A PAPlD GENDEP ASSESSMENT CF

THE ClTlES CF
8hopul, Gwulior, lndoro und
1ubulpur in Mudhyu Prudosh, lndiu
|uvqu'rq
C||D||
United Motions Humon 5ettlements Frogromme
Ìn cooperotion with
Mohilo Chetno Monch, ßhopol, Modhyo Frodesh
UN-HABITAT
lM DEVELCPMEMl CF VAlER AMD SAMllAllCM lM URBAM AREAS
A PAPlD GENDEP ASSESSMENT CF
THE ClTlES CF
8hopul, Gwulior, lndoro und
1ubulpur in Mudhyu Prudosh, lndiu
|uvqu'rq
C||D||
United Motions Humon 5ettlements Frogromme
Ìn cooperotion with
Mohilo Chetno Monch, ßhopol, Modhyo Frodesh
UN-HABITAT
lM DEVELCPMEMl CF VAlER AMD SAMllAllCM lM URBAM AREAS
Ccr'or's
T. lNTPCDUCTlCN 8
2. LEGAL, PCLlCY AND lNSTlTUTlCNAL
FPAMEWCPK 11
3. lNTPCDUClNG THE FCUP ClTlES 17
4. WATEP AND SANlTATlCN 49
5. EMEPGlNG lSSUES FCP
A STPATEGY AND ACTlCN 81
Lisl oí Gruphs
Groph 1. Angunwudi Conlros (AWC} in slum urous oí íour cilios.
Groph 2. Womon in slums roporling boing sub|oclod lo domoslic violonco.
Groph 3. Womon in slums roporling rousons íor domoslic violonco.
Groph 4. Primury/Middlo schools wilh drinking wulor, loilols, sopurulo loilols íor girls
Groph 5. Gondor gup in onrollmonl oí childron in schools.
Groph ó. Docision mukors in lho slum housoholds uboul purchuso oí íood
Groph 7. Docision mukors in lho slum housoholds uboul purchuso oí clolhos
Groph 8. Docision mukors in lho slum housoholds uboul purchuso oí ornumonls
Groph 9. Docision mukors in lho slum housoholds uboul oduculion oí childron
Groph 1û. Docision mukors in lho slum housoholds uboul immunizulion oí childron
Groph 11. Docision mukors in lho slum housoholds uboul poríorming sociul coromony
Groph 12. Working Muhilu Mundul/SHGs/Womon´s Crgunisulion in slum urous
Groph 13. Ago ul Murriugo oí rospondonls in survoyod slums
Groph 14. Ago ul Murriugo oí spousos oí rospondonls in survoyod slums
Groph 15. Lund Pighls oí houso silo lund in survoyod slums
Groph 1ó. Housohold by loculion oí sourco oí drinking wulor (Porconlugo}
Groph 17o. Wulor uso íor Cooking, Clouning by mon & womon
Groph 17b. Wulor uso íor 8ulh, wush loilol
Groph 18. Housoholds by uvuilubilily oí 8ulhroom, Toilols, Druinugo
Groph 19. Housoholds roporling puymonl íor using public loilol
Groph 2û. Womon roporling coping molhods whon huving lo uso opon urous oí doíoculion
Lisl oí Tublos
TobIe1. Urbun Popululion und Docudul Chungo in 8hopul
TobIe 2. Urbun Popululion und Docudul Chungo in Gwulior
TobIe 3. Urbun Popululion und Docudul Chungo in lndoro
TobIe 4. Urbun Popululion und Docudul Chungo in 1ubulpur.
TobIe 5. Migrunls lo cilios by rouson íor migrulion, Consus TººT (Porconlugo}.
TobIe ó. Slum housoholds wilh sluy in lho prosonl loculion.
TobIe 7. Tolul Popululion, Schodulod Cuslos und Schodulod Tribos Popululion (ln Million} in
íour cilios.
TobIe 8. Popululion, Sox rulio oí lolul popululion und oí 0-ó yours popululion in íour cilios
TobIe 9. Housoholds, Popululion und Housohold sizo in íour cilios.
iv
TobIe 1û. Work purlicipulion rulo.
TobIe 11. Mulo, Fomulo muin workors und murginul workors
TobIe 12. Housoholds wilh lypo oí building muloriul oí houso wulls.
TobIe 13. Housoholds by ílooring muloriul in housos.
TobIe 14. Gondor Gup in Lilorucy.
TobIe 15. lníormul Employmonl
TobIe 1ó. Childron ullonding Angunwudi conlros in slum urous
TobIe 17. Mulnulrilion umong childron ugo 0-5 yours in slum urous
TobIe 18. Crimos uguinsl womon in íour cilios (1unuury-1uly, 2005}
TobIe 19. Numbor oí childron oí school going ugo und .nol in school. childron in slums
oí íour cilios
TobIe 2û. Numbor oí womon in slums sponding limo duily in ourning livolihood
TobIe 21. Numbor oí mon in slum urou sponding limo duily in ourning livolihood
TobIe 22. Numbor oí womon in slums sponding duily limo in cooking
TobIe 23. Slums in MP, Sox rulio und Gondor gup in lilorucy 200T
TobIe 24. Urbun Popululion And Sox Pulio ln Slums ln Four Cilios
TobIe 25. Child Sox Pulio, Lilorucy Pulo in Slums in Four Cilios
TobIe 2ó. Survoyod popululion in slums in íour cilios
TobIe 27. Agoncy oí wulor supply lo housoholds in slums in íour cilios
TobIe 28. Pospondonls roporling uvuilubilily oí wulor íucilily in houso in slums in íour cilios
TobIe 29. Pospondonls in íour cilios roporling uccoss oí wulor sourco oulsido lho slums (lhoso
who gol wulor írom oulsido}
TobIe 3û. Durulion oí lup Wulor Supply (lhoso golling lup wulor supply}
TobIe 31. Dislunco oí pipod wulor supply sourco (lhoso who íolch wulor írom pipod wulor
sourco oulsido}
TobIe 32. Cuulily oí wulor suppliod/rocoivod
TobIe 33. Housoholds golling suííicionl/insuííicionl wulor
TobIe 34. Porsons conlrolling uso oí wulor in slum housoholds
TobIe 35. Pospondonls roporling limo sponl by diííoronl íumily mombors in íolching wulor.
TobIe 3ó. Avuilubilily oí loilol íucilily in houso in slum urous in íour cilios
TobIe 37. Avuilubilily oí bulhroom in houso in slum urous in íour cilios
TobIe 38. Typo oí loilol uvuilublo in houso in slums
TobIe 39. Pospondonls roporling uvuilubilily oí sopurulo loilol íor mulo und íomulo in
communily loilols
TobIe 4û. Muinlonunco oí public loilol by diííoronl ugoncios us roporlod by slum dwollors
(usors only}
|uvqu'rq C||D||
lM DEVELCPMEMl CF VAlER AMD SAMllAllCM lM URBAM AREAS
v
8olow Povorly Lino Popululion
MP l NDl A
Purul 37.T% 27.T%
Urbun 38.4% 23.ó%
8PL Popululion in MP. Urbun
Arou only loss lhun Crissu.
37.T% 8PL in rurul urou only
loss lhun 8ihur, Assum, Crissu
und Norlh Euslorn slulos.
Por Cupilu Nol
Domoslic Producl
MP l NDl A
Ps. T0803 Ps.Tó487
T. lr'rcduc'cr
Tho Dovolopmonl Conloxl
A' 'ho boqrrrq cí 'ho 2T
s'
cor'ury, lrdu hus 27.8º cí
pcpulu'cr lvrq r urbur urous urd T0.3º cí 's pcpulu'cr r
mo'rcpcl'ur c'os. Mudhyu Prudosh w'h u pcpulu'cr ó0.3
mllcr urd us 'ho soccrd lurqos' s'u'o r 'ho ccur'ry r urou hus
2ó.5º urbur pcpulu'cr urd ucccur's ícr 5.óº cí ccur'ry´s
urbur pcpulu'cr.
Tho por cup'u ro' s'u'o dcmos'c prcduc' cí MP (2000-200T
Cuck |s'mu'os} s |s. T0, 803 uqurs' 'ho All lrdu Avoruqo cí
|s.Tó, 487. lr lrdu 27.Tº cí porscrs r 'ho rurul pcpulu'cr
urd 23.óº cí 'ho porscrs r 'ho urbur pcpulu'cr woro lvrq
8olcw Pcvor'y Lro (8PL} (Tººº-2000} busod cr rccmo cr'oru.
lr Mudhyu Prudosh 37.Tº cí 'ho porscrs r 'ho rurul pcpulu'cr
urd 38.4º cí 'ho porscrs r 'ho urbur pcpulu'cr woro lvrq
8olcw Pcvor'y Lro. lr rurul pcpulu'cr 'hs plucod ' |us' ubcvo
Assum, Crssu, 8hur urd |cr'h |us'orr s'u'os urd r urbur
pcpulu'cr |us' ubcvo Crssu s'u'o (w'h 42.8º}. A' ccur'ry lovol,
porcor'uqo cí 8PL pcpulu'cr s lcwor r urbur urou bu' r MP '
s slqh'ly hqhor r Urbur urous. Mudhyu Prudosh ulsc hus u
sqrícur' pcpulu'cr cí schodulod 'rbos (20.3º} urd schodulod
cus'os (T5.2º} r 's 'c'ul pcpulu'cr
T
=LEC=JEC /-,-4
lN DEVELCPMENT CF VATEP AND SANlTATlCN lN ÜP8AN APEAS
2
Tho sccul rdcu'crs ícr 'ho s'u'o shcw 'ho rolu'vo doprvu'crs
urd chullorqo ícr dovolcpmor' r 'ho ccur'ry´s ccr'ox'. Tho
l'orucy ru'o ícr ull pcpulu'cr s 7ó.Tº ícr mulo urd 50.3º ícr
íomulos r MP uqurs' 75.3º ícr mulo urd 53.7º ícr íomulos r
lrdu. lr rurul M.P. ' s 7T.7º ícr mulos urd 42.7º ícr íomulos
uqurs' 70.7º ícr mulos urd 4ó.Tº ícr íomulos r lrdu. lr
urbur M.P. ' s 87.4º ícr mulos urd óTº ícr íomulos uqurs'
8ó.3º ícr mulos urd 72.8º ícr íomulos r lrdu. Sc whlo bc'h
lrdu urd M.P. huvo u qordor qup r l'orucy r urbur urous, 'hs
qup s T3.5º r lrdu uqurs' 2ó.4º r MP urd r rurul urous ' s
24.óº r lrdu uqurs' 28.ºº r M.P. Ths s 'ho qup ovor uí'or
sqrícur' uchovomor' r mulo urd íomulo l'orucy r 'ho lus'
docudo cí 'ho 20
'h
cor'ury.
Tho crudo br'h ru'o urd dou'h ru'o uro 32.2 urd T0.4 r rurul
urd 22.7 urd 7.2 r urbur M.P. uqurs' 2ó.ó urd 8.7 r rurul
lrdu urd Tº.º urd ó.T r urbur lrdu. Tho lríur' Mcr'ul'y |u'o s
os'mu'od u' 85 (r 2002}, w'h º0 ícr rurul urd 5ó ícr urbur
urous. l' s 'c bo soor uqurs' ó4 'c'ul r lrdu - óº r rurul urd
40 r urbur urou. Mu'orrul Mcr'ul'y |u'o s 4º8 uqurs' 'ho ull
lrdu ru'o cí 407 (S|S Tºº8}.
Tho 'c'ul íor'l'y ru'o s 3.º r M.P uqurs' 3.2 r lrdu (S|S
Tººº}. Tho lío oxpoc'urcy s 55 ícr mulo urd 54.7 ícr íomulo r
M.P. lr lrdu ' s ó0.T ícr mulo urd óT.4 ícr íomulo (Tºº2-ºó}.
Tho qordor ru'c cí urbur pcpulu'cr s 8º8 r M.P urd º00
r lrdu.
Gondor Gup in Lilorucy
MP l NDl A
Purul 28.º 24.ó
Urbun 2ó.4 T8.5
Cvorull 25.8 2T.ó
Mulornul Morlulily
MP l NDl A
4º8 407
lníunl Morlulily Pulo
MP l NDl A
Tolul 83 ó4
Purul º0 óº
Urbun 5ó 40
Crudo 8irlh Pulo
MP l NDl A
Purul 32.2 2ó.ó
Urbun 22.7 Tº.º
Doulh Pulo
MP l NDl A
Purul T0.4 8.7
Urbun 7.2 ó.T
Liío Expocluncy
MP l NDl A
Mulo 55 ó0.T
Fomul o 54.7 óT.4
3
Mudhyu Prudosh hus 3º4 'cwrs cí 'ho 'c'ul cí 5TóT c'os urd 'cwrs r lrdu. Tho ícur c'os cí
8hcpul, Cwulcr, lrdcro urd 1ubulpur 'cqo'hor huvo u pcpulu'cr cí 4.º mllcr whch s 30.ºº cí
'ho urbur pcpulu'cr urd 8.Tº cí 'ho 'c'ul pcpulu'cr r M.P. Tho ícur c'os cí 8hcpul, Cwulcr,
lrdcro urd 1ubulpur uro lccu'od r dííoror' uqrcul'urul roqcrs urd sccc cul'urul urd hs'crcul
ccr'ox's cí 'ho s'u'o. 1ubulpur wus pur' cí 8r'sh rulod lrdu. Tho c'hor 'hroo c'os woro pur's cí
ícrmor prrcoly s'u'os cí 8hcpul, Cwulcr urd lrdcro whch woro r'oqru'od r rdopordor' lrdu -
8hcpul us u pur' C s'u'o w'h subs'ur'ul Cor'rul Ccvorrmor' pcwors r qcvorrurco urd lrdcro urd
Cwulcr us u Pur' 8 s'u'o ('hoso clussícu'crs huvo srco boor ubclshod} w'h íull pcwors cí u s'u'o
urdor lrdur Ccrs''u'cr. Tho clums 'c supromucy urd ícr houdquur'or cí 'ho row s'u'o woro
mudo sc s'rcrqly by 'ho 'wc c'os 'hu' 'ho s'u'o cup'ul r 'hs s'u'o shí'od ícr pur's cí 'ho your 'c
ouch cí 'hoso c'os urd u rumbor cí s'u'o lovol udmrs'ru'vo cíícos woro lccu'od r 'hoso 'wc
c'os whoro 'hoy ccr'ruo ovor 'cduy. 8c'h 'ho s'u'os morqod r row MP r Tº5ó whor u mu|cr
rocrqurzu'cr cí s'u'os cr lrqus'c buss wus 'ukor up urd MP bocumo 'ho bqqos' s'u'o r urou
urd 8hcpul bocumo 'ho row s'u'o cup'ul. lr 2000 urc'hor s'u'o wus curvod cu' w'h 's ous'orr
pur's us Chhu''squrh, whch mudo row MP 'ho soccrd lurqos' s'u'o r 'ho ccur'ry. Ths pcl'cul urd
udmrs'ru'vo hs'cry urd u loqucy cí ícur ccrs''u'rq s'u'os huvo ccr'ruod 'c ríluorco 'ho
pcl'cul urd udmrs'ru'vo qcvorrurco cí 'ho s'u'o us woll us cí 'ho c'y muruqomor' urd c'zors
oxpoc'u'crs írcm 'hom. Tho pcs'cr urd s'u'us cí wcmor urd 'ho porspoc'vos cí qordor ssuos
ulsc roíloc' 'hs dvors'y.
lrdcro c'y s 'ho lurqos' cí 'ho c'os r
'ho s'u'o urd ur rdus'rul, ccmmorcul
c'y, whlo 8hcpul c'y s 'ho
udmrs'ru'vo cup'ul srco Tº5ó.
Cwulcr urd 1ubulpur huvo 'hor
ds'rc'vo cul'urul urd hs'crcul dor''y
w'h 'ho ícrmor ussccu'od w'h 'ho
Scrdhu dyrus'y urd rulo whcso
mombors ccr'ruo 'c bo r 'ho rulrq
qrcups us prcmror' mombors cí
Ah/yu 8u Ho/kur,
|u/er of Irdore
[1767-17º5)
5u/' ur !uhur 8equm
12
' h
|u/er of 8hoµu/
[1º01-1º26)
5u/' ur !uhur 8equm [r ve/) w' h
Vce |oy Lord Mr' o urd Ludy
Mr' o urd Crurd Ch/drer
ru'crul pcl'cul pur'os urd us oloc'od roprosor'u'vos u' 'ho ru'crul urd s'u'o lovols. 1ubulpur s
ussccu'od r 'ho publc mrd w'h Ccrd (o'hrc 'rbul} loudor |ur Durquwu', u woll-krcwr
hs'crcul íquro.
lrdcro 'cc hud u vory woll rospoc'od pcus wcmur rulor r Ahlyu 8u Hclkur whcso ccr'ruod
rospoc' s s'll muríos'od r urruul colobru'crs urd u ru'crul uwurd rs''u'od r hor rumo by 'ho
c'zors´ r'u'vo. Tho s'u'o Urvors'os r 'hoso 'hroo c'os uro rumod uí'or 'hom, 1vu| (Scrdhu}
Urvors'y r Cwulcr, Dov Ahlyu (Hclkur} Urvors'y r lrdcro, urd |ur Durquwu' Urvors'y r
1ubulpur. 8hcpul hus 'ho ds'rc'cr cí huvrq boor rulod by ívo 8oqums (Muslm wcmor rulors}
whc rulod succossíully ovor whlo ícllcwrq 'ho pruc'co cí volrq.
l' s u chullorqrq 'usk 'c soo hcw 'hoso wcmor rulors´ loqucy s ros'crod r mu''ors cí crucul
mpcr'urco lko wcmor´s uccoss 'c wu'or urd sur'u'cr sorvcos, 'hor pur'cpu'cr r plurrrq urd
muruqomor' cí 'hoso sorvcos urd wcmor´s sccul occrcmc urd pcl'cul pur'cpu'cr r qororul.
=LEC=JEC /-,-4
lN DEVELCPMENT CF VATEP AND SANlTATlCN lN ÜP8AN APEAS
4
Mllorrum Dovolcpmor' Cculs
Ths qordor ussossmor' s ur urulyss propuru'cry 'c ícrmulu'cr cí Cordor Murs'roumrq S'ru'oqy
r Wu'or urd Sur'u'cr r 'hoso ícur c'os, whch hus 'c bo plucod r 'ho cvorull ccr'ox' cí U|
Mllorrum Dovolcpmor' Cculs urd 'urqo's pur'culurly.
º To slop lho unsusluinublo oxploilulion oí wulor rosourcos by dovoloping wulor
munugomonl slrulogios ul rogionul, nulionul und locul lovols which promolo bolh
oquilublo uccoss und udoquulo supplios.
º To hulvo lho numbor oí pooplo wilhoul uccoss lo suío drinking wulor und busic
sunilulion by 20T5 und íor improving lho livos oí T00 million slum dwollors by 2020.
º And ompowormonl oí womon which culs ucross ull soclors und iniliulivos.
Tho oxorcso s ulsc 'c bo soor w'h 'ho prcqrummo cí Wu'or ícr Asur C'os urd 'ho 'homu'c
prcr'os, whch rcludo
º Pro-poor wulor govornunco und íollow up invoslmonls
º Sunilulion íor lho urbun poor.
º Urbun culchmonl munugomonl.
º Wulor domund munugomonl.
º Wulor oduculion in school und communilios.
º Advocucy, uwuronoss ruising und iníormulion oxchungo.
Thoso sx prcr'os 'homos huvo qudod 'hs qordor ussossmor' 'c íucl'u'o r'oqru'cr cí qordor
ssuos r 'ho WAC prcqrummo urd 'ho cvorull U| Hub'u' ´s Wu'or urd Sur'u'cr Prcqrummo.
Horco 'ho crucul mpcr'urco cí qordor murs'roumrq urd u prc pccr íccus 'hus brrqrq cu' 'ho
cor'rul ccrcorr cí wcmor´s roods, porspoc'vos, rclos urd pur'cpu'cr r plurrrq, mplomor'u'cr
us woll us mcr'crrq urd ovuluu'cr cí row r'u'vos r roqurds 'c wu'or urd sur'u'cr 'c wcrk
'cwurds uchovrq 'ho MDCs.
5
Gondor
Cordor urd qordor rolu'crs uro sccully ccrs'ruc'od urd, 'horoícro, omboddod r 'ho sccc-
cul'urul ccr'ox' rc' crly r ouch ccur'ry bu' ulsc r ouch roqcr cr urou bosdos r dííoror' 'mos.
Cordor s rc' crly 'ho ccrcorr ubcu' wcmor urd 'hor rclos bu' ulsc ubcu' qordor rolu'crs urd,
'horoícro, cro mus' soo 'ho prcbloms urd ccrcorrs cí bc'h mor urd wcmor bu' spocully sc cí
wcmor bocuuso cí 'ho porss'rq roquul'os, roqu'os urd uroquul uccoss cí wcmor 'c roscurcos
urd cppcr'ur'os. l' s ulsc mpcr'ur' 'c romombor 'hu' wcmor uro rc' u hcmcqorocus qrcup urd
qordor s r'orsoc'od w'h cus'o, cluss urd o'hrc'y urd 'hs dvors'y s ur mpcr'ur' íuc'cr r ury
ussossmor' cí qordor urd qordor ccrcorrs.
Gondor Assossmonl
l' s r 'hs ccr'ox' 'hu' 'hs ussossmor' hus 'rod 'c hour 'ho pccr urd dsudvur'uqod wcmor urd
droc'ly cup'uro 'hor vccos whch cur prosor' 'hor roods urd ccrcorrs much mcro s'rcrqly 'hur
ury c'hor du'u cr s'u's'cs cí 'hor doprvu'cr, ccrcorrs urd chullorqo. Ths hus boor dcro r 'ho
slums 'c soo 'ho doprvu'crs urd rudoquu'o uccoss urd pur'cpu'cr r wu'or urd sur'u'cr urd 'c
koop 'ho roods cí pccr wcmor r íccus Cí ccurso ' s uccop'od 'hu' ovory cro whc lvos r slums s
rc' pccr urd ull 'ho pccr dc rc' lvo r slums. Thoy ulsc lvo cu'sdo 'ho slums.
=LEC=JEC /-,-4
lN DEVELCPMENT CF VATEP AND SANlTATlCN lN ÜP8AN APEAS
ó
Povorly
Pcvor'y dcos rc' crly huvo ur rccmo dmorscr. Thoro uro c'hor dmorscrs cí pcvor'y rcludrq,
omplcymor', humur cupubl'os dovolcpod by uccoss 'c or''lomor's r oducu'cr, houl'h curo urd
ru'r'cr, uccoss 'c usso's urd occrcmc roscurcos such us lurd urd hcusrq. l' ulsc rcludos uccoss
'c busc sorvcos such us wu'or urd sur'u'cr urd porcop'crs cí pcvor'y urd pcworlossross urd
vccolossross. Wo ulsc rood 'c uddross 'ho rolu'vo rvsbl'y cí qordor r pcvor'y urulyss urd
pcvor'y roduc'cr s'ru'oqos whch ccr'ruo 'c 'uko 'ho hcusohcld us 'ho busc ur' cí urulyss
ussumrq 'ho hcusohcld 'c bo qordor rou'rul r r'ru hcusohcld ullccu'cr cí roscurcos.
Cordor Murs'roumrq r ull prcqrummos, urd prc|oc's s íucl'u'od by 'ho uccop'urco cí u
ccrcop'uul írumowcrk r whch wcmor´s rqh's uro roccqrzod us humur rqh's ícr 'ho ícrmulu'cr
cí ull prcqrummos. Ths mplos 'hu' suíoquurds uro bul' r 'c orsuro wcmor´s rqh's 'c usso's such
us lurd, roscurcos such us krcwlodqo urd sklls, sorvcos such us íccd, wu'or urd roprcduc'vo
houl'h, urd 'c prc'oc' írcm qordor busod vclorco urd dscrmru'cr urd cpprossvo sccul
pruc'cos r bc'h publc urd prvu'o soc'cr.
Cordor Arulyss ums 'c uchovo qordor oqu'y urd pcs'vo churqos ícr wcmor urd 'horoícro
mus' um 'c holp 'c ruso quos'crs, urulyso rícrmu'cr urd dovolcp s'ru'oqos 'c rcrouso wcmor
urd mor´s pur'cpu'cr r urd boroí' írcm dovolcpmor' prcqrummos urd pclcos. l' mus'
oxumro 'ho dííororcos r wcmor urd mor´s lvos rcludrq 'hcso whch loud 'c sccul urd
occrcmc roqu'y ícr wcmor. l' wculd, 'horoícro, usk busc quos'crs, lcck u' 'ho ccr'ox' uc'v'os,
urd roscurcos rolovur' ícr 'ho wu'or urd sur'u'cr sorvcos, wcmor´s uccoss 'c urd pur'cpu'cr r
'hor prcvscr, mur'orurco, muruqomor' urd mprcvomor' urd loud 'c s'ru'oqos urd
prcqrummos 'c mprcvo wcmor´s uccoss urd ccr'rcl cí 'ho rocossury roscurcos.
Frumowork oí Gondor Anulysis
Wcmor´s ssuos urd ccrcorrs r dovolcpmor' plurrrq, pclcos urd prcqrummos huvo hud u lcrq
hs'cry írcm 'ho rvsbl'y cí wcmor us wcmor urd occrcmc uc'crs rs'oud cí soorq 'hom crly us
mc'hors 'c upprcuchos cí Wcmor r Dovolcpmor' (WlD} urd Cordor urd Dovolcpmor' (CAD}.
Whlo 'ho írs' upprcuch 'rod 'c usss' wcmor 'c qo' u íur shuro cí prcí' írcm dovolcpmor'
uc'v'os, 'ho lu''or upprcuch dor'íod pcwor rolu'crs, u'''udos urd sccul urd cul'urul sys'oms 'hu'
pu' wcmor r u dsudvur'uqod pcs'cr. Horo wo ícllcw 'ho CAD upprcuchos whch uro rc' crly
ccrcorrod w'h bo''or luws, oducu'cr, o'c bu' íccus cr wcmor´s ompcwormor' urd um u'
s'ruc'urul roícrms r qordor rolu'crs w'hr u brcudor ccr'ox'.
Srco 'ho boqrrrqs cí udcp'cr cí qordor urulyss us ur mpcr'ur' 'ccl r 'ho lus' 'wc docudos,
dííoror' ccrcop'uul purudqms huvo urdorprrod 'hoso urulysos urd 'hor udcp'cr r pclcy
ícrmulu'cr spocully r 'rurrq prcqrummos r dovolcpmor' prc|oc's. lí wo soo u 'ypclcqy (Curcl
Mllor urd Shuhru |uzuv Tºº8, Cordor Arulyss Al'orru'vo Purudqms}, 'hoso rcludo 'ho Cordor
|clos Frumowcrk (C|F}, 'ho Urvors'y Cclloqo Lcrdcr, Dopur'mor' cí Plurrrq Ur' (DPU}
írumowcrk ('rplo rclos mcdol}, 'ho Sccul |olu'crs Frumowcrks (S|F} dovolcpod by 'ho lrs''u'o cí
Dovolcpmor' S'udos (lDS}, Sussox, urd 'ho upprcuchos cí íomrs' occrcmcs. º Thoso upprcuchos
7
dííor r 'orms cí 'hor ccrcop'uulsu'cr cí qordor, sccpo cí rs''u'crul urulyss, mplcu'crs ícr
dovolcpmor', urd ssuos cí sccul urd crqurzu'crul churqoº. (Mllor o' |uzuv Tºº8}.
lr 'ho qordor urulyss horo wo 'uko rc'o cí 'ho rood 'c mcvo írcm u moro 'r'oqru'crs'´ upprcuch
'c ''rursícrmu'crul´ upprcuch 'c qordor urulyss urd qordor murs'roumrq urd sc ícllcw 'ho
purudqm cí sccul rolu'crs írumowcrks urd horco ' s busod cr 'ho boloí 'hu' 'ho dor'íod
qordor ssuos rc' crly rood 'c bo udoquu'oly rccrpcru'od r dovolcpmor' plurrrq urd
r'orvor'crs bu' ulsc 'uko rc'o cí 'ho cluss/cus'o/pcvor'y dmorscrs urd 'ho wob cí rolu'crshps r
whch qordor s omboddod. l' ulsc urdorsccros 'ho rood cí 'rursícrmu'cr cí 'ho sccul urd pcl'cul
rs''u'crs 'c mcvo írcm u wcmor´s moro prosorco 'c orsuro 'hor oííoc'vo pur'cpu'cr. Thoro
uro pc'or'ul s'ru'oqos cí s'u'o-cvl scco'y pur'rorshp, qordor budqo'rq, qordor uud', ccul'crs
urd ullurcos cí 'murdurrs´ mplomor'rq prc|oc's urd prcqrummos urd 'msscruros´ wcrkrq
w'h wcmor whch uro mpcr'ur' ícr íur'hor oxplcru'cr.
Fcr ury ussossmor' íccusod cr ury dsudvur'uqod qrcup, pur'cpu'cry upprcuch urd ccmmur'y
pur'cpu'cr s mpcr'ur' bu' ' mus' ulsc rvclvo spocul íccus cr wcmor bocuuso ovor
ccmmur'os ulsc, ccrss'rq us 'hoy uro cí porscrs huvrq dííoror' uccoss 'c pcwor urd roscurcos,
muy odqo cu' 'hcso whc uro u' 'ho ox'romo ord cí pcwor ccr'ruum whch ccrss's cí wcmor urd
'hu' 'cc, wcmor írcm woukor soc'crs urd pcvor'y qrcups.
Wcmor urd chldror uro 'ho cros whc suííor mcs' írcm pccr wu'or supply urd sur'ury íucl'os.
Wu'or urd sur'u'cr uro umcrq 'ho mcs' crucul, pocplo cor'orod dovolcpmor' ssuos.
Dovolcpmor' cur bo sus'urublo crly í ' s cwrod urd drvor by ccmmur'os u' 'ho buso. Ths s
ospocully s 'ruo cí wu'or whoro 'ho loud rclo cí wcmor r pur'culur roods roccqr'cr. Ths
cor'rul'y cí wcmor r wu'or urd sur'u'cr s urdorprrrq 'hs qordor urulyss.
=LEC=JEC /-,-4
lN DEVELCPMENT CF VATEP AND SANlTATlCN lN ÜP8AN APEAS
8
Molhodology
Ths ussossmor' s u rupd ussossmor' busod cr uvulublo soccrdury du'u r qcvorrmor' dccumor's,
urd c'hor publshod l'oru'uro. Tho soccrd buss cí 'hs ussossmor' s cí pur'cpu'cry lourrrq
oxorcso rcludrq r'orvows cí u sumplo cí wcmor lvrq r 'ho slums r ouch cí 'ho ícur c'os. Fcr
'hs purpcso ívo slums woro soloc'od r ouch cí 'ho c'os busod cr u qocqruphcul dsporsul cí 'hor
lccu'cr r 'ho c'y urd r ouch slum 20 wcmor woro r'orvowod cr u som-s'ruc'urod r'orvow
schodulo. Fccus Crcup Dscusscrs woro ccrduc'od, cro ícr mulo ccmmur'y mombors urd cro ícr
íomulo ccmmur'y mombors, r ouch cí 'ho slums. Thus r ouch c'y T00 r'orvows urd T0 íccus
qrcup dscusscrs woro crqurzod prmurly 'c qo' 'hor rospcrsos cr vurcus ssuos urd 'c qo' 'hor
vccos cr 'hor roods, prcbloms, chullorqos urd hcpos urd roqurod suppcr' r íu'uro. Thor vccos
huvo ulsc boor cup'urod r phc'cs urd r u vdoc ílm. |x'orsvo propuru'crs woro mudo 'c muko
'ho mo'hcdclcqy pur'cpu'cry. Alcrq w'h som-s'ruc'urod r'orvows, 'rursoc' wulk, sccul mupprq
urd íccus qrcup dscusscrs woro crqurzod 'c rvclvo 'ho ccmmur'y. As u propuru'cry s'op, 'ho
'oums cí íold wcrkors woro curoíully soloc'od írcm 'hcso whc huvo boor ussccu'od ourlor w'h
r'orvowrq wcmor ubcu' 'hor pur'cpu'cr urd loudorshp rclos r lccul qcvorrmor' urd uccossrq
roscurcos ícr lvolhccds urd w'h pur'cpu'cry 'rurrq cí wcmor ícr loudorshp urd skll
dovolcpmor'. |uch 'oum ícr u c'y ccrss'od cí 'wc íomulo urd 'wc mulo wcrkors. All cí 'hom woro
pcs'qruduu'os r sccul scorcos rcludrq scmo cí 'hom r sccul wcrk. Thoy pur'cpu'od r ur
r'orsvo 'rurrq ubcu' upprcuch, ssuos, urd mo'hcdclcqy cí 'hs rupd ussossmor' urd dd u íold-
'os'rq cí 'ho quos'crruro boícro qcrq 'c 'ho ccrcorrod c'y.
Tho íoldwcrk wus currod cu' bo'woor T4
'h
urd 24
'h
Auqus' 2005. W'h ccmpu'or urulyss urd
pu''rq 'ho ropcr' 'cqo'hor, ulcrq w'h 'ho íoldwcrk urd soccrdury du'u cclloc'cr urd urulyss, 'hs
rupd qordor ussossmor' wus ccmplo'od r u porcd cí ícur wooks.
lr curryrq cu' 'hs qordor ussossmor' Muhlu Cho'ru Murch (Wcmor´s Awuroross Fcrum} hus
usod 's cwr rsqh's cí wcrkrq w'h qordor ssuos urd w'h wcmor pur'culurly 'hcso írcm 'ho
pcvor'y hcusohclds. Wo huvo rovowod uvulublo rícrmu'cr (o.q. s'u's'cs, Ccvorrmor'
dccumor's}, 'ho rolovur' loqul, pclcy urd rs''u'crul írumowcrk urd 'hor qordor mplcu'crs.
Cur hcusohcld survoys urd r'orvows cí wcmor r 'ho slums huvo holpod 'c druw up qordor
dsuqqroqu'od sccc occrcmc prcílos urd 'c dor'íy 'ho WSS pruc'cos, ccrs'rur's, urd roods
cí 'hs dsudvur'uqod qrcup.
Tho du'u cclloc'od hus boor dcro ícr druwrq u sccc occrcmc prcílo cí 'ho c'os urd cí u sumplo
cí wcmor rospcrdor's r slums r 'ho ícur c'os urd ccmplomor'od by 'ho soccrdury du'u uvulublo
ícr 'ho whclo urbur urous cí 'hoso c'os urd r scmo cusos ícr 'ho urbur urous cí 'ho ccrcorrod
ds'rc's whoro du'u dsuqqroqu'od ícr ouch urbur cor'ro r 'ho ds'rc' s rc' uvulublo. A Prc|oc'
Propuru'cry Tochrcul Asss'urco (PPTA} r 2002 wus ccrduc'od by CHK, (STUP urd lP| s'udy ícr
AD8} ícr ur lr'oqru'od Urbur Dovolcpmor' Prc|oc' borq suppcr'od by AD8 r sx c'os cí MP
rcludrq 'hoso ícur c'os. Ths rcludod u hcusohcld survoy cí Tó00 hcusohclds r ouch cí 'hoso
c'os bosdos usrq uvulublo soccrdury du'u. Scmo cí 'ho hcusohcld prcílo du'u busod cr 'hs
survoy hus boor usod horo 'c supplomor' 'ho soccrdury du'u urd 'ho rowly ccrduc'od pur'cpu'cry
oxorcso r 'ho slums r 'hoso ícur c'os. Du'u hus ulsc boor cclloc'od cr wu'or uso urd krcwlodqo,
u'''udos urd pruc'cos - uvulubl'y, quur''y, quul'y cí WSS Sorvcos, ccs's, wu'or scurcos, wu'or
cclloc'cr urd s'cruqo, wu'or 'rurspcr', uso cí dcmos'c wu'or, dry souscr muruqomor', ccmmur'y
º
(dcmos'c} wu'or muruqomor' rospcrsbl'os. Smlurly, du'u hus boor cclloc'od cr sur'u'cr,
krcwlodqo, u'''udos urd pruc'cos, wcmor´s uccoss, ccr'rcl, ccrs'rur's roqurdrq prcduc'vo
roscurcos urd sorvco, pur'cpu'cr urd uvulublo crqursu'crs.
Tho ropcr' s prosor'od r ívo soc'crs. Tho írs' soc'cr rcludos 'ho dovolcpmor' ccr'ox' - lrdu r
MP urd 'ho ícur c'os r 'hs ccr'ox', 'ho Mllorrum Dovolcpmor' Cculs urd 'urqo's ícr 'ho
u''urmor' cí whch 'hs ussossmor' s 'ho írs' s'op 'c ícrmulu'o u s'ru'oqy, 'ho urdors'urdrqs cí 'ho
ccrcop' cí pcvor'y, qordor, qordor ussossmor' urd qordor murs'roumrq ícllcwod r 'hs rupd
ussossmor' urd 'ho írumowcrk cí 'hs urulyss urd 'ho mo'hcdclcqy udcp'od. Tho loqul, pclcy urd
rs''u'crul írumowcrk hus boor dscussod r 'ho rox' soc'cr lr 'ho 'hrd soc'cr wo soo 'ho ícur
c'os, 'hor sccc occrcmc prcílo us druwr írcm 'ho soccrdury du'u us woll us írcm 'ho hcusohcld
survoy, r'orvows, íccusod qrcup dscusscrs r 'ho soloc'od sumplo cí slum urous r 'ho ícur c'os
urd hqhlqh's cí 'hs prcílo ícr ouch c'y sopuru'oly ícr u pc'uro cí ouch cí 'hoso c'os.
Tho rox' soc'cr hus u do'ulod lcck u' wu'or urd sur'u'cr r 'ho ícur c'os omorqrq r 'ho du'u
cclloc'od r 'ho survoy us woll us r 'ho soccrdury scurcos ícllcwod by 'ho vccos cí wcmor r 'ho
slums r whch 'ho s'uu'cr, prcbloms, chullorqos, hcpos boqrrrqs cí solí holp r'u'vos uro
cup'urod. Frully, r 'ho íí'h soc'cr wo prosor' 'ho omorqrq ssuos urd ccrcorrs ícr u s'ru'oqy cí
qordor murs'roumrq ccrcorrs r wu'or urd sur'u'cr 'c muko bo''or lvos ícr 'hoso wcmor, 'c
huvo mcro oíícor' urd qordor írordly, prc pccr wu'or supply urd sur'u'cr prcqrummos ossor'ul
'c uchovo 'ho Mllorrum Dovolcpmor' Cculs.
7eum member dorq househo/d survey.
=LEC=JEC /-,-4
lN DEVELCPMENT CF VATEP AND SANlTATlCN lN ÜP8AN APEAS
2. Legal, Policy and Institutional Framework
The Constitution of India guarantees equality and non discrimination on any ground including sex or
gender. The Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles of state policy include political, civil, social
and economic freedoms, equality of opportunities and equality before law. The Indian state legislated
to fulfil the mandates and intent of these guarantees. Legislation on workers’ protection, equal and
minimum wages, maternity benefit etc., on the one hand, and laws against child marriage, practice
of dowry, sati, immoral traffic of women, laws on maintenance, divorce, marriage, succession, on
the other, have benefited women. The implementation and protection of such laws, however, is to be
seen in the context of social beliefs, practices which sometimes make even the women themselves
reluctant to seek the enforcement of rights available to them particularly when it is against their
family members.
Hence, the state continues to further reinforce the provisions of these laws. The recent initiatives of a
new law on Domestic Violence, amendment of the Hindu Succession Act are steps in this direction. The
Supreme Court in India has made major contribution to this process in its interpretation of the rights
given under the directive principles of State Policy in the Constitution, which are described as non
justiciable. The court decided that some of the entitlements even under directive principles like the state’s
duty to provide free and compulsory education to all children up to the age of 14 years within a period
of ten years (Article 45, one of the Directive Principles) as having the force of Fundamental Rights. It has
then led to an amendment to the Constitution to add such a Fundamental Right.
The Right to Information Act enacted in 2005 is another positive legislative step which will also
strengthen those seeking justice and protection of their rights. Women will find it useful. However,
admittedly women and women’s groups will have to continue to look at every legislation, policy and
programme to seek reinforcement of protection of women’s entitlements and support for
empowerment.
It is against this background that we briefly look at some of the legislation and policies which are
directly related to women’s role, and participation in urban governance, water and sanitation and
programmes and institutional structures for the poor and other citizens in the cities.
IN DEVELOPMENT OF WATER AND SANITATION IN URBAN AREAS
11
Navigating GENDER
12
In 1984 Government of Madhya Pradesh enacted a law “The Madhya Pradesh, Nagariya Kshetro
Ke Bhoomihin Vyakti (Pattadhariti Adhikaron Ka Pradan Kiya Jana) Adhiniyam giving lease hold rights
to landless person in respect of sites for dwelling house in urban areas stipulating that if such a
person was occupying such land, in April 1984 it will be deemed to have been settled with him up to
50 Sq m on a patta (lease deed). Such rights were not transferable. If such person was disposed of
his land, the Competent Officer was to restore such position and a person wrongfully dispossessing
such a person from this land was to be punished. This law was changed later. With
the latest change made in 2003, the date of possession for acquiring such right was changed up to
31
st
May, of 2003. It was also provided that if it was found that such a land was in possession of
someone other than a person who was given leasehold rights under this Act, he will be entitled to get
such lease hold rights by paying 1/
1/4
or 2 times the market value of this land. By an earlier
amendment it has already been enacted, that if a committee certified for removal of a slum for
resettlement elsewhere or in case of such land occupied by a person being part of a public park or
by the road side or between road and a basti, the person concerned could be removed and
relocated elsewhere with a fresh patta.
In this law there is no provision for giving pattas in the name of women and that is reflected in the
responses of our sample respondents in the slum areas. Most of them did not have the lease deed in
their names.
In the State Municipal Corporations Act, provision had been made for making mohallah (Locality)
committees with chairperson, vice-chairperson, treasurer and members. The elected corporator of
the area is member and patron of these communities. All the members and chairperson etc are to
be nominated by the minister in charge of the district on the proposal of the Collector of the district.
He will give “as far as may be” due representation to women, SC, ST and OBC social groups. Thus
these rules (Madhya Pradesh Nagar Palika Muhallah Samiti Gathan, Kritya, Shaktiya, tatha Karya
Sanchalan ki Prakriya Niyam 2001) do not adequately provide for a democratic election and
effective representation and voice of women. This is despite the fact that, as these rules mention, the
powers and functions of these committees related to monitoring grievances about sanitation, road,
drain, water supply, street light and waste disposal, co-operation with national programmes of health,
Women and Child Development, alleviation of urban poverty, etc.
Recently the State Government has been selectively following the policy of relocation and
rehabilitation of slums and using the Central Scheme of Valmiki Ambedkar Awas Yojana (VMBAY).
Valmiki Ambedkar Awas Yojana (VMBAY) is a central government scheme to provide housing to the
poor. It was launched in the state of MP in the year 2001. Under VMBAY scheme, an amount of Rs.
50, 000 is extended to a beneficiary in a city with more than 10 lakh population while in cities
having population less than 10 lakh, each beneficiary gets Rs. 40,000. Fifty percent of the amount is
central government grant while the rest could be taken as loan from HUDCO/other nationalized
banks, state government/Urban local bodies.
The primary objective of the state government’s initiative is said to be to provide better living
conditions to slum dwellers and enhance their quality of life. The slum dwellers are paid an amount
for immediate relocation expenses such as food, material for temporary shelter, etc. Government
either provides constructed houses or land plots at the alternative locations. The new locations are
13
Navigating GENDER
IN DEVELOPMENT OF WATER AND SANITATION IN URBAN AREAS
equipped with all the basic services such as water, surfaced roads and electricity. The houses as well
as land plots allotted measure 450 Sq ft. Such a programme is stated to have an effect of giving a
better life to relocated slum dwellers. Consequences of being away from their earlier livelihood
opportunities, children’s schools and other social costs have not figured in this decision.
India adopted a National Policy for Empowerment of women in the year 2001. The state of Madhya
Pradesh had a women’s policy in 1995-2000 for women’s empowerment, participation and benefits
in all programmes and all sectors. Some of the strategies included in it were
• Women headed households will be recognized and supported for all purposes.
• Government will ensure Women’s visibility in the data collection and statistical record
keeping of the State. This will involve the reorientation of data generation and
updation.
• The sensitization of elected members of the PRIs rural local bodies of panchayats and
Urban local self government bodies on gender issues, particularly on the issue of
violence against women.
• To ensure the equitable flow of credit and institutional finance to women in all sectors
including the home based and the informal.
• A reservation of 30% for women in all allotments of commercial and residential plots
made by local bodies, Housing Boards, Development authorities etc. in urban areas.
Young girls cleaning the lane.
14
Madhya Pradesh now has a new state policy for women 2002-2007 which has the vision to achieve:
• A just and equitable society free of structures of domination and subordination.
• Removal of all barriers to women’s access to resources and to institutional structures of
governance.
• Ensuring women and girl’s survival with autonomy, dignity and justice.
• Not to see women as a sector or a sub-sector of marginalised groups but as equal
citizens of the state.
• Active participation of women in governance for taking leadership to translate this
vision into reality, to turn women’s rights and capabilities into entitlements and to
facilitate their empowerment.
The five goals of this policy are: Survival of women and girls, Women’s Autonomy, Equity, Women’s
Dignity, Empowerment and Participation in governance.
The policy includes some action points, which are of relevance in the assessment in water and
Sanitation services. These are:
Compulsory association of women in management committees for sanitation activities in urban
areas, compulsory consultation of women in water conservation programmes and hand pump
management, sanitation projects with women’s active involvement in their decision making and all
institutions where women/girls are housed, work or study to have toilets by 2007.
A minimum of one-third committees have to be headed by women in the municipal bodies. There
has to be disaggregation of information system by gender analysis. Women’s visibility in data
collection – orientation, updation and presentation system is emphasised to incorporate gender
disaggregated data, continuous gender analysis and gender budgeting. Support to the capacity of
civil society groups and developing capacity of government staff on gender equity issues, has been
stipulated besides setting up of a State Resource Center for women.
The government of MP took a lead in pushing decentralization of responsibilities to urban and rural
local bodies in expansion of literacy and school education, institutionalizing public contribution e.g. in
educational institutions and paying user fees e.g. in state run hospitals. These funds are, however,
then controlled by nominated committees of legislators or other non-officials and officials and the
priorities for their use get distorted. Placing only persons of ruling groups through nominations then
lead to different public perceptions about their objectives.
15
The setting up of District Urban Development Agencies (DUDAs) in each of the four city districts,
like the other districts, provides a useful institution for taking up implementation of programmes for
urban poverty alleviation. These institutions are, however, generally limiting their present activities to
training for self-employment in business and services and assisting in accessing loans and subsidies
in structured programmes. These bodies have good potential to link with groups of local women’s
organizations and facilitating community based organizations to participate in water and sanitation
project activities.
The Municipal Corporation and water supply and sanitation offices of government in each of the
cities need strong women cells to enable incorporation of gender concerns in these services.
Political Participation
Madhya Pradesh has 29 members in the Lower House of Parliament and 11 in the Upper House.
Among the 29, two are women and one of them represents the urban constituency of Indore. She
has been involved with matters concerning women and can be positively associated with gendering
the process in WSS particularly in Indore. Among the 11 Upper House members there is only one-
woman member. She has strong links with developments in Gwalior. In the State Legislature there
are 19 women members. Only one of them is representing an urban constituency of Indore. None
of the others are representing any constituency in these cities.
The 74
th
Amendments to the Constitution of India in 1992 mandated at least one third of the
members in urban local bodies and one third of their mayors to be women only. This has been
incorporated in the State Law on Municipal Corporations to comply with this Constitutional provision.
Hence every five yearly election to these positions has to bring not less than one-third women. The
procedural operationalisation is by declaring a particular Corporation position by rotation as reserved
for election of a woman and then only women candidates can contest election for that position. At
present the positions of mayor are reserved for women in Indore and Jabalpur and the present
women mayors were elected for five years in 2005 elections. In 2010 any of the other Municipal
Corporations may have a woman mayor. Bhopal had a woman mayor from 1995 to 2005. Among
the corporators, Bhopal has 21 women out of 65, Gwalior 16 out of 60 members. Law has
mandated this one-third presence of women and this is observed. However, this does not necessarily
mean that women’s concerns, perspectives and needs have been given the focus and centrality
required for a pro poor gendered governance.
Some of the NGOs are working in the slums for providing different services to women but their
outreach is not very large. Even when they are operating in a slum, very few women other than
those who are directly associated as participants or beneficiaries know much about them.
Navigating GENDER
IN DEVELOPMENT OF WATER AND SANITATION IN URBAN AREAS
3. Introducing The Four Cities
The total population of the four cities is 4.9 million. The cities of Indore and Bhopal represent more
than half of the population of the four cities with over 1 million people in each of them. Jabalpur
comes close to this category with a population approaching 1 million. Urban population growth for
MP and India has been at an annual rate of around 3.1% over the decade of 1991-2001. The rate
of growth for these cities is slightly higher at 3.2%. However, this masks considerable variations
between them. Indore has shown a growth of over 3.7% in the last decade. Bhopal has grown at just
above the state’s growth rate, Jabalpur is just below, whereas Gwalior is growing at well below the
state level of growth.
These cities except Indore have shown declining rates of growth in the last 20 years. Bhopal grew
very quickly after it became the state capital in 1956 and more than doubled its population in the
decade 1951-61, but it has shown a gradually declining rate of growth since then, slowing more
markedly in the last decade from an annual rate of 5.8% in 1991 to a 3.7% growth rate now.
However growth rates for Jabalpur, Bhopal and especially Indore remain very high.
Bhopal is the second largest city in the State. When Bhopal emerged as the capital of new Madhya
Pradesh formed with reorganization of states in 1956 it became the starting point of the phenomenal
change in its demographic trend. During 1951-61 the population growth of the city was nearly
120%. Thereafter the population continued to grow rapidly before declining to 37% during 1991-
01 (Table 1). Bhopal also continues to have the after effects of the trauma of the industrial disaster of
Union Carbide MIC gas leakage in 1984. Despite the gap of 20 years, the scars and consequences
of this tragedy are being faced by a large section of the local population medically, psychologically
and economically. It has become a part of the local psyche particularly in the old ‘Walled’ city where
the effects of the disaster were centred. Women have faced the trauma and after effects even more
than their male family members as they had to bear the burden for the whole family, of health
consequences and of efforts to access the compensation given to victims, which was distributed
through judicial processes.
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18
Table1: Urban Population and Decadal Change in Bhopal.
Year Population (‘000 person) Decade % Change
1941 75.23
1951 102.33 1941-1951 36.02
1961 222.95 1951-1961 117.87
1971 384.86 1961-1971 72.62
1981 671.01 1971-1981 74.35
1991 1062.77 1981-1991 58.38
2001 1458.42 1991-2001 37.23
Table 2: Urban Population and Decadal Change in Gwalior.
Year Population (‘000 person) Decade % Change
1941 173.10
1951 241.58 1941-1951 39.56
1961 300.59 1951-1961 24.43
1971 406.14 1961-1971 35.11
1981 555.86 1971-1981 33.86
1991 717.78 1981-1991 29.13
2001 865.54 1991-2001 20.59
Table 3: Urban Population and Decadal Change in Indore.
Year Population (‘000 person) Decade % Change
1941 203.7
1951 310.86 1941-1951 52.61
1961 394.94 1951-1961 27.05
1971 560.94 1961-1971 42.03
1981 829.33 1971-1981 47.85
1991 1109.06 1981-1991 33.73
2001 1516.92 1991-2001 36.78
Table 4: Urban Population and Decadal Change in Jabalpur.
Year Population (‘000 person) Decade % Change
1941 178.33
1951 257.00 1941-1951 44.11
1961 367.01 1951-1961 42.81
1971 534.85 1961-1971 45.73
1981 759.30 1971-1981 41.59
1991 888.92 1981-1991 17.38
2001 1098.00 1991-2001 23.52
Source: Census of India
19
Gwalior is the fourth largest city in the state. The city’s decadal change in its population in 1991-01 was
less than the national average in the decade of 1991-2001. It was only 20.59% which is lower than even
the change in the earlier decades (Table 2). Gwalior’s economy has been suffering since late 80’s due to
closure of large industrial units with no new investments forthcoming. It is expected that the establishment
of the industrial growth centres like Malanpur in an adjacent district may lead to further employment
opportunities.
Indore is the largest city in the state. Its rate of growth, except in one decade (1981-91) has been
higher than the national average and was higher than the state average in 1991-2001 (Table 3).
The city is growing fast. The fast development and growth of industries within the city and
neighbouring areas is expected to continue to attract migration for better employment opportunities.
Jabalpur is the third largest city in the state. Population growth rate of this city was fast in the earlier
decades but in 1981-91 decadal growth declined to less than half of what it was in the previous
decades and than only increased slightly in 1991-2001 decade (Table 4). This phenomenon, inter
alia, reflects the fast rate of decline in the growth of Jabalpur’s economy.
Children pulling water on cycle.
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20
Table 5. Migrants to cities by reason for migration, Census 1991 (Percentage).
Migration Bhopal Gwalior Indore Jabalpur
M F M F M F M F
Total population 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100
Total migrants 38.5 41.8 19.6 32.6 28.5 36.5 25.9 33.9
Reasons for
migration
Employment 50.9 5.6 36.0 2.3 43.6 3.8 44.4 3.6
Business 5.7 0.1 7.1 0.1 8.6 0.7 7.0 1.0
Education 6.0 2.1 9.1 1.6 5.2 1.2 4.9 1.9
Family moved 24.8 34.1 25.0 20.6 23.1 21.5 25.9 27.8
Marriage 1.0 48.4 1.8 62.9 0.7 60.6 1.4 54.5
Natural calamities 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.1 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.3
Others 11.4 9.5 19.6 11.5 18.4 12.0 16.2 11.0
Migration
Data on migration available in the Census gives us rural-urban migration to these cities and the
reasons for this migration (Table 5). The data presented here from 1991 Census this is not yet
available for the 2001. Census shows highest migration in Bhopal and the lowest in Gwalior. Indore
has the second highest rate. The migration of women is higher than men. But if we see the reasons
for migration, the major reason for men is employment while for women it is marriage (48.4% in
Bhopal to 63% in Gwalior).
Our interviews of women in the slums indicate that a large majority of them had been living here for
more than 10 years and at least one fourth of them for more than twenty years. Only 15% of them
were here for five years or less. (Table 6) which shows that there is no trend of a large scale
inmigration to Bhopal.
21
Table 6. Slum households with stay in the present location.
Years since Bhopal Gwalior Indore Jabalpur Total
living here
0-5 11 18 5 7 51
5-10 16 14 14 10 54
10-15 26 10 25 16 77
15-20 25 27 23 26 101
20-25 10 11 20 10 51
25+ 12 20 13 21 66
Total 100 100 100 100 400
Table 7. Total Population, Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes Population (in Million)
in four cities.
City Total SC % ST %
population Population Population
Bhopal 1.5 0.2 12.4 0.04 3.0
Gwalior 0.9 0.1 16.8 0.01 1.6
Indore 1.5 0.2 14.0 0.04 2.7
Jabalpur 1.1 0.1 13.1 0.05 4.9
Source: Census of India 2001
Socio Economic Profile
The castes at the lower end of the social groups are identified and classified in India as Scheduled
Castes (SC) and the ethnic tribal groups are similarly classified as Scheduled Tribes (ST) in the Indian
Constitution for special policy support. The population of these weaker sections (SC + ST) is 15.4%
in Bhopal, 18.4% in Gwalior, 16,7% in Indore and 18% in Jabalpur (Table 7). The state and the city
managements have to ensure special attention to their needs.
Source: Household survey
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22
Sex Ratio
India and a number of its states have witnessed an adverse sex ratio for women (number of women
per one thousand men) and also a declining trend in this ratio. An associated feature is an adverse
sex ratio in the age group 0-6 years. These are matters of concern in any discussion of gender
issues as these reflect the neglect and discrimination and effect of practices and attitudes adverse to
women and girls. Madhya Pradesh and the four cities also share this feature. In 2001 MP has a sex
ratio of 920 in the total population and a sex ratio of 899 in the urban population. In the four cities,
the sex ratio is 898 in Bhopal, 861 in Gwalior, 904 in Indore and 893 in Jabalpur. So only Indore
has the sex ratio better than the sex ratio in urban MP. Gwalior has the lowest sex ratio among the
four cities as it shares this feature with the region in which it is located. The districts bordering
Gwalior and included in its administrative division have the lowest sex ratio in the whole state. The
child (0-6 years) sex ratio is also low here (Table 8).
Household Size
The household size in the two cities of Bhopal and Jabalpur is of 5.2 and in Indore it is 5.3. Only
Gwalior has a larger size of 5.7 (Table9).
Table 8. Population, Sex ratio of total population and of 0-6 years population in
four cities.
City Male Female Sex Ratio
(In Million) (In Million)
(Total (0-6
Population) Population)
Bhopal 0.8 0.7 898 929
Gwalior 0.5 0.4 861 837
Indore 0.8 0.7 904 896
Jabalpur 0.6 0.5 893 911
Source: Census of India 2001 paper 2.
Table 9. Households, Population and Household size in four cities.
City Households No. Population Household size
(In Million) (In Million)
Bhopal 0.3 1.5 5.2
Gwalior 0.2 0.9 5.7
Indore 0.3 1.5 5.3
Jabalpur 0.2 1.1 5.2
Source: Census of India 2001
23
Work Participation
Work participation rates, of men and women
and the difference between male and female
main and marginal workers, show the persisting
inequalities in economic and local attainments
(Table 10).
Women have a smaller share of main workers
than men and even in the marginal workers they
are small percentage (Table 11). .. ..
Table 10. Work participation rate.
City Work participation rate
Male Female
Bhopal 47.0 10.3
Gwalior 45.6 8.2
Indore 51.2 11.1
Jabalpur 48.0 11.5
Source: Census of India 2001
Table 11. Male, Female main workers and marginal workers
City Main Workers (%) Marginal Workers (%)
Male Female Male Female
Bhopal 43.0 8.5 4.0 1.9
Gwalior 42.4 6.7 3.3 1.4
Indore 48.0 9.3 3.2 1.8
Jabalpur 43.9 9.4 4.1 2.1
Source: Census of India 2001
Women waiting to draw water.
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24
Households with type of building material of house walls and flooring material show the other aspects
of socio-economic profile in these cities. While urban areas of Gwalior district have only 9.2%
houses with materials of less permanent nature and value, the other three district urban areas have
20% to 28% such houses (Table 12) thus indicating a relatively higher percentage of persons with
lower incomes.
The flooring material of households also show Gwalior (Urban) district with lower mud, bamboo
flooring than the other three districts (Table 13).
Table 12. Households with type of building material of house walls.
District No. of Grass, Thatch, Bamboo etc, G.I. Metal Asbestos
(Urban) households Plastic Polythene, Mud, sheets, Burnt brick,
Unburnt brick, Wood Stone Concrete
Bhopal 272728 57, 113 20.9% 2, 15, 528 79.0%
Gwalior 159810 14, 705 9.2% 1, 45, 074 90.8%
Indore 296973 60, 541 20.4% 2, 36, 195 79.5%
Jabalpur 220829 63, 366 28.7% 1, 57, 435 71.3%
Source: Census of India 2001
Table 13. Households by flooring material in houses.
District (Urban) No. of Mud, Wood Brick, Stone,
households and Bamboo Cement, Mosaic
Bhopal 2,72,728 54,581 20.0% 2,77,666 79.8%
Gwalior 1,59,810 23,440 14.7% 1,36,053 85.1%
Indore 2,96,973 6,270 21% 2,38,593 80.3%
Jabalpur 2,20,829 72,926 33.0% 1,47,530 66.8%
Source: Census of India 2001
25
Table 14. Gender Gap in Literacy.
City Literacy rate (%)
Male (%) Female (%) Gender gap in literacy
Bhopal 85.5 73.3 12.2
Gwalior 87.8 71.2 16.6
Indore 89.0 76.4 12.6
Jabalpur 90.4 78.7 11.7
Source: Census of India 2001
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Literacy
The Gender gap in literacy in the state is higher than in the country in both urban and rural areas.
These four cities fare better than the state in this respect. The literacy gap in Gwalior is at the same
level as the all India average and in the other three cities it is even lower (Table 14)
Employment
The PPTA socio-economic survey attempted to provide some key employment data, including
employment in the formal and informal sectors and type of employment by skill type. Their results
show that the average proportion of main income earners in formal employment across the cities is
62% with the remaining 38% in informal employment. The proportion of formal employment is
much lower in Indore at 36%; it is much higher in Gwalior and Bhopal at 79% and 77% respectively
(Table 15).
26
We go beyond hills, have to stand of and on, we fear teasing by man – Radha Bai.
T TT TTable 15: Informal Employment able 15: Informal Employment able 15: Informal Employment able 15: Informal Employment able 15: Informal Employment
City % Household with Main Income Earner
in Informal/Formal Employment
Informal Formal
Bhopal 23.3 76.7
Gwalior 21.5 78.5
Indore 63.7 36.3
Jabalpur 30.7 69.3
Source: PPTA Household survey
A high proportion of households have to rely on informal employment. In Indore in particular this
sector makes a significant contribution to the economy.
This survey also indicated that around 6% of main income earners had more than one job. This was
higher in Jabalpur at 7%. In terms of occupations, 75% of the main income earners in the
population were in clerical, sales or service sector, and 8% were in professional or managerial
occupations. Only 3% of the population described the household’s main income earner to be in
agriculture or production. 14% of income earners did not fit into any of these categories – including
22% of main income earners in Gwalior.
27
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Health
The four cities we are assessing have a higher visibility of health and medical institutions. All the four
cities have medical colleges with attached hospitals. Bhopal, in addition, also has a super specialty
hospital created as a part of settlement of the case of liability of the Union Carbide for the industrial
tragedy in 1984 and its after effects. It is run by a high-powered trust created under the direction of
the Supreme Court of India. There is also a network of medical institutions including two hospitals
and dispensaries which are focused on the health needs of people affected by the Union Carbide
disaster. All the four cities and among them Indore and Bhopal in particular has attractive private
investment in medical institutions. However, all these institutions also serve as referral institutions of
the rural areas and for other smaller urban areas of the concerned districts.
In the household survey we try to see the access of slum dwellers to these services. Two trends were
significant. More number of the respondents reported using the services of private hospitals, private
doctors and nursing home than the government hospitals. The former, of course, also includes the
practioners Indian Systems of Medicine who are more cost effective. Secondly, most of the
respondents reported being able to access services located within less than 1 km. distance, more
than 30% of the respondents reported that they have to go for longer distance.
The respondents reported monthly expenditure on medical expenses ranging from less than Rs. 50
to more than Rs. 500/-. Here, majority of the respondents 65% in Gwalior and 75% in Bhopal
reported expenses from Rs. 50 to 250 per month those in Indore and Jabalpur to spent within this
limit were about 40% but a larger number – 15 to 20% spent within Rs. 250 to Rs. 500 per month.
This percentage was less in Bhopal and Gwalior.
28
Graph 1. Anganwadi Centres (AWC) in slum areas of four cities.
Number of Anganwadi Centres
Table 16. Children attending Anganwadi centres in slum areas
City Attending Anganwadi Centre
Yes No No children No anganwadi Not reported Total
of the age Centre
Bhopal 25 42 21 - 12 100
Gwalior 11 38 47 3 1 100
Indore 17 53 13 3 14 100
Jabalpur 17 21 46 2 14 100
Total 70 154 127 8 41 400
Nutrition
The urban slums have anganwadi centres under a National Integrated Child Development Services
Programme in which a package of services are available for children below 6 years, including
supplementary nutrition, immunization, pre school education. The data shows that in each of the four
cities these centres are available (Graph 1). Bhopal has a substantially larger number of these
centres partly due to the state’s response to the needs of children in the slums in the aftermath of the
1984 Bhopal Gas Tragedy. It is, therefore, surprising that less that one fifth of the respondents in our
survey reported that their children were going to these centres. Even if we leave the almost one third
of respondents who do not have children of less than 5 years age who go to these centres this is a
low coverage of needy children.
Source: Household survey
Source: Household survey
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
Bhopal Gwalior Indore Jabalpur
29
The State Government has been conducting a special campaign of ‘bal sanjivani’ to identify children
with malnutrition for giving them special attention. The results of the sixth and the latest campaign
(Table 17). Show that in some of the ICDS project areas in these cities, female children are more in
the malnutrition grade e.g. in Gwalior in grade 1 and in project area of Banganga in Bhopal in the
same grade. Overall, of course the gender difference is not very significant
Table 17 Malnutrition among children age 0-5 years in slum areas
Anganwadi Normal% Grade 1% Grade 2% Grade 3 Grade 4
Project in
(Slums) M F M F M F M F M F
Bhopal
Chandbad 59.9 57.8 24.9 25.3 14.0 15.5 1.0 1.2 0.2 0.1
J.P. Nagar 47.8 46.9 33.9 33.2 17.4 18.9 0.7 0.7 0.2 0.3
Barkhedi 40.6 39.8 35.5 34.8 23.0 24.3 0.8 0.9 0.1 0.2
Motia Park 42.2 43.1 37.3 37.0 20.0 20.4 0.3 0.5 0.2 0.0
Banganga 48.7 48.2 31.2 38.7 17.7 16.6 1.3 1.3 0.2 0.1
Gwalior City-1 53.2 35.1 15.6 0.4 0.7
Gwalior City-2 50.3 45.9 35.8 37.0 12.4 14.4 0.9 1.5 0.6 0.2
Indore Urban 2 41.8 42.8 32.9 35.6 19.6 19.9 0.6 1.3 0.1 0.2
Indore City 50.7 46.5 35.6 37.4 12.7 14.4 0.9 1.5 0.1 0.2
Jabalpur 1 59.3 58.5 31.7 31.5 8.8 9.7 0.2 0.3 - -
Jabalpur 2 48.2 43.9 38.1 38.8 12.9 16.2 0.7 0 0.1 0.1
Source: Directorate of Women and Child Development, GoM.P.
Crimes against women
Crimes against women in the country increased in incidence from 5.92% in 1995 to 35.16% in
2002. These include rape, molestation, torture, kidnapping and abduction, sexual harassment,
dowry deaths, violation of Dowry Prohibition Act, offences under Indecent Representation of Women
(Prohibition) Act and under Sati Prevention Act. Women are also victims of other crimes like murder,
robbery, cheating etc. like men are but only these offences which are directed specifically against
women are analysed as crimes against women. As we see, these are under the Indian Penal Code,
which is the major criminal law in India and under special and local laws enacted to address social
practices like dowry, child marriages, sati which are adverse to women and commercial onslaughts
in indecent representation of women.
In 2002 the crimes against women in India included torture (33.3%), molestation (23%), rape
(11.1%), kidnapping and abduction (9.8%), immoral traffic (7.6%), sexual harassment (6.9%),
dowry deaths (4.6%). Others accounted for the rest. In the state of M.P. there were torture 20.4%,
molestation 46.6%, rape 18.9%, kidnapping 4.2%, immoral trafficking 0.1%, sexual harassment
5.1% and dowry death 4.4%. (Crime in India 2002 – National Crime Records Bureau, MHA, GOI).
State government has a special cell to look at crimes against women and against weaker sections of
SC and ST. There are also special women’s police stations in all the four cities.
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30
In the urban areas, the crimes against women have shown an increasing trend. In M.P. in 2003 the
two cities of Bhopal and Indore together show 1947 crimes against women as against 692 in 2002.
In 2005, in the first 7 months the number of these crimes (Table 18) present an area of serious
concern.
Table 18: Crimes against women in four cities (January-July, 2005)
Bhopal Gwalior Indore Jabalpur
Murder 10 7 8 3
Attempt to murder 2 4 9 4
Hurt 166 60 93 157
Grievous hurt 42 13 8 19
Molestation 126 108 196 180
Kidnapping 19 23 29 13
Rape 52 37 58 59
Suicide due to torture 10 7 17 19
Dowry death 9 9 16 15
Torture 76 59 183 90
Criminal intimidation 221 54 563 101
Robbery 23 7 6 16
Dowry Act 0 0 1 8
Arson 0 2 4 10
Total 756 390 1191 694
Source: Director General of Police, MP
Domestic Violence
Domestic violence is not a phenomenon limited to any section – urban, rural, rich or poor, educated
or otherwise. It is however, known to be substantially under a wrap with women’s silence fearing
family reputation being adversely affected or for a fear of further battering. They do not easily speak
about it. Recent efforts by women’s groups have brought the issue in the public domain and made it
easier for women to get social support and help One third of our respondents reported having faced
domestic violence (Graph 2) and mainly from their husbands. The main reasons for this violence are
stated as alcoholism and poverty, which lead to tension and conflict (Graph 3). The resort to
violence, of course, becomes a manifestation of an assertion of masculinity and power. Efforts to
mobilize women’s groups can be effective in such cases.
31
Graph 2. Women in slums reporting being subjected to domestic violence.
Graph 3. Women in slums reporting reasons for domestic violence.
Source: Household survey
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Bhopal Gwalior Indore Jabalpur
Beaten/Threatened No Voilence
Source: Household survey
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20
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
Bhopal Gwalior Indore Jabalpur
Alcoholism Gambling Dowry Poverty Want of money
32
Education
The school infrastructure with drinking water and toilets is important for looking at gender issues. The
primary and middle schools for education up to 14 years of age are important centres for basic
education. Here the information for the four cities (Graph 4) shows that the state has to make efforts
to have these facilities in all schools. The recent initiatives under ‘ Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan’ campaign
for universal elementary education has a focus on looking at these services too and will improve the
situation. Another important issue is of still continuing gender gap in school enrollment (Graph 5)
and drop out rates. Our household survey indicated (Table 19) that Bhopal and Jabalpur have a
larger percentage of girls than boys who were not in school. In Gwalior there was no difference
among boys and girls. In Indore the percentage of such girls was substantially less than boys.
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0
Jabalpur Gwalior Bhopal Indore
Total schools Drinking water Toilet facility Schools with toilet for girls
Graph 4. Primary/Middle schools with drinking water, toilets, separate toilets for girls.
Primary Middle Primary Middle Primary Middle Primary Middle
Source: School education offices in four cities
33
Graph 5. Gender gap in enrollment of children in schools.
Table 19. Number of children of school going age and “not in school” children in slums
of four cities.
City M/F Bhopal Gwalior Indore Jabalpur
Children of school going age M 92 92 79 83
F 84 88 83 85
Children going to school M 77 76 61 79
F 70 72 67 74
Children not in school M 15 16 28 4
F 14 16 16 11
Out of school Children% M 16.3 17.4 35.4 4.8
F 16.7 16.3 19.3 12.9
Source: Household survey
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Source: School education offices in four cities
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
Bhopal Gwalior Indore Jabalpur
Primary Middle High School Higher School
P
e
r
c
e
n
t
a
g
e
34
Time disposition
Our household survey sought to capture the time disposition of women and men in the slums. As we
see, a majority of women and men spend 5-8 hrs. or more in earning livelihood. (Tables 20 and
21). In addition women have to spend time in cooking (table 22). Any strategy of gender
mainstreaming will have to see how the income earning opportunities can be used by these women
by having to spend less time and money on getting water and by providing a reasonably secure, safe
and enabling environment.
Table 21. Number of men in slums spending daily time in earning livelihood.
City <5 hours 5-8 9-10 10 hours Not applicable Total
hours hours and more not reported Working Not Working
Bhopal 6 26 15 31 2 88 12
Gwalior 2 62 10 6 1 90 10
Indore 14 14 29 11 - 89 11
Jabalpur 10 16 10 12 2 82 18
Total 32 118 64 60 5 349 51
Table 20. Number of women in slums spending time daily in earning livelihood.
City <5 hours 5-8 9-10 10 hours Not applicable Total
hours hours and more not reported Working Not Working
Bhopal 4 31 7 9 - 51 49
Gwalior 8 22 7 2 2 41 59
Indore 20 16 9 2 5 52 48
Jabalpur 17 26 7 11 3 64 36
Total 49 95 30 24 10 208 192
Table 22. Number of women in slums spending time daily in cooking.
City <1 hours 1-2 hours 2-3 hours 3 hours Not applicable Total
and more not reported
Bhopal 8 46 22 2 22 100
Gwalior 13 44 19 1 23 100
Indore 7 51 25 - 17 100
Jabalpur 8 41 9 4 38 100
Total 36 182 75 7 100 400
35
Participation in Government Schemes
There is virtually no participation reported in Government schemes and programmes whether
related to water and sanitation or other government schemes. Only 22 women among the 400
respondents reported participation in WSS, that too mainly in Indore and Jabalpur. Only 19 reported
participation in other government schemes, that too in these two cities. This is despite the ongoing
programmes of Ayodhya Basti and Slum networking in selected slums in these cities for improvement
of infrastructure and basic services. There is a whole process involved in involving the communities
and women in particular which in the case of poor women in particular, also means to structure the
effort according to their convenience due to livelihood pre occupation. It requires strong effort for
state civil society partnership in each city.
Intra family decision making
The six graphs here (6 to 11) based on household survey show the role of women in the slums in
intra family decision making in different matters ranging from purchase of food, clothes, ornaments
to children’s education, immunization and performing of social functions. In all kinds of purchases
about one third or more reported joint decision making by wife and husband. In education too, one
third of the respondents reported joint decision-making but in immunization more women reported
decision by themselves. In all matters about one fourth of them reported decision by the husband
only and one fifth to more than one third of respondents reported decision being taken by
themselves. So about 60% or more of the respondents were either participating in the decision
making with their husbands were taking decisions themselves.
Team member recording responses of women.
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36
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Bhopal Gwalior Indore Jabalpur
Husband Wife Both Other male Other female
Graph 6. Decision makers in the slum households about purchase of food
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Bhopal Gwalior Indore Jabalpur
Husband Wife Both Other male Other female
Graph 7. Decision makers in the slum households about purchase of clothes
37
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
Bhopal Gwalior Indore Jabalpur
Husband Wife Both Other male Other female
Graph 8. Decision makers in the slum households about purchase of ornaments
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
Bhopal Gwalior Indore Jabalpur
Husband Wife Both Other male Other female
Graph 9. Decision makers in the slum households about education of children
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38
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Bhopal Gwalior Indore Jabalpur
Husband Wife Both Other male Other female
Graph 10. Decision makers in the slum households about immunisation of children
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Bhopal Gwalior Indore Jabalpur
Husband Wife Both Other male Other female
Graph 11. Decision makers in the slum households about performing social ceremony
39
These trends in decision-making are interesting and encouraging but we also note that these all are
matters in the private domain. When the issue is in the public domain e.g. when discussions were
organized in the slums man made it very clear that they knew the answers and they would give
suggestions even if it was to say that women should be organized. It is on the same lines as when
we visited a village to ask why the women panchayat leader had not come to the programme
organized that day, the husband told us “I have already sent her to attend your programme.
I always tell her to do so”.
Graph 12. Working Mahila Mandal/SHGs/Women's Organisations in Slum areas
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
Working Mahila
Mandal
No Mahila
Mandal
Working
SHG
No SHG
Bhopal Gwalior Indore Jabalpur
Working Women’s
Organisation
No Women’s
Organisation
Organisation Working in the slums
Very few organizations were reported to be working in sample slums. Only 20 respondents
reported Mahila Mandals, 6 reported Self Help Groups and 49 reported Women’s Organisations
working in the four cities. Among the cities, Bhopal had 8 Mahila Mandals, 5 Self Help Groups and
2 Women’s Organisations. Gwalior had no Mahila Mandals, 2 Self Help Groups and 1 Women’s
Organisations. Jabalpur also had 7 Mahila Mandals, 2 Self help groups and 12 Women’s
organisations respectively. Only Indore had 5 Mahila Mandals, 51 Self Help Groups and 24
Women’s Organisations. (Graph 12)
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IN DEVELOPMENT OF WATER AND SANITATION IN URBAN AREAS
40
Slums in the four cities
The generic definition of slums suggests that a slum is: “Characterized as having inadequate
housing and basic services” (UN Habitat. “The challenge of slums”: Global Report on Human
Settlements, 2003). In India “A slum refers to an area or a situation and does not constitute
building. Secondly, it can be identified by a combination of physical attributes and not with
reference to any single attribute. Thirdly, there is a considerable range of variation in regard to the
manifestations of each of the physical attributes. The main physical attributes of a slum are
substandard houses, high density and congestion, over-crowding, insanitary conditions, absence of
basic amenities like water supply, drainage, sewerage and clearance of garbage (The 1991
Census of India.)
Since the pro-poor focus of this exercise would mean that we have more focus on the profile of the
slum population in these four cities we see here the sex ratio, literacy gap, child sex ratio in the
slums and then move to see data on poverty and vulnerability.
Table 24: Urban Population and Sex Ratio In Slums In Four Cities
Cities Urban Slum Area
Population Population Slum Population
as percentage of
Urban Population Sex Ratio
Bhopal (N.N) 14, 33, 875 1, 26, 346 8.81 906
Gwalior (N.N) 8, 26, 919 1, 93, 635 23.42 867
Indore (N.N) 15, 97, 441 2, 59, 577 16.25 902
Jabalpur (N.N) 9, 51, 469 2, 75, 454 28.95 907
Jabalpur Cantt. 66, 482 6, 680 10.05 928
Table 23: Slums in MP; Sex ratio and Gender gap in literacy 2001
Madhya India
Pradesh
Slum Population as percentage of 24.31 14.1
Urban Population of Madhya Pradesh.
Sex Ratio in Slum Areas. 904 875
Juvenile Sex Ratio in Slum Areas. 903 918
Literacy Rate in Slum Areas.
Persons 75.7 73.7
Male 84.7 81.4
Female 65.7 65.0
Gender gap in literacy 9% 6.4%
Source: MP Human Development Report 2002
Note: NN-Nagar Nigam (Municipal Corporation) Cannt.-Cantonment Board
Source: MP Human Development Report, 2002
41
Table 25: Child Sex Ratio, Literacy Rate in Slums in Four Cities
Towns Slum Area Literacy Rate in Slum Area %
Population Juvenile Urban Persons Male Female
in age Sex Ratio Literacy %
group 0-6
Bhopal (N.N) 22, 305 944 80.12 66.23 75.83 55.55
Gwalior (N.N) 28, 329 837 80.62 72.91 83.04 61.3
Indore (N.N) 36, 490 903 82.14 79.82 88.04 70.71
Jabalpur (N.N) 35, 409 927 84.76 81.15 87.58 74.03
Jabalpur Cantt. 785 1071 92.49 86.01 93.91 77.33
Poverty and vulnerability
The PPTA (GHK, STUP and IPE study for ADB) tried to provide a more detailed profile of the poor. It
sought to identify differences amongst poor households, particularly to identify what typifies
vulnerability and the poorest of the poor, and considers their relative access to urban services.
Within the four cities, Jabalpur, has higher than national average slum populations at over 28%.
Indore and Bhopal have relatively low proportions. This may reflect different definitions of slum
populations. The other widely used measure of poverty is the Below Poverty Line (BPL) population.
The PPTA analysis estimated the BPL proportion of households in each city population based on the
income figures given by the households themselves in their household survey.
Based on the Madhya Pradesh Poverty Line of Rs. 365 per capita per month, the survey indicated
average % of BPL households in the population of the cities in its survey estimated at 15.7%.
The derived BPL rates for each city, using the 1999/2000 Poverty Line, shows that all cities except
Bhopal, Gwalior and Jabalpur have BPL populations above 25%. Using the Government of Madhya
Pradesh Poverty Line, Gwalior and Jabalpur have the lowest at around 10% BPL households.
Poverty is experienced through a variety of dimensions of which low income is only one. Within the
poor, there are important differences in depths of poverty, the ability of poor households to
graduate from poverty and the relative vulnerability of different groups to witness risks to livelihood
such as unemployment, sickness and eviction. Effective poverty reduction programmes need to be
able to differentiate these groups and design appropriate and targeted responses. A typology of
three groups defined by a recent Asian Development Bank (ADB) TA has categories of.
Transitional Poor – households with monthly per capita income between the Poverty Line and 1.5
times the Poverty Line, likely to own productive assets and have access to basic services. They move
in and out of poverty depending on particular and periodic circumstance.
Intermediate Poor – –– –– households with income between half the Poverty Line and the PL itself, have
limited access to basic services.
Navigating GENDER
IN DEVELOPMENT OF WATER AND SANITATION IN URBAN AREAS
Source: MP Human Development Report 2002.
42
Core Poor – –– –– households with income less than half of the Poverty Line and who live in extreme
poverty and vulnerability.
The PPTA household survey showed that these groups total between 30 and 55% of the total city
households, averaging for the four cities at around 36%. In Bhopal and Jabalpur, the proportion of
core and intermediate poor was high in comparison with the transitional poor.
Dependency ratios reflect this trend showing much higher levels of dependency in intermediate
poor and especially core poor households. Jabalpur and Indore have between 1.5 and 2
dependents per 18-65 year old adult.
There are high proportion of poor households, engaged in informal employment. Highest levels are
in Jabalpur where there is relatively low average informal employment level across non-poor
income groups. Overall, informal employment is most prevalent in Core and Intermediate
households in each city. Over 80% of Core Poor households in Indore, Jabalpur are engaged in
informal employment.
Our survey household in four cities gives a qualitative profile of the slum population with a focus on
articulation of the needs, challenges and suggestions of the women who were the respondents in
this survey. They were also the participants in at least one focus group discussion (FGD) in each
slum. We give the numbers in % coming up on various responses, which must be viewed in the light
of the size of sample.
Surveyed households had a total population of 2371 (Table 40). In all the cities except Gwalior, sex
ratio in these populations was better than in the total population of these cities.
15% of these households were female headed with 10% in Bhopal, 14% in Gwalior, 16% in Indore
and 21% in Jabalpur. Almost all respondents were married women with 4 to 10 widowed and 1 to
3 separated women in each city.
Table 26: Surveyed population in slums in four cities
City Male Female Total
Bhopal 322 303 625
Gwalior 324 261 585
Indore 290 316 606
Jabalpur 276 279 555
Total 1212 1159 2371
43
Age at Marriage
More than half of the respondents in each of the cities were married before the legal age of
18 years for marriage with 3 to 27% married by the age of 21 years. Among their husbands too,
42 to 56 % in each city were married before the legal age of marriage (21 years). This trend of
child marriages is higher in Gwalior and Jabalpur than in the other two cities.
Graph 13. Age at Marriage of Respondents in surveyed slums.
Graph 14. Age at Marriage of spouse of respondents in surveyed slums
T
o
t
a
l

N
u
m
b
e
r

o
f

R
e
s
p
o
n
d
e
n
t
s
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Bhopal Gwalior Indore Jabalpur
12 years and less 13-16 years 17 - 20 years 21-24 years 25-29 years 30+
12 years age and less 13-16 years 17 - 20 years 21-25 years
T
o
t
a
l

N
u
m
b
e
r

o
f

R
e
s
p
o
n
d
e
n
t
s
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Bhopal Gwalior Indore Jabalpur
Age In Years
49
58
39
3
27
79
19
2
13
56
39
5
3
66
31
2
Navigating GENDER
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44
Land Rights
In 1984 state law on granting of lease rights of houseless in occupation of land in urban areas
stipulated giving patta up to 50 sq. meters of occupied land to those in occupation on 10
th
April
1984. later this law was amended to give such household rights on plots to those in occupation up
to May 31, 1998. However 131 of the 400 households, almost one third of the respondents in our
survey, reported living with unauthorized occupation of land. Besides, despite a state government
policy of giving lease deeds, of any government. land distributed or settled in favour of any family,
to the woman in the family, only 26 women i.e. less than seven percent of the women had been
given the ‘patta’ lease deeds in their names (Graph 20).
Graph 15. Land Rights of house site land in surveyed slums
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Other members Unspecified Unauthorised Wife Husband
Land Right of person
Bhopal Gwalior Indore Jabalpur
Occupation and Income
A little less than 50% (187 or 47%) of the respondents from 38% in Bhopal to 54% in Jabalpur
reported being economically active. Others reported that they were housewives. Of those who are
reporting working, almost all of them in the four cities are engaged in the informal sector jobs or
occupations. Only 2% reported being in formal sector jobs. The same is the position of other
female members of the household. Their activities include domestic service, rag picking, wage
labour, tailoring, bamboo workers etc.
Another significant feature is seen in the income levels of male and female members of the
households. The male members in the household also are over-whelmingly in informal sector with
activities ranging from rag picking, wage labour to tailoring. Some women are not able to engage
in economic activities due to the time they have to devote not only to other household work but also
45
to work relating to water. They are able to earn less than their male household members as more
of them have lower income levels than men. It also reflects on how women’s work and its
remuneration is perceived. When they are working in other households or producing certain goods
and services they are paid less than the work done by male members.
Among the 210 households where the respondents have reported having children age 6 to 18
years 50 have reported their children working and getting their income. These are more in
Gwalior and Jabalpur than in Bhopal and Indore cities.
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46
Profile of Four Cities: Highlights
Socio-economic Profile
Bhopal Gwalior Indore Jabalpur
Population (in million) 1.4 0.8 1.5 1.1
S.C population % 12.4 16.8 14.0 13.1
S.T population % 3.0 1.6 2.7 4.5
Slum Population % 8.8 23.4 16.2 29.0
Number Of Slums 184 133 218 320
Sex Ratio 898 861 904 893
Child sex ratio 929 837 896 911
Sex ratio in slums 906 867 902 907
Child sex ratio in slums 944 837 903 927
Migration %
Male 38.5 19.6 28.5 25.9
Female 41.8 32.6 36.5 33.9
Main reasons for migration %
Male (employment) 50.9 36.0 43.6 44.4
Female (Marriage) 48.4 62.9 60.6 54.5
Household Size 5.2 5.7 5.3 5.2
Schools
Primary 132 309 375 1121
Middle 63 98 112 958
Primary schools
With drinking water facility 107 112 360 803
With toilets 40 123 80 780
With girls toilets 34 0 35 312
Middle schools
With drinking water facility 20 56 104 200
With toilets 19 59 84 385
With girls toilets 7 0 42 154
Out of school Children in slums %
Boys 16.3 17.4 35.4 4.8
Girls 16.7 16.3 19.3 12.9
Gender gap in Literacy 12.2 16.6 12.6 11.7
Gender gap in school enrollment
Primary 12.0 10.6 4.7 13.2
Middle 15.3 3.1 17.7 8.5
High School 23.5 39.5 2.5 24.4
Higher Secondary 16.4 37.2 19.5 29.7
Number of Anganwadi Centres 699 394 301 264
Children attending Anganwadi Centres% 25 11 17 17
Work participation rate
Male 47 45.6 51.2 48.0
Female 10.3 8.2 11.1 11.5
47
Main Workers %
Male 43 42.4 48.0 43.9
Female 8.5 6.7 9.3 9.4
Marginal Workers %
Male 4.0 3.3 3.2 4.1
Female 1.9 1.4 1.8 2.1
Land Rights in slum Household surveyed
In Husband’s name 13 5 48 28
In Wife’s name 5 3 14 4
Unauthorized 32 73 18 8
Intra family Decision making by
(1) About purchase of land
Husband 31 32 13 22
Wife 20 51 49 31
Both 43 12 33 37
(2) About education of children
Husband 24 34 9 17
Wife 12 24 33 22
Both 46 21 38 32
(3) About immunization of children
Husband 10 15 8 8
Wife 23 50 35 36
Both 34 13 44 14
(4) About purchase of ornaments
Husband 22 27 4 8
Wife 20 22 29 25
Both 37 39 30 35
(5) About purchase of clothes
Husband 30 33 13 14
Wife 18 25 33 29
Both 44 33 48 42
(6) About social ceremony
Husband 21 19 6 10
Wife 16 18 30 22
Both 49 50 50 40
Crime against women (January to July 2005) 756 390 1141 694
Domestic violence % women reporting 30 34 38 34
Main reasons for domestic violence
Alcoholism 8 16 19 12
Poverty 14 6 6 7
Bhopal Gwalior Indore Jabalpur
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IN DEVELOPMENT OF WATER AND SANITATION IN URBAN AREAS
4. Wulor und Sunilulion
Tho lulosl consus in 200T givos iníormulion on lho housoholds wilh drinking wulor sourco und ils
loculion in lho urbun urous oí ouch dislricl. ll ulso givo iníormulion on uvuilubilily oí bulhrooms,
loilols, druinugo olc. ln ouch oí lho íour dislricl in which lhoso íour cilios uro loculod lhoso cilios
uccounl íor u mu|or shuro oí lho urbun popululion íor inslunco º8.4º oí urbun popululion oí
8hopul dislricl is in 8hopul cily. ln Gwulior dislricl 88º oí urbun popululion is in Gwulior cily. ln
lndoro und 1ubulpur dislricls lho porconlugo in lho muin cily is 85º und 8º.óº rospoclivoly. Honco
wo luko lhis dulu us u good upproximulion íor lho siluulion in lhoso íour cilios und prosonl lho dulu
horo.
AvoiIobiIity of drinking woter
Woter
Gruph Tó shows lho loculion und uccoss oí drinking wulor sourcos in lho urbun urous oí lho
concornod íour dislricls. lí wo soo il in lho conloxl oí ull urbun urous in lho slulo, 55.2º oí lho
housoholds hud lho wulor sourco loculod wilhin lho promisos 2º.5º nour lho promisos und T5.3º
uwuy írom lho promisos.
ln lho concornod íour dislricls, 8hopul hud 57.5º, Gwulior 74.4º, lndoro óT.7º und 1ubulpur
5T.7º housoholds wilh loculion oí lho wulor sourco wilhin lho promisos. ln 8hopul 30º, Gwulior
T8º, lndoro 25.5º und 1ubulpur 3T.5º housoholds hud lho sourco nour lho promisos. T2.5º in
8hopul, 7.5º in Gwulior, T2.8º in lndoro und Tó.8º in 1ubulpur hud lho wulor sourco uwuy írom
lho housos.
=LEC=JEC /-,-4
lM DEVELCPMEMl CF VAlER AMD SAMllAllCM lM ÜRBAM AREAS

50
ll is ulso inlorosling lo soo lho lypo oí wulor sourco us roporlod in lho housohold survoy. Whilo in
8hopul 82º oí lho lolul wulor sourcos woro lups oí pipod wulor supply, in lho olhor lhroo cilios
lhoso rungod bolwoon 73º und 7óº. Similurly, whilo 8hopul und lndoro hud 8º und ó.5º hund
pumps, lho olhor lwo cilios Gwulior hud TT.4º und 1ubulpur hud T5º. Tho lhird signiíicunl sourco
oí lubowoll wus 5 lo 7º bul in lndoro T8º oí lho housoholds hud lubo wolls und hulí oí lhom woro
wilhin lho promisos.
Cur housohold survoy soughl iníormulion uboul lho ugoncy supplying wulor, lho íucilily uvuilublo in
houso íor wulor supply und lho sourco oí wulor supply uccossod by slum dwollors oulsido lho slums.
(Tublos 27, 28 und 2º}. As wo soo, il is muinly lho Municipul Corporulion which is supplying wulor.
An ovorwholming mu|orily doos nol huvo lhis íucilily in lho houso (Tublo 28}. Tho wulor sourco
uccossod oulsido lho slum is muinly lups (Tublo 2º}
ln lho housohold survoy un oííorl wus mudo lo idonliíy lho porsons, inslilulions und uulhorilios who
woro rosponsiblo íor muinluining wulor lunks und public lups und ulso lo soo ií lho communily
purliculurly womon woro givon uny rolo. Tho rosponsos showod lhul lho rosponsibilily und uulhorily
wus ulmosl complololy wilh lho Municipul Corporulions und Wulor supply dopurlmonl. Cnly T4
rospondonls und lhis loo muinly in lndoro roporlod somo rolo íor locul porsons und NGCs (Tublo 27}.
80
70
ó0
50
40
30
20
T0
0
8hopul Gwulior lndoro 1ubulpur
Groph 16. HousehoId by Iocotion of source of drinking woter (Fercentoge)
Awuy Nour promisos Wilhin promisos
TobIe 27. Agency of woter suppIy to househoIds in sIums in four cities
City MunicipoI Frivote FHE Others TotoI
Corporotion Agency
8hopul 8ó 2 T TT T00
Gwulior 78 - 2 20 T00
lndoro 84 8 8 - T00
1ubulpur ºó - - 4 T00
Tolul 344 T0 TT 35 400
5T
=LEC=JEC /-,-4
lM DEVELCPMEMl CF VAlER AMD SAMllAllCM lM ÜRBAM AREAS
TobIe 28. Respondents reporting ovoiIobiIity of woter fociIity in house in sIums in four cities
City WeII Top Hond Fump None TotoI
8hopul - 8 - º2 T00
Gwulior 4 27 2 ó7 T00
lndoro 8 T8 - 74 T00
1ubulpur T 2 2 º5 T00
Tolul T3 55 4 328 400
TobIe 29. Respondents in four cities reporting occess of woter source outside the sIums
(those who get woter from outside)
City Top WeII Hond Government Frivote No TotoI
Fump tonker tonker response
8hopul 7º T - Tó - 4 T00
Gwulior 35 2 45 - - T8 T00
lndoro 50 Tó º 2 ó T7 T00
1ubulpur óº 23 ó - - 2 T00
Tolul 233 42 ó0 T8 ó 4T 400
Wo huvo ulso colloclod lhoir viows und iníormulion uboul lho durulion oí lup wulor supply (Tublo
30}, dislunco oí pipod wulor supply sourco, (Tublo 3T}, quulily oí wulor suppliod (Tublo 32} und
wholhor lhoy woro rocoiving suííicionl quunlily oí wulor (Tublo 33}. Tho rosponsos show lhul lhoy do
nol huvo vory high oxpoclulions und considor lho quulily oí wulor cloun und quunlily sulisíuclory.
TobIe 31. Distonce of piped woter suppIy source (those who fetch woter from pipe woter
source outside)
City Less thon 5û-25û 25û-5ûû 5ûû Metre 1-2 Km 2-5 Km 5 Km TotoI
5û metre Metre Metre to 1 Km
8hopul T0 5 T4 TT 4 - - 44
Gwulior 20 T8 23 7 T - - óº
lndoro T5 - º 7 º 2 - 52
1ubulpur T 5 T 20 - - - 27
Tolul 4ó 28 47 45 T4 2 - Tº2
TobIe 3û. Durotion of Top Woter 5uppIy (those getting top woter suppIy)
+E J O < 3û Minutes 3û Minute 1 hour to 1 ½ hour 3 hour 5 hour TotoI
to 1 hour 1½ hour to 3 hours to 5 hour
8hopul 3 28 4 48 5 T 8º
Gwulior TT 35 - T0 4 4 ó4
lndoro 24 23 4 23 º T0 º3
1ubulpur 5 Tº 4 2T T3 TT 73
Tolul 44 T05 T2 T02 3T 2ó 3Tº
52
TobIe 32. QuoIity of woter suppIied/received
City CIeon Turbid FoIIuted TotoI
8hopul 88 T0 2 T00
Gwulior ºT 8 T T00
lndoro óó 3T 3 T00
1ubulpur º7 2 T T00
Tolul 342 5T 7 400
Groph 17 (o). Woter use for Cooking, CIeoning by men & women
TobIe 33. HousehoIds getting sufficient/insufficient woter
City 5ufficient lnsufficient TotoI
8hopul 53 47 T00
Gwulior óT 3º T00
lndoro 52 48 T00
1ubulpur 7ó 24 T00
Tolul 240 T58 400
T20
T00
80
ó0
40
20
0
1ubulpur Gwulior 8hopul lndoro
Wiío Husbund Wiío Husbund Wiío Husbund Wiío Middlo
Clouning houso Ulonsil Clouning Cooking
53
lníormulion írom lho housohold survoy in lho íour cilios showod (Gruph T7 (u} und T7 (b}} lho
diííoronliul in uso oí wulor by mon und womon. Whilo in lho cuso oí cooking und clouning, womon
woro lho mu|or usors, in bulhing und wushing bolh woro lho usors. ln lho houso womon pluyod u
mu|or rolo in conlrolling lho uso oí wulor (Tublo 34}. ln our survoy whilo Tó rospondonls roporlod
lhis rolo íor olhor íomulo mombors including duughlors, only T2 roporlod u rolo oí husbunds.
TobIe 34. Fersons controIIing use of woter in sIum househoIds
ControIIed by TotoI
City Wife Husbond Aged Aged Other Other Not
moIe femoIe moIe femoIe reported
incIuding incIuding
son doughter
8hopul 72 2 - - 2 5 Tº T00
Gwulior 74 T - - 2 4 Tº T00
lndoro 85 2 - ó - 3 4 T00
1ubulpur 72 7 2 3 - 4 T2 T00
Tolul 303 T2 2 º 4 Tó 54 400
Groph 17 (b). Woter use for ßoth, wosh toiIet
T200
T000
800
ó00
400
200
0
1ubulpur
Wiío Husbund
Gwulior
Wiío Husbund
8hopul
Wiío Husbund
lndoro
Wiío Husbund
Toilol Gurdoning Wushing clolhos 8ulh wush
=LEC=JEC /-,-4
lM DEVELCPMEMl CF VAlER AMD SAMllAllCM lM ÜRBAM AREAS
54
TobIe 35. Respondents reporting time spent by different fomiIy members in fetching woter.
City FomiIy Time spent
members < 3û 3û-6û 1-2 hour 2-3 hour 3-4 hour 4 hour TotoI
minutes minutes & more
8hopul Solí 2 25 T4 4 T 0 4ó
Husbund 5 T4 ó 2 0 0 27
Clhor mulo
mombors 2 T5 T0 3 0 0 30
Clhor Fomulo
mombors T 4 0 0 0 0 5
All mombors T0 58 30 º T 0 T08
Gwul i or Solí Tó 2º T4 T 0 0 ó0
Husbund 7 T3 3 0 0 0 23
Clhor mulo
mombors 2 T7 8 0 0 0 27
Clhor Fomulo
mombors 5 4 5 T 0 0 T3
All mombors 30 ó3 30 2 0 0 T23
l ndor o Solí 4 37 T7 4 T 0 ó3
Husbund 7 T4 ó T 0 0 28
Clhor mulo
mombors 2 7 4 T 0 0 T4
Clhor Fomulo
mombors 2 º ó 0 0 0 T7
All mombors T5 ó7 33 ó T 0 T22
1 ubul pur Solí 0 T2 4 3 0 0 Tº
Husbund 0 TT Tó T 0 0 28
Clhor mulo
mombors 0 28 24 8 T T ó2
Clhor Fomulo
mombors T T4 2T 5 2 0 43
All mombors T ó5 ó5 T7 3 T T52
An ullompl wus mudo lo cupluro lho limo lukon by lho housoholds und lhoir mombors in íolching
wulor ovory duy (Tublo 35}. Two lronds uro signiíicunl in lho rosponsos. Firslly mosl womon huvo
roporlod lhul lhoy lhomsolvos huvo sponl lho muximum limo socondly, mosl oí lho mombors huvo
sponl moro lhun ono und lwo hours ovory duy in íolching wulor.
No|o: Mu||ip|o tospoosos
55
5onitotion
Tho loilol íucililios uro uvuilublo in 27º housos in íour cilios. Thoso uro moro in 8hopul und 1ubulpur
und much loss in lho olhor cilios. ln Gwulior lhoso uro in only T0º oí lho housos. (Tublo 3ó}
TobIe 36. AvoiIobiIity of toiIets in house in sIum oreos in four cities
City ToiIet ovoiIobIe TotoI
Yes No 1ûû
8hopul 4T 5º T00
Gwulior T0 º0 T00
lndoro 2ó 74 T00
1ubulpur 33 ó7 T00
Tolul TT0 2º0 400
Tho bulhrooms uro uvuilublo moro in 8hopul (óTº}. lndoro und 1ubulpur hud bolwoon 43 und
45º rospondonls roporling lho uvuilubilily oí bulhrooms in lhoir housos. 8ul Gwulior hud only 28º
housoholds wilh bulhrooms. Tho lypo und quulily oí such u íucilily is ulso doublíul. Mosl oí lhom uro
muko shiíl urrungomonls. ln ull 44.25º oí lho rospondonls huvo roporlod uvuilubilily oí bulhroom
in lho houso (Tublo 37}. Tho lolul uvuilubilily oí bulhrooms, loilols und druinugo in lho slum
housoholds cun bo soon in Gruph T8.
TobIe 37. AvoiIobiIity of bothroom in house in sIum oreos in four cities
City ßothroom ovoiIobIe TotoI
Yes No 1ûû
8hopul óT 3º T00
Gwulior 28 72 T00
lndoro 45 55 T00
1ubulpur 43 ó7 T00
Tolul T77 233 400
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Community toiIet/5uIobh souchoIoyo (toiIet) ovoiIobIe in sIum cIusters
Cnly 2 lo 4 numbor oí communily loilols woro uvuilublo in lho íivo slums in ouch cily in our
sumplo. Thoir upkoop is poor und lho puymonl lorms uro nol suilublo us roporlod by womon. Tho
wholo urrungomonl nood lo bo rovisilod wilh muking lhom usor íocusod und usor groups munugod.
Womon would liko lo munugo und uso lhom ií lhoy uro givon lho opporlunily, voico und conlrol.
Thoy uro íully uwuro oí whul hygiono und sunilulion mouns und would liko lo improvo il.
Groph 19. HousehoIds reporting poyment for using pubIic toiIet
40
35
30
25
20
T5
T0
5
0
8hopul Gwulior lndoro 1ubulpur
Groph 18. HousehoIds by ovoiIobiIity of ßothroom, ToiIets, Droinoge
Wilh bulhroom
íucilily wilhin houso
Wilh no lulrino Wilh closod
druinugo
Wilh opon
druinugo
Wilh no
druinugo
8hopul Gwulior lndoro 1ubulpur
º0
80
70
ó0
50
40
30
20
T0
0
Yos No
57
Cvorull 38º oí lhoso using public loilols uro roporling muking u puymonl. Thoso uro moro in
8hopul und 1ubulpur. Tho lowosl numbor is in lndoro. Tho inlorviows showod willingnoss oí lho
rospondonls und lhoir íumily mombors lo puy bul in wuys und limils nogoliulod by lhom und
munugomonl in lhoir conlrol. (Gruph Tº}
Tho housohold survoy ulso colloclod iníormulion uboul lho lypo oí loilols in lho housos oí
rospondonls (Tublo 38}, uvuilubilily oí sopurulo loilols íor mulo und íomulo in lho communily loilols
(Tublo 3º} und uboul muinlonunco oí public loilols (Tublo 40}. Tho subslunliul porconlugo oí ílush
lulrinos in housos, which huvo loilols, shows lho udoplion oí now íucililios whorovor il is uííordublo.
Tho muinlonunco oí public loilols is muinly by lho Municipul Corporulions. Thoro uro only u smull
numbor oí sulubh loilols. Tho coping molhods usod by womon whon lhoy huvo lo go lo lho opon
urous íor doíoculion o.g. using lho bushos íor covor, going in durknoss or boíoro duwn or wilh
olhor womon íor suíoly in numbors (Gruph 20} show lho oxlonl oí holplossnoss und doprivulion und
lhoso uro dovicos oí lhoso who huvo no choicos.
TobIe 38. Type of toiIet ovoiIobIe in house in sIum oreos.
City FIush Dry Others TotoI
8hopul 2ó º ó 4T
Gwulior 5 4 T T0
lndoro 7 Tº - 2ó
1ubulpur 28 2 3 33
Tolul óó 34 T0 TT0
TobIe 39. Respondents reporting ovoiIobiIity of seporote toiIet for moIe ond femoIe in
community toiIets
City Yes No Not specified TotoI
8hopul T7 2 ó 25
Gwulior T7 2º ó 52
lndoro TT 37 T5 ó3
1ubulpur 38 T7 22 77
Tolul 83 85 4º 2T7
TobIe 4û. Mointenonce of pubIic toiIet by different ogencies os reported by sIum dweIIers
(users onIy)
City MunicipoI 5uIobh Others Not TotoI
Corporotion lnternotionoI owore
8hopul T0 2 2 TT 25
Gwulior TT 5 23 T3 52
lndoro T7 - T 45 ó3
1ubulpur 53 - 7 T7 27
Tolul ºT 7 33 8ó 2T7
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58
Groph 2û. Women reporting coping methods when hoving to use open oreos
for defecotion
Community Ferspective
Tho sumplo housohold survoy in PPTA hud uskod rospondonls how lhoy rulod lho Govornmonl oí
Mudhyu Prudosh/Corporulion sorvico provision. ll indiculod lhul íor ull cilios, ovor 30º oí
housoholds rulod poríormunco us bud (lho uvorugo wus ovor 40º}. Cnly 8-T5º oí housoholds
rulod poríormunco us good.
Tho rospondonls in our survoy in lho slums in lho íour cilios us woll us lho discussions in lho FGDs
hud spokon uboul lho noglocl und luck oí rosponsivonoss írom lho locul bodios und public oííiciuls.
Thoy nurrulod how gurbugo wus nol pickod up, druins ovon whoro lhoso oxislod, woro nol clounod
ovon uílor lhoy ropoulodly roporlod. Tho rospondonls in Pu|iv Solhi Sunmul Nugur slum in lndoro
nurrulod lhoir roconl oxporionco oí houvy ílooding und risks íucod und luck oí rosponsivonoss írom
lho oííiciuls.
45
40
35
30
25
20
T5
T0
5
0
8hopul Gwulior lndoro 1ubulpur
Clhor 8oíoro duwn ln durknoss 8ohind lho bush Wilh olhor womon

ßhopoI GwoIior lndore JoboIpur
No woter suppIy fociIity in Slum houso º2 ó7 74 º5
5Ium HousehoIds with drinking
woter source º (in ull urbun urous oí dislricl}
Wilhin promisos 57.5 74.4 óT.7 5T.7
Nour promisos 30 T8.T 25.5 3T.5
Awuy T2.5 7.5 T2.8 Tó.8
5Ium HousehoIds with type of woter fociIity
Woll T 2 Tó 23
Tup 7º 35 50 óº
Hund pump - 45 º ó
Tunkor Tó - 2 -
Privulo Tunkor - - ó -
QuoIity of woter suppIied
Cloun 88 º0 óó º7
Turbid T0 8 3T 2
5Ium HousehoId getting
Suííicionl wulor 53 óT 52 7ó
lnsuííicionl wulor 47 3º 48 24
HousehoIds with
Ferson controIIing use of woter in house
Wiío 72 74 85 72
Husbund 2 T 2 7
HousehoIds (in urbun urous in wholo dislricls}
wilh 8ulhrooms in houso 74.3 óó.ó 84.8 óó.5
No Lulrino 22.5 T8.8 T5.5 2ó.3
No Druinugo T3.ó 7.2 T5.4 T8.5
5eporote ToiIets for moIe/femoIe in T7 T7 TT 38
community toiIets
Reporting poying for use of pubIic toiIets T7 T7 TT 38
(oul oí 2T7 usors}
ToiIet in house 4T T0 2ó 33
ßothroom in house óT 28 45 43
(Nolo. lhoy uro |usl mukoshiíl covors}
FrofiIe of Four Cities: HighIights
Woter 5uppIy ond 5onitotion
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Voices of women
Tho slums soloclod íor inlorviow und íocus group discussions woro Arií Nugur, lndiru Nugur,
Hurii|un Mohullu, 8ungungu und Gundhi Nugur in 8hopul, Gudu Upur, Pumu|i Ku puru, Sun|uy
Nugur, Pusulpuru und Suhu 1i ku puru in Gwulior. ln lho olhor lwo cilios Solhi Sumbundh Nugur,
Ar|un Singh Puru, \idyu Nugur, Punchshool Nugur und lndiru Eklu Nugur in lndoro und Tokri
Mohullu, Chowdhury Mohullu, Chundmuri, Survoduyu Nugur und Prom Sugur in 1ubulpur woro
soloclod. ln ull lho cilios lhoso woro purposivo soloclion írom diííoronl purls oí ouch cily so lhul lho
sumplo includod diííoronl cuslo/communily/roligious groups in slum dwollors. Tho rospondonl
womon woro rundomly soloclod in ouch cluslor. Purlicipunls in FGDs woro olhor lhun lhoso
individuully inlorviowod.
ln 8hopul íivo slums soloclod includod lndiru Nugur/Mooru Nugur in lho soulhorn purl oí lho cily.
Horo moslly pooplo displucod írom olhor slums oí lho cily huvo boon roloculod und givon pullus.
Tho gonosis oí lho slum horo is in lho slono crushors loculod ourlior whon considorublo conslruclion
uclivily wus in progross in lho now colonios und lho workors omployod on lhom. Eurlior lhroo slono
crushors woro inslullod in lho urou und lho originul slum dwollors horo woro working in lhoso
crushors purl oí lndiru Nugur/Mooru Nugur woro includod in lho survoy.
Women & gìr/s toµµìng underground woter µìµe.
óT
Woter
Tho muin wulor pipo lino hus boon luppod ul vurious plucos lo diroclly druw wulor írom il. Numbor
oí wulor lunks uro plucod in lho loculily which cun bo íillod by wulor lunkors by lho Nugur nigum.
Pooplo living on lho lowor sido opon lups on pipo lino so porson living in 1huggios loculod ul u
highor grudionl, uro nol ublo lo gol uny wulor. Al Prosonl lho limo oí wulor supply is 7 u.m lo 8
um. und º u.m lo T0 um lhrough lups und uny limo oí lho duy bul only onco u duy by lunkors. ln
summors wulor is suppliod on ullornulo duys und íillod in lho lunks kopl in lho urou.
Womon oxprossod lhul lho convonionl limo íor wulor supply will bo 7 um lo T0 um or ó um lo 8
um bul should bo u íixod limo duily íor lunkor supplying wulor.
Tho slory oí lho uvuilubilily und supply oí wulor is lho sumo in ovory slum wilh only somo vuriulions.
ll is suppliod by lho Municipul Corporulion ul íixod hours which is ono hour und only onco por duy.
ln summor il is suppliod on ullornulo duys. ln lndiru Nugur 8hopul lho Corporulion lunkor comos
und íills lho lunk conslruclod which hus no lups. Al ono pluco lho 1huggi dwollors uro luking wulor
diroclly írom lho muin lino by pulling lups on il ul u numbor oí plucos.
Womon nurrulod lhul lhoy huvo lo bring wulor írom upprox. Tkm. ovoryduy. ln summor wo huvo lo
wuil in quouo íor moro lhun lwo hours. Thoro uro lols oí clushos, ln summor lunkors como on
ullornulo duys, ln summors wo huvo lo bring wulor írom ud|oining bungulows. Wulor suppliod is nol
good so ºWulor írom lup oulsido is usod íor olhor work, us wulor is nol cloun. For drinking purposos
wo huvo lo bring wulor írom T km uwuy.º
8ungungu slum in 8hopul is loculod in ouslorn purl oí 8hopul cily und is siluulod on u sloop und
rocky hill wilh u big nulluh ílowing ucross il. Husunl Nugur is unolhor purl oí lhis slum wilh moslly
muslims sluying horo. Somo housos horo huvo lup connoclions.
As lho slum is on u slopo und hus slops oí slono slubs, Womon huvo íour oí íulling down. A girl who
wus bringing wulor íoll down lho slopo und diod oí houd in|ury, womon roporlod currying wulor
lhrough nurrow lunos is diííicull und unsuío. Supply is inudoquulo. ºThoro is ulwuys lonsion íor wulor
so wo do nol go lo lho wulor lups. Wo íill wulor írom u íur oíí sourco,º l íill wulor írom lho woll
bocuuso l huvo quurrols ovory duy. ln íucl lho woll is buill on nulluh bul lhoy suy il is good wulor
írom u good sourco. ll is womon who huvo lo bour lho brunl. ln summors u womun cunnol bulho
wilh lilllo wulor, sho noods u buckol oí wulor. Whulovor lilllo wulor is procurod lho mun oí lho houso
wushos himsolí und goos oul lo work. As lho womon in 8ungungu nurrulod
ºln summors huvo lo go long dislunco, il is limo consuming, wo gol lulo íor work wo do nol wush
oursolvos und ulso lho clolhos.º
ºCno lubo woll is lhoro bul lho ownor ullows only Muslims lo luko wulor nol olhors.º
ln unolhor loculion oí Gundhi Nugur in 8hopul wulor is suppliod íor lwo hours duily - ono hour ouch
in lho morning und ovoning. Thoro is ulso u lunkor supply which íills lwo or lhroo lunks which uro nol
suííicionl íor lho wholo loculily. ln summor ono onlorprising porson buys u lunkor oí wulor und solls il
lo lhoso who wunl.
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Womon spoko lo us ºHuvo lo puy Ps. 20 íor íivo buckols oí wulor wo huvo lo go lo 2 km lo íolch
wulor írom roudsido dhubusº. ºSomolimos wulor lunkor doos nol como so wo huvo lo puy Ps. 2 íor
T0 lilros oí cunº, ºwo huvo lo buy wulor íor drinkingº ºWo spond lol oí limo lo íill wulor. Throo lo
íour hours uro sponl on íilling wulor ií wo uro u bil lulo wo do nol gol wulor.º Womon oconomiso in
uso oí scuro wulor ovon ul lho cosl oí houllh und hygiono. ºWo do nol wush duily in summors, wo
uso lilllo wulor lo wush childron,º lho wulor is nol cloun somolimos smull insocls uro soon in wulor
suppliod by lunkor,º ºlhoro is u duiry nour wulor lup so lho lup wulor smolls oí cowdung.º
ln ono oí lho slums Prom Sugur Pudhukrishnun wurd loculod on u hillock in 1ubulpur, mosl oí lho
1huggi dwollors uro working in lho Municipul Corporulion. Thoy gol lup wulor supply íor lwo hours in
lho morning und lwo hours in lho ovoning. ll is un 'Ayodhyu 8usli´ soloclod íor slum improvomonl
work in lho Ayodhyu Schomo. ll hus u comonlod roud, u polico posl, u sulubh complox, und u
privulo school. Chullongos woro voicod by womon horo who suid lhul ºYou huvo lo pluco ulonsils
hour boíoro lhoro is supply.º ºFour oí íulling is high us pols oí T5 lo 25-lilro cupucily uro lo bo
curriod by us up on slopos, ovory now und lhon lhoro is conílicl on wulor und womon und mon
lhrush ouch olhor wilh lhoir pols,º ºwo huvo lo slund in long quouo und huvo lo íuco quurrols.º
Wulor pipo pussos lhrough u druin und wulor is druwn lhrough pluslic pipos diroclly írom lho muin
pipo lino. Tho compluinl oí dumugo oí wulor supply lino is nol ullondod by Nugur Nigum (lho
Municipul Corporulion} íor monlhs ullogolhor. ln summors somolimos wo do nol wush oursolvos.
ln unolhor slum oí Tikuri Tolu, ulso known us Chuni Khudun/Supulul which is siluulod on u slopo,
wulor is suppliod lhrough lho public lups íor ono hour in lho morning. Thoro is ulso u hund pump
und u woll. Mosl oí lho womon huvo lo do work oí 'Lizzul pupud muking íor Muhilu Gruh Udyog.
Tho wulor supply is nol udoquulo und womon doscribod lho duily chullongo, lho íighls, und lho
probloms in summor.
ºWo gol wulor by brouking pipo oí gruvoyurd.º
ºLoculily is big und only ono lunkor oí wulor is suppliod in summor. Wo íill wulor by pulling our own
pipo und lhoro is íroquonl íighling.º
ºGol íour buckol oí wulor íor drinking írom lup und íor olhor purposos írom lho woll und hund
pump.º
ºln summors duo lo scurcily oí wulor wolls dry up und wo íolch wulor íor drinking írom íur oíí und
go lo u pond lo wush clolhos.º
ºThoro uro long quouos ul lho lup so wo íill wulor írom olhor sourcos.º
ºln summor do nol luko bulh rogulurly und wushos clolhos in 3-4 duys. Wo quouo up ul nighls.º
ºHuvo lo go long disluncos in summors ovon up lo 5 kms. Thoro uro lol oí conílicls ovor wulor.º
ln summors wo drink wulor kopl íor lwo duys.
ó3
WoÍkíng Íong dísIonces Io ÍíÍÍ woIer.
ºWulor oí woll is sully so only usod íor wushing und clouning. ll loo drios up in summors. Pooplo oí
low cuslo huvo lo wuil ul lho woll íor long. Whon high cuslo pooplo íinish íilling lhoir wulor, lhon lhoy
uro ullowod.
ºl huvo u hund pump in my houso so l íuco no problom º- Purvuli 8ugudi.
Survoduyu Nugur slum in 1ubulpur hus boon doclurod Ayodhyu 8usli. So lhoro uro lol oí
improvomonls going on. This loculily is T00 molros oíí írom gurbugo disposul ground. ln lho ruiny
souson pooplo huvo lo wulk in knoo doop slush.
Wulor supply is ul 5 um und ulso ul 4 pm lo ó pm in lho ovoning. Mosl oí lho lup/connoclions uro
wilhoul lups us pooplo luko lhom oul. Sulubh complox is on lho oulskirls oí lho solllomonl und is nol
cloun so il is nol much usod. Moslly pooplo bolonging lo SC culogory sluy in lhis slum. Mosl oí mon
und womon uro omployod in Nugur Nigum us 'Suíui Kurmchuri´ (Sunilulion workors}. Thoy ulso
rour pigs. Thoro is u liquor shop in lho loculily und womon uro vory much dislrossod by ils loculion
und oxislonco.
Womon huvo doscribod lhoir probloms, lonsions, íighls und lho inubilily lo ovon bulho ovoryduy in
summor us lhoro is scurcily oí wulor.
ºWulor lup is inslullod in lho druin, wo íill wulor írom il. Thoro is ulwuys íour oí íulling ill.º
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ºln summors wo gol loss wulor in moro limo.º
ºWo do nol bulho íor lhroo íour duys in summors.º
ºWo wush loss ulonsils in summors.º
ºThoro uro lols oí íighls ovor wulor. So íor íour oí íighls wo íill vory loss und uso loss wulor.º
ºWo huvo lo slund in long quouos und íill wulor by lurn.º
ºln summors wo íolch wulor in rickshuws or cyclos írom íur oíí plucos.º
ºThoro is no oquul dislribulion oí wulor us ono íumily doos nol louvo lho lup unlil lhoy uro lhrough
wilh il.º
ln unolhor slum in Arvind Nugur, Chowdhury Mohullu (SC dominulod} 8hunluluiyu 1ubulpur. which is
40-45 yours old loculily, wulor supply is lhrough lups und hund pumps. Pooplo huvo lhomsolvos
inslullod pipos on lho muin pipolino. Tups connoclion huvo boon lukon by conlribulion oí íunds.
Horo womon doscribod how pooplo in ono colony ussorl lhoir oxclusivo righl lo luko wulor írom lho
public lups loculod lhoro. ºWo huvo lo íuco conílicls.º º Thoro uro lol oí probloms, wo huvo lo go
long disluncos lo wush oursolvos und clolhos.º Thoro uro lols oí íighls on lhis issuo olhor colony
Fì//ìng woter through µìµes µossìng through messy droìns.
ó5
pooplo do nol ullow us lo uso lhoir lups.º Thoro uro similur probloms, íighls, uddilionul probloms in
summor. ºCunnol go lo work somo limo us wo gol lulo in collocling wulor, lhoro is ulwuys u long
quouo ul lho lups.º Wo gol lilllo wulor, wo huvo lo íill wulor during nighl, huvo lo spond lhroo hours
collocling wulor, bul lhon wo soo lho iniliulivos íor solí holp. Wo conlribulo monoy íor ropuirs oí pipo.
ln summor ºWo wush loss clolhos und ulonsils bocuuso wo huvo lo íolch wulor oilhor írom wolls or
lunks.º
ln Chundmuri Colony - Chundrushokur Muhullu 1ubulpur Wulor supply is lhrough Municipul
Corporulion lups. Thoro uro 2 Hund pumps.
Womon suid
ºlí wo do nol gol wulor lhon wo purchuso wulor írom olhor housos by puying PsT00 por monlh.º
ºWo huvo lo íolch wulor írom íur oíí lup which romuins crowdod. ln summors wo uso loss wulor by
nol wushing clolhos und oursolvos duily.º
ºWo huvo lo drink poor quulily oí wulor in summors.º
ºl bring 40 buckols oí wulor írom T Km.º
ºWo huvo lo slund in long quouos. lí wo do nol lhon wo don´l gol wulor.º
ºln summors wo huvo lo go long disluncos, lhoro uro íroquonl íighls. Pooplo boul up ouch olhor, lhoy
bully olhors ovor wulor so wo koop quiol.º
ln Gwulior , lho slum oí Suhu 1i Ku Puru is in lho urou munugod by lho Gwulior Cunlonmonl in
Morur. Tho slum dwollors huvo lo puy yourly houso lux oí Ps. T50 lo Ps.420 und lho cunlonmonl
bourd muinluins lho urou. Wulor supply horo is lhrough 2 hund pumps only. Pooplo huvo ulso
divorlod lho pipod wulor supply, which supplios wulor lo cunlonmonl quurlors. 8ul lho probloms
womon íuco lo gol udoquulo wulor, lho hours lhoy huvo lo dovolo lo collocl wulor, lho íighls, lho
inubilily lo rogulurly bulho und wush clolhos uro similur lo olhor loculions.
ºlí hund pump gols oul oí ordor or lho ground lovol oí wulor goos down lhon wo huvo lo gol wulor
írom íur oíí, wo wush loss clolhos, cloun ulonsils wilh dry ush.º
ºFighls ovor wulor ul hund pumps uro common.º
ºlí lukos lwo hours lo íill wulor.º
ºln summors whon lhoro is loss wulor wo bulho on ullornulo duys.º
ºln ruiny sousons wo gol muddy wulor írom hund pumps.º
ºWhon lhoro is problom in hund pump wo wush oursolvos und clolhos on ullornulo duys.º
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ºAl pouk limo bolwoon ó um lo 8 um lhoso hund pumps gol crowdod, pipos linos uro brokon so us u
rosull íighls luko pluco.º
Womon in Pusulpuru slum in Gwulior loculod on Gwulior-8hind roud huvo similur chullongos in
mooling lho wulor noods oí lho housohold. As lhoy spoko
ºlí lhoro is long quouo ul lho hund pumps wo huvo lo wuil íor quilo long.º
ºln summors wo uso loss wulor, bulho irrogulurly und cloun ulonsils wilh dry ush.º
ºWhon hund pump goos oul or ordor wo huvo lo íolch wulor írom T km. So wo gol lulo íor work.º
ºWhon wulor lublo goos down wo uso loss wulor íor ull uclivilios.º
ºWo huvo lo íolch wulor írom u dislunco oí T km írom lups oí uir íorco.º
ºWo gol udoquulo wulor írom hund pumps bul il lukos long und is slronuous.º
ºFighls ul hund pumps uro common.º
ºln summors wo usk íor wulor írom ud|oining housos.º
ºl suííorod in|ury in chosl whilo bringing wulorº - Pu|uni Yuduv.
ln Sun|uy Nugur in Gwulior wulor supply is by lho Municipul Corporulion lups írom º.30 um lo
T0.30 um. Womon íind lhul il is loo lulo und u convonionl limo will bo 7 um lo 8 um. Mosl housos
huvo wulor connoclion und sowugo connoclion bul conlinuo lo huvo probloms. Thoro is no public
loilol in lho loculily bul is íur oíí und churgos uro high und moro ovor nol suío íor womon. Tho
womon slulo lhoir hurdships us
ºl purchuso wulor írom my sislor-in-luwº - Puni 1uluv.
ºWo íill wulor írom somo onos houso. 8ocuuso oí our cuslo wo uro nol ullowod ul lho hund pumpº -
Purvuli \ulmik.
ºWhon lhoro is no oloclricily wo do nol gol wulor írom lubo woll.º
ºWulor comos vory lulo so wo loso our wugos.º
ºln summors huvo lo go long disluncos. l gol lirodº - Shunu 1uluv
ºln summors whon lhoro is shorlugo oí wulor wo uso loss wulor íor bulhing und wushing clolhos.º
ºWo do nol luko bulh or wush clolhos rogulurly.º
ºThoro uro íighls íor wulor ull lho limo.º
ln Pumu|i Ku Puru in Gwulior wulor supply is muinly by lups írom T2 midnighl lo 4 um. which is lho
ó7
mosl inuppropriulo limo. Womon slulod lhul lho convonionl limo is ó um lo 8 um. Thoro uro lwo
hund pumps ulso in lhis loculily und lwo public lups. Horo lho loculion oí lho slum on u hill slopo
croulos sorious probloms íor womon who huvo lo íolch wulor írom down lho hill. As wo soo in lhoir
own voicos.
ºll is diííicull lo climb lho hill wilh wulor buckol in hund or ovor houd.º
ºCnco l íoll in lho druin whilo íilling wulor. Whon lhoro is no wulor supply in summors huvo lo íolch
wulor írom woll.º
ºWulor supply is loss ul lho lop so wo huvo lo go lo lowor urous lo íill wulor.º
ºCvor crowding ul hund pump croulos lonsion.º
ºWo huvo lo cross highwuy roud lo gol wulor so íour oí uccidonl ulwuys lurks in mind.º
ºlí wo do nol gol wulor írom lup wo huvo lo íill írom hund pump.º
Tho inuppropriulo limo oí wulor supply ul midnighl is oxprossod by u numbor oí rospondonls.
ºWulor supply liming is nol convonionl ul ull.º
ºWo huvo lo gol up ul nighl lo íill wulor.º
Tho probloms in summor huvo lho sumo slory oí íolching wulor írom u dislunco und doing wilhoul
bulhing, und lrying lo huvo oconomy in wushing clolhos.
ºWhon lhoro is no wulor supply in summors huvo lo íolch wulor írom woll.º
ºln summors wo uso loss wulor íor bulhing und wushing clolhos.º
Horo loo lhoro uro iniliulivos lo conlribulo íor ropuirs oí wulor pipos und hund pump. Clhors huvo
rosorlod lo sulo oí wulor írom lhoir lups
ºln summors huvo lo gol wulor írom íur so do nol luko bulh íor T5 duys.º
ºWo conlribulo umong oursolvos íor ropuir oí wulor pipos or hund pumps.º
ºThoso who huvo wulor lups in lhoir houso ullow olhors lo íill wulor on puymonl oí Ps. 40-50 por
monlh.º
Punchshool Nugur slum in lndoro gols wulor supply lhrough wulor lunkors ul 7 p.m. womon slulod
lhul lho convonionl limo is 7 um und 5 pm. Clhors slulo lhul lhoro is no íixod limo oí wulor supply, il
is somolimos in lho ovoning, somolimos during duy und ulso no íixod quunlily oí wulor supply so lhoy
oílon gol lulo íor work. Wulor quulily is ulso nol good us lhoy slulod, lhoy cunnol drink muddy wulor
huvo lo íolch wulor írom u kilo molor und spond 3 hours in collocling wulor, huvo lo sloro wulor íor
omorgoncy.
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ln íucl lhoy suy lhul lhoy huvo lo bring wulor írom unolhor colony und
ºhuvo lo run horo und lhoro wilh pilchors during summors.º
ºln summors duo lo uculo wulor shorlugo wulor is uvuilublo onco in oighl duys. Wo huvo lo purchuso
wulor @ Ps.8 por drumº - Shoolu Shikurwur.
ºHuvo lo suvo wulor írom ovory uclivily.
ºHuvo lo ud|usl in smull quunlily oí wulor.º und
ºFighls uro common ovor wulor.º
ln \idhyu Nugur slum in lndoro womon nurrulod lho slorios oí lhoir íruslrulions, doprivulions.
ºln summors l huvo lo bulho lhroo school going childron in ono buckol oí wulor, wush clolhos in lwo
duys und mop lho íloor in lwo duys.º
ºHuvo lo íolch wulor írom íur oíí plucos.º
ºHuvo lo bring wulor on houd írom u dislunco. A lol oí limo is wuslod.º
ºl slippod und hurl mysolí.º
ºHuvo lo louvo work lo íolch wulor. Fighls wilh noighbours ovor wulor uro common.º
ºHuvo lo ploud íor wulor írom nourby bungulows.º
ºHuvo lo slund in long quouo in summors.º
ºln summor somolimos wulor is nol uvuilublo íor 3-4 duys.º
ºWo skip luking bulhs.º
ºWush clolhos on ullornulo duys.º
Wilh lho lonsion gonorulod ovor limo wuslod in slunding in long quouos, lhoro uro íroquonl íighls
ovor wulor wilh noighbours. Womon doscribod lhoir oííorls ul muking conlribulions íor ropuiring
dumugod pipos. ºDumugod pipolinos uro ropuirod lhrough conlribulions. Wo consorvo wulor in
summors.º
Womon ulso consorvo wulor by rocycling lho usod wulor ul lho housohold lovol. ºAílor wushing
clolhos lho sumo wulor is usod by us íor mopping íloor und clouning gus slovo.º
ln Solhi Sunmul Nugur in lndoro womon roporlod lhul wulor is suppliod írom º lo TT in lho morning
on ullornulo duys lhough lhoy cun do lhoir work bollor ií il is suppliod duily írom 7 um. Horo lho
wulor lunk is dumugod íor lusl ono your bul nolhing hus boon dono. Womon slund in long quouos
óº
íor collocling wulor und huvo lo bring il on lhoir houds. Thoy compluin ºThoro is lol oí chuos whon
ovory ono wunls lo íill wulor ul lho sumo limo º
ºSomo pooplo gol wulor, somo do nol. Wulor is nol cloun und il smolls.º
ºTunkor comos bul wo do nol gol wulor.º
ºWulor is wuslod bocuuso boys luko uwuy lho lups írom pipos und wulor lunksº
ln summor womon suid lhul lhoy |usl wush lhoir íucos, lhoy do nol wush clolhos und mop íloors. ln
summors lhoy huvo lo wulk íor T5 minulos lo gol wulor. Somolimos lhoy como omply hundod. ln
summors lhoy huvo lo skip luking bulh mosl oí lho limo. Fighls ovor wulor uro common. Somolimos
lho dispulo is lukon lo courls. Muny u limos lhoro uro insocls in wulor coming in lho public lups.
Sowugo lino pussos ulong lho wulor lino. Mosl oí lho limo wulor suppliod is bluck. Thoy huvo lo boil
wulor und lroul il boíoro uso.
ln Ar|un Singhpuru slum in lndoro womon roporlod lhul wulor is suppliod írom 8.30 lo TT in lho
mornings. Thoro uro only lwo lup connoclions. Pooplo írom íur oíí plucos como lo íill wulor. Horo u
Sulubh complox is buill oulsido lho slum, which hus only 5 souls íor womon. Throo uro in working
ordor bul dirly. Tho doors cunnol bo bollod. Thoy opon ousily wilh blowing oí wind.
Young gìr/s hove to skìµ schoo/s to co//ect woter.
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Horo womon givo illuslrulion oí lho solllomonls ussorling oxclusivo righls ovor uso oí wulor
connoclions in lhoir loculily. ºThoy do nol pormil porsons írom olhor solllomonl, colony lo luko wulor
írom horo.º Thoro is íighl bolwoon lwo colonios, ií uny ono comos lo íill wulor. An uppropriulo wulor
supply syslom in nocossury und lhoy slulo lhul hund pumps should ulso bo dug in lho urou which will
roduco lho problom.
Tho uncorluin supply und limo lukon in collocling wulor uííocls lhoir wugo work,
ºTho duy wulor is suppliod wo gol lulo íor work.º
ºSomolimos huvo lo luko louvo írom work. Wo looso u duy´s wugos.º
ºFumily mombors go lo diííoronl lups lo íill wulor.º
ºWo huvo lo ploud íor wulor írom ud|oining bungulows.º
ºln summor souson il bocomos roully diííicull íor lhom lo gol wulor.º
ºDuring summors huvo lo íighl íor wulor, lhon you gol u lilllo quunlily.º
ºln summors huvo lo slund in sun íor long hours. Cnco you shiíl írom lho quouo lhon you do nol gol
chunco lo íill wulor.º
ºln summors huvo lo íolch wulor írom 2 kms und huvo lo slund in quouo.º
ºWulor quulily is ulso poor.º ºMuny suííor írom |uundico und choloru.º
Womon who woro shiílod lo nowly buill mulliplox írom 1huggi suid lhul lhoy hud lo curry houd
rouds oí wulors lo lho lhird íloor us no wulor connoclion wus providod íor lhom.
lndiru Eklu Nugur in lndoro hus inudoquulo wulor supply. Mosl oí lho housos uro in bud condilion
duo lo íloods. Thoir bolonging, slorod gruins und muloriul woro ull undor wulor roconlly.
ºThoro is problom oí wulor. Somo limos wo gol suííicionl, somolimos il is insuííicionl in summors.º
ºHuvo lo slund in long quouos.º
ºlí wo go lo olhor loculily, lhoy usk monoy íor luking wulor.º
ºln summors huvo lo íolch wulor írom íur.º
ºlí wo ull slund in quouo und íill wulor by lurns, lhon lhoro will bo no íighls.º
ºln summor womon huvo lo go ucross lho roud lo íill wulor. Thoro is ulwuys íour oí uccidonls.º
ºln summors wo do nol luko bulh duily lo consorvo wulor.º
7T
ºWo wush clolhos in lhroo íour duys. Wo do nol gol wulor wilhoul íighling.º
Womon nurrulod how luck oí busic sorvicos und iníruslrucluro (wulor, sowugo, wuslo disposul} uííocls
lho quulily oí liío oí womon und childron who uro conslunlly oxposod lo houllh probloms broughl
uboul by in sunilury und loxic onvironmonls.
ºThoro is u big pipo oulsido lho houso lhrough which wulor oí nulluh pussos, lhis broods mosquiloos,
wo cunnol sloop bocuuso oí il ul nighl wo do nol huvo íun.º
5onitotion
Tho probloms oí sunilulion und lho spociul burdon oí womon duo lo irrogulur, orrulic ulmosl non-
oxislonl sunilulion urrungomonls uro linkod wilh lho insuííicionl, non-dopondublo wulor supply. Toilols
uro nol uvuilublo in mosl oí lho housos. Tho public loilols uro oilhor nol lhoro und whoro lhoso uro
uvuilublo, uro nol clounod rogulurly or uro unsuío, wrongly loculod or lho churgos íixod íor uso
huvo nol kopl in viow lho uííordubilily. No ullompl hus boon mudo lo discuss wilh lho usors und lo
ussociulo lhom wilh lhoir upkoop, munugomonl or improvomonls. Thoro uro howovor cusos oí locul
iniliulivos which shows lhul givon lho ussislunco in lho íorm oí mobilizulion, doliborulions, coníidonco
building und lruining, womon uro moro lhun willing lo munugo lho comploxos. Thoy uro ulso willing
lo conlribulo monoy. Thoro is ulmosl univorsul uwuronoss oí lho ill oííocls oí luck oí sunilulion und
uso oí wulor oí poor quulily bul lhoy uro nol in u posilion lo lrunslulo inlo uclion wilhoul un oxlornul
íucililulion in solí holp und group work. Thoy uro using opon urou íor doíoculion, somo huvo loilols
conslruclod in lhoir housos. 8ulhrooms uro ulmosl ovorywhoro only muko shiíl urrungomonls.
ln womon´s voicos wo soo lho probloms lhoy íuco wholhor lhoy go lo doíoculo in opon ground or uso
public loilol complox. Thoy doscribod how lhoy íuco probloms oí
º 5noke bite, insect bites, feor of men, probIem of sonitotion.
º Connot go in Iote hours ond during roiny seoson.
º When we hove upset stomoch hove to go during doy time, dogs ond pigs come neorby.
º ßoys stop on the woy, sing songs ond foIIow us so we connot go oIone.
º Emborrossment.
"l wos oIone, o mon come ond sot neor me" ~ 5hordo 5hinde.
"We go in the ofternoon. We hove to stond in between os peopIe come ond go. lt is
very difficuIt" ~ Geeto ßoi FoteI.
Whon using lho public loilols.
"Even in the toiIet compIex where monthIy posses ore mode for poyment ond use,
we hove to woit for o Iong time ond it is not very cIeon."
ºWo huvo lo quouo up íor loilol ul public loilol which is nol cloun.º
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Thoro uro Fighls ovor wulor
Zoheeno ßi o widow is o rog picker. 5he recoIIs obout o fight she hod for woter. l
hod o fight in summers. 5o now l hove on iron rod in my right orm. Even my son
wos murdered on this issue. 5he cIoims thot she wos o word member. 5he further
soys ~ EorIier l used to orgonise roIIys in front of Nogor Nigom (MunicipoI
Corporotion) for cIeonIiness. They used to come ond coIIect gorboge. ßut ofter my
son died l Ieft oII this work ond since Iost four yeors the situotion hos worsened.
Zoheeno ßi, lndiro Nogor
Monju ßoi MoIviyo resident of lndiro Nogor 5Ium in ßhopoI is o young widow. 5he
ond her husbond hod come from ßurhonpur Iooking for work. 5he cIeons utensiIs in
neorby bungIows. 5he Iost her husbond two yeors ogo who hod committed suicide
by setting himseIf obIoze. 5he soys he died becouse of tension on woter. Here peopIe
who hove tops in front of their house think thot it is theirs, they do not oIIow onyone
to fiII woter untiI they hove compIeted fiIIing, or if they ore sIeeping then you con fiII
woter. 5he norroted on incident "once my husbond hod o fight with o womon on
woter who wos fiIIing woter, my husbond osked her to Iet him fiII his bucket of woter
ond pIoced his bucket repIocing hers. Thot womon beot my husbond with her
ChoppoI, my husbond oIso fIung o pIostic bucket over her. 5he storted compIoining
thot her hond wos froctured os o resuIt. We gove her Rs 1ûû ond mossoged her
hond. Thus the confIict wos resoIved. ßut Ioter she fiIed o report. The cose went on
for four yeors tiII my husbond died."
"There shouId be o toiIet in every house ond shouId hove woter for it. FubIic toiIet is
very for off ond hos to poy Rs. 2 per doy per person every time you use. We ore poor
peopIe how con we offord this money. "
ºHoro lhoro is lol oí bud blood whon pooplo quouo up íor loilol. Womon hurl ubusos ul ouch olhor.
Evon uílor puying monoy lhoro is so much íillh ovor lhoro so il is bollor lo go oul in lho opon.º
5exuoI Horossment ond Iock of sofety
Once my doughter ond some other women hod gone to eose themseIves in open
ground. My doughter sow o mon sitting behind o womon ond oIerted her. When thot
Iody shouted peopIe gothered, beot him up ond took him to poIice stotion. This mon
hod o bod reputotion. He used to enter in the houses seeing IoneIy young girIs or
womon.
73
ln 8ungungu slum in 8hopul womon doscribod lho omburrussmonl und luck oí suíoly in using lho
opon ground und ulso somo oííorls mudo íor conslrucling loilols.
ºWo uro quilo uíruid lo go in opon. Wo huvo lo go ourly in lho morning lo ouso ul nulluh.º
ºHuvo lo go in opon, íool omburrussod.º
ºll is nol vory suío íor girls.º
ºCno porson hus buill loilol íor public uso, ho doos nol churgo.º
Horo group oí 4-5 íumilios logolhor huvo buill u dry loilol ovor nulluh. Thoro is u sorios oí such
loilols oponing diroclly on nulluh.
ln Gundhi Nugur in 8hopul womon íool insocuro íor girls in nighl. Thoro is lol oí omburrussmonl
mosl oí lho limo duo lo lho prosonco oí mulos. Womon huvo íour oí roplilos, snuko und scorpion.
Womon uvoid going uílor 8 pm. ll is nol suío bocuuso oí mon loiloring in lho urou. Womon huvo lo
slund in bolwoon bocuuso mon como nour. As lhoro uro no shrubs on lho opon ground lhoy huvo lo
slund oílon whilo doíoculing. Childron do nol go in lho ground. Thoy doíoculo in íronl oí lhoir
|huggis. Thus lhoro is u lol oí íillh und slonch. ºWo huvo lo go in lho durk us during duy mon go in
lhul urouº.
A Chì/d usìng oµen droìn to defecote.
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º "l do not oIIow my young doughter to drink woter post 7 pm otherwise she wiII hove to
use open ground ot night which is very unsofe."
ln Prom Sugur slum in 1ubulpur, womon voicod lhoir íour, luck oí suíoly, nuisunco oí pigs und
probloms írom mon.
º Hove to go on the hiIIock to eose.
º ßoys fIy kite in thot oreo ond do not move even on request.
º Hove feor of foIIing from top.
º Hove feor of men ond it is difficuIt with chiIdren in the night.
º Men stond neorby intentionoIIy.
º GirIs foce Iot of probIem os men stond neorby.
º We go in dork, men deIiberoteIy poss from neor,
º We foce menoce of pigs whiIe defecoting.
º Men pose probIems we hove to shift often.
º We hove to occompony young girIs.
ll is lho sumo slory in Tikuri Tolu, 1ubulpur. Womon spoko how lhoy go oul in opon bohind lho hillock,
huvo lo slund oílon us pooplo puss by,
º Go out neor pond,
º Hove feor of pigs ond insects,
º Hove feor of men coming neor them,
º EIectricity deportment is buiIding o power house there so they stop us from using the
ground.
ln Survoduyu Nugur 1ubulpur, uguin womon voico similur hurl, hurussmonl und íours. Thoy spoko
oí how mon como uguin und uguin.
Thoy huvo íour oí ghosls ul nighl bul huvo lo go in lho durk. Thoro is lol oí inconvonionco ul nighl
und in ruiny souson ulmosl impossiblo lo go oul in opon so somolimos lhoy go in duy limo. Anolhor
slum hus como up on lho ground usod ourlior íor doíoculion so urou nour wulor lunk is usod íor
doíoculions. Cno womon roporlod how hor puronlul homo is closo by so hor íumily goos lo uso lho
loilol lhoro. Public loilol is usod by somo only us il is íur oíí. So pooplo do nol go.
ln lho Arvind Nugur slum in 1ubulpur slum, womon huvo lo go boyond lho hillock. ºPigs uro u
nuisunco, mon slund on lho silo so wo huvo lo slund up oílon. Wo go in nulluh, mon shoul ul us lhul
don´l shil horo il smolls so wo go during nighl.º
ºWo go oul in durk. Wo huvo lo uccompuny young girls oilhor wo go ourly morning ul 5 um or wuil
lill uílornoon, boys croulo nuisunco.º
ºll is scury ovory limo mon como nourby wo huvo lo slund, girls íind il in convonionl loo.º
ºDrunkurds und kilo ílyors poso big probloms.º
75
ºMon slund lhoro doliboruloly so wo huvo lo slund in bolwoon, pigs uro unolhor nuisunco.º
ºThoro is lol oí problom íor old womun und young monslruuling girls.º
ºPublic loilol is íur oíí so wo do nol go.º
Womon in Pusulpuru slum in Gwulior huvo similur slorios oí huving lo uso opon urous íor
doíoculing, suííoring mosquilo bilo, íouring snukos und scorpions, íucing omburrussmonls und mon
loiloring uround.
ºWo íour insocl bilos in ruiny souson.º
ºThoro is ulwuys íour oí boing soon by somobody or ulluckod by snuko, scorpion.º
ºlí somobody is nol woll lhon wo huvo lo luko hor lo roud sido.º
ºTo go in opon is vory unhygionic.º
ºThoro is lol oí muck in ruiny souson.º
ºWo huvo lo slund in bolwoon ií uny vohiclo pussos by.º
ºHuvo íour oí ovo lousing.º
ºFurmors slop us írom doíoculing in lhoir íiolds.º
ºDuring ruins lhoro is diííicully in rouching lho íiolds.º
"We feor indignity ond feeI emborrossed, owner of the fieId hos mony times obused.
Wont to buiId toiIet in house but if the government shifts us from here our money
wiII go woste" ~ Loxmi
"Adjoining fieIds beIong to gujjors, they shout ond hit us so we hove to go when it is
dork we sit on roods but hove to stond when Iights of possing vehicIe foII on us. We
feeI oshomed, but whot con be done?" ~ Rodho ßoi.
"We go before down ond ofter dusk. We ovoid going during doy even if we feeI Iike
going. This hos bod effect on our heoIth. We suffer from stomoch oche ond
constipotion" ~ Loxmi ßoi Jotov.
ln Sun|uy Nugur in Gwulior womon voicod how lhoy uro omburrussod und uíruid.
ºWo uro uíruid oí uccidonl.º
ºWo uro omburrussod lhul uny uccidonl cun occur.º
ºWo huvo íour oí unlisociul olomonls.º
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ºHuvo lo sil ovor íillh und muck in opon grounds.º
ºCunnol ouso oursolvos bocuuso oí mon silling in lhul urou. Wo íool omburrussod so go il nighl. º
ºHuvo lo go in opon nour nulluh bocuuso Ps. 2 churgo is lukon ul sulubh complox. Wo íour íor girls.
lí lhoro uro guosls in houso lhon wo luko lhom lo sulubh complox.º
ln Pum|ipuru, Gwulior lhoy doscribo lhul lhoy, ºíool ushumod us mon doliboruloly wulch.º
ºHuvo íour oí snuko bilo in lho opon ground. A womun diod oí snuko bilo u monlh ugo.º
ºPublic loilol is in u dilupidulod slulo wilh brokon doors und chokod druins. Clhorwiso lhoy would
huvo wunlod lo uso lhom.º
"We go out in open ot night. Men creote o Iot of nuisonce. 5ome one spiIIs the woter, some
one wouId dosh with cycIe or someone wouId poss vuIgor comment" ~ Rodho FoIio.
"Women ond men use the some ground so we feeI oshomed. Every time some one
posses from neor we hove to stond" ~ Femido Rongrez.
ºWo uro uíruid oí slipping írom lho hill.º
ºThoro is lol oí íillh, wo uro uíruid oí pussors by.
Womon in \idhyunugur slum in lndoro nurrulod similur oxporioncos und slulod how lhoy huvo lo go
oul in opon íillhy plucos. 8oys slund in groups und sing songs. Mon hurl slonos.
ºTho mon und boys louso us.º
ºWulchmon lurn us oul oí lho collogo ground.º
ºMon doliboruloly bond down und poop.º
ºMon como und sil |usl bohind.º
ºSomolimos mon slund |usl in íronl und puss vulgur commonls. So wo íool uíruid und ushumod.º
ºEvon boys hurl slonos und ubusos und ulso slund in íronl.º
Women hod gone to the ground to defecote. A boy foIIowed them so oII the women
took him to poIice stotion. He wos kept in poIice Iock up then reIeosed.
5ovitri Khonde, hos migroted from Nimod for empIoyment. Her husbond is o toxi
driver. Two yeors ogo her eight-month-oId doughter died of vomiting ond Ioose
motions. 5he compIoins thot her neighbour fights with her obout cIeoning the front
of the house. 5ovitri's house is on o noIIoh ond the Ione Ieoding to her house is very
congested, hordIy o foot oport from onother hut, which is fiIIed with muck. Her
house is oIwoys fiIIed with stench ond mosquitoes.
77
Clhor womon in Solhi Sunmul Nugur in lndoro doscribod how lhoy
ºCunnol go during duy ovon ií ono wunls lo bocuuso oí lruííic.º
ºWo huvo lo slund in bolwoon bocuuso oí mon pussing íroquonlly.º
ºWo huvo mudo lho chumbor by conlribulion, sponl Ps.T500 bul lho chumbor is oí smull cupucily
und ovorílows on roud.º
ºThoro is muck ovorywhoro during ruiny souson.º
ºMuny u limos uro billon by pigs.º
5o they suggested thot
A loilol muy bo conslruclod in ovory houso or sulubh complox muy bo buill. Willing lo puy íor il, cun
conlribulo Ps. T00 por monlh. Thoy ulso suid lhul uny NGC should holp us.
ln Ar|un Singhpuru und lndiru Eklu Nugur slums in lndoro ulso womon hud lho sumo slorios oí
shumo, íour, ovo lousing, huving lo sil on lho roudsido ºboys whisllo, sing songs und slund nourby in
groups lhon lhoy crowd lho Sulubh comploxº
ºWo huvo lo go oul in opon.º
ºEvory ono wulchos, doos nol íool good.º
ºll is problomulic bul cun´l holp.º
ºHuvo lo go ourly in lho morning.º
ºMon croulo nuisunco, lhoy wulch conlinuously.º
ºWo huvo lol oí problom bul whul cun bo dono wo huvo lo go in oponº - Shobhu Yuduv.
Slum dwollors in Ar|un Singhpuru woro billor uboul boing shiílod
º They ore forced to shift to muItipIex, in smoII fIots Ieoving their Ieose pIots. There is o
Fottodhori Hit Chintok 5omiti. (Leose hoIders weIfore ossociotion) which is ogitoting
ogoinst shifting. The feor of shifting hod mode the women quite tense. A group of
women shouted ot our teom soying thot sooner or Ioter we ore being shifted to
muItipIexes, whot wiII you do, con you request government not to shift us, if you con
not then go owoy.
Thoro uro pruclicos und upprouchos oí solí holp, willingnoss lo puy und insluncos oí huving como
logolhor wilh conlribulion und improving lho íucilily.
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5mt. Umo Fowor, resident of lndore roIIs incense sticks soys whenever we hod
probIem we compIoined. ßut peopIe of this oreo pressurize us in front of the
Corporotor why did you compIoin now vocote the house. Once Umo ond l poid 32û/
- for cIeoning of chomber but when officioIs of MunicipoI Corporotion come osking
then o womon storted rebuking us.
For 8ulhrooms
ºWo bulho in opon wouring ull clolhos.º
ºHuvo lo wush in opon courlyurd.º
ºUso muko shiíls loilols wilh dry slicks und old clolhs.º
ºWo pul curluin oí u suroo und lhon luko bulh.º
ºWo go lo our rolulivo´s houso, und wush oursolvos in lhoir bulhroom.º
ºWo luko bulh in muko shiíl bulhrooms boíoro childron uro uwukoº
ln limos oí scurcily wo uvoid duily bulh. ll uííocls houllh - Archunu Khundoruo.
Now we hove toiIets ot home but eorIier we used to go in groups becouse of men
possing comments. We contribute to get the choked chombers cIeoned.
We too wont quoIity Iife ond wont some body to come ond educote us. We ore reody
to put in our efforts. We need your support.
78
5. Emergíng lssues Íor o SIroIegy ond AcIíon
Gendered noIure oÍ poverIy, gender roÍes ond reÍoIíons hove ímproved Io some exIenI wíIh
women´s occess Io educoIíon, skíÍÍs ond ríghI Io properIy buI poIríorchoÍ voÍues ond norms persísI.
Gender roÍes sIereoIypes conIínues Io be embedded ín Ihe percepIíons oÍ decísíon mokers ond oÍso
ínIernoÍízed by women IhemseÍves. Cne con see Ihem under pínníng mony poÍícíes ond
progrommes ond Iheír ímpÍemenIoIíon, Íor ínsIonce, when Ihe pensíon Io o wídow ceoses íÍ she
remorríes or when Ihere ís no consíderoIíon oÍ Ihe needs or probÍems oÍ women on Ihe
presumpIíon IhoI Ihe mon ís Ihe breodwínner. These reínÍorce persísIíng ínequoÍíIíes Íor women ín
oÍÍ oreos ond secIors íncÍudíng ín woIer ond soníIoIíon servíces.
DomesIíc víoÍence conIínues Io be occepIed by mony women wíIhín Ihe prívocy oÍ Ihe ÍomíÍy. The
Iensíon generoIed by probÍems reÍoIíng Io woIer, Ihe díspuIes, Ihe deÍoys hove oÍso become couse
oÍ domesIíc víoÍence. Women´s orgonízoIíons hove conIríbuIed Io Ihe íssue beíng broughI ouI ín Ihe
pubÍíc domoín ond Ihe recenI enocImenI oÍ Ihe ProIecIíon oÍ Women Írom DomesIíc \íoÍence AcI
2005 oI Ihe noIíonoÍ ÍeveÍ wíÍÍ be oÍ heÍp Io poIenIíoÍ vícIíms ín seekíng supporI oÍ women´s groups
ond ÍegoÍ servíces. A DírecIory oÍ SupporI Servíces Io counIer \íoÍence ogoínsI Women (2004} ín
eoch cíIy ond dísIrícI oÍ Modhyo Prodesh (prepored by MohíÍo CheIno Monch 8hopoÍ wíIh Ihe
ossísIonce oÍ UNlFEM, New DeÍhí ín 2004 ond wídeÍy dísIríbuIed} gíves ínÍormoIíon obouI Ihe
ogencíes ond servíces whích con be occessed ín ony ÍocoIíon. lI shows IhoI Ihese Íour cíIíes hove
more oÍ Ihese resources Ihon oIher pÍoces buI ore sIíÍÍ ínodequoIe porIícuÍorÍy obouI Iemporory
sheÍIer Íor women vícIíms, heÍp ín occessíng ÍegoÍ counseÍÍíng, eIc.
SpecíoÍ FomíÍy CourIs Io deoÍ wíIh moIrímoníoÍ díspuIes ond ÍomíÍy counseÍÍíng cenIres Io heÍp,
counseÍ ond odvíse boIh porIíes ore ÍocoIed ín oÍÍ Ihe Íour cíIíes. CIher deveÍopmenI íníIíoIíves Íor
poverIy oÍÍevíoIíon, empÍoymenI generoIíon generoÍÍy Íocused on ruroÍ oreos. WíIh 72º oÍ Ihe
popuÍoIíon sIíÍÍ ín ruroÍ lndío, Ihe dísporíIíes ond deprívoIíons ín Íorge pockeIs oÍ Ihe poor seIIÍemenIs
ín urbon oreos ond Ihe gendered víoÍence ond díscrímínoIíons conIínue Io be hídden behínd mocro
esIímoIes.
8T
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82
SexuoÍ horossmenI conIínues Io be IrívíoÍízed. lndíon Supreme CourI hos gíven guídeÍínes on sexuoÍ
horossmenI oI work pÍoces (ín o courI cose, nomeÍy, \íshokho \s SIoIe oÍ Po|osIhon ond oIhers}.
These hove very ÍíIIÍe reÍevonce Íor women ín Ihe ínÍormoÍ secIor where Ihere ore no reguÍoIíons
whích con enÍorce such guídeÍínes.
Low-íncome women´s posíIíon ín Ihe Íobour morkeI conIínues Io reínÍorce Iheír poverIy Ihough Ihe
esIímoIes ond surveys oÍ poverIy beíng bosed on househoÍd os o uníI do noI bríng ouI Ihe exIenI oÍ
ÍemínísoIíon oÍ poverIy.
A poÍícy íníIíoIíve oÍ Ihe sIoIe governmenI ímposíng o concessíonoÍ sIomp duIy oI 2º Íess Ihon Ihe
oppÍícobÍe roIe oÍ T0º oÍ Ihe voÍue oÍ properIy Íor regísIroIíon íÍ Ihe IronsocIíon ís oÍ soÍe, IronsÍer
Io o womon hos been seen Io íncreose Ihe number oÍ soÍes/ocquísíIíons oÍ Íond ond houses ín Ihe
nome oÍ women. Thís moy hove some eÍÍecI ín women´s cÍoím ín Ihe properIy. However, íI ís Io be
seen íÍ Ihese ore onÍy chonges on poper or Ihe women wíÍÍ be reoÍÍy obÍe ond wíÍÍíng Io moke Iheír
cÍoíms. The Híndu Low on successíon oppÍícobÍe Io Ihe mo|oríIy oÍ Ihe popuÍoIíon ín Ihe counIry,
possed ín Tº5ó gove equoÍ ríghIs Io gírÍs ín Iheír porenIoÍ properIy buI mosI oÍ Ihe gírÍs hove
preÍerred Io woíve Iheír cÍoíms presumobÍy Io keep beIIer reÍoIíons wíIh Iheír broIhers os o socíoÍ
soÍeIy íÍ Ihere ís ony probÍem ín Iheír moríIoÍ home. A recenI omendmenI Io Ihís Íow ín 2005 hos
reínÍorced Ihís equoÍ ríghI by mokíng Ihem 'coporceners´ (who ocquíre o ríghI ín Ihe oncesIroÍ
properIy oI bírIh} Ííke Iheír moÍe síbÍíngs buI íIs use by Ihe women Io moke ony cÍoím wíÍÍ hove Io be
símíÍorÍy observed.
Urbon poÍícíes ond progrommes íncÍudíng woIer ond soníIoIíon hove been subsIonIíoÍÍy conceíved
os engíneeríng soÍuIíons ond eÍÍícíenI Íond use ond pÍonníng. ln our gender ossessmenI exercíse
engíneers conIempIuousÍy IoÍd Ihe ÍíeÍd worker ºwhoI hove woIer Ionks Io do wíIh genderº we con´I
moke Ionks seporoIeÍy Íor men ond womenº. WhoI hos woIer demond Io do wíIh socíoÍ ospecIº Thís
ís o moIIer oÍ engíneeríng soÍuIíons ond noI oÍ socíoÍ ogendo. CÍeorÍy consíderobÍe work ís needed
Io pÍoce gender onywhere íI musI be ín WSS pro|ecIs ín Ihese cíIíes. lssues oÍ gender equíIy ond
porIícípoIíon oÍ women hove noI been odequoIeÍy oddressed. To some exIenI Ihís ís due Io
conIínuíng ínvísíbíÍíIy oÍ gender os weÍÍ os underpínníng oÍ poIríorchoÍ voÍues ond norms. The Íocus
oÍ gender concerns ond eÍÍecIíve porIícípoIíon ín Ihe decísíon mokíng Íorums os weÍÍ os creoIíon oÍ
specíoÍ Íorums Io enobÍe Ihem Io orIícuÍoIe Iheír needs wíÍÍ noI onÍy oddress Ihe equíIy ond |usIíce
íssues ond oÍso Íeod Io more eÍÍícíenI pÍonníng ond use oÍ resources ín WSS.
The one Ihírd reservoIíon ín Ihe ÍocoÍ bodíes wos o sIep ín Ihís dírecIíon buI poIríorchoÍ pressures
hove soughI Io undermíne Iheír eÍÍecIíveness by conIínuousÍy reÍerríng Io Ihe eÍecIed women openÍy
or obÍíqueÍy os 'proxíes´ oÍ Iheír moÍe ÍomíÍy members porIícuÍorÍy Iheír spouses Ihough sIudíes ond
observoIíons hove shown coses oÍ exceÍÍenI Íeodershíp ond concern Íor women´s needs.
SomeIímes, oÍ course, Ihe eÍecIed women IhemseÍves Iry Io ÍoÍÍow Ihe moÍe roÍe modeÍs oÍ poÍíIícoÍ
behovíour ond opprooch. There ís o reÍucIonce Io be seen os women ond hence dísIíncI Írom Iheír
moÍe coÍÍeogues ond Ihere ís o desíre Io be seen onÍy os 'eÍÍícíenI´ os men. ln progrommes oÍ
gender sensíIísoIíon ond ín deveÍopíng gender sensíIíve norms ond sIondords, Ihís wíÍÍ need Io be
ÍocIored.
83
The resuÍI oÍ Ihís Íock oÍ undersIondíng gender ís IhoI os we documenIed ín our househoÍd survey,
some 'SuÍobbh´ compÍexes ore beíng ÍocoIed on Ihe sídes oÍ moín roods whích ís conveníenI Íor
Ihose consIrucIíng or vísíIíng buI noI suíIobÍe Íor use by women. Here women compÍoíned IhoI Ihey
connoI use Ihem os men conIínue Io síI ond woIch. ln oIher pÍoces Ihe pubÍíc IoíÍeIs ore ÍocoIed oI
Ihe end oÍ o '1huggí´ seIIÍemenI Ihus mokíng íI díÍÍícuÍI Íor mosI oÍ Ihe women Io use Ihem os Ihese
ore Íor owoy Írom Iheír huIs. ln onoIher ÍocoIíon Ihe ÍocoÍ communíIy decíded IhoI Ihe pubÍíc IoíÍeI
compÍex be used by women onÍy. 8uI Ihen none oÍ Ihe IoíÍeI doors con be cÍosed or boÍIed. So Ihey
ore noI used. A redeemíng ÍeoIure wos IhoI os Ihe communíIy members IoÍd Ihe ÍíeÍd workers IhoI
Ihey wonIed Io ímprove Ihís síIuoIíon ond even conIríbuIe money or Íobour. WhoI Ihey wonIed wos
guídonce Írom someone who undersIonds Ihem ond ís prepored Io síI wíIh Ihem.
PersísIenI poverIy omong segmenIs oÍ popuÍoIíon ond gendered norms hove conIríbuIed Io uneven
deveÍopmenI IhoI oÍÍecIs Ihe quoÍíIy oÍ ÍíÍe oÍ women. Hence Ihe need Io Íook oI Ihe socío-economíc
proÍíÍe oÍ Ihe cíIy wíIh Íocus on Ihe sÍums where Ihe poor provísíon ond occess Io bosíc servíces ond
exIenI oÍ deprívoIíon ore mosked by cíIy, sIoIe ond counIry overoges. Cur househoÍd survey ond
porIícípoIory exercíse ín eoch cíIy sÍum poínI Io Ihe need oÍ ÍÍoggíng Iheír requíremenIs ín ony
pro|ecI Íor woIer ond soníIoIíon ínÍrosIrucIures ond copocíIy buíÍdíngs so IhoI Ihese con hove reoÍ
reIurns ín o beIIer served urbon popuÍoIíon. A 'goIed´ opprooch ín encÍoves oÍ weÍÍ served
communíIíes ÍÍonked by Íorge communíIíes oÍ concenIroIed deprívoIíon ond negÍecI connoI be
eÍÍecIíve ond Ihese hove more eÍÍecI on women´s burden, women´s heoÍIh ond reduced obíÍíIy Io
Ioke up íncome generoIíon ocIívíIíes oI on oppropríoIe ÍeveÍ oÍ skíÍÍs ond reIurns.
Women monogìng woter dìstrìbutìon.
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84
WoIer ond soníIoIíon ís noI onÍy o bosíc need buI o provísíon oÍ Ihese servíces wíIh consuÍIoIíon ond
porIícípoIíon oÍ women wíÍÍ enobÍe Ihem Io eorn beIIer ÍíveÍíhood ond Io Ioke ÍurIher íníIíoIíves Íor
ímprovemenI. ln oÍmosI oÍÍ sÍums Ihere ore exompÍes oÍ seÍÍ heÍp ond, more ímporIonIÍy, voíces oÍ
urgíng ocIíon, wíÍÍíngness Io conIríbuIe money ond Iíme. Women hove voíced how Ihe WSS
deÍícíencíes hove creoIed probÍems oÍ gírÍs educoIíon ond gírÍs soÍeIy ond Iheír own probÍems oÍ
deÍoy ín goíng Io work, Íoss oÍ woges due Io Ihís deÍoy becouse oÍ Iíme Ioken Io coÍÍecI ond ÍeIch
woIer ond, mosI ímporIonIÍy, Ihe erosíon oÍ dígníIy ond emborrossmenI Io Ihem ond Io Ihe gírÍs wíIh
hovíng Io go Io deÍecoIe ín open grounds. Even more críIícoÍ ís Ihe new ÍocIor oÍ even Ihese open
grounds shrínkíng due Io shíÍIíng oÍ oIher sÍum dweÍÍers Ihere or Ihe oreos been Ioken Íor oIher
deveÍopmenI/consIrucIíon work.
The voíces oÍ women cÍeorÍy índícoIe o Íock oÍ responsíveness ond undersIondíng oÍ Iheír needs by
servíce províders. WheIher you Íook oI Ihe Iímíngs oÍ woIer suppÍy ond Ihe moínIenonce oÍ pípeÍínes
ond woIer Iops, Ihe uncerIoínIíes ínherenI ín írreguÍor woIer suppÍy or unonnounced dísrupIíon ín
suppÍíes or ín oÍmosI compÍeIe negÍecI oÍ pÍonníng, soníIoIíon orrongemenIs ín Ihe sÍums. The
ÍocoIíon oÍ pubÍíc IoíÍeIs compÍexes on moín roodsídes ond/or oI one end oÍ o sÍum wíIhouI
undersIondíng oÍ women ond gírÍs´ soÍeIy ond securíIy concerns (dorkness oI níghI, men roomíng
obouI or hongíng oround} índícoIes on ínsensíIívíIy remíníscenI oÍ Ihe 'ínvísíbíÍíIy´ oÍ women ín
deveÍopmenI pÍonníng eorÍíer. The 2T
sI
cenIury hos Io see sensíIívíIy Io women´s concern ond needs
even ín Ihe ínIeresI oÍ success oÍ ony WSS pro|ecI.
There ís on íncreosíng ín ÍormoÍísoIíon oÍ empÍoymenI noI onÍy omong Ihe resídenIs oÍ Ihe sÍums buI
oÍso ín oIher secIíons ond Ihís ís porIícuÍorÍy so omong women. Thís hos ímporIonI ímpÍícoIíons Íor
how deveÍopmenI ond ínÍrosIrucIure pro|ecIs e.g. ín WSS musI Íocus on women´s need ond
porIícípoIíon noI onÍy Íor equíIy consíderoIíons buI even Íor Ihe success oÍ Ihe pro|ecIs IhemseÍves.
A beIIer pÍonned woIer suppÍy wíIh Iímíngs oÍ suppÍy more oppropríoIe Íor Ihe woge Íobour,
odequoIe noIíce oÍ on unovoídobÍe dísrupIíon con moke íI eosíer Íor women Io go Íor Iheír woge
work. CIherwíse ín Ihese síIuoIíons Ihe men Íeove Ihe probÍem Io women Io sorI ouI or ore
IhemseÍves oÍso unobÍe Io go Íor work.
Women hove repeoIedÍy expressed desíre ond wíÍÍíngness Io spend money Íor píped woIer
connecIíons ond Íor consIrucIíon oÍ IoíÍeI ín Iheír houses buI os Ihey expressed ogoín ond ogoín,
how ond why Ihey con do so íÍ Ihey ore noI cerIoín IhoI Ihey wíÍÍ noI be shíÍIed. AI presenI Ihe sIoIe
con shíÍI Ihem under Ihe Íow even íÍ Ihey hove been gíven Íong-Ierm Íeoses ('non IronsÍerobÍe´, oÍ
course} under Ihe some Íow, íÍ Ihe Íond ís requíred Íor 'pubÍíc purpose´, ond o 'pubÍíc purpose´ ís o
very wíde ond ÍÍexíbÍe concepI. AÍÍ Ihese Íonds ín Ihe cíIíes ore becomíng voÍuobÍe due Io exponsíon
oÍ Ihe cíIíes ond Íor oIher genuíne purposes. So Ihe sIoIe musI decíde how Io gíve securíIy oÍ
Ienure, hove 'ín síIu´ ímprovemenI oÍ sÍums ond, ín Ihe shorI Ierm, íncÍude ímmedíoIe ímprovemenI
oÍ woIer suppÍy ond soníIoIíon Ihere on on odequoIe ÍeveÍ os o príoríIy chorge on oÍÍ pro|ecIs Íor
woIer suppÍy ond soníIoIíon secIor.
85
Women oÍso spoke oÍ Ihe Íock oÍ ínÍormoIíon, supporI ond Iroíníng. They were oÍmosI ínvoríobÍy
owore oÍ íÍÍnesses coused by poor quoÍíIy oÍ woIer ond Íock oÍ soníIoIíon orrongemenIs. PícIure oÍ
women sIroíníng poor quoÍíIy muddy woIer coÍÍecIed Írom o noÍÍoh even Íor woshíng Iheír cÍoIhes
díspÍoyed Iheír heÍpÍessness ín hovíng Io use such o woIer buI oI Ihe some Iíme mokíng Ihe besI
ímprovísoIíon ín Iheír síIuoIíon. Theír poIheIíc orrongemenIs oÍ boIhrooms by puIIíng o Íew cÍoIhes
or socks show Ihe need oÍ consIrucIíon oÍ |oínI woshrooms Íor women whích Ihe women´s groups
con consIrucI, moínIoín ond use os Ihe houses do noI hove spoce Íor seporoIe boIhrooms. These
ore possíbíÍíIíes wíIh díoÍogue ond porIícípoIíon oÍ women wíIh on exIernoÍ coIoÍysI ond ÍocíÍíIoIor
whom Ihe women con IrusI.
Hence orgonísoIíons workíng ín Ihese oreos con mobíÍíze women´s groups Íor seÍÍ heÍp, Io geI
ínÍormoIíon, Io orIícuÍoIe Iheír needs ond Io Ioke up consIrucIíon suíIobÍe Íor Iheír ÍocoÍ síIuoIíon
musI be supporIed ín o pro|ecI oÍ woIer suppÍy ond soníIoIíon so IhoI Ihey con be o brídge beIween
Ihe engíneers ond Iechnícíons ond Ihe women ond Iheír househoÍds.
The moÍe communíIy members porIícípoIíng ín Ihe FGDs were cÍeor IhoI íI ís Ihe women who beor
Ihe moxímum responsíbíÍíIíes Íor woIer ond soníIoIíon needs oÍ Ihe househoÍd ond Ihey musI be
gíven Ihe ouIhoríIy ond ínsIíIuIíonoÍ supporI Io monoge Ihe communíIy osseIs creoIed Íor ínIernoÍ
woIer suppÍy ín Ihe sÍum seIIÍemenI ond Íor soníIoIíon orrongemenIs. They oÍso oÍÍered Io heÍp ín
Ihe ÍormoIíon oÍ women´s groups ond commíIIees. Thís ís on ímporIonI índícoIor Íor ÍuIure ocIíon
whích shouÍd move owoy Írom non ÍuncIíoníng mohoÍÍo commíIIees. The íníIíoIíve Io Íorm
commíIIees ond Io hove Iheír meeIíngs shouÍd be wíIh Ihe communíIy ond noI wíIh on obsenIee
oÍÍícíoÍ buI Ihe sIoIe musI gíve Ihem essenIíoÍ supporI Io creoIe Ihe ínÍrosIrucIure. Women´s repeoIed
reÍerences Io men roomíng obouI or Ihe boys cousíng emborrossmenI con oÍso be oddressed by
ínvoÍvíng Ihem os youIh voÍunIeers ín useÍuÍ communíIy work wíIh some poymenIs ond by gívíng
Ihem o sense oÍ porIícípoIíon ond Íeodershíp.
The phenomenon oÍ secIíons ín eoch ÍocoÍíIy cÍoímíng excÍusíveness oÍ possessíon ond use oÍ woIer
Iops ond pubÍíc IoíÍeIs ÍocoIed ín Iheír oreo ond noI permíIIíng persons Írom ony oIher ÍocoÍíIy Io
Ioke woIer or Io use o ÍocíÍíIy wíÍÍ requíre IhoI communíIíes ore orgonízed ond ore 'ínÍormed´ ond
hove undersIondíng oÍ shoríng, muIuoÍ heÍp ond cooperoIíon.
A mo|or choÍÍenge wíÍÍ be Io buíÍd ín Ihe WSS progromme, skíÍÍs ond undersIondíng Íor
deveÍopmenI oÍ gender sensíIíve índícoIors ond gender oudíI Io ÍocíÍíIoIe moínsIreomíng gender ond
more ímporIonIÍy mokíng gender íssues vísíbÍe. 8egínníng hos Io be mode Io generoIe gender
dísoggregoIed doIo ín Ihe servíces oÍ woIer suppÍy ond soníIoIíon where Ihe servíce províders hove
noI yeI undersIood Ihe need oÍ such doIo. AI presenI even ín Ihe progromme oÍ nuIríIíon Ihís
emphosís ís noI odequoIeÍy reÍÍecIed ond wheIher we Íook oI morbídíIy doIo oÍ hospíIoÍs or doIo oÍ
chíÍdren who ore normoÍ or ore cÍossíÍíed os suÍÍeríng Írom moÍnuIríIíon, Ihe doIo ore noI gender
dísoggregoIed.
=LEC=JEC /-,-4
lM DEVELCPMEMl CF VAlER AMD SAMllAllCM lM ÜRBAM AREAS
GÍossory
Angonwodí - Meoníng o cenIre ín o courI yord (ongon}
A Ierm gíven Io o muÍIípurpose cenIre ín lCDS Pro|ecI gívíng o pockoge oÍ servíces oÍ heoÍIh
checkup, ímmunízoIíon, ond suppÍemenIory nuIríIíon Io moIhers ond chíÍdren beÍow oge ó.
8osIí - A SeIIÍemenI
Dhobho - Poodsíde IrodíIíonoÍ eoIíng-pÍoce.
1huggí - HuImenI.
MohoÍÍoh - A LocoÍíIy
NuÍÍoh - A Droín
C8C - CIher 8ockword CosIes
PonchoyoI - Meoníng o commíIIee oÍ Ííve members, nome oÍ Ihe ÍocoÍ bodíes ruroÍ lndío.
PoIIo - Leose deed oÍ Íond.
PPl - PonchoyoIí Po| lnsIíIuIíons.
Ps. - Pupees.
SoIí - A procIíce oÍ seÍ Í ímmoÍ oIíon by o wídow on her husbond´s ÍuneroÍ pyre
bonned by Íow.
SC - ScheduÍed CosIes.
ST - ScheduÍed Tríbes.
SuÍobh CompÍex - o modeÍ oÍ pubÍíc IoíÍeI compÍex whích íncÍudes poymenI by users o on essenIíoÍ
componenI.

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