under instrument meteorological
conditions (IMC). ATC is provided to aircraft during all phases of flight and on the ground at busy aerodromes.

Information Services

Information that could be relevant to the safety of a flight is provided to pilots as it becomes available.
Sometimes, ATC suggestions are included. It is up to the pilot to make decisions based on a suggestion.
Information provided includes:

severe weather conditions along the proposed route of flight,

changes in the serviceability of navigation aids,

weather conditions reported or forecasted at destination or alternate aerodromes,

changes in the serviceability of navigation aids,

condition of airports and associated facilities, and

other items considered pertinent to the safety of the flight.

Advisory Services

At uncontrolled aerodromes, the information listed below is provided by advisory services (if appropriate) during
initial aerodrome advisory communications:

active or preferred runway,

wind direction and speed,

air traffic that warrants attention,

vehicle traffic,

wake turbulence cautionary,

aerodrome conditions,

weather conditions, and

additional information of interest for the safety of flight.

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Alerting Services

When an aircraft declares an emergency, alerting services notifies the appropriate agency to provide
emergency standby services. If an aircraft becomes overdue, search and rescue (SAR) agencies can be
notified. Alerting a responsible authority of any unlawful interference (hijack), bomb threat or inability to
communicate in the clear, is also included in this service.

Briefing Services

Briefing services, provided by flight service specialists, consult on meteorological and aeronautical information
to assist pilots in pre-flight planning. The flight service specialist adapts meteorological information, including
satellite and radar imagery, to fit the needs of flight crew members and operations personnel and provides
consultation and advice on special weather problems.

Notice to Airmen (NOTAM) Services

NOTAM services collect information from pilots, aerodrome operators and aeronautical facilities operators and
distribute as required and requested. This includes Runway Surface Condition (RSC) reports and Canadian
Runway Friction Index (CRFI) information.

Distribute photocopies of Annex P to the cadets.

CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 1

QUESTIONS

Q1. What type of ATS has priority?

Q2. What type of service provides such information as active or preferred runway, wind direction and speed,
air traffic and vehicle traffic?

Q3. What type of service assists pilots with flight planning?

ANTICIPATED ANSWERS

A1. ATC.

A2. Advisory service.

A3. Briefing service.

Teaching Point 2 Explain the Difference Between an ATC Clearance and an


ATC Instruction

Time: 10 min Method: Interactive Lecture

ATC Clearance. An authorization from ATC for a pilot to proceed with a specific action (eg, takeoff or landing)
or along a specific route.

ATC Instruction. A directive from ATC to do something specific (eg, maintain 5000 feet).

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A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001

Whenever an ATC clearance is received and accepted by the pilot, compliance shall be made with
the clearance. If a clearance is not acceptable, the pilot should immediately inform ATC of this fact as
acknowledgement of the clearance alone will be taken by a controller as indicating acceptance. A clearance
will be identified by the use of the word “clear” in its contents.

A pilot shall comply with an ATC instruction that is directed to and received by the pilot, provided the safety of
the aircraft is not jeopardized. An instruction will always be worded in such a manner as to be readily identified,
although the word “instruct” will seldom be included. Pilots shall comply with and acknowledge receipt of all
ATC instructions directed to and received by them.

ACTIVITY

Time: 5 min

OBJECTIVE

The objective of this activity is to allow the cadets to demonstrate the difference between an ATC clearance
and instruction.

RESOURCES

One sheet of paper for each cadet, and

Pens/pencils.

ACTIVITY LAYOUT

N/A.

ACTIVITY INSTRUCTIONS

1. Distribute one sheet of paper to each cadet.

2. Have the cadets write down an example of an ATC instruction or clearance that might be given to a person
operating a vehicle at an aerodrome.

3. Collect the sheets of paper.

4. Read out a clearance/instruction and have the group identify it as a clearance or instruction.

5. Continue until all of the clearances/instructions have been read or time runs out.

SAFETY

N/A.

CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 2

The cadets’ participation in the ATC instruction and clearance activity will serve as the confirmation of this TP.

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A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001

Teaching Point 3 Explain the Functions of ATC

Time: 10 min Method: Interactive Lecture

AREA CONTROL CENTRES (ACCs)

Area control service is provided by ACCs to flights operating within specified control areas. These areas typically
consist of high level airspace and serve aircraft operating in the en route phase of flight. Information and advisory
services are provided when workloads permit.

TERMINAL CONTROL UNIT (TCUs)

Terminal control service is provided by ACCs to flights operating within specified control areas surrounding
major aerodromes. The primary purpose is to provide arrival and departure control to aircraft as they transition
from the takeoff/landing phase to the en route phase. This type of ATC unit is responsible for sequencing aircraft
to ensure an efficient flow of traffic to and from an aerodrome.

CONTROL TOWERS

Control towers are located at busy aerodromes to provide ATC services to aircraft during takeoff and landing.
Control of aircraft on the ground is also provided. Workloads in most control towers do not usually permit the
provision of information and advisory services so aircraft will obtain the required information from another ATS
unit on a different frequency or by telephone before making contact with the control tower.

FLIGHT SERVICE STATIONS (FSSs)

FSSs provide information, advisory, alerting, briefing and NOTAM services. FSSs are responsible for large
areas and provide service for all of the aerodromes in their area. Remote communications systems allow flight
service specialists to communicate via radio to aircraft and vehicles hundreds of kilometres away.

FSSs are the initial point of contact for pilots during the pre-flight planning stage. They play a key role in the
collection and distribution of NOTAMs. FSSs can be contacted by pilots via radio when in the air (and on the
ground where remote communications facilities exist) or by telephone.

Vehicle control service at uncontrolled aerodromes with a mandatory frequency is provided by a FSS. The FSS
may be hundreds of kilometres away and providing this service to multiple aerodromes. Personnel operating
vehicles at aerodromes in this situation must pay close attention to this fact and be very clear and concise
about their intentions and location.

CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 3

QUESTIONS

Q1. Which unit provides control to aircraft and vehicles on the ground at busy aerodromes?

Q2. Which unit provides control services to aircraft arriving and departing a controlled aerodrome?

Q3. Which unit plays a key role in the provision of NOTAM services?

ANTICIPATED ANSWERS

A1. Control tower.

A2. TCU.

A3. FSS.

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A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001

END OF LESSON CONFIRMATION

The cadets’ participation in the difference between an ATC clearance and instruction activity will serve as the
confirmation of this lesson.

CONCLUSION

HOMEWORK/READING/PRACTICE

N/A.

METHOD OF EVALUATION

N/A.

CLOSING STATEMENT

ATS are provided in some form at all aerodromes. Personnel working at an aerodrome need to be aware of the
types of services provided at the aerodrome and be prepared to communicate with the appropriate ATS unit.

INSTRUCTOR NOTES/REMARKS

N/A.

REFERENCES

C2-044 Transport Canada. (2007). Aeronautical Information Manual. Retrieved October 2, 2007, from
http://www.tc.gc.ca/publications/EN/TP14371/PDF/HR/TP14371E.PDF.

2-11-6
A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001

ROYAL CANADIAN AIR CADETS

BASIC AVIATION TECHNOLOGY AND AEROSPACE

INSTRUCTIONAL GUIDE

SECTION 12

EO S260.12 – EXPLAIN ASPECTS OF THE CANADIAN DOMESTIC AIRSPACE (CDA) SYSTEM

Total Time: 40 min

PREPARATION

PRE-LESSON INSTRUCTIONS

Resources needed for the delivery of this lesson are listed in the lesson specification located in A-CR-CCP-
824/PG-001, Chapter 4. Specific uses for said resources are identified throughout the instructional guide within
the TP for which they are required.

Review the lesson content and become familiar with the material prior to delivering the lesson.

Photocopy the handout located at Annex Q for each cadet.

PRE-LESSON ASSIGNMENT

N/A.

APPROACH

An interactive lecture was chosen for this lesson to clarify, emphasize and summarize aspects of the CDA
system.

INTRODUCTION

REVIEW

The review for this lesson is from EO S260.01 (Identify Types of Aerodromes, Section 1) and EO
S260.11 (Explain Aspects of Air Traffic Services [ATS], Section 11). Review the following terms and definitions:

Aerodrome. Any area designated or set aside for aircraft to use.

Airport. An aerodrome that has been certified by Transport Canada.

Air Traffic Control (ATC) Clearance. An authorization to proceed within controlled airspace.

ATC Instruction. A directive issued by an ATC unit for air traffic control purposes.

Purpose of ATC. To provide the safe and efficient flow of air traffic.

Visual Flight Rules (VFR). Rules that govern the procedures for conducting flight under visual conditions.

Instrument Flight Rules (IFR). Rules that govern the procedures for conducting flight under instrument
meteorological conditions (IMC).

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A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001

OBJECTIVES

By the end of this lesson the cadet shall have explained aspects of the CDA system.

IMPORTANCE

It is important for the cadets to know about the CDA system as each airspace classification has a set of
requirements and operating rules that make it unique. By understanding and adhering to these rules, pilots,
ground crew, and aerodrome operations staff can operate safely.

Teaching Point 1 Explain Parts of the CDA System

Time: 10 min Method: Interactive Lecture

Distribute photocopies of Annex Q to the cadets.

CDA

CDA includes all airspace over Canadian land mass, the Canadian Arctic, Canadian Archipelago (group of
islands) and those areas of the high seas within the airspace boundaries.

CDA is geographically divided into the Northern Domestic Airspace (NDA) and the Southern Domestic Airspace
(SDA) (as illustrated in Figure 2-12-1). CDA is also divided vertically into high and low level airspace (as
illustrated in Figure 2-12-2).

Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, Aeronautical Information


Manual, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada (p. 182)
Figure 2-12-1 Boundaries of CDA, NDA, and SDA

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A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001

NDA

The magnetic north pole is located near the centre of the NDA. Near the pole, the lines of magnetic force dip
downwards towards the pole, becoming almost vertical. This causes the horizontal compass needle to produce
unreliable readings. In this region, runway headings are given in degrees true, and true track (the direction the
aircraft is travelling) is used to determine cruising altitudes.

SDA

In the SDA, further away from the magnetic north pole, compass readings are reliable as the lines of magnetic
force become horizontal. In this region, runway headings are given in degrees magnetic, and magnetic track
is used to determine cruising altitudes.

Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, Aeronautical Information


Manual, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada (p. 184)
Figure 2-12-2 Vertical Divisions of Airspace

High Level Airspace

High level airspace consists of all airspace above 18 000 feet above sea level (ASL). Aircraft operating in this
airspace must be operating in accordance with IFR.

This is the airspace in which the en route portions of most flights by the following aircraft occur:

commercial passenger and cargo jets (eg, Boeing 767, Airbus 340), and

business jets (eg, Citation, Learjet).

Low Level Airspace

Low level airspace consists of all airspace below 18 000 feet ASL. This is the airspace used by general aviation
and most commercial turbo-prop aircraft. This is the general classification of airspace used for take-offs and
landings.

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CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 1

QUESTIONS

Q1. How is CDA geographically divided?

Q2. How is CDA vertically divided?

Q3. Low level airspace is the airspace below what altitude?

ANTICIPATED ANSWERS

A1. Northern and Southern Domestic Airspace.

A2. High and low level airspace.

A3. Below 18 000 feet ASL.

Teaching Point 2 Explain Types of Airspace

Time: 10 min Method: Interactive Lecture

CONTROLLED AIRSPACE

Controlled airspace is the airspace in which air traffic control service is provided. Depending on the specific
classification of the airspace, some or all aircraft may be subject to air traffic control. Types of low level controlled
airspace include:

low level airways,

control zones,

terminal control areas,

transition areas,

control area extensions, and

military terminal control areas.

Control Zones (CZs)

Control zones are designated around certain aerodromes to keep IFR aircraft within controlled airspace during
approaches and to facilitate the control of VFR and IFR traffic. Control zones vary in size, with the most
common radiuses being three, five, or seven nautical miles. They are usually capped at 3000 feet above
aerodrome elevation (AAE). Control zones will be classified as B, C, D or E depending on the classification
of the surrounding airspace.

Military control zones usually have a 10 nautical mile radius and are capped at 6000 feet AAE.

You can visualize a control zone as a vertical cylinder, with the base of the cylinder centred on the aerodrome
(as illustrated in Figure 2-12-3).

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A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001

D Cdts 3, 2007, Ottawa, ON: Department of National Defence


Figure 2-12-3 A Control Zone

Terminal Control Areas (TCAs)

Terminal control areas are established at high volume traffic aerodromes to provide an IFR control service
to arriving, departing and en route aircraft. The terminal control area operating rules are established by the
classification of the airspace. These rules will be based on the level of ATC service that is appropriate for the
number and type of aircraft using the airspace as well as the nature of the operations being conducted.

A terminal control area expands the controlled airspace surrounding a major aerodrome.

Transition Areas

Transition areas are established when it is necessary to provide additional controlled airspace for the IFR
operations, specifically to control all of the airspace used by aircraft during takeoff and landing. Transition areas
are of defined dimensions, generally based at 700 feet above ground level (AGL), and extend upwards to the
base of overlying controlled airspace. The area provided around an aerodrome will normally be a 15 nautical
mile radius of the aerodrome centre.

The airspace surrounding an aerodrome is best visualized as an “upside down wedding


cake” (as illustrated in Figure 2-12-4).

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A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001

D Cdts 3, 2007, Ottawa, ON: Department of National Defence


Figure 2-12-4 Control Zone, Terminal Control Area, and Transition Area

CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 2

QUESTIONS

Q1. What is the typical radius of a control zone?

Q2. Where are terminal control areas established?

Q3. At what height does a transition area usually begin?

ANTICIPATED ANSWERS

A1. Three, five, or seven nautical miles (10 nautical miles for a military control zone).

A2. At high volume aerodromes.

A3. At 700 feet AGL.

Teaching Point 3 Explain Classes of Airspace

Time: 15 min Method: Interactive Lecture

AIRSPACE CLASSIFICATIONS

CDA is divided into seven classes, each identified by a single letter: A, B, C, D, E, F, or G. Flight within each
class is governed by specific rules applicable to that class.

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Class A

Class A airspace is designated where an operational need exists to exclude VFR aircraft. All operations must
be conducted under IFR and are subject to ATC clearances and instructions.

All high level controlled airspace is designated as Class A.

Class B

Class B airspace is designated where an operational need exists to provide air traffic control service to IFR
and to control VFR aircraft.

All low level controlled airspace above 12 500 feet ASL or at and above the minimum en route altitude (MEA),
whichever is higher, up to but not including 18 000 feet ASL will be Class B airspace. Control zones and
associated terminal control areas may also be classified as Class B airspace.

Class C

Class C airspace is controlled airspace in which both IFR and VFR flights are permitted.

Airspace classified as Class C becomes Class E airspace when the appropriate ATC unit is not in operation.
Terminal control areas and associated control zones may be classified as Class C airspace.

Class D

Class D airspace is controlled airspace in which both IFR and VFR flights are permitted, but VFR flights must
establish two-way communication with the appropriate ATC agency prior to entering the airspace.

Airspace classified as Class D becomes Class E airspace when the appropriate ATC unit is not in operation.
A terminal control area and associated control zone could be classified as Class D airspace.

Class E

Class E airspace is designated where an operational need exists for controlled airspace but does not meet the
requirements for Class A, B, C, or D.

Low level airways, control area extensions, transition areas, or control zones established without an operating
control tower may be classified as Class E airspace.

Class F

Class F airspace is an area in which activities must be restricted, or limitations imposed upon aircraft operations
that are not a part of those activities. Typical uses for Class F airspace include:

military practice areas,

fire-bombing,

parachute jumping,

flight training,

soaring,

hang gliders, and

air shows.

Class F airspace is sometimes known as special use airspace. It may be classified as Class F advisory, or as
Class F restricted, and can be controlled airspace, uncontrolled airspace, or a combination of both.

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Class G

Class G airspace is airspace that has not been designated Class A, B, C, D, E or F and in which ATC has
neither the authority or responsibility for exercising control over air traffic.

To help the cadets remember:

Classes A to E are controlled airspace,

Class F may be controlled or uncontrolled, and

Class G airspace is uncontrolled.

The difference between Class C and Class D is that an ATC clearance is needed to enter
Class C, but two-way communication is all you need to enter Class D.

CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 3

QUESTIONS

Q1. What happens to Class C airspace when the ATC unit is not in operation?

Q2. What is another name for Class F airspace?

Q3. Where does ATC have neither the authority nor the responsibility for exercising control over air traffic?

ANTICIPATED ANSWERS

A1. It becomes Class E airspace.

A2. Special use airspace.

A3. In Class G airspace.

END OF LESSON CONFIRMATION

QUESTIONS

Q1. Where is true track used?

Q2. What is a terminal control area?

Q3. How many classes of airspace are there in Canada?

ANTICIPATED ANSWERS

A1. Northern Domestic Airspace.

A2. An area to provide IFR control service to arriving, departing and en route aircraft.

A3. There are seven classes of airspace in Canada: Class A to G.

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CONCLUSION

HOMEWORK/READING/PRACTICE

N/A.

METHOD OF EVALUATION

N/A.

CLOSING STATEMENT

An understanding of the airspace at and surrounding an aerodrome is critical for safe operations. Each airspace
classification has a set of requirements and operating rules that make it unique. Adherence to these rules allows
pilots, ground crew, and aerodrome operations staff to operate safely.

INSTRUCTOR NOTES/REMARKS

N/A.

REFERENCES

C2-044 Transport Canada. (2007). Aeronautical Information Manual. Retrieved October 2, 2007, from
http://www.tc.gc.ca/publications/EN/TP14371/PDF/HR/TP14371E.PDF.

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ROYAL CANADIAN AIR CADETS

BASIC AVIATION TECHNOLOGY AND AEROSPACE

INSTRUCTIONAL GUIDE

SECTION 13

EO S260.13 – CONSTRUCT A MODEL OF THE AIRSPACE AT AN AERODROME

Total Time: 120 min

PREPARATION

PRE-LESSON INSTRUCTIONS

Resources needed for the delivery of this lesson are listed in the lesson specification located in A-CR-CCP-
824/PG-001, Chapter 4. Specific uses for said resources are identified throughout the instructional guide within
the TP for which they are required.

Review the lesson content and become familiar with the material prior to delivering the lesson.

Photocopy the handout located at Annex R for each cadet.

Set up the classroom for the activity prior to the lesson.

PRE-LESSON ASSIGNMENT

N/A.

APPROACH

An in-class activity was chosen for this lesson as an interactive way to reinforce the Canadian Domestic
Airspace (CDA).

INTRODUCTION

REVIEW

The review for this lesson is of EO S260.12 (Explain Aspects of the Canadian Domestic Airospace (CDA)
System, Section 12).

OBJECTIVES

By the end of this lesson the cadet shall have constructed a model of the airspace at an aerodrome.

IMPORTANCE

It is important for the cadets to know about the CDA system as each airspace classification has a set of
requirements and operating rules that make it unique. By understanding and adhering to these rules, pilots,
ground crew, and aerodrome operations staff can operate safely.

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Teaching Point 1 Have the Cadet, as a Member of a Group, Construct a Model


of the Airspace at an Aerodrome

Time: 110 min Method: In-Class Activity

ACTIVITY

OBJECTIVE

The objective of this activity is for the cadet to construct a model of the airspace at an aerodrome.

RESOURCES

Coloured construction paper,

Transparent tape,

Scissors,

Coloured markers, and

Glue.

Other materials may be used in addition to this list if available at the CSTC. The amount of
materials that are needed will depend on class size and the number of groups.

ACTIVITY LAYOUT

Group the tables/desks together to form a large work surface to support the base of the model.

ACTIVITY INSTRUCTIONS

1. Divide the cadets into groups of three to five.

2. Inform the cadets of the materials available for them to use.

3. Inform the cadets they are all to start with a base of two large pieces of construction paper taped together.

4. Have each group create their own model aerodrome, using the checklist at Annex R, ensuring all the
required components are included.

While it is not important for the model to be built exactly to scale, care should be taken to
construct items that are the correct size, relative to the other components of the aerodrome.

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While cadets are encouraged to be creative with the materials provided, recommend the
following:

Brown or green paper should be used for the base.

Black or grey paper should be used for pavement.

Airspace can be created by cutting a strip of construction paper and taping the ends
together to create a cylinder.

Airspace areas can be stacked vertically by cutting and taping a circle of construction
paper to the cylinders.

Different colours of paper should be used for each classification of airspace.

Coloured markers can be used for adding specific details to components.

Groups that finish early can improve their model by adding a second aerodrome to the
model with airspace that overlaps the first aerodrome’s airspace, creating an irregular
shape for the airspace areas.

SAFETY

N/A.

CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 1

The cadets’ participation in the activity will serve as the confirmation of this TP.

END OF LESSON CONFIRMATION

The cadets’ participation in the construction of a model of the airspace at an aerodrome will serve as the
confirmation of this lesson.

CONCLUSION

HOMEWORK/READING/PRACTICE

N/A.

METHOD OF EVALUATION

N/A.

CLOSING STATEMENT

An understanding of the airspace at and surrounding an aerodrome is critical to safe operations. Each airspace
classification has a set of requirements and operating rules that make it unique. Adherence to these rules allows
pilots, ground crew, and aerodrome operations staff to operate safely.

INSTRUCTOR NOTES/REMARKS

It is recommended that the three periods required for this EO be scheduled consecutively.

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A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001

REFERENCES

C2-044 Transport Canada. (2007). Aeronautical Information Manual. Retrieved October 2, 2007, from
http://www.tc.gc.ca/publications/EN/TP14371/PDF/HR/TP14371E.PDF.

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ROYAL CANADIAN AIR CADETS

BASIC AVIATION TECHNOLOGY AND AEROSPACE

INSTRUCTIONAL GUIDE

SECTION 14

EO S260.14 – EXPLAIN ASPECTS OF AIR NAVIGATION FACILITIES

Total Time: 80 min

PREPARATION

PRE-LESSON INSTRUCTIONS

Resources needed for the delivery of this lesson are listed in the lesson specification located in A-CR-CCP-
824/PG-001, Chapter 4. Specific uses for said resources are identified throughout the instructional guide within
the TP for which they are required.

Review the lesson content and become familiar with the material prior to delivering the lesson.

PRE-LESSON ASSIGNMENT

N/A.

APPROACH

An interactive lecture was chosen for this lesson to clarify, emphasize and summarize aspects of air navigation
equipment.

INTRODUCTION

REVIEW

N/A.

OBJECTIVES

By the end of this lesson the cadet shall have explained aspects of air navigation facilities.

IMPORTANCE

It is important for the cadets to know about air navigation facilities as ground-based facilities are often located at
aerodromes. Aerodrome operators may be responsible for installing, monitoring and maintaining the facilities.
Satellite systems are now capable of replacing the ground-based facilities and represent the future of air
navigation facilities and equipment.

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Teaching Point 1 Explain En Route Navigation Aids

Time: 15 min Method: Interactive Lecture

EN ROUTE NAVIGATION AIDS

En route navigation aids are strategically located between aerodromes creating a network of radio beacons.
These stations broadcast a signal which is received by equipment in the aircraft. The receiver interprets the
signal and displays the information to the pilot who can use it to stay on the intended course.

Some of these navigation aids are located at aerodromes. Aerodrome personnel must be aware of these
installations and may need to monitor the signals as part of their daily inspections of the aerodrome. Care must
be taken during maintenance and construction activities to prevent disruption of the signals.

If a navigational aid becomes unserviceable or unreliable, the aerodrome operator must issue a Notice To
Airmen (NOTAM) to ensure pilots are aware of the problem.

Nondirectional Beacon (NDB)

An NDB is a simple radio beacon that continually broadcasts its identifier (a group of letters and numbers) in
Morse code. The antenna and receiver system in the aircraft is able to determine the direction of the beacon
relative to the aircraft; the needle on the gauge in the aircraft points in the direction of the beacon.

By flying in the direction that the needle is pointing, the pilot can navigate to the beacon. When the needle
suddenly swings around 180 degrees, the aircraft has overflown the beacon.

An NDB can only be used to determine the relative direction of the beacon from the aircraft. It cannot determine
distance to the beacon or the position of the aircraft relative to the beacon.

The VE7SL Radio Network, NDB DX. Retrieved November 30, 2007, from http://www.imagenisp.ca/jsm/ndb.html
Figure 2-14-1 NDB Antenna

Very High Frequency Omnidirectional Range (VOR)

A VOR is more complex beacon than the NDB and is currently the most widely used en route radio navigation
aid. A VOR beacon transmits two signals. The reference signal is a nondirectional signal (similar to an NDB) that
allows the receiver in the aircraft to determine the relative heading to the VOR. The variable signal is a rotating
directional signal. The signals are timed so that the reference signal broadcasts each time the variable signal

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A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001

rotates through magnetic north. The receiver in the aircraft calculates the time difference between receiving
the reference signal and the variable signal. This time difference is then used to determine the direction of the
aircraft from the VOR.

VORs form the basis of the airway system that connects major aerodromes. They provide more precise
navigation by being able to determine not only the direction of the VOR from the aircraft, but the direction of
the aircraft from the VOR.

Wings Over Philadelphia, Aviation ATC Dictionary-Glossary. Retrieved


November 30, 2007, from http://phlairline.com/aviationglossary.html
Figure 2-14-2 VOR Transmitter and Antenna

Distance Measuring Equipment (DME)

DME equipment is used to determine the distance between an aircraft and a ground-based station. The receiver
calculates the time the radio signal takes to travel between the transmitter and receiver and converts this into a
distance measurement. It is important to note that this distance is the slant distance (as illustrated in Figure 2-
14-3) and is not the ground distance. For practical applications, if the aircraft is over 9 km (5 miles) away from
the transmitter, the difference between the slant and ground distance is not significant.

Modern DME receivers can also display a groundspeed reading in addition to the distance measurement. DME
transmitters are often located at an aerodrome and when used in combination with other navigation aids can
help a pilot determine the exact location of the aircraft.

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Terrestrial Directional Radionavigation Technologies, Directional Short Range Navigation


- DME. Retrieved November 30, 2007, from http://www.omzster.com/airnav/4_2.html
Figure 2-14-3 DME and Slant Distance

CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 1

QUESTIONS

Q1. What does NDB stand for?

Q2. What does VOR stand for?

Q3. What does DME stand for?

ANTICIPATED ANSWERS

A1. Nondirectional beacon.

A2. Very high frequency omnidirectional range.

A3. Distance measuring equipment.

Teaching Point 2 Explain Approach and Landing Aids

Time: 20 min Method: Interactive Lecture

APPROACH AND LANDING AIDS

During poor weather conditions and periods of reduced visibility, pilots need more precise navigational
information to guide them to the runway than can be provided by the en route navigational aids. Approach and
landing aids provide directional guidance to line the aircraft up with the runway. Vertical guidance is provided
to guide the aircraft along a downward path to touchdown on the threshold of the runway.

Instrument Landing System (ILS)

An ILS is composed of two transmitters. One transmits a signal called the localizer which is used by the pilot
to align the aircraft with the runway. The other transmits a signal called the glide path and is used by the pilot
to descend down the approach path to the runway threshold.

An ILS can be found at most regional and international airports as they are the most common type of approach
and landing aid.

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It is important to be aware that the signals being transmitted from an ILS are easily influenced by other sources
of radio waves and can be reflected from nearby buildings and terrain features. This requires ILS installations
to be carefully planned, installed and tested. For this reason, they are very expensive to install, sometimes
costing in excess of $1 000 000.

Navigation Aids, Navigation Aids. Retrieved November 30, 2007, from http://members.cox.net/firestation51/navaid.htm
Figure 2-14-4 ILS Glide Path Transmitter

Microwave Landing System (MLS)

An MLS is similar to an ILS in that it provides both vertical and horizontal guidance to the landing aircraft. The
MLS is superior to the ILS in that it provides more accurate guidance and the pilot has the ability to select the
approach angle and the approach path to the runway. This feature is accomplished by having two scanning
beams that radiate from the MLS transmitter. The MLS also incorporates distance guidance to provide an
accurate range from the aircraft to the transmitter.

The major disadvantage of the MLS is that it can cost between $100 000 and $250 000 per aircraft to install
the MLS receiver. This makes it uneconomical for use in all aircraft except large commercial aircraft.

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NASA, LARC Gallery. Retrieved November 30, 2007, from http://oea.larc.nasa.gov/trailblazer/SP-4216/photos/p41a.JPG


Figure 2-14-5 MLS Transmitter

Precision Approach Radar (PAR)

PAR is unique in that it does not require any special equipment in the aircraft to operate. An operator on the
ground uses radar to monitor the aircraft’s approach. Instructions are relayed by radio to the pilot to keep the
aircraft lined up with the runway as well as to provide guidance down the approach slope.

The PAR can be mounted on a mobile platform and deployed to remote airfields. PAR is commonly found at
military aerodromes. A disadvantage of PAR is that it requires a skilled radar operator on the ground. Both ILS
and MLS transmitters operate automatically without a ground-based operator.

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Global Security, by Global Security, 2007, PAR. Copyright 2007 by Global Security. Retrieved November 30,
2007, from http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/aircraft/systems/images/an-tpn-31-atnav001.jpg
Figure 2-14-6 Mobile PAR

CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 2

QUESTIONS

Q1. What does ILS stand for?

Q2. What does MLS stand for?

Q3. What does PAR stand for?

ANTICIPATED ANSWERS

A1. Instrument landing system.

A2. Microwave landing system.

A3. Precision approach radar.

Teaching Point 3 Explain Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS)

Time: 20 min Method: Interactive Lecture

GNSS

A GNSS consists of a constellation of satellites that orbit Earth. Each satellite broadcasts a signal that can
be received on Earth. A receiver (hand-held, mobile or aircraft mounted) uses the time that the signal takes
between transmission and reception to calculate the distance from the satellite to the receiver. The GNSS
receiver also knows the locations of all of the satellites. If the receiver can obtain a signal from three satellites

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it can determine its position using triangulation. A signal from a fourth satellite allows the receiver to determine
its altitude. The more satellites that the receiver is getting a signal from, the more accurately the position can
be determined.

GNSS can be used for en route navigation, as well as an approach and landing aid. It can also be used on
the ground for a variety of purposes including surveying. Many different nations have some form of GNSS in
operation or plan to deploy one in the near future.

In addition to determining location, most GNSS receivers also carry databases of points of interest (POI).
Aviation POI databases hold information about:

aerodrome locations,

aerodrome information, including:

runways,

frequencies,

phone numbers, and

services;

restricted airspace areas,

airways, and

navigational aids, including:

locations, and

frequencies.

Global Positioning System (GPS)

GPS is the system developed by the US Department of Defense (DOD) and is based on a constellation of
24 satellites to provide world wide coverage. The satellites broadcast two types of signals: an encrypted signal
for military use and an unencrypted signal for civilian use. The DOD degrades the unencrypted signal by
including an error to ensure that only the military has access to the precise positioning capabilities. Even with
the error, the system is still accurate enough to be used for en route navigation.

As control of the GPS satellites is under the DOD, foreign and civilian users fear that the unencrypted signal
could be degraded further or even taken off-line without warning.

Civilian GPS units can determine location and altitude within 100 m or less.

Global Orbiting Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS)

GLONASS is the Russian GNSS and operates similar to the US GPS. GLONASS is currently operating with
only one third of its satellites which results in only partial coverage over a small part of the Earth. Plans are in
place to bring the system back to full strength and return to global coverage. Updates to the system to improve
its accuracy are also planned.

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ACTIVITY

Time: 5 min

OBJECTIVE

The objective of this activity is to have the cadets demonstrate how four GNSS satellites are required to
determine latitude, longitude and elevation.

RESOURCES

Four pieces of string or rope (1–2 m in length) with a knot at one end.

ACTIVITY LAYOUT

N/A.

ACTIVITY INSTRUCTIONS

When cadets are holding the strings they must hold them firmly and not move their hands
around.

When holding your end of the string, hold it firmly and keep the string taut.

When holding more than one string, hold the knots in the same hand.

The strings represent the distance from the receiver to the satellite.

The knots represent the location of the receiver.

1. Have a cadet stand up to be a GNSS satellite.

2. Give them the end of a piece of string (without a knot) while you move back and forth and up and down
in an arc at your end of the string (the end with a knot).

If the GPS receiver knows the distance from itself to one satellite, it can be anywhere on a
sphere around that satellite.

3. Have another cadet stand up and be the second GNSS satellite.

4. Give them the end of another piece of string without a knot.

5. Move the strings around to demonstrate that there are several locations where both of the knots can meet.

If the GPS receiver knows its distance from two satellites, it can be anywhere the spheres
from each satellite intersect.

6. Have another cadet stand up and be the third GNSS satellite.

7. Give them the end of another piece of string without a knot.

8. Move the strings around to demonstrate that there are several spots where all of the knots can meet, but
that they are all above the same point on the ground.

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If the GPS receiver knows the distance from three satellites, it can calculate its location
(latitude and longitude) but not the elevation (altitude).

9. Have another cadet stand up and be the fourth GNSS satellite.

10. Give them the end of another piece of string without a knot.

11. Move the strings around to demonstrate that there is only one location where all of the knots can meet.

If the GPS receiver knows the distance from four satellites, it can calculate its location
(latitude and longitude) and the elevation (altitude).

SAFETY

N/A.

CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 3

The cadets’ observation of the activity will serve as the confirmation of this TP.

Teaching Point 4 Explain GNSS Augmentation Systems

Time: 15 min Method: Interactive Lecture

GNSS AUGMENTATION SYSTEMS

A basic GNSS receiver using the unencrypted signal does not provide sufficient accuracy to be used as an
approach and landing aid. Several methods have been developed to increase this accuracy and to alert users
of any large errors or problems with the system.

An augmented GNSS can replace a traditional ground-based navigational aid (such as ILS or MLS). The
cost savings for an aerodrome can be significant and allows landing operations to continue in poor weather
conditions.

Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS)

WAAS is a system of ground-based reference stations that monitor the GNSS satellites and calculate the
difference between the location they calculate using the GNSS signals and their known location. This difference
is then relayed to a master station which broadcasts the correction to GNSS receivers in the area.

Using this technique improves the accuracy of the receivers to approximately 7 m. This allows aircraft to use
GNSS as the primary navigation and landing aid in weather conditions with ceilings as low as 200 ft above
ground level (AGL) and a visibility of 1/2 mile.

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MITRE CAASD by the MITRE Corporation, 2007, Projects - Satellite Navigation. Copyright 2007 by The MITRE
Corporation. Retrieved November 30, 2007, from http://www.mitrecaasd.org/work/project_details.cfm?item_id=151
Figure 2-14-7 WAAS

Local Area Augmentation System (LAAS)

To enable GNSS to be used in zero/zero situations (no visibility and no decision height) and with auto-land
systems, additional accuracy and integrity is required. LAAS works on the same principle as WAAS, but the
ground-station is located at the aerodrome and the corrections are used only for that aerodrome.

LAAS provides accuracy to within 1 m and can be used to create curved approach paths as well as for
navigational guidance on the ground for both aircraft and vehicles.

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MITRE CAASD by the MITRE Corporation, 2007, Projects - Satellite Navigation. Copyright 2007 by The MITRE
Corporation. Retrieved November 30, 2007, from http://www.mitrecaasd.org/work/project_details.cfm?item_id=151
Figure 2-14-8 LAAS

CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 4

QUESTIONS

Q1. What can an augmented GNSS replace?

Q2. What does WAAS stand for?

Q3. What does LAAS stand for?

ANTICIPATED ANSWERS

A1. Traditional ground-based navigation aids such as ILS and MLS.

A2. Wide area augmentation system.

A3. Local area augmentation system.

END OF LESSON CONFIRMATION

QUESTIONS

Q1. Which GNSS is controlled by the US DOD?

Q2. How accurate is a civilian GPS receiver?

Q3. How accurate is a civilian GPS receiver with LAAS?

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ANTICIPATED ANSWERS

A1. GPS.

A2. 100 m.

A3. 1 m.

CONCLUSION

HOMEWORK/READING/PRACTICE

N/A.

METHOD OF EVALUATION

N/A.

CLOSING STATEMENT

Where ground-based systems are still in use at an aerodrome, it is usually the aerodrome operator who monitors
and maintains the equipment. This can represent a significant cost and many small aerodromes cannot afford
to install new or replacement systems. GNSS represents a way for many aerodrome operators to offer low
visibility landing capabilities without major investments in ground-based infrastructure.

INSTRUCTOR NOTES/REMARKS

TPs 1 and 2 are to be taught in one 40-minute lesson.

TPs 3 and 4 are to be taught in one 40-minute lesson.

The time allocated for the introduction and conclusion is to be divided between the periods as required.

REFERENCES

C3-116 (ISBN 0-9680390-5-7) MacDonald, A.F., & Peppler, I.L. (2000). From the Ground Up: Millennium
Edition. Ottawa, ON: Aviation Publishers Co. Limited.

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ROYAL CANADIAN AIR CADETS

BASIC AVIATION TECHNOLOGY AND AEROSPACE

INSTRUCTIONAL GUIDE

SECTION 15

EO S260.15 – EXPLAIN ASPECTS OF AERODROME LIGHTING

Total Time: 80 min

PREPARATION

PRE-LESSON INSTRUCTIONS

Resources needed for the delivery of this lesson are listed in the lesson specification located in A-CR-CCP-
824/PG-001, Chapter 4. Specific uses for said resources are identified throughout the instructional guide within
the TP for which they are required.

Review the lesson content and become familiar with the material prior to delivering the lesson.

Photocopy the handouts located at Annexes S and T for each cadet.

PRE-LESSON ASSIGNMENT

N/A.

APPROACH

An interactive lecture and an in-class activity were chosen for this lesson to clarify, emphasize and summarize
aspects of aerodrome lighting.

INTRODUCTION

REVIEW

N/A.

OBJECTIVES

By the end of this lesson the cadet shall have explained aspects of aerodrome lighting.

IMPORTANCE

It is important for the cadets to know about aerodrome lighting as almost all aerodromes have some form of
lighting in place. Lights indicate the edges of the movement areas and are part of the daily inspections carried
out by aerodrome personnel. Approach lighting systems occupy significant space and care must be taken not
to damage them when working near them.

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Teaching Point 1 Explain Aerodrome Lighting

Time: 10 min Method: Interactive Lecture

AERODROME LIGHTING

Aerodromes that operate at night or in poor weather conditions require lights. The lights provide guidance
to pilots and aerodrome vehicle operators. Lighting systems must be regularly inspected by the aerodrome
operator. Common problems that must be corrected include:

burned out bulbs and broken lenses,

damaged fixtures (often from contact with snowplows, snow blowers or high velocity snow from snowplows
and snow blowers), and

damaged wires (by rodents).

Edge lights (runway, taxiway and apron) are generally composed of a below ground base, a frangible
(breakable) post and a removable lens/bulb assembly. The frangibility of the light is important as it allows the
light assembly to break apart easily if it comes into contact with an aircraft. This reduces the damage to the
aircraft.

The components are held loosely together by set-screws which reduce the impact necessary to separate them.
The mounting post is scored (grooved) at the top and bottom to create an area with a lower strength. This allows
the post to break easily if it is impacted. The base can be a simple cast-iron stake that the light is attached to
or an underground base that the light can be mounted on top of.

Siemens Canada, 2007, Airfield Lighting Equipment Product Catalogue (p. 32), Copyright 2003 by Siemens
Canada Limited. Retrieved December 3, 2007, from http://www.siemens.ca/Daten/siecom/Canada/CC/Internet/
Siemens_Corporate/WORKAREA/cafind07/templatedata/English/document/binary/catalogue_1435603.pdf
Figure 2-15-1 Typical Edge Light

Lights may also be flush-mounted with the surface. Lights of this type are used for runway and taxiway
centrelines at large aerodromes. Although they are much more expensive to install and maintain, they provide
much better guidance and visibility during periods of low visibility.

Runway Lighting

Edge lights are located along the runway. These lights are white in colour (white light bulb with a clear lens)
and provide assistance in identifying the edge of the runway. The lights are spaced evenly along each edge

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with no more than 60 m (197 feet) between the lights. Each row of lights is the same distance from the runway
centreline, and may be located along the edge of the runway or up to 1.5 m away. In areas that experience
significant accumulations of snow, the edge lights may be placed up to 3 m from the runway edge.

The edge lights that cross the beginning of a runway are green while the lights at the end of a runway are red.
This is accomplished by using a two-colour filter under the lens. The red side is located on the runway side so
that when an aircraft is on the runway looking at the light, a red light is visible. The green filter is on the other
side so that when the aircraft is approaching the runway, a green light is visible.

D Cdts 3, 2007, Ottawa, ON: Department of National Defence


Figure 2-15-2 Runway Lighting

Taxiway Lighting

Edge lights are placed along taxiways in the same way edge lights are placed along runways. The maximum
spacing remains at 60 m (197 feet) and should be closer together along a curved section than along a straight
section. Taxiway edge lights are blue in colour. The blue colour is generally created by using a blue lens instead
of a clear lens.

Where a taxiway intersects a runway, two blue lights are placed on each side of the taxiway adjacent to the
runway to indicate the intersection.

Apron Lighting

Apron edge lights are yellow in colour (created by using a yellow lens). Where a taxiway intersects an apron,
two yellow lights are placed on each side of the taxiway adjacent to the apron to indicate the intersection.

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Light Location Colour

Runway Edge Lights White

Taxiway Edge Lights Blue

Apron Edge Lights Yellow

Runway/Taxiway Intersection Two blue

Taxiway/Apron Intersection Two yellow

Runway Threshold (end of runway side) Red

Runway Threshold (start of runway side) Green

D Cdts 3, 2007, Ottawa, ON: Department of National Defence


Figure 2-15-3 Runway Lighting

CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 1

QUESTIONS

Q1. What colour are runway edge lights?

Q2. What colour are taxiway edge lights?

Q3. What colour are apron edge lights?

ANTICIPATED ANSWERS

A1. White.

A2. Blue.

A3. Yellow.

Teaching Point 2 Explain Approach Lighting

Time: 25 min Method: Interactive Lecture

APPROACH LIGHTING

Approach lighting comes in two general varieties: approach light systems (ALS) and approach slope indicator
systems. An ALS provides additional guidance to aid a pilot in finding the beginning of the runway during periods
of low visibility. These types of lights are used as part of an instrument landing system (ILS) and aid the pilot
in transitioning from the instrument portion of the approach to the visual portion.

The other type of approach lighting provides a visual indication to the pilot of the aircraft’s position on the
approach slope. This type of lighting system is used by pilots on visual approaches and is often found at small
and regional aerodromes.

With either type of lighting system, the aerodrome operator must ensure that the systems are working properly
by inspecting them on a regular basis. Approach slope indicators will have to be inspected and tested by an

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aircraft (typically by Transport Canada) to demonstrate that they provide accurate readings. During the winter,
the snow around the systems must be cleared to keep them visible.

ALS

The simplest type of ALS is the simple approach lighting system or omnidirectional approach lighting system
(ODALS). It consists of a light at each corner of the runway threshold and a lead-in line of lights aligned with
the runway centreline. All of the lights are white and flash in sequence beginning with the light furthest away
and finishing with the lights at the threshold corners. ODALS are commonly installed where the runways are
not equipped with precision approaches.

Other ALS types include:

Medium Intensity Approach Lighting System with Sequenced Flashing Lights (MALSF),

Medium Intensity Approach Lighting System with Runway Alignment Indicator Lights (MALSR),

Simplified Short Approach Lighting System with Runway Alignment Indicator (SSALR), and

Approach Lighting System with Sequenced Flashing Lights (ALSF-2).

These systems are much larger, more complicated and are used at runways during periods of extremely poor
visibility in conjunction with ILS.

Visual Approach Slope Indicator System (VASIS)

A VASIS is used by pilots conducting visual approaches. It consists of four lights arranged in two groups of two
lights on the left side of the runway. When the aircraft is on the correct approach slope, the pilot sees two red
lights on top of two white lights. When the aircraft is above the approach slope, the pilot sees four white lights.
When the aircraft is below the approach slope, the pilot sees four red lights.

Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, Aeronautical Information


Manual, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada (p. 182)
Figure 2-15-4 VASIS

Precision Approach Path Indicator (PAPI)

The PAPI system is similar, except that the lights are arranged in a horizontal row on the left side of the runway.
If the pilot is on the correct path, the two outside lights show white and the two inside lights show red. If the
aircraft is slightly above the approach path the pilot sees three white lights and one red light. If the aircraft is
slightly below the approach path the pilot sees one white light and three red lights. If the aircraft is too high the
pilot sees four white lights. If the aircraft is too low the pilot sees four red lights.

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Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, Aeronautical Information Manual, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada (p. 64)
Figure 2-15-5 PAPI and APAPI

Abbreviated Precision Approach Path Indicator (APAPI)

The APAPI works the same way as the PAPI, but only uses two light units on the left side of the runway.
The advantage to the aerodrome operator is that there are only two units and they occupy less space. The
disadvantage to the pilot is that the APAPI does not display the slightly high or slightly low indications.

CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 2

QUESTIONS

Q1. What does ODALS stand for?

Q2. What does VASIS stand for?

Q3. What does APAPI stand for?

ANTICIPATED ANSWERS

A1. Omnidirectional approach lighting system.

A2. Visual approach slope indicator system.

A3. Abbreviated precision approach path indicator.

Teaching Point 3 Have the Cadet, as a Member of a Group, Add Items to the
Model Aerodrome Constructed In EO S260.03 (Construct a
Model of an Aerodrome, Section 3)

Time: 35 min Method: In-Class Activity

ACTIVITY

OBJECTIVE

The objective of this activity is to have the cadets add air navigation facilities and aerodrome lighting to their
model aerodromes.

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Air navigation facilities were discussed in EO S260.14 (Explain Aspects of Air Navigation
Facilities, Section 14).

RESOURCES

Scissors,

Glue,

Construction paper,

Push-pins,

Map pins,

Markers,

Transparent tape,

Aerodrome lighting handout located at Annex S, and

Aerodrome lighting checklist located at Annex T.

Other materials may be used in addition to this list if available at the CSTC. The amount of
materials that are needed will depend on class size and number of groups.

ACTIVITY LAYOUT

Group the tables/desks together as necessary to form a large enough work surface to support the base of
the model.

ACTIVITY INSTRUCTIONS

1. Divide the cadets into groups of three to five.

2. Distribute photocopies of Annexes S and T to each group.

3. Inform the cadets of the materials available for them to use.

4. Have each group add air navigation facilities and aerodrome lighting to the aerodromes, using the checklist
at Annex T, ensuring all of the required components are included.

While it is not important for the model to be built exactly to scale, care should be taken to
construct items that are the correct size, relative to the other components of the aerodrome.

SAFETY

N/A.

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CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 3

The cadets’ participation in the activity will serve as the confirmation of this TP.

END OF LESSON CONFIRMATION

The cadets’ participation in adding air navigation facilities and aerodrome lighting to the model aerodrome will
serve as the confirmation of this lesson.

CONCLUSION

HOMEWORK/READING/PRACTICE

N/A.

METHOD OF EVALUATION

N/A.

CLOSING STATEMENT

Aerodrome lighting systems can be complex pieces of equipment that are crucial to the safe operation of the
aerodrome. Personnel must know what the lights represent. Lighting systems are part of the daily inspections
and must be kept in operational condition at all times.

INSTRUCTOR NOTES/REMARKS

TPs 1 and 2 are to be taught in one 40-minute lesson.

TP 3 is to be taught in one 40-minute lesson.

The time allocated for the introduction and conclusion is to be divided between the periods as required.

REFERENCES

C3-116 (ISBN 0-9680390-5-7) MacDonald, A.F., & Peppler, I.L. (2000). From the Ground Up: Millennium
Edition. Ottawa, ON: Aviation Publishers Co. Limited.

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Chapter 2, Annex A

TYPES OF AERODROMES MATCHING ACTIVITY

Match the terms from Column A with the most correct phrase in Column B. Each term has a matching phrase.
Not all phrases have a matching term.

a. aerodrome grass runway

b. airport prior notice required

c. CARs Canadian Flight Supplement

d. the Minister Minister of Consumer Affairs

e. PNR Minister of Transportation

f. PPR a vehicle with four wheels

g. CFS larger terminal, customs and immigration services

h. BCATP a building to store aircraft

i. FTU please, no racing

j. private aerodrome National Airports System

k. municipal aerodrome Canadian Aviation Regulations

l. regional airport two paved runways, no scheduled passenger service

m. international airport prior permission required

n. NAS not aviation safe

a certified aerodrome

flight training unit

British Commonwealth Air Training Plan

less than 200 000 passengers per year

Canadian Flight Services

British Common Aviation Transportation Plane

Field Training Unit

an area set aside for aircraft to use

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Chapter 2, Annex A

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Chapter 2, Annex B

TYPES OF AERODROMES MATCHING ACTIVITY ANSWER KEY

a. aerodrome j grass runway

b. airport e prior notice required

c. CARs g Canadian Flight Supplement

d. the Minister Minister of Consumer Affairs

e. PNR d Minister of Transportation

f. PPR a vehicle with four wheels

g. CFS m larger terminal, customs and immigration services

h. BCATP a building to store aircraft

i. FTU please, no racing

j. private aerodrome n National Airports System

k. municipal aerodrome c Canadian Aviation Regulations

l. regional airport k two paved runways, no scheduled passenger service

m. international airport f prior permission required

n. NAS not aviation safe

b a certified aerodrome

i flight training unit

h British Commonwealth Air Training Plan

l less than 200 000 passengers per year

Canadian Flight Services

British Common Aviation Transportation Plane

Field Training Unit

a an area set aside for aircraft to use

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Chapter 2, Annex B

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Chapter 2, Annex C

RUNWAY CONFIGURATIONS

D Cdts 3, 2007, Ottawa, ON: Department of National Defence.


Figure 2C-1 Runway Configurations

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Chapter 2, Annex C

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Chapter 2, Annex D

COMMON TERMINAL BUILDING LAYOUTS

D Cdts 3, 2007, Ottawa, ON: Department of National Defence.


Figure 2D-1 Four Common Terminal Building Layouts

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Chapter 2, Annex D

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Chapter 2, Annex E

AERODROME CONSTRUCTION CHECKLIST

Use this as a guide to ensure that your aerodrome has all of the required components. As you add each
component, you can check it off the list. If you add something to the model that is not on the list below, write
it in the extra spaces provided.

Primary runway

Secondary runway

Taxiways

Primary apron

Secondary apron (if needed)

Terminal

Hangars

Administration building

Maintenance building

_____________________________________________

_____________________________________________

_____________________________________________

_____________________________________________

_____________________________________________

_____________________________________________

_____________________________________________

_____________________________________________

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Chapter 2, Annex F

AERODROME VEHICLES

Match the pictures with the most correct name or purpose. Each picture has a matching name and a matching
purpose. Not all names or purposes have a matching picture.

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ANSWER KEY

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Chapter 2, Annex H

AERODROME REFUELLING EQUIPMENT

Figure 2H-1 Refuelling Cabinet

Figure 2H-2 Mobile Tanker

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Chapter 2, Annex I

AERODROME OPERATIONS CROSSWORD PUZZLE

D Cdts 3, 2007, Ottawa, ON: Department of National Defence.


Figure 2I-1 Aerodrome Operations Crossword Puzzle

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Chapter 2, Annex I

AERODROME OPERATIONS CROSSWORD PUZZLE CLUES

Across Down

4. Some birds and animals prefer ________ grass to 1. Spread on top of snow and ice to increase
allow them to view approaching predators. traction.

5. Notice To Airmen 2. Some birds and animals prefer ________ grass to


allow them to hide from predators.

6. Pavement markings ________ over time. 3. A common chemical used for de-icing in North
America.

7. ________ in pavement must be sealed to prevent 4. Major construction projects are usually conducted
further damage. during the ________ months.

11. Used to push snow. 8. A runway must be ________ if is not safe to be


used.

15. Snowplow blades designed for aerodrome use 9. A certified aerodrome.


are ________ than highway snowplow blades.

16. Has to be removed in the winter. 10. Calcium chlorides are not used at aerodromes to
reduce ________ of the metals in aircraft.

17. Used to control grass height. 12. Aerodrome traffic levels at small aerodromes are
usually lower during the ________

19. ________ in pavement must be sealed to 13. The manual that the snow plan is part of.
prevent water from ponding.

14. Comes in front-mounted, self-propelled or towed


versions.

18. Foreign Object Damage

D Cdts 3, 2007, Ottawa, ON: Department of National Defence.


Figure 2I-2 Aerodrome Operations Crossword Puzzle Clues

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A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001
Chapter 2, Annex J

AERODROME OPERATIONS CROSSWORD PUZZLE ANSWER KEY

D Cdts 3, 2007, Ottawa, ON: Department of National Defence.


Figure 2J-1 Aerodrome Operations Crossword Puzzle Answer Key

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Chapter 2, Annex K

SAMPLE CIVILIAN REPORT

Transport Canada, CADORS. Retrieved November 28, 2007, from


http://www.tc.gc.ca/aviation/applications/cadors/English/Query.asp
Figure 2K-1 Example of a Civilian Flight Safety Report

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Chapter 2, Annex L

SAMPLE MILITARY INITIAL REPORT

OCCURRENCE REPORT: 132771

Flight Safety incident reports are produced under the authority of the Minister of National Defence (MND)
pursuant to Section 4.2 of the Aeronautics Act (AA), AND in accordance with A-GA-135-001/AA-001, Flight
Safety FOR the Canadian Forces. They are prepared solely FOR the purpose of accident prevention AND
shall not be used FOR legal, administrative OR disciplinary action.

FSIS 132771 12 NOV 2007 GROUND ACCIDENT

Status: draft amendment to initial

FSQQ/RCAOPS/132771 13/NOV/2007 15:05

Unclassified

1. Injury Level: No Injury

2. Aircraft/Operated By: SZ23CGCLK/PACIFIC REGION CADETS

3. Aircraft Ownership: PACIFIC REGION CADETS

4. A. Location: 19 Wing Comox - Along fence SW of STOL Strip between taxiways Bravo and Charlie
4. B. Date/Time: 121900Z NOV 2007
4. C. Phase of Flight: PARKED - STATIONARY (NO PERS INVOLVED)

5. Damage Level: A - Destroyed/missing

8. Description: WIND STORM DAMAGE TO GLIDER - Aircraft was tied down at designated site adjacent to
the STOL strip pending return to hangar for disassembly/storage. Storm force winds during early morning of
12 Nov resulted in tiedowns working loose. Glider eventually broke loose, apparently flipped backward and
cartwheeled, then coming to rest inverted against chain link fence approx 100m away. Rear fuselage broken
just aft of cockpit.

13. Flight/Ground Conditions: OUTDOOR FLIGHTLINE - FALL

14. Light/Weather Conditions: UNFAVOURABLE WIND CONDITIONS

Department of National Defence, Bi-weekly Reports. Retrieved November 28,


2007, from http://airforce.mil.ca/fltsafety/reports/biweekly_reports_e.htm
Figure 2L-1 Example of a Military Flight Safety Report

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Chapter 2, Annex M

SPECIFIC DUTIES OF EMPLOYERS

Employers must make sure that the following items meet the standards:

buildings, structures (permanent or temporary), guards, guard rails, barricades, etc,

protective devices, machinery, tools, vehicles, and mobile equipment,

boilers, pressure vessels, escalators, elevators, electrical generation equipment, electrical distribution
systems,

levels of ventilation, lighting and noise, and

entry into, exit from and occupancy of the workplace.

Employers will provide the following:

first aid, sanitary and personal facilities, and health services,

safe drinking water,

safety materials, equipment, devices and clothing for every person who has access to the workplace, and

information, training and supervision to ensure the Health and Safety of employees in the workplace.

Employers are required to:

provide a Health and Safety committee or representative with information considered necessary to identify
existing or potential hazards;

post, in an accessible place, a copy of Part II of the Canada Labour Code, a statement of the employer’s
Health and Safety policy and any other material as directed by a safety officer;

maintain Health and Safety records in the prescribed manner;

provide the Health and Safety committee or representative with a copy of any written directions or reports
from a safety officer and post them for the information of all employees;

ensure that every employee is made aware of every known or foreseeable safety or health hazard in
the work area, including bomb threats, threats of violence, noise hazards, radiation hazards, airborne
contaminants, etc;

comply with prescribed standards relating to fire safety and emergency measures;

investigate, record and report all known accidents, occupational diseases and other hazardous
occurrences;

ensure that every employee or visitor knows how to use any protective clothing or equipment required in
the work areas to be occupied or visited; and

comply with every oral or written direction given to the employer by a safety officer concerning the Health
and Safety of employees.

Employers will follow prescribed standards to ensure:

that concentrations of hazardous substances are controlled,

that all hazardous substances are stored and handled safely,

that all hazardous substances, other than controlled products, are identified,

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Chapter 2, Annex M

that each controlled product in the workplace has a label applied to it that discloses prescribed information
and has displayed on it all applicable hazard symbols, and

that a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each controlled product in the workplace is made available
to each employee.

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Chapter 2, Annex N

SPECIFIC DUTIES OF EMPLOYEES

Employees are responsible for taking all reasonable and necessary precautions to ensure their own Health and
Safety and that of anyone affected by their work. Employees shall undertake the following:

comply with employer instructions concerning Health and Safety, with a safety officer’s directions, and with
prescribed procedures concerning Health and Safety;

be obliged to cooperate with persons acting under the authority of the Code;

report any hazard in the workplace to the employer. Specifically mentioned in the Code is the requirement
to report all accidents or hazardous occurrences; and

use safety materials, equipment, devices and/or clothing either furnished by the employer or prescribed
by a Regulation.

EMPLOYEE RIGHTS

The Canada Labour Code provides employees with three rights:

the right to know,

the right to participate, and

the right to refuse dangerous work.

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Chapter 2, Annex O

CARDS

Ensure buildings meet standards. Ensure guards meet standards.

Ensure protective devices meet standards. Ensure equipment meets standards.

Ensure ventilation meets standards Ensure lighting meets standards.

Provide first aid equipment. Provide sanitary and personal facilities.

Provide safe drinking water. Provide safety materials.

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Chapter 2, Annex O

Provide safety equipment. Provide information and training.

Post a copy of Part II of the Canada


Provide supervision.
Labour Code in an accessible place.

Investigate, record and report all known


Maintain health and safety records. accidents, occupational diseases
and other hazardous occurrences.

Ensure that hazardous


Ensure that hazardous substances are controlled.
substances are stored properly.

Ensure that hazardous Ensure that a MSDS for each


substances are properly identified. hazardous substance is made available.

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Chapter 2, Annex O

Taking all reasonable and necessary precautions Cooperate with persons acting under the
to ensure their own health and safety. authority of the Canada Labour Code.

Report any hazard in the workplace. Use safety materials provided to them.

Use safety equipment provided to them. Use protective clothing provided to them.

Comply with instructions and procedures


The right to know.
concerning health and safety.

The right to participate. The right to refuse dangerous work.

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Chapter 2, Annex P

EXAMPLE OF A NOTAM FILE

Aerodrome NOTAM file CYYZ

070620 CYYZ TORONTO/LESTER B.PEARSON INTL


CYYZ RWY 15L/33R CLSD DUE CONST DLY 1230/2230 0711291230 TIL 0711302230

061070 CYYZ TORONTO/LESTER B.PEARSON INTL


CYYZ THR 23 DISPLACED 685 FT (200 FT BEYOND PUB DISPLACEMENT OF
485 FT) DUE OBST 615 FT NE OF THR 23, 38 FT AGL, 592 MSL. MARKED
BY ORANGE MARKERS AND WING BAR LGT EITHER SIDE OF RWY. FOR RWY 23
DEP, ACFT REQUIRING FULL LEN MUST NOTIFY GROUND CTL UPON INITIAL
CTC.
DECLARED DIST:
RWY 05: TORA 11120 TODA 11435 ASDA 11120 LDA 10985
RWY 23: TORA 11120 TODA 12120 ASDA 11120 LDA 10435
CAP 4 ILS OR NDB RWY 23 TCH TO READ 45 FT VICE 55 FT
TIL APRX 0712312000

070270 CYYZ TORONTO/LESTER B.PEARSON INTL


CYYZ CRANE 7353 FT BFR THR 15L AND 131 FT LEFT EXTENDED RWY CL,
1200/2200 DLY 0711041200 TIL 0712072200

070449 CYYZ TORONTO/LESTER B.PEARSON INTL


CYYZ AMEND PUB:
6 SMOKE STACKS WITHIN AN AREA BOUNDED BY 434449N 794048W
434448N 794046W 434446N 794049W 434447N 794050W TO POINT
OF ORIGIN (CENTRED APRX 5 NM NNW AD) 215 FT AGL 811 MSL.
LGTD, NOT PAINTED

070584 CYYZ TORONTO/LESTER B.PEARSON INTL


CYYZ PARKING AREAS: TML 1:
TAXILANE 9E AND 9W CLSD.
NEW TAXILANE 10 OPN 246 FT/75 M EAST OF TAXILANE 9,
EQUIPPED WITH CL LGT.
UNLGTD OUTER LOOP JOINING TAXILANE 9 TO 10 PAINTED WITH DASHED CL
AND RESTRICTED TO ACFT WINGSPAN 118 FT/35.9 M OR LESS.
TIL APRX 0711292000

070592 CYYZ TORONTO/LESTER B.PEARSON INTL


CYYZ CAT III APCH 06L NOT AUTH PENDING INITIAL CERTIFICATION TIL
0802191700
Nav Canada, AWWS - NOTAM Page. Retrieved November 29, 2007, from http://www.flightplanning.navcanada.ca/
cgi-bin/CreePage.pl?Langue=anglais&NoSession=NS_Inconnu&Page=Fore-obs%2Fnotam&TypeDoc=htmls

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Chapter 2, Annex Q

CDA

Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, Aeronautical Information


Manual, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada (p. 182)
Figure 2Q-1 Boundaries of CDA, NDA, and SDA

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Chapter 2, Annex Q

AIRSPACE SURROUNDING AN AERODROME

Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, Aeronautical Information


Manual, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada (p. 186)
Figure 2Q-2 Typical Airspace Surrounding an Aerodrome

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A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001
Chapter 2, Annex R

AIRSPACE MODEL CONSTRUCTION CHECKLIST

Use this as a guide to ensure that your model has all the required components. As you add each component
to the model, you can check it off the list. If you add something to the model that is not on the list below, write
it in the extra spaces provided.

Primary runway

Secondary runway

Control zone

Terminal control area

Transition area

_____________________________________________

_____________________________________________

_____________________________________________

_____________________________________________

_____________________________________________

_____________________________________________

_____________________________________________

_____________________________________________

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Chapter 2, Annex S

AERODROME LIGHTING

Runway Threshold Lighting

Transport Canada, TP 312E Aerodrome Standards and Recommended


Practices, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada (p. 5-46)
Figure 2S-1 Runway Threshold Lights

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Chapter 2, Annex S

MALSR

Transport Canada, TP 312E Aerodrome Standards and Recommended


Practices, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada (p. 5-25)
Figure 2S-2 MALSR

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Chapter 2, Annex S

ALSF-2

Transport Canada, TP 312E Aerodrome Standards and Recommended


Practices, Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada (p. 5-29)
Figure 2S-3 ALSF-2

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Chapter 2, Annex T

AERODROME LIGHTING CHECKLIST

Use this as a guide to ensure that your aerodrome model has all of the required components. As you add each
component, you can check it off the list. If you add something to the model that is not on the list below, write
it in the extra spaces provided.

Runway edge lights

Taxiway edge lights

Apron edge lights

Air navigation facilities (________________________________________)

ALS (________________________________________)

Approach slope indicator system (________________________________________)

_____________________________________________

_____________________________________________

_____________________________________________

_____________________________________________

_____________________________________________

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CHAPTER 3
PO S270 – PARTICIPATE IN AVIATION MANUFACTURING AND MAINTENANCE ACTIVITIES
A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001

ROYAL CANADIAN AIR CADETS

BASIC AVIATION TECHNOLOGY AND AEROSPACE

INSTRUCTIONAL GUIDE

SECTION 1

EO S270.01 – DISCUSS THE AIRCRAFT MANUFACTURING AND MAINTENANCE INDUSTRIES

Total Time: 80 min

PREPARATION

PRE-LESSON INSTRUCTIONS

Resources needed for the delivery of this lesson are listed in the lesson specification located in A-CR-CCP-
824/PG-001, Chapter 4. Specific uses for said resources are identified throughout the instructional guide within
the TP for which they are required.

Review the lesson content and become familiar with the material prior to delivering the lesson.

Photocopy the handouts located at Annex B for each cadet. Ensure that these documents are current.

Prepare the video Viking Video Profile. This will be shown in TP 1.

PRE-LESSON ASSIGNMENT

N/A.

APPROACH

An interactive lecture was chosen for this lesson to review, clarify, emphasize and summarize the aircraft
manufacturing and maintenance industries.

INTRODUCTION

REVIEW

N/A.

OBJECTIVES

By the end of this lesson the cadet shall have discussed the aircraft manufacturing and maintenance industries.

IMPORTANCE

It is important for cadets to learn about the aircraft manufacturing and maintenance industries because the
technologies involved influence many aspects of life in Canada.

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A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001

Teaching Point 1 Review Members of the Aircraft Manufacturing and


Maintenance Industries

Time: 25 min Method: Interactive Lecture

MANUFACTURERS

There are a variety of businesses serving the large aircraft manufacturing and maintenance industries in
Canada. Some companies have a large variety of products and services, while other companies concentrate
on niche markets, such as turbine engines.

Two very different examples of manufacturing and maintenance companies are Bombardier Aerospace of
Montreal, QC, a large company with 27 000 employees, and Viking Air Limited of Victoria, BC, a smaller
company with 95 employees.

Bombardier Aerospace

Bombardier makes a wide variety of aircraft, including the Learjet, Challenger and Global families of aircraft.
Bombardier’s Challenger aircraft, which is prominent in business aviation but which the CF flies and refers to as
the CC-144, is an example of the aviation industries’ interlaced network of corporate products and services. The
manufacture of the Challenger aircraft takes place at Bombardier’s assembly facility at Dorval near Montreal.

Show the cadets Figure 3A-1.

Viking Air

Viking Air holds the type certificate for the famous Beaver and Twin Otter families of aircraft. These aircraft were
originally manufactured by de Havilland Aircraft Company of Canada. The de Havilland Company manufactured
the Moth family of biplane aircraft in 1925.

Show the cadets the six-minute video Viking Video Profile (Reference C3-203).

MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS

Some companies specialize in Maintenance Repair and Overhaul (MRO) of aviation equipment. In addition to
the many companies that specialize in MRO, most manufacturers, such as Viking and Bombardier, also have
departments that provide MRO services for their own products. Operators, such as airlines, also have large
MRO capability.

The Canadian MRO industry includes more than 1100 companies and 17 000 highly-skilled workers. Firms like
Bombardier, CAE (formerly Canadian Aviation Electronics), Pratt & Whitney Canada, Bell Helicopter Textron
Canada (BHTC) and General Dynamics Canada are recognized around the world for the products they offer.

Some MRO companies do nothing but MRO and are said to be independent MROs. In addition, many operators,
such as major airlines, perform in-house MRO functions on a regular basis

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A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001

There are many specialist MRO companies. For example, L3 Communications’ Spar Aerospace (L3-Spar)
has a program called HERC 2020, which offers an end-to-end total aircraft life extension solution for
the C-130 Hercules aircraft. The L3-Spar MRO facility in Edmonton, Alberta performs C-130 centre wing
refurbishments (the part of the wing attached to the fuselage), including work for foreign operators such as the
Royal New Zealand Air Force.

Canada’s aviation MRO industry comes under the guidance of the Canadian Aviation Maintenance Council
(CAMC), which represents and assists Canada’s aviation and aerospace industry with its human resource
strategy. With the participation of industry members, CAMC develops and publishes National Occupational
Standards and curricula for post-secondary training organizations.

SUPPLIERS

Some aerospace companies provide equipment sub-assemblies and some provide system integration, which
means they assemble other companies’ products into an operating unit such as an aircraft engine or a complete
aircraft. Many companies provide components and sub-components for a particular product and also provide
system integration for other products. The possibilities are limited only by human ingenuity.

The variety of parts and objects that combine to make a modern aircraft means that some
surprising firms are included on aerospace supplier lists—such as the Zipper Tubing
Company.

There are many businesses involved with System Integration in Canada.

Show the cadets Figure 3A-2.

To manufacture an aircraft such as the Challenger CC-144, Bombardier obtains parts for assembly from
hundreds of supplier companies. Bombardier’s list of approved suppliers includes hundreds of firms—from
Avcorp Industries Canada of Delta, BC,to the Zipper Tubing Co. of Los Angeles, California. In between are
many suppliers in Canada, Europe and Asia.

Both Bombardier and Viking perform all three services—sub-assembly manufacture, systems integration and
MRO.

ASSOCIATIONS

In addition to CAMC, other associations with an interest in the Canadian aircraft manufacturing and
maintenance industries include:

Canadian Association of Defence and Security Industries (CADSI),

Canadian Business Aviation Association (CBAA),

Canadian Aerospace Partnership (CAP), and

Aerospace Industries Association of Canada (AIAC).

EDUCATORS

Education to prepare for the aircraft manufacturing and maintenance industries can be found in many
places, depending on what the student desires. Many technical schools and community colleges offer trades

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training and technology diplomas. If engineering is the student’s choice, many Canadian universities—
from Newfoundland to British Columbia—offer programs applicable to aviation and aerospace. The largest
institutions offer a specialized aerospace engineering option.

Royal Military College of Canada (RMC), more rigorous than the others, educates engineers for the Canadian
Forces air element operations. The Engineering faculty at RMC offers aerospace undergraduate courses such
as Aircraft Performance, Design of Aircraft Systems and Introduction to Aerospace Materials. The degrees
obtainable at RMC are highly respected by the civilian aviation community.

GOVERNMENT

The Canadian government plays many roles in the aircraft manufacturing and maintenance industries. One
of these roles is regulatory. Regulations are necessary for a variety of reasons and none is more important
than safety—for both manufacturing and maintenance employees and the travelling public that they serve. As
aircraft have become larger, faster and more powerful, regulations have become increasingly sophisticated in
order to keep up with these advancements.

MILITARY

The mission of Canada’s Air Force is to generate and maintain a combat-capable, multi-purpose air force to
meet Canada’s defence objectives. Its core values are professionalism, excellence and teamwork.

Canada’s Air Force maxims are: “AT ALL TIMES PROFESSIONAL, IN ALL THINGS
ETHICAL, TO ALL PEOPLE RESPECTFUL.”

Canada’s air force supports a wide variety of domestic and international operations. It also provides support
to naval and land defence policy objectives by providing an operationally ready, multi-purpose and combat-
capable force. Its roles include:

surveillance and control of Canadian airspace;

world-wide airlift of Canadian Forces personnel and material;

support to the operations of the navy and army;

support to other government departments;

search and rescue; and

humanitarian operations.

This variety of roles requires a variety of operational aircraft—probably the greatest variety to be found with
any operator in the country. The complex fleet of aircraft in turn requires an extremely sophisticated team of
professionals working at all levels of engineering and maintenance.

CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 1

QUESTIONS

Q1. What company built the Moth, Beaver and Twin Otter airplanes?

Q2. What does “systems integration” refer to?

Q3. Where can a cadet go to find training for the aircraft manufacturing and maintenance industries?

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A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001

ANTICIPATED ANSWERS

A1. The de Havilland Aircraft of Canada Company built the Moth, Beaver and Twin Otter airplanes.

A2. Systems integration refers to the assembly of OEM companies’ products into an operating unit such
as an aircraft.

A3. Technical schools, community colleges and universities offer training suitable for the aircraft
manufacturing and maintenance industries, depending on what the student desires.

Teaching Point 2 Identify Civilian Organizations of the Aircraft Manufacturing


and Maintenance Industries

Time: 10 min Method: Interactive Lecture

TRANSPORT CANADA (TC)

Transportation is essential to Canada’s well-being. Canadians need a reliable, safe and sustainable
transportation system to connect our communities and to connect us with our trading partners.

TC’s mission is to develop and administer policies, regulations and services for the best
transportation system for Canada and Canadians—one that is safe and secure, efficient,
affordable, integrated and environmentally friendly.

TC works to help ensure that Canadians have the best transportation system by developing and administering
policies, regulations and programs for a safe, efficient and environmentally friendly transportation system. In
this way, TC contributes to Canada’s economic growth and social development while protecting the physical
environment. TC employs approximately 4700 people at its headquarters in Ottawa and in locations across
Canada.

The headquarters organization is made up of a number of groups:

Policy Overview,

Safety and Security,

Programs Group,

Corporate Services,

Departmental General Counsel, and

Communications.

TC’s five regional offices are:

Pacific,

Prairie and Northern,

Ontario,

Quebec, and

Atlantic.

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CANADIAN AVIATION MAINTENANCE COUNCIL (CAMC)

The Canadian Aviation Maintenance Council (CAMC) is a non-profit sector council that represents and assists
Canada’s aviation and aerospace industry with human resources.

CANADIAN AEROSPACE PARTNERSHIP (CAP)

Formed in 2005, the Canadian Aerospace Partnership (CAP) is an association of senior corporate executives
that works to make Canada’s aerospace companies competitive.

AEROSPACE INDUSTRIES ASSOCIATION OF CANADA (AIAC)

AIAC promotes Canadian competitiveness in the global market for aerospace goods and services. AIAC is the
collective voice of Canada’s aerospace industry.

CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 2

QUESTIONS

Q1. What is Transport Canada’s mission?

Q2. What is CAMC’s main focus?

Q3. For whom does AIAC speak?

ANTICIPATED ANSWERS

A1. Transport Canada’s mission is to develop and administer policies, regulations and services for the best
transportation system for Canada.

A2. CAMC’s main focus is Canada’s aviation and aerospace industries’ human resource strategy issues
and solutions.

A3. AIAC is the collective voice of Canada’s aerospace industry.

Teaching Point 3 Explain Aircraft Airworthiness

Time: 20 min Method: Interactive Lecture

AIRCRAFT-TYPE CERTIFICATE

Aircraft-type regulations, defining and regulating the operation of various types of aircraft, are covered in the
Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs) Part V - Airworthiness.

TC aircraft-type certificates can be issued for aircraft in various categories, to include:

normal-, utility-, aerobatic-aeroplane or combinations thereof,

commuter aeroplane,

transport aeroplane,

normal rotorcraft,

transport rotorcraft,

glider,

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powered glider,

manned free balloon, and

restricted.

CERTIFICATE OF AIRWORTHINESS (C of A)

A TC certificate of airworthiness (C of A) can be issued for an aircraft which fully complies with all standards
of airworthiness for its applicable type certification.

Show the cadets Figure 3B-1.

TC regulations require that an aircraft have its C of A on every flight.

Special Certificate of Airworthiness

An aircraft that does not meet all the requirements for a C of A may be issued a special certificate of
airworthiness in provisional, restricted, amateur-built, limited, or owner-maintenance classifications.

Show the cadets Figure 3B-2.

FLIGHT PERMITS

Show the cadets Figure 3B-3.

Flight permits shall only be issued on a temporary basis (12 months or less) where the aircraft in question
does not conform to the requirements for issue of a C of A or a Special C of A. A flight permit is issued in an
experimental or specific purpose classification.

ACTIVITY

Time: 15 min

OBJECTIVE

The objective of this activity is to have the cadets become familiar with TC forms.

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RESOURCES

Photocopies of Figures 3B-2 and 3B-3. Current forms are available at Transport Canada’s Forms Catalogue
website http://www.tc.gc.ca/forms/menu.asp.

ACTIVITY LAYOUT

N/A.

ACTIVITY INSTRUCTIONS

1. Give each cadet one photocopy of Figure 3B-2 and one photocopy of Figure 3B-3.

2. Have each cadet fill out the Special Certificate of Airworthiness using imaginary data for an aircraft that
the cadet dreams of owning and flying. Cadets should populate as many fields as possible with imaginary
data so that they become familiar with the form.

3. Organize the cadets into pairs. Each cadet will describe their dream aircraft to the other cadet in the pair,
giving as much detail as possible, such as engine type, seating capacity, colour, etc. Each cadet will fill
out a Special Flight Permit to allow the partner to dream of flying the dream aircraft at certain times under
certain conditions. Cadets should populate as many fields as possible with imaginary data so that they
become familiar with the form.

4. When all cadets have authority to fly their dream aircraft, proceed with the confirmation.

SAFETY

N/A.

CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 3

QUESTIONS

Q1. Which regulations cover aircraft type certification?

Q2. What makes an airplane eligible for a Certificate of Airworthiness?

Q3. For how long are flight permits issued?

ANTICIPATED ANSWERS

A1. TC’s Canadian Aviation Regulations Part V - Airworthiness cover aircraft type certification.

A2. A TC Certificate of Airworthiness (C of A) can be issued for an aircraft that fully complies with all
standards of airworthiness for aeroplanes in the applicable category.

A3. Transport Canada flight permits are issued for 12 months or less.

Teaching Point 4 Explain Maintenance Certification

Time: 15 min Method: Interactive Lecture

MAINTENANCE RELEASES

No person shall conduct a take-off in an aircraft, or permit a take-off to be conducted in an aircraft, where that
aircraft has undergone maintenance, unless the maintenance has been certified by the signing of a maintenance
release.

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Show the cadets Figures 3C-1 and 3C-2. Give each cadet a handout of Figures 3D-1 and
3D-2 and have each cadet fill out a flight record of a flight in their dream aircraft.

The difference between the forms in Figures 3C-1 and 3C-2, and the blank forms in of
Figures 3D-1 and 3D-2 is representative of the changes that take place throughout aviation.
It is important for participants in this industry to be highly adaptive.

No person other than the holder of an aircraft maintenance engineer (AME) licence
specifying a rating appropriate to the aeronautical product being maintained, shall sign a
maintenance release.

ELEMENTARY MAINTENANCE

Under the provisions of the Aeronautics Act, elementary maintenance is a form of maintenance. However,
for the purpose of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, elementary work has been identified as a classification
of specific tasks that are not subject to a maintenance release. Because these tasks are not subject to a
maintenance release, they need not be performed by the holder of an AME licence, nor by persons working
under an AMO Certificate. For these reasons, the air operator is responsible to control authorizations to persons
who can perform elementary work.

Any elementary maintenance performed on an aircraft must be detailed in the technical record and that record
must be accompanied by the signature of the person who performed the work.

Examples of elementary work include:

checking of cylinder compression on small privately operated aircraft;

draining and replenishing engine oil on small privately operated aircraft;

checking and adjusting air pressure in helicopter floats and aircraft tires having an operating pressure
below 100 psi; and

checking the electrolyte level and specific gravity of lead acid batteries on small privately operated aircraft.

Have each cadet record an engine oil change in the Journey Log for their dream aircraft.

CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 4

QUESTIONS

Q1. What is required before take-off after an aircraft receives maintenance?

Q2. Who can sign a maintenance release?

Q3. What is elementary work?

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A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001

ANTICIPATED ANSWERS

A1. After maintenance is done a signed maintenance release must be obtained before take-off.

A2. A licensed aircraft maintenance engineer (AME) can sign a maintenance release.

A3. Elementary work is maintenance that is not subject to a maintenance release.

END OF LESSON CONFIRMATION

The cadets’ participation in the activities will serve as the confirmation of this TP.

CONCLUSION

HOMEWORK/READING/PRACTICE

N/A.

METHOD OF EVALUATION

N/A.

CLOSING STATEMENT

The Canadian aircraft manufacturing and maintenance industries have become more complex since the first
type certification was issued for the de Havilland Moth and, in that time, Canadian aviation has grown from a
small but exciting niche to a multi-billion dollar industry that the entire world depends on.

INSTRUCTOR NOTES/REMARKS

N/A.

REFERENCES

C2-044 Transport Canada. (2006). Aeronautical Information Manual. Retrieved February 9, 2007, from
http://www.tc.gc.ca/CivilAviation/publications/tp14371/SAE/4-0htm#4-8-1.

C3-105 Brisley, T. & Pascaud, S. (Executive Producer), & Bowie, B. (Writer/Director), (2003). World’s
Biggest Airliner: The Airbus A380 [Motion Picture]. United States: The Learning Channel.

C3-144 (ISBN 0-662-42075-6) Government of Canada. (2005). National Aerospace and Defence Strategic
Framework: 2005–2025. Ottawa, ON.

C3-145 Aerospace Industries Association of Canada. (2007). Aerospace Industries Association of


Canada. Retrieved October 4th, 2007 from website: http://www.aiac.ca/cai.asp.

C3-165 CAMC. (2007). What is CAMC? Retrieved October 17, 2007, from http://www.camc.ca/en/
WhoWeAre/AboutUs/whatIsCamc.html.

C3-167 CAP. (2007). About Us. Retrieved October 17, 2007, from http://www.cap-pca.ca/English/
about.asp.

C3-168 AIAC. (2007). About Us. Retrieved October 17, 2007, from http://www.aiac.ca/aboutus.asp.

C3-203 Viking Air Limited. (2007). Viking Profile Video. Retrieved November 2, 2007, from http://
www.vikingair.com/default.aspx.

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C3-204 Montreal International. (2003). Aerospace Strategic Profile: The Metro Montréal Aerospace
Industry. Retrieved November 2, 2007, from http://www.montrealinternational.com/docs/profil/
Aero_En_2003.pdf.

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ROYAL CANADIAN AIR CADETS

BASIC AVIATION TECHNOLOGY AND AEROSPACE

INSTRUCTIONAL GUIDE

SECTION 2

EO S270.02 – REVIEW AIRCRAFT COMPONENTS

Total Time: 40 min

PREPARATION

PRE-LESSON INSTRUCTIONS

Resources needed for the delivery of this lesson are listed in the lesson specification located in A-CR-CCP-
824/PG-001, Chapter 4. Specific uses for said resources are identified throughout the instructional guide within
the TP for which they are required.

Review the lesson content and become familiar with the material prior to delivering the lesson.

Create slides of Figures located at Annexes E and F.

Set up the learning stations for the activity in TP 3.

PRE-LESSON ASSIGNMENT

N/A.

APPROACH

A group discussion was chosen for TP 1 to review airplane components, controls and engines as it allows
the cadets to interact with their peers and share their knowledge, experiences, opinions, and feelings about
aircraft components.

An interactive lecture was chosen for TPs 2 and 3 to introduce airplane engine monitoring instruments and
give an overview of them.

INTRODUCTION

REVIEW

N/A.

OBJECTIVES

By the end of this lesson the cadet shall have identified the basic components of a light airplane.

IMPORTANCE

It is important for cadets to know the basic components of a light airplane because cadets will encounter these
concepts repeatedly as they experience involvement in aviation and this knowledge is required for further
learning.

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A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001

Teaching Point 1 Review the Major Components of an Airplane

Time: 20 min Method: Group Discussion

ACTIVITY

OBJECTIVE

The objective of this activity is to have the cadets review airplane components, controls and engines while
interacting with their peers and sharing their knowledge and experience.

RESOURCES

N/A.

ACTIVITY LAYOUT

N/A.

ACTIVITY INSTRUCTIONS

1. Divide the cadets into five groups.

2. Explain that each group will be given a review topic to present to the class.

3. Two minutes will be allowed for the group to prepare their presentation.

4. Two minutes will be allowed for each presentation. Any method or a variety of methods may be used.
Each group’s presentation must involve every member of the group in some way.

5. Assign topics, to include:

a. to the first group, components of the fuselage, to include:

(1) cockpit, and

(2) types of landing gear, to include:

a. fixed gear, and

b. retractable gear;

b. to the second group, components of wings, to include:

(1) leading edge,

(2) trailing edge,

(3) wing tips,

(4) ailerons,

(5) flaps, and

(6) trim tabs;

c. to the third group, components of the empennage, to include:

(1) vertical stabilizer,

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A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001

(2) horizontal stabilizer,

(3) rudder,

(4) elevator, and

(5) trim tab;

d. to the fourth group, airplane controls and control surfaces, to include:

(1) controlling roll with the wing ailerons;

(2) controlling pitch with the elevator;

(3) controlling yaw with the rudder; and

(4) applying trim; and

e. to the fifth group, types of piston-powered aircraft engines, to include:

(1) horizontally opposed cylinder engines,

(2) in-line cylinder engines, and

(3) radial cylinder engines.

6. After the preparation time has elapsed, have the groups deliver their presentations in order.

7. After all groups have presented, conduct a group discussion of the material presented, ensuring that all
cadets grasp the essential principles of major components of an aircraft, airplane controls and control
surfaces and the types of piston-powered aircraft engines.

TIPS FOR ANSWERING/FACILITATING DISCUSSION

Establish ground rules for discussion, Listen and respond in a way that
eg, everyone should listen respectfully; indicates you have heard and
don’t interrupt; only one person speaks understood the cadet. This can be
at a time; no one’s ideas should be done by paraphrasing their ideas.
made fun of; you can disagree with
ideas but not with the person, try to Give the cadets time to respond to your
understand others as much as you questions.
hope they understand you; etc. Ensure every cadet has an opportunity
Sit the group in a circle, making sure all to participate. One option is to go
cadets can be seen by everyone else. around the group and have each
cadet answer the question with a short
Ask questions that will provoke answer. Cadets must also have the
thought; in other words avoid questions option to pass if they wish.
with yes or no answers.
Additional questions should be
Manage time by ensuring the cadets prepared ahead of time.
stay on topic.

SUGGESTED QUESTIONS

Q1. What are five components of the empennage?

Q2. What are six components of an airplane wing?

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A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001

Q3. What are two types of airplane landing gear?

Q4. What is the difference between cylinders in a horizontally opposed engine and a cylinder in an in-line
engine?

Q5. What two valves does a piston-powered engine have?

Q6. How were the stationary cylinders arranged in an aircraft’s radial engine?

Q7. What airplane movement does the elevator change?

Q8. What airplane movement does the rudder change?

Q9. What airplane movement do the ailerons change?

Other questions and answers will develop throughout the group discussion. The group
discussion should not be limited to only those suggested.

Reinforce those answers given and comments made during the group discussion, ensuring
the teaching point has been covered.

SAFETY

N/A.

Teaching Point 2 Introduce Aircraft Structure Types

Time: 5 min Method: Interactive Lecture

Air moving over the wing produces lift. That lift must be transmitted to the aircraft in such a manner that the
aircraft can be balanced in every condition of flight. The structure must be able to support all of the loads without
being damaged. These demands place great strength requirements on the structure of the aircraft. Over the
years different construction techniques have been developed to meet these strength requirements while also
reducing weight.

TRUSS STRUCTURE

In truss construction, the earliest method used had the wing spars form the main load-carrying members. Wood
was used originally, but later, metals such as aluminum were used.

Show the cadets Figure 3E-1. Point out the position of the wing spars.

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A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001

Wing spars have to be very strong.

To form a truss, compression struts are placed between the spars. These struts reduce the spars’ ability to
bend and twist and they share the load between the two wing spars.

In modern aircraft, these same principles are applied through the use of advanced materials that are stronger
and lighter than wood.

MONOCOQUE STRUCTURE

Monocoque is a French word meaning single shell.

Mechanical engineers soon recognized that the skin of the aircraft, especially skins made of strong metals,
were able to contribute a significant amount of strength to the structure. While maintaining a lighter form of truss
structure, the skin material is applied in a manner that allows it to carry the greatest amount of the stresses.
This method of construction is so effective that all stresses can often be contained within the structure itself,
meaning that no external struts or braces are required for wing support. The advantage of no external bracing,
which greatly reduces drag from the passing air, results in what is called a cantilever wing––a wing which
appears unsupported.

Wings often still have a light truss structure for strength and this is referred to as semi-monocoque structure.
The monocoque technique is so effective, however, that control surfaces such as ailerons often feature full
monocoque construction with corrugation of the metal providing the needed strength. This further reduces
weight.

BIPLANE RIGGING

Show the cadets Figure 3E-2. Point out the position of the flying and landing wires and the
interplane struts.

The terminology used to describe the major features of a typical double-bay biplane of WWI time period is
illustrated in Figure 3E-2. The number and arrangement of struts and wires employed in biplane design have
varied greatly over the years; however, the terms indicated in the figure have survived and are still in use today
in any discussion of modern-day sport or agricultural biplanes. A single-bay biplane, in contrast to the two-bay
arrangement shown in Figure 3E-2, has only one set of interplane struts between the wings on either side of the
fuselage, and a triple-bay design has three sets of such struts on either side of the fuselage. The proper rigging
of wire-braced aircraft once formed an extremely important part of any aircraft erection, maintenance, or repair
operation. Today, the experienced rigger is almost extinct, and the art is all but lost except for a few dedicated
enthusiasts engaged in the restoration of antique aircraft or in the building and flying of sport biplanes.

Interplane Struts. Interplane struts reduce the wing’s ability to bend and twist and they share the lifting load
between the upper and lower wings.

Flying Wires. Flying wires help to transfer the wing’s lift to the fuselage.

Landing Wires. Landing wires support the wing and prevent the wingtip from striking the ground during landing.

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A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001

CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 2

QUESTIONS

Q1. In truss construction, what are the main load-carrying members?

Q2. In semi-monocoque construction, which part carries the greatest amount of the stresses?

Q3. In biplane construction, what is the purpose of the interplane struts?

ANTICIPATED ANSWERS

A1. Wing spars are the main load-carrying members.

A2. The skin material carries the greatest amount of the stresses.

A3. Interplane struts reduce the wing’s ability to bend and twist and they share the lifting load between the
upper and lower wings.

Teaching Point 3 Identify the Types and Purpose of Engine Monitoring


Instruments Used In Light Aircraft

Time: 10 min Method: Interactive Lecture

All light piston-powered aircraft share the need for engine monitoring because it is very important for the pilot
or flight crew to be constantly aware of engine condition. The following instruments are examples of indicators
that are commonly found in light aircraft cockpits.

FUEL GAUGE

Show the cadets Figure 3F-1.

Fuel gauges deserve a prominent position on any aircraft instrument panel. They accurately reflect fuel
remaining on board.

TACHOMETER

Show the cadets Figure 3F-2.

Tachometers display the revolutions of the engine per minute. The engine must be operated within the range of
speeds recommended by the engine manufacturer for various power production levels; otherwise early wear,
engine damage or even engine failure may result.

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A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001

CYLINDER HEAD TEMPERATURE INDICATOR

Show the cadets Figure 3F-3.

The cylinder head temperature indicator gives a good indication of the engine cooling system. Extremely high
cylinder head temperature is an immediate sign of engine overloading. High temperatures decrease the strength
of metals.

OIL PRESSURE INDICATOR

Show the cadets Figure 3F-4.

The oil pressure gauge is one of the principle engine instruments. It indicates the oil pressure supplied by the
oil pump to lubricate the engine.

OIL TEMPERATURE INDICATOR

Show the cadets Figure 3F-5.

The oil temperature indicator and the oil pressure indicator are usually located together on the instrument
panel. As oil circulates, it cools the engine and becomes hot itself in the process. However, as oil temperature
increases, its viscosity decreases, impairing its lubrication properties. At operating temperature, an abnormal
drop in oil pressure and coincident rise in oil temperature is a sure sign of trouble.

CARBURETOR AIR TEMPERATURE INDICATOR

Show the cadets Figure 3F-6.

Air entering the carburetor may be prone to ice formation; therefore carburetor air heaters are often provided
to ensure that ice does not form. Operation of the carburetor actually cools the air as it enters the carburetor.
Knowledge of the carburetor air temperature allows the pilot to maintain operating efficiency and also to avoid
dangerous carburetor icing.

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A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001

MANIFOLD PRESSURE INDICATOR

Show the cadets Figure 3F-7.

The manifold pressure indicator reads air pressure in the intake manifold between the carburetor and the
cylinders. The manifold pressure indicator is usually located beside the tachometer on the instrument panel so
that the pilot can refer to both instruments when making a power setting with the throttle. A drop in manifold
pressure can indicate carburetor icing because the ice restricts air flow into the manifold.

ACTIVITY

Time: 7 min

OBJECTIVE

The objective of this activity is to have the cadets compare real engine instruments with pictures and functional
descriptions.

RESOURCES

Fuel gauge,

Tachometer,

Cylinder head temperature indicator,

Oil pressure,

Oil temperature gauge,

Carburetor air temperature gauge, and

Manifold pressure indicator.

ACTIVITY LAYOUT

This activity will be conducted at seven learning stations. At each learning station have one engine monitoring
instrument and also a corresponding picture from figures located at Annex F.

ACTIVITY INSTRUCTIONS

1. Divide the cadets into groups of five.

2. Have each group of cadets visit each station for 1 minute in rotation.

3. Have the cadets examine the instrument closely, both front and back.

4. Point out differences between the real instruments and the ones in the pictures.

Engine monitoring instruments come in a wide variety, but each can be understood by
considering the job that it performs.

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A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001

SAFETY

N/A.

CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 5

The cadets’ participation in the activity will serve as the confirmation of this TP.

END OF LESSON CONFIRMATION

The cadets’ participation in the presentations, group discussion and examination of engine monitoring
instruments will serve as the confirmation of this lesson.

CONCLUSION

HOMEWORK/READING/PRACTICE

N/A.

METHOD OF EVALUATION

N/A.

CLOSING STATEMENT

There is a vast array of possible aircraft components, some commonly found in or on the majority of light
airplanes. A critical challenge of working in the aircraft manufacturing and maintenance industries is to gain a
thorough knowledge of all possible components and their special properties.

INSTRUCTOR NOTES/REMARKS

TP 1 is a review of material covered in PO M231 (Explain Principles of Flight, A-CR-CCP-802/PF-001, Royal


Canadian Air Cadets, Level Two, Instructional Guides, Chapter 11) and PO M232 (Identify Characteristics of
Piston-Powered Aircraft, A-CR-CCP-802/PF-001, Chapter 12).

REFERENCES

C3-116 (ISBN 0-9680390-5-7) MacDonald, A. F. & Peppler, I. L. (2000). From the Ground Up: Millennium
Edition. Ottawa, ON: Aviation Publishers Co. Ltd.

C3-136 (ISBN 0-88487-207-6) Sanderson Training Systems (2001). A&P Technician Airframe Textbook.
Englewood, CO: Jeppesen Sanderson Inc.

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ROYAL CANADIAN AIR CADETS

BASIC AVIATION TECHNOLOGY AND AEROSPACE

INSTRUCTIONAL GUIDE

SECTION 3

EO S270.03 – DISCUSS AIRCRAFT ASSEMBLY

Total Time: 40 min

PREPARATION

PRE-LESSON INSTRUCTIONS

Resources needed for the delivery of this lesson are listed in the lesson specification located in A-CR-CCP-
824/PG-001, Chapter 4. Specific uses for said resources are identified throughout the instructional guide within
the TP for which they are required.

Review the lesson content and become familiar with the material prior to delivering the lesson.

Create slides of Figures located at Annexes G and H.

Cue The World’s Biggest Airliner: The Airbus A380 DVD to the first chapter, Toulouse, France (seven minutes).

PRE-LESSON ASSIGNMENT

N/A.

APPROACH

An interactive lecture was chosen for this lesson to introduce aspects of aircraft assembly methods and give
an overview of them.

INTRODUCTION

REVIEW

N/A.

OBJECTIVES

By the end of this lesson the cadet shall have discussed the assembly of aircraft components in a manufacturing
setting.

IMPORTANCE

It is important for the cadets to learn about aircraft assembly methods because this will enhance their
understanding of aircraft and the field of aviation.

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A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001

Teaching Point 1 Describe Different Methods of Assembly of Components

Time: 15 min Method: Interactive Lecture

SMALL MANUFACTURERS

For an aircraft to fly correctly, the main structural components, such as fuselage, wings, engines and
empennage parts must be aligned perfectly. Any deviation or flaw, such as a twist in any component, will impair
flight and have a negative effect on flight controls. Cranes hold the heavy parts in place, jigs and templates
position them precisely. The development of techniques for measuring and positioning components on the
structure to a high degree of accuracy have been developed, as aircraft have become heavier and faster.

LARGE MANUFACTURERS

Some aircraft are now so large that cranes cannot lift and hold the parts satisfactorily. Special carriers are
custom-built to hold the parts, while computer control is used to bring them together. Lasers measure distances
and angles with the use of mirrors, and send the data to high-speed computers. By using these methods, the
fuselage, wings and empennage components can be assembled precisely, no matter how large they are.

Not all aircraft components are structural. A company such as Bombardier Aerospace has hundreds of suppliers
that provide everything from horizontal stabilizers to airspeed indicators. All of these components fit and work
together as a result of a process called Systems Integration. The aerospace engineers designing the aircraft
must ensure that physical components and associated software programs work together.

Show the cadets the first chapter Toulouse France of The World’s Biggest Airliner: The
Airbus A380. This section covers the use of mirrors and an infrared laser positioning system
and shows the fuselage components being joined.

CONFIRMATION OF TEACHING POINT 1

QUESTIONS

Q1. Why must an aircraft’s structural components be aligned perfectly?

Q2. For large aircraft, what type of control is used to bring the structural parts together?

Q3. What is the name of the process that aeronautical engineers use to integrate separate systems?

ANTICIPATED ANSWERS

A1. Any deviation or flaw will impair flight and have a negative effect on flight controls.

A2. Computer control.

A3. Systems Integration.

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A-CR-CCP-824/PF-001

Teaching Point 2 Discuss Manufacturers’ Assembly Areas

Time: 10 min Method: Interactive Lecture

A SMALL MANUFACTURER’S SHOP

Small manufacturers can often perform all necessary operations in one location like Viking Air, which
remanufactures Beaver and Otter aircraft near the Victoria International Airport in Sydney, British Columbia.
A small manufacturer’s shop is characterized by all the aircraft parts and materials coming together at one
manufacturing plant prior to final assembly. All necessary machinery and facilities are provided, sometimes
under one roof. Manufacturing encompasses all phases of assembly from sheet metal bending, engine
assembly, avionics and final painting and interior finish.

Viking Air is considered a small manufacturer’s shop. They operate manufacture, assemble,
modify and repair aircraft.

A LARGE MANUFACTURER’S ASSEMBLY LINE

All manufacturers need machines to move large, heavy components such as wings and to control their motion
with precision. In the assembly areas of large aircraft, these machines are also large.

Show the cadets the series of assembly area photographs located at Annex G.

Larger manufacturers generally have more career specialization than smaller ones, such as
engine, airframe or avionics specialization. Small manufacturers have fewer employees, so
they need their employees to be able to handle more related fields.

Large manufacturers such as Bombardier Aerospace have facilities around the world. The materials and
components for the basic aircraft structure are gathered at one assembly plant, such as Downsview in Toronto,
Ontario. This plant is responsible for the final assembly of structural components for the Learjet 45 aircraft, the
Q-Series turboprops and the Global family of business aircraft. The facility occupies 324 acres of land and has
almost two million square feet of building floor space. At Dorval, Quebec, Bombardier has a completion facility
with 31 345 square metres (337 400 square feet), housing up to 14 Global Express aircraft and a delivery centre
in which customers can choose design options in a virtual reality environment. The finishing touches, such as
cabin furnishings, are installed here. A separate 7246 square metre (78 000 square foot) paint and strip shop
is located next to the completion centre, capable of housing up to four aircraft at a time.

Another 38 591 square metre (415 400 square foot) facility is located in Dorval, near the Bombardier Aerospace
administrative centre and the Canadair aircraft assembly plant.

Airbus has an even larger operation. The A380 is assembled and delivered in Europe and has major structural
components made in Australia, Canada, England, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Malaysia, Mexico, Morocco,
Russia, Spain, Turkey and the USA.

Suppliers, for both structural and minor components, are located around the world:

Australia: Wingtip fences;

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Canada:

Pratt & Whitney Canada: Auxiliary power unit; and