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You are on page 1of 7

Storage Applications

Tianyang Jiang, Xiliang Chen, Junming Zhang and Yousheng Wang

College of electrical Engineering, Zhejiang University

Hangzhou, China

Email: {jiangtianyangtc, roobinhio, zhangjm}@zju.edu.cn

Abstract This paper proposes a new LLC resonant DC-DC

topology with bidirectional power flow capability. All the

switches in the proposed topology can achieve zero voltage

switching (ZVS) at turn on, and zero current switching (ZCS) is

achieved for the output side switches at turn off. Compared with

the traditional bidirectional dual active bridge (DAB) converter,

the turn off current is greatly reduced, and the frequency

modulation control scheme can almost eliminate the large

circulating energy. Therefore, the conversion efficiency can be

much improved, which makes it quite attractive in energy

storage applications. The output characteristic of the proposed

LLC converter is different from the conventional unidirectional

LLC resonant converter. A new analytical model is also

proposed in this paper. The detailed operating principle and

performance of the proposed topology are analyzed. And a 1 kW

prototype is built to verify the theoretical analysis. Over 98%

efficiency is achieved base on the prototype.

I. INTRODUCTION

As energy saving and environment protection become

more and more important, lots of research efforts have been

carried out in order to use the energy in a clean and efficient

way. The distributed generation (DG) and smart grid

technologies are emerging with the rapid application growth

of renewable energy resources. However, the intermittent

nature of these resources introduces issues with system

stability, reliability, and power quality. Energy storage

systems (ESSs) are required to against such intermittent

outages for grid-tied and off-grid applications [1]-[3].

Batteries and super capacitors are the most popular energy

storage components considering the price and performance.

Fig. 1 shows a typical DG system with renewable energy

resources and ESSs. The ESSs should have the bidirectional

power flow capability to store the excess energy and release it

during peak times of energy consumption [4]-[6]. And the

bidirectional DC-DC converter is a key component in these

applications to enable the bidirectional power flow.

Bidirectional DC-DC converters for ESSs should have the

characters like high power density, high efficiency and high

reliability. Various kinds of bidirectional DC-DC topologies

have been proposed [7]-[9]. Among these topologies, the dual

active bridge (DAB) converter has attracted a lot of research

interests in recent years, due to its simple structure, wide range

soft switching capability and high efficiency. Though DAB

topology is widely adopted as an interface for ESSs and solid

state transformers [10]-[12], it suffers from high circulating

energy and high turn off current which causes high power loss

and deteriorates the efficiency. A lot of methods have been

proposed to further improve its efficiency and performance.

An improved DAB topology with the reduced circulating

energy and simple control scheme was proposed in [13], but

the topology loses the bidirectional power flow capability.

Several Dual-Phase-Shifted control methods were proposed to

minimize the circulating energy and increase the efficiency in

[14][15], but the control methods are complex and the turn off

loss is still high.

The turn off power loss is related to the turn off current,

which can be reduced by operated the DAB topology in series

resonant mode with an extra resonant capacitor, i.e. dual

bridge series resonant converter (DBSRC) [16][17]. However,

it can be only operated under buck mode which is not suitable

for wide output range applications like ESSs. A new

bidirectional SRC for wide voltage range application with

clamped capacitor voltage was studied in [18], but the

topology itself is quite complex due to the auxiliary circuits.

Among the resonant converters, the LLC resonant

converter has superior performance compared to the SRC,

especially for buck/boost operation capability, narrow

switching frequency variation and higher efficiency [19]. But

very little research works on bidirectional LLC resonant

converter is reported in literature. A bidirectional LLC

resonant topology for vehicular applications was proposed in

[20]. However, the topology is still a conventional SRC during

backward mode, which is still not preferred for wide voltage

range application. In [21], a bidirectional CLLC resonant

converter with two resonant tanks in the transformer primary

side and secondary side was proposed. The extra resonant tank

Figure 1. The typical DG system with ESSs

PV

Fuel Cell

Wind Power

DC-DC

DC-DC

AC-DC

D

C

B

U

S

DC-AC

DC-DC

Bidirectional

DC-DC

Energy Storage System

DC Load

AC Load

Battery

Super capacitor

978-1-4673-4355-8/13/$31.00 2013 IEEE 1145

Figure 2. The proposed bidirectional LLC resonant converter.

increases the cost and volume of the converter, and the voltage

gain is reduced compared to the traditional LLC converter.

Furthermore, the current in output side has to flow through the

body diodes of switches which may cause high reverse

recovery current.

This paper proposes a new bidirectional LLC resonant

converter for ESSs applications. In order to achieve

bidirectional power flow and maintain the buck/boost

operation capability in any mode, an extra inductor is added

between the midpoints of two switches legs in transformer

primary side as shown in Fig. 2. The switches in the input side

are switched with 50% duty cycle as traditional LLC resonant

converter and the switching frequency modulation is used to

regulate the output power. All the switches in the proposed

topology can achieve ZVS. And ZCS is achieved for the

switches in the output side. The switches in output side are

also operated with same switching frequency as the input side

switches to prevent current from flowing through the body

diodes, thus the current in the proposed topology are always in

continuous conduction mode (CCM). In order analyze the

output characteristic of the proposed bidirectional LLC

resonant topology, a new analysis method based on the

fundamental harmonic approximation (FHA) method is also

introduced in this paper. The detailed operating principle of

the proposed bidirectional LLC resonant converter is

presented in Section II. The theoretical analysis based on the

proposed FHA method is given in Section III. The

experimental verification from a 1 kW prototype is given in

Section IV. Efficiency over 98% is achieved at full lad based

on the prototype.

II. PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION

The proposed bidirectional LLC resonant converter is

shown in Fig. 2. The primary side and secondary side are both

full-bridge structures consisting 4 MOSFETs. It should be

noted that a half-bridge structure can also be used. An extra

inductor L

m2

is added between point A and point B as shown

in Fig. 2. In forward mode, the resonant inductor L

r

, resonant

capacitor C

r

and transformer magnetizing inductor L

m1

form

the LLC resonant tank, and the extra inductor L

m2

is used to

help achieve ZVS of primary side switches. In backward

mode, L

m2

is served as the resonant inductor, which makes the

operation of the proposed converter exactly the same as that in

forward mode. And the transformer magnetizing inductor L

m1

is used to help achieve ZVS for secondary side switches. If

L

m2

is equal to L

m1

, the proposed topology is a symmetrical

LLC resonant converter both for forward mode and backward

mode. For simplification, only the operating principle in

forward mode is discussed in the paper.

The steady state operation waveforms are shown in Fig. 3.

Fig. 3(a) to Fig. 3(c) show the waveforms when the switching

frequency is below, equal and above the resonant frequency f

r

respectively.

The gate drive signals for M1, M4, M5 and M8 are the

same and with 50% duty cycle, which is complementary to the

gate signals for M2, M3, M6 and M7 without considering the

small dead time. Thus the conduction of body diodes of

MOSFETs in secondary side can be minimized, which helps

to reduce conduction loss and avoid severe reverse recovery

problem. And the current in the output side will always be in

CCM, which is different from traditional LLC converter.

A. f

s

< f

r

There are three operating modes in a half switching cycle

when the switching frequency is below the resonant frequency.

Mode 1 (t

0

- t

1

)

:

M1, M4, M5 and M8 turn on at t

0

, i

r

and

current of L

m2

are both negative at the moment, so current

through M1 and M4 is negative and they can be turned on

with ZVS. Since i

r

is higher than i

Lm1

at t

0

, thus i

s

> 0, M5 and

M8 turn on with ZVS. The voltage across point C and point D

is equal to the output voltage and the voltage across L

m1

is

equal to nV

o

, so i

Lm1

increases linearly during this mode.

Voltage across L

m2

is equal to the input voltage and its current

increases linearly, too. This mode ends when i

r

is equal to

i

Lm1

at t

1

.

Mode 2 (t

1

t

2

): i

s

is zero at t

1

, as M5 and M8 are still on,

i

Lm1

will keep increasing and i

s

will drop to below zero.

Current through M5 and M8 will be positive (from drain to

source). This mode ends when M1, M4, M5 and M8 turn off

at t

2

. Though turn off current of MOSFETs in the secondary

side is not zero, its much smaller than the turn off current in

DAB converter.

Mode 3 (t

2

t

3

): M1, M4, M5 and M8 turn off at t

3

. In the

secondary side i

s

is negative and current in secondary begins to

charge the parasitic capacitors of M5 and M8 and discharge

the parasitic capacitors of M6 and M7. After the voltage of the

parasitic capacitors of M5 and M8 are charged to V

o

, current

begin to flow through the body diodes of M6 and M7. In this

way, M6 and M7 can be turned on with ZVS. Then the

voltage across L

m1

changes to -nV

o

, and i

Lm1

begins to decrease.

In primary side, i

r

plus the auxiliary inductor current i

Lm2

will charge the parasitic capacitors of M1 and M4, and

discharge the parasitic capacitors of M2 and M3 until the

voltage across the parasitic capacitors of M1 and M4 equal to

the input voltage, then current in the primary side begin to

flow through the body diodes of M2 and M3. The auxiliary

inductor current i

lm2

helps to charge and discharge the parasitic

capacitors and the zero voltage switching is easier to be

achieved.

In the next half switching cycle, the operation is almost the

same, which will not be elaborated here.

B. f

s

= f

r

1146

When the switching frequency is equal to the resonant

frequency, there are only two operating modes in half

switching cycle. The Mode 2 described above

is not existed

anymore, which means that no energy is fed from output side

back to the input side.

C. f

s

> f

r

When the switching frequency is higher than the resonant

frequency, there are also three operating modes in half

switching cycle.

Mode 1 (t

0

- t

1

): This operating mode is exactly the same as

Mode 1 we described when f

s

< f

r

, which is not repeated here.

(a) (b)

(c)

Figure 3. Waveforms of the proposed topology

Mode 2 (t

1

t

2

): M1, M4, M5 and M8 turn off at t

1

, the

parasitic capacitors of M1 and M4 are charged to the input

voltage by i

Lm2

and i

r

, and then current in primary side will

flow through the body diodes of M2 and M3. The current of

L

m2

helps to achieve ZVS. In secondary side, since i

s

is still

above zero, the body diode of M5 and M8 keep on, which will

drop quickly to zero at t

2

, then this mode ends.

Mode 3 (t

2

t

3

): i

r

is equal to i

Lm1

at t

2

, and then i

s

will

change its direction. Since M5 and M8 are already off, the

current will flow through the body diodes of M6 and M7.

Then M6 and M7 can be turned on with ZVS.

As described above, the auxiliary inductor L

m2

doesnt

influence the operating principle in forward mode, and it only

helps to achieve the ZVS of the switches in the primary side.

All the switches in the topology can achieve ZVS. Soft current

commutation of the switches in the output side can be

achieved as conventional LLC resonant converter when the

switching frequency is above or equal to the resonant

frequency. When the switching frequency is lower than the

resonant frequency, there is small circulating energy and the

turn off current of secondary side MOSFET is very small.

III. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS

The FHA method is widely used to analyze the output

characteristics of LLC resonant converter. And the load along

with the diode rectifier is usually represented by an equivalent

AC resistor .But the results like voltage gain derived by this

model is not accurate especially when the switching frequency

is below the resonant frequency due to some assumption to

derive the equivalent AC resistance is not maintained anymore

.

However in the proposed topology, since the secondary

side current is always in CCM even when f

s

<f

r

. There is a

phase difference between the transformer secondary side

voltage and current as shown in Fig. 3(a), the impedance of

the transformer secondary side is not resistive anymore, which

means the conventional equivalent AC resistor method is not

applicable. A new analysis model using equivalent AC voltage

is proposed. The equivalent circuit is shown in Fig. 4.

In Fig. 4, v

CD1

(t)

represents the fundamental component of

the equivalent output voltage v

CD

(t) referred to the primary

side, and the expression is given in (1) based n Fourier

decomposition. The equivalent AC output current (transformer

secondary side current referred to the primary side) is i

CD1

(t)

and it can be expressed as in (2), where A is the amplitude of

i

CD1

(t) and is the phase angle between i

CD1

(t) and v

CD1

(t).

The output power can be expressed as in (3), and then A can

be derived and i

CD1

(t) is given in (4). The equivalent output

impedance is given in (5).

Figure 4. The equivalent circuit.

M1,M4

M5,M8

vAB

M2,M3

M6,M7

vCD

VCr

ir

iLm1

M1,M4

M5,M8

is

im5

t0 t1t2t3

io

t4t5

iLm2

M1,M4

M5,M8

vAB

M2,M3

M6,M7

vCD

VCr

ir

iLm1

M1,M4

M5,M8

is

im5

t0 t1t2t3

io

t4t5

iLm2

1147

1

4

( ) sin

o

CD

nV

v t t

= (1)

1( ) sin( ) CD i t A t = + (2)

2

2 2

cos

2

o o

o

o

nV A V

P

R

= = (3)

1( ) sin( )

2 cos

o

CD

o

V

i t t

nR

= + (4)

2

1

2

1

8 cos CD o

e

CD

v n V

Z

i

= =

(5)

A. Voltage gain

The voltage gain G is the ratio of the equivalent output

voltage and the equivalent input voltage as given in (6):

o

in

nV

G

V

= (6)

According to the equivalent circuit, the voltage gain can be

expressed as follows:

1

1

1

e m

e m r

r

Z j L

G=

Z j L j L

j C

+ +

(7)

Then the voltage gain can be solved and is shown in (8).

The voltage gain of traditional unidirectional LLC resonant

converter derived by using the equivalent AC resistance is

shown in (9). It is seen that when f

s

f

r

, the voltage gain of the

proposed topology is lower than the traditional unidirectional

LLC converter with the existence of . When f

s

f

r

, will be

zero, then the voltage gain of the proposed topology is same

with traditional LLC resonant converter.

2

2 2

2 2 2

1

G=

1 1 1 1 1 1 1

1+ (1- ) 2Qtan (x- )[1+ (1- )]+Q (x- )

k x k x x x cos

(8)

2 2 2

2

1

G=

1 1 1

[1+ (1- )] +Q (x - )

k x x

(9)

Where

1 m

r

L

k

L

= ,

2

2

8

r

o

Z

Q

n R

= ,

s

r

f

x

f

= .

B. Phase angle

In a half switching cycle, inductor current i

r

can be

expressed as in (10), where is the initial phase of i

r

. But

methods to calculate the exact value of will be complicated,

so i

r

can be approximately expressed as in (11), where I

r

(0) is

seen as the initial value of i

r

.

1

sin( )

o in

r

r r r

r

nV V

i t

L L C

C

= (10)

1

sin( ) (0)

o in

r r

r r r

r

nV V

i t I

L L C

C

+ (11)

The current of magnetizing inductance i

Lm1

can be

expressed as in (12).

1

1 1 4

o o

Lm

m m s

nV nV

i t

L L f

= (12)

1

o

r Lm

i

i i

n

= (13)

According to equation (13), the average value of the output

current can be expressed in (14). Then the initial phase of i

r

can be solved as in (15).

2

1 1

0

1

[ sin( ) (0) ]

4

2

Ts

o in o o

r

m m s r r r

o

r

o

s

o

nV V nV nV

n t I t dt

L L f L L C

V

C

I

T

R

+ +

= =

(14)

( )(1 cos )

(0)

o in

o

r

o r

x V V

V

x

I

nR Z

= (15)

When i

r

is equal to i

Lm1

, i

o

is equal to zero, then (13) can be

derived into (16).

2

( )(1 cos )

8

sin( ) ( ) 0

2

o in

o in o o

r r r r

x V V

nV V nV Q nV

x

Z x Z kxZ Z

+ =

(16)

Taking (8) into (16), it will be an equation of x and , and

the left side of the equation can be regarded as a function of x

and , which is f(x, ). Then taking different value of x into

f(x, ) and depict its curve, so the intersection of f(x, ) and

y=0, is the value of at the corresponding switching

frequency. Fig. 5 shows the value of corresponding to x

where k is set to 4. It is seen that will increase when Q

decreases of the switching frequency get lower.

C. Reverse energy

When f

s

is higher than f

r

, is equal to zero, therefore the

output voltage and output current are in phase and there is no

reverse energy. When f

s

is lower than f

r

the ratio of reverse

power P

b

and output power P

o

can be solved as follows:

1 1

1 1

0

( ) ( )

( ) ( )

CD CD

b

o

CD CD

v t i t dt

P

P

v t i t dt

(17)

1148

sin cos

2 cos

b

o

P

P

= (18)

For a traditional DAB converter with the voltage gain

equals to 1, the ratio of reverse energy and output energy can

be shown as follows [14]:

4( )

b

o

P

P

=

(19)

Where is the phase shift angle between the switches in

primary side and secondary side.

A comparison of reverse energy between the proposed

converter and the traditional DAB converter is shown in Fig.

7. It is obviously that though reverse energy in the proposed

topology is much smaller than that of the traditional DAB

converter.

Figure 5. The value of at different switching frequency

Figure 6. Ratio of turn off current and the amplitude of the

output current when k=4. From the bottom to top are curves

when Q=0.3, Q=0.4 and Q=0.5

(a)

(b)

Figure 7. (a) reverse energy of the proposed bidirectional

LLC converter; (b) reverse energy of DAB converter.

IV. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

A 1kW prototype system is built up to verify the analysis

above. The input voltage V

in

is 400V and output voltage V

o

ranges from 160V to 220V; transformer turns ratio n is equal

to 2; the resonant frequency f

r

is 100 kHz.

It is expected that the switching frequency shouldnt be too

low to cause additional loss, in this way the lowest switching

frequency is set to70 kHz. Full load output resistor R

f

is set to

50. k shouldnt be too large to avoid high conducting loss,

and neither too small which will make the voltage gain less

than 1 when f

s

< f

r

, so k is set to 4. L

r

is set to 115uH, C

r

is set

to 22nF, and L

m1

and L

m2

are set to 460uH.

For operation in backward mode is symmetry to forward

mode, only waveforms in forward mode is shown. Fig. 8

shows the waveforms when f

s

is lower than f

r

, and Fig. 9

shows the waveforms when f

s

is higher than f

r

. It is seen that

ZVS is achieved and turn off current in secondary side is very

small when the switching frequency is lower than the resonant

frequency, and the turn off current will be zero when the

switching frequency is higher than the resonant frequency.

Fig. 10 compares the voltage gain in experimental results,

voltage gain derived by traditional method and voltage gain

derived by the proposed method. When the switching

frequency is lower than the resonant frequency, voltage gain

derived by traditional voltage gain formula is much higher

than the experimental results and is obviously not accurate,

while voltage gain solved by the proposed voltage gain

5 10

3

2.5 10

3

0

2.5 10

3

5 10

3

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.75 0.8 0.85 0.9 0.95 1

x(f

s

/f

r

)

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

0

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08

0.1

0

0.06

0.12

0.18

0.24

0.3

1149

formula is a little lower than the experimental results but is

much closer to them.

When the switching frequency is higher than the resonant

frequency, voltage gain derived by each method is the same

and are both approximate to the experimental results. So the

voltage gain derived by the proposed method will be more

adaptable in theoretical analysis.

Fig. 11 compares the efficiency of the proposed converter

and DAB converter with same output voltage. The efficiency

of the DAB converter with traditional control strategy is tested

with the same voltage gain (G=1) and the same power rate

(1000w). It is seen that the maximum efficiency of proposed

converter is about 98.2% at 70% load, which is 5% higher

than DAB converter. The efficiency of the proposed topology

at full load is about 98%, and it will be higher than 97% in

most load conditions. It is obvious that the efficiency of

bidirectional LLC resonant converter improves a lot compares

to the traditional DAB converter.

Figure 8: full load test results with V

o

=210V when f

s

< f

r

.

Figure 9: Full load test results with V

o

=190V when f

s

> f

r

.

Figure 10 Voltage gain of experimental results and calculated

by traditional and proposed method when Q=0.5.

Figure 11. Efficiency of the proposed topology and the DAB

converter when the voltage gain is equal to 1.

V. CONCLUSIONS

This paper proposed a LLC resonant topology which has

an improved circuit structure to achieve the bidirectional

power flow capability. It can achieve ZVS for all the

MOSFETs with and soft current commutation in the output

side when f

s

f

r

, while the turn off current when f

s

< f

r

is also

very small. Besides, the proposed converter has very little

circulating energy compared to traditional DAB converter.

These characters contribute to the high efficiency and it can be

above 98% at full load. So the proposed bidirectional topology

will be popular in energy storage applications like batteries

and super-capacitors.

The control scheme of the proposed topology is different

from the unidirectional LLC resonant converter that the

MOSFETs in secondary side also turn on and off according to

the related primary side, in this way the reverse recovery

current at turning off is limited. A new analyze model is also

proposed based on the FHA method, and the corresponding

circuit performance like voltage gain, ZVS region, and reverse

energy are all analyzed in detail, which is more accurate than

the traditional analyze method. A prototype of 1 kW is built

and confirms the theoretical analysis well.

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0.8

0.85

0.9

0.95

1

1.05

1.1

1.15

1.2

0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3

x(f

s

/f

r

)

Q=0.5

x(f

s

/f

r

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1150

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