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VALURUPALLI NAGESWARA RAO VIGNANA JYOTHI INSTITUTE OF

ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY


(Affiliated to JNT Unie!"it#$
%ACHUPALLY& HYDERA%AD ' ()) )*)
DEPART+ENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the project work entitled Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation and Space
vector Modulation of a Two-level Inverter bein sub!itted by "#$ %nusha& %nkur Wason&
'arshini (ina! and ) Soujanya in partial fulfill!ent of the re*uire!ents for the award of
deree of +achelor of Technoloy in ,lectrical and ,lectronics ,nineerin& to -awaharlal )ehru
Technoloical .niversity is a record bonafide work carried out by the! under !y uidance and
supervision$
The results e!bodied in this thesis have not been sub!itted to any other .niversity or institute
for the award of any deree$
+!", -, ANURADHA
ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR AND
HEAD OF DEPART+ENT OF EEE
/
VNRVJIET
CHAPTER .
INTRODUCTION
.,. INTRODUCTION
.,/ LITERATURE SURVEY
.,0 SCOPE OF THE PROJECT
.,1 O%JECTIVE OF THE PROJECT
.,( A %RIEF OVERVIEW OF THE PROJECT
0
CHAPTER .
.,. INTRODUCTION
Inverters are widely used in various industrial applications and thus dependin on the different load
de!ands it is i!portant for an efficient output voltae control alon with efficient use of the 1" bus
&which can be achieved by !odulation techni*ues $
The !ost efficient !ethod of controllin the output voltae is to incorporate pulse width !odulation
2PWM3 control within the inverters$ In pulse width !odulation techni*ue the output voltae control is
obtained by varyin the inverter ain

This project investiates the direct effect of different Pulse-width !odulation sche!es on the
perfor!ance of three Phase voltae source inverter$ Two different !odulations Sche!es& na!ely& the
sinusoidal PWM 2SPWM3 sche!e and the Space vector PWM 2S'PWM3 sche!e have been evaluated
and the analytical e4pressions for the averae PWM duty cycles for the different !odulation sche!es
have been derived$
The space vector !odulation 2S'M3 techni*ue has beco!e the !ost popular and i!portant
PWM techni*ue for three phase voltae source inverters for the control of %" induction& brushless 1"&
switched reluctance and per!anent !anet synchronous !otors$
It has been shown analytically that the S'PWM sche!e provides a 55$56 hiher ain as
co!pared to the SPWM sche!e$ Thus& the PWM converter with the S'PWM sche!e shows better
dyna!ic Perfor!ances$
.sin the S'PWM sche!e can provide /5$76 hiher output 'oltae than that usin the SPWM
sche!e$ It shows that the S'PWM sche!e provides a wider operatin rane
5
for the PWM "onverter$ In steady state& T#1 of the input %" current with the S'PWM sche!e is
s!aller than that with the SPWM sche!e$ The e4peri!ental test results obtained confir! that i!proved
Transient and steady state perfor!ances can be achieved usin S'PWM techni*ue
1urin the past decades& various types of PWM sche!es have been studied e4tensively for
inverters to achieve the followin objectives8
/$ Wide linear !odulation rane9
0$ (ess switchin loss9
5$ (ess total har!onic
7$ 1istortion 2T#139
:$ ,asy i!ple!entation and less co!putational ti!e re*uire!ents
;or a lon period& carrier-based sinusoidal PWM 2SPWM3 sche!es have been and are still widely
used in !ost applications$ With the develop!ent of diital controllers& Space-vector !odulation
2S'PWM3 sche!e has beco!e one of the !ost i!portant PWM sche!es for three-phase converters$ It
uses the space-vector concept to co!pute the duty cycle of the switches so that the diital i!ple!entation
of PWM Modulators can be i!ple!ented with ease$
In this project the si!ulation of sinusoidal PWM techni*ue and space vector !odulation
techni*ues are i!ple!ented on a 5 phase inverters and the si!ulation results are co!pared
The si!ulation study of the space vector !odulation techni*ue of the two level inverter reveals
that the space vector !odulation techni*ue utili<es the 1" bus voltae !ore efficiently and enerates less
har!onic distortion when co!pared with the SPWM techni*ue$
.,/ LITERATURE SURVEY (THESIS RESEARCH$
The followin references have helped us a lot in carryin out this research work$
., 2o3e! ele4t!oni4" 4i!45it" &dei4e" and a22li4ation" 6# +57a88ad H,Ra"7id
7
It has helped us in learnin the basics of chopper circuit and operation of different power
electronics circuits$ It helped us in ettin an overview on I=+T transistor and its ate drive circuitry $It
also ave us the basic idea on different inverters their !ode operations and applications$ It has helped us
in learnin the basics of inverters and the operation of different inverter circuits
It ave us a clear picture of different !odulation techni*ues used to et a
sinusoidal output fro! the inverter with less har!onic content$
/, Po3e! ele4t!oni4" 6# P,S %7i8!a
This book has been used as a reference to study about the operation of different inverters and the
!odulatin sche!es that are i!ple!ented to et control on the output voltae$ It has helped us in ainin
knowlede about the i!ple!entation of space vector !odulation sche!e$ It also helped us in carryin out
the !athe!atical derivations needed in the course of our project$
0, +at la6 "oft3a!e9
The de!os available in the M%T(%+>SIM.(I)? helped us in learnin about the operation of
different inverter blocks$
.,0 SCOPE OF THE PROJECT
@ur project !ainly concentrates on the voltae control techni*ues of a two level voltae source
inverter$ This project finds a very ood application in the industry today as it concentrates on pulse width
!odulation techni*ue which ives a wide control of the output voltae as re*uired in the industry$
The two pulse width !odulation techni*ues discussed in our project are8
:
/$ Sinusoidal pulse width !odulation
0$ Space vector pulse width !odulation
Space 'ector !odulation 2S'M3 techni*ue was oriinally developed as a vector approach to
pulse-width !odulation 2PWM3 for three-phase inverters$ It is a !ore sophisticated techni*ue for
eneratin sine wave that provides a hiher voltae to the !otor with lower total har!onic distortion$$
The deter!ination of switchin instant !ay be achieved usin space vector !odulation techni*ue based
on the representation of switchin vectors in A-B plane$ The Space vector !odulation techni*ue is an
advanced& co!putation intensive PWM techni*ue and is possibly the best a!on all the PWM techni*ues
for drives applications$ +ecause of its superior perfor!ance characteristics& it is been findin wide spread
application in recent years$ The purpose of this project is to present the space vector !odulation techni*ue
and then to si!plify the e4planation of how it can be i!ple!ented usin software packaes$
.,1 O%JECTIVE OF THE PROJECT
The objectives of the project are as follows8
/$ 1iscuss the various !odulation sche!es$
C
0$ @peration of a sinle phase and three phase inverters$
5$ I!ple!entation of sinusoidal and space vector pulse width !odulation
sche!es on the three phase inverters$
7$ Mathe!atically for!ulatin the increase in the output voltae in SPWM and
S'PWM !odulatin sche!es$
:$ Si!ulatin the SPWM block in M%T(%+ and observin the output voltae
and current wavefor!s and T#1 levels$
C$ Si!ulatin the S'PWM block in M%T(%+ and observin the output voltae
and current wavefor!s and T#1 levels$
D$ "o!parin the results obtained fro! the two block
.,( %RIEF OVERVIEW OF THE PROJECT
This thesis is divided into chapters to !ake it easy for the reader for a *uick drive$
The second chapter consists of the brush up of the basics re*uired to understand
the topic& where we have discussed about the inverters and its applications&
operation of the inverters and different !odulatin sche!es$
Third chapter discusses about the space vector !odulation techni*ue and operation
of space vector based 0 level inverter$
;ourth chapter concentrates on the si!ulation of two level inverter usin sinusoidal
pulse width !odulation 2SPWM3 block and space vector !odulation 2S'PWM3
block and co!parison of the si!ulation results obtained fro! the two si!ulations
;ifth chapter deals with conclusion and future scope of the project$
D
CHAPTER /
PULSE WIDTH +ODULATION
TECHNI:UES
/,. INVERTERS
/,/ INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS OF INVERTERS
/,0 TYPES OF INVERTERS
/,0,. APPLICATIONS OF VOLTAGE SOURCE INVERTERS
/,0,/ APPLICATIONS OF CURRENT SOURCE INVERTERS
/,1 SINGLE PHASE HALF %RIDGE VOLTAGE SOURCE INVERTERS
/,( SINGLE PHASE FULL %RIDGE VOLTAGE SOURCE INVERTERS
/,; CAUSES OF HAR+ONICS
/,< PERFOR+ANCE PARA+ETERS
/,<,. HAR+ONIC FACTOR OF N
TH
HAR+ONIC (HFN$
/,<,/, TOTAL HAR+ONIC DISTORTION (THD$
/,<,0 DISTORTION FACTOR (DF$9
/,<,1 LOWEST ORDER HAR+ONIC (LOH$
/,= I+PORTANCE OF OUTPUT VOLTAGE CONTROL
E
/,* PULSE WIDTH +ODULATED CONVERTERSS
/,*,. AI+S OF PULSE WIDTH +ODULATION
/,*,/ PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION OF PW+ INVERTER
(A$SINUSOIDAL PW+ TECHNI:UE APPLIED TO A .>? HALF
%RIDGE INVERTER
(%$ SINUSOIDAL PW+ TECHNI:UE APPLIED TO A .>? FULL
%RIDGE INVERTER
/,.) PULSE WIDTH +ODULATION TECHNI:UES
/,.),. SINGLE PULSE WIDTH +ODULATION
/,.),/ +ULTI PULSE WIDTH +ODULATION
/,.),0 SINUSOIDAL PULSE WIDTH +ODULATION
/,..(a$ ADVANTAGES OF PULSE WIDTH +ODULATION
/,..(6$ DISADVANTAGES OF PULSE WIDTH +ODULATION TECHNI:UE
/,./ SINUSOIDAL PW+ TECHNI:UE USED IN THE /> LEVEL INVERTER
/,.0 THREE> PHASE INVERTERS
/,.0,. .=)
o
CONDUCTION
/,.0,/ ./)
)
CONDUCTION
/,.0,0 VOLTAGE CONTROL FOR THREE PHASE INVERTER
/,.0,1 SINUSOIDAL PW+ FOR THREE PHASE INVERTERS
/,. INVERTERS9
1" to %" converter is known as inverter$ The function of an inverter is to chane a 1" input
voltae to a sy!!etric %" output voltae of desired !anitude and fre*uency$
F
The output voltae can be fi4ed or varied at a fi4ed or variable fre*uency$ % variable output
voltae can be obtained by varyin the 1" input voltae and !aintainin the ain of the inverter
constant$ @n the other hand& if the 1" input voltae is fi4ed and it is not controllable a variable output
voltae can be obtained by varyin the ain of the inverter$
The se!i-conductor switches can be +-Ts& thyristors& Mosfets& I=+Ts etc$ The choice of power switch
will depend on ratin re*uire!ents and ease with which the device can be turned on and off$
The conductor switches can be +-Ts& thyristors& Mosfets& I=+Ts etc$ The choice of power
switch will depend on ratin re*uire!ents and ease with which the 1evice can be turned on and off$
/,/INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS OF INVERTERS9
Inverters find applications in variable-speed %" !otor drives& for induction heatin$ They are used in
aircraft power supplies and standby power supplies$ 'ery sinificant applications of inverters are8
/$ %djustable speed drives 2%S13$
0$ .ninterruptible power supplies 2.PS3$
5$ Static var co!pensators$
7$ %ctive filters$
:$ ;le4ible %" trans!ission syste!s 2;%"TS3$
C$ 'oltae co!pensators$
/,0 TYPES OF INVERTERS9
In eneral there are two types of inverters& voltae source inverters 2'SI3 and current source
inverters 2"SI3$ In the voltae source inverter the input is 1" voltae supply and the inverter converts the
input 1" voltae into a s*uare-wave %" output voltae$ In the current source inverter the input is a 1"
current and the inverter converts the input 1" current into a s*uare %" output current$ %n inverter with a
variable input voltae is called as a variable 1" link inverter$ If the output voltae or current of the
inverter is forced to pass throuh <ero by creatin an (" resonant circuit &this type of inverter is called
resonant Gpulse inverter which has a wide rane of applications in power electronics$
/,0,. APPLICATIONS OF VOLTAGE SOURCE INVERTER9
/H
'oltae source inverters find a wide rane of applications as they naturally behave as voltae
sources as re*uired by !any industrial applications& such as adjustable speed drives 2%S13 which are the
!ost popular applications of inverters$
/,0,/ APPLICATIONS OF CURRENT SOURCE INVERTERS9
"urrent source inverters find applications in !ediu! voltae industrial applications where hih
*uality voltae wavefor!s are re*uired$
/,1 SINGLE PHASE HALF %RIDGE VOLTAGE SOURCE INVERTER
Fi@9 /,.8 sinle phase half bride voltae source inverter 2'SI3
//
Fi@9 /,/8 power topoloy of a half-bride 'SI&
The inverter shown in the fiure8 0$/ have two choppers$ When only I/& which acts as switch SJ is turned
@) for ti!e THK0 voltae across the load is 'SK0$ When I0 which acts as switch S- is turned @) for ti!e
THK0 voltae -'SK0 appears across the load$ I/ and I0 are not turned @) at the sa!e ti!e$
1/ and 10 are the feed back diodes which conduct after the thyristors are turned @;; and until the
current beco!es <ero when an inductive load is used$ Two lare capacitors are re*uired to provide a
neutral point )& such that each capacitor !aintains a constant voltae vsK0$ There are two deLned 2states /
and 03 and one undeLned 2state 53 switch state as shown in table8 0$/ In order to avoid the short circuit
across the dc bus and the undeLned ac output voltae condition& the !odulatin techni*ue should always
ensure that at any instant either the top or the botto! switch of the inverter le is @)$
The fiure8 0$5 and fiure8 0$7 show the wavefor!s for output voltae and transistor currents with
resistive load$
EA5ation fo! t7e o5t25t olta@e
/0
/
0
0 0
H
0
7 0
o
T
s s
o
o
V V
V dt
T
_




,

Ta6le9 /,.9 Switch states for a half-bride sinle-phase 'SI


Fi@9 /,08 wavefor!s showin the voltae across the capacitors
/5
LOAD CURRENT FOR HIGHLY INDUCTIVE LOAD
Fi@9 /,1
/,( SINGLE PHASE FULL %RIDGE VOLTAGE SOURCE INVERTER
Fi@9 /,(9 sinle phase full bride voltae source inverter 2'SI3
/7
Fi@9 /,;9 power topoloy of a full-bride 'SI$
Sinle-phase full bride inverter shown in fiure80$: consists of four choppers$ When transistors
I/ and I0 are turned @) si!ultaneously the input voltae 'S appears across the load$ Transistors I/ and
I0 act as switch S/J and S0- respectively $If transistors I5 and I7 are turned @) at the sa!e ti!e& the
voltae across the load is reversed and is G'S$ Transistors I5 andI7 act as switches S0J and S/-
respectively$ Second le provides the neutral point to the load$ Two transistors on the sa!e le cannot be
switched on si!ultaneously because it leads to a short circuit across the dc link voltae source
There are four deLned 2states /& 0& 5& and 73 and one undeLned 2state :3 switch states as shown in
table8 0$0$
LOAD CURRENT FOR HIGHLY INDUCTIVE LOAD9
Fi@9 /,<
/:
Ta6le9 /,/9 Switch states for a full-bride sinle-phase 'SI
/,; CAUSES OF HAR+ONICS
In the earlier years& har!onics were not prevalent in !ost of the industries due to the balanced linear
loads usin 5-phase induction !otors alon with incandescent lihtin& heatin etc$This linear loads draw
sinusoidal current at the fre*uency as that of the supply voltae$ hence the operation of the total syste!
was co!paratively healthier &but the rapid advance!ent of power electronics in the industrial applications
cause industrial load of non linear type $in si!ple pheno!ena the non-linear loads draw non-sinusoidal
load wavefor! fro! sinusoidal voltae wavefor!$ Thus& the non-linear loads distort the current
wavefor! which in turn distorts the voltae wavefor!$ This way the non-linear loads lead to the
distortion of both voltae and current wavefor!s$
/,< PERFOR+ANCE PARA+ETERS
The output of the practical inverters contain har!onics and the *uality of an inverter is nor!ally
evaluated in ter!s of the followin perfor!ance para!eters
/C
/,<,. HAR+ONIC FACTOR OF N
TH
HAR+ONIC (HFN$9
The har!onic factor 2of the
nth
har!onic3& which is the !easure of individual har!onic contribution& is
defined as
HFNBVONCVO. FOR ND.
Where v/ is the MMS value of the funda!ental co!ponent and von is the MMS value of the n
th
har!onic
/,<,/ TOTAL HAR+ONIC DISTORTION (THD$9
The total har!onic distortion& which is a !easure of the closeness in shape between a wavefor! and its
funda!ental co!ponent& is defined as
/
0
0
0&5&$$$
/
/
2 3
on
n
o
THD V
V


CURRENT THD9

/D
VOLTAGE THD9
/,<,0 DISTORTION FACTOR (DF$9
T#1 ives the total har!onic content& but it does not indicate the level of each har!onic co!ponent $if a
filter is used at the output of inverters& the hiher order har!onics would be attenuated !ore effectively$
Therefore knowlede of both the fre*uency and !anitude of each har!onic is i!portant $the 1;
indicates the a!ount of #1 that re!ains in a particular wavefor! after the har!onics of that wavefor!
have been subjected to a second order attenuated 2i$e$& divided by n
0
3$thus& 1; is !easure of effectiveness
in reducin unwanted har!onics without havin to specify the values of a second order load filter and is
defined as
The 1; of an individual 2or nth3 har!onic co!ponent is defined as
/
0
0
0
0&5&$$$
/
0
/
/
on
n
o
on
n
o
V
DF
V n
V
DF
V n

1
_

1

,
1
]

Fo! nD.

/,<,1 LOWEST ORDER HAR+ONIC (LOH$9
The (@# is that har!onic co!ponent whose fre*uency is closest to the funda!ental one& and its
a!plitude is reater than or e*ual to 56 of the funda!ental co!ponent
/,= I+PORTANCE OF OUTPUT VOLTAGE CONTROL9
In !any of the industrial applications the control of the output voltae is necessary to
/$ "ope with the variations of 1" input voltae$
0$ To reulate the voltae of inverters$
5$ To satisfy the constant volts and fre*uency control re*uire!ent$
/E
The !ost efficient !ethod of controllin the output voltae is to incorporate pulse width !odulation
control within the inverters$ In pulse width !odulation techni*ue the out voltae control is obtained by
varyin the inverter ain
Ine!te! @ainBa4 o5t25t olt"Cd4 in25t olt",
/,* PULSE WIDTH +ODULATED CONVERTER
PWM converters convert /-N %" to 1" or vice versa at constant voltae$ The PWM converter
can function either as PWM inverter or a PWM rectifier dependin upon whether the input is 1" or %"
respectively$
/,*,. AI+S OF PULSE WIDTH +ODULATION
/$ re*uired load voltae should be enerated with little switchin actions because of switchin
losses of se!iconductors
0$ for a iven 1" link voltae the !a4i!u! funda!ental of the load voltae should be as hih as
possible that !eans a hih !odulation inde4 2!3
5$ the distortion currents caused by the PWM produce additional losses in the load and therefore
should be kept low
7$ low fre*uency har!onics should be avoided because they cause tor*ue pulsations in the !otor
used
:$ co!putation ti!e should be less
+asically PWM sinals are pulse trains with fi4ed fre*uency and !anitude and variable pulse
width $PWM sinals are of two types8
/$ sy!!etric PWM pulses
0$ asy!!etric PWM pulses
5$
/F
Sy!!etric PWM pulses are sy!!etric to the center of each PWM period
%sy!!etric ede alined PWM sinal always have the sa!e side alined with one end of each PWM
period
The operation of the front end PWM converter can be easily understood fro! the operation of /-N
inverter$ #ence the operation of /-N inverter is analy<ed in detail here$
/,*,/ PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION OF PW+ INVERTER9
In PWM inverters the 1" input voltae is essentially constant in !anitude and the inverter !ust control
the !anitude and the fre*uency of the %" output voltae$ This is achieved by the pulse width
!odulation of the inverter switches and hence these inverters are called PWM inverters$ There are various
sche!es which pulse width !odulates the switches in order to shape the output voltaes to be as close to
sine-wave as possible$
/,*,/(A$ SINUSOIDAL PW+ TECHNI:UE APPLIED TO A .>E HALF %RIDGE INVERTER9
Fi@9 /,= sinle phase half bride voltae source inverter
0H
Fi@9 /,* wavefor!s for sinusoidal pulse width !odulation of
sinle phase half bride voltae source inverter
/,*,/(%$ SINUSOIDAL PW+ TECHNI:UE APPLIED TO A .>E FULL %RIDGE INVERTER9
Fi@9 /,.)9 sinle phase full bride voltae source inverter
0/
Fi@9 /,..8 wavefor!s for sinusoidal pulse !odulation of sinle phase full bride inverter
In order to produce a sinusoidal output voltae wavefor! at a desired fre*uency a sinusoidal control
sinal at that desired fre*uency& f/ 2in sinusoidal PWM techni*ue3 is co!pared with the trianular
wavefor! and this co!parison enerates the switchin sinals for the switches$ The fre*uency of the
sinusoidal control sinal '"@)TM@( also known as !odulatin sinal deter!ines the fre*uency of the output
voltae while the fre*uency of the trianular sinal& 'TM/ also known as carrier sinal deter!ines the
switchin fre*uency& fs i$e$ the fre*uency at which the inverter switches are switched$
The ratio of fre*uency of the carrier sinal to the fre*uency of the control sinal is known as
fre*uency !odulation ratio& !f
8f B f"Cf.
Where fs O switchin fre*uency
%nd f/ O control sinal fre*uency$
00
The ratio of the a!plitude of the control sinal and the a!plitude of the carrier sinal is known as
a!plitude !odulation ratio& !a$
8a B VCONTROL C VTR.
Where '"@)TM@( O a!plitude of the control sinal
%nd 'TM/ O a!plitude of the trianular sinal which is kept constant$
/,.) PULSE WIDTH +ODULATION TECHNI:UES9
.sually in the control sche!es the supply current consists of one pulse per half cycle and the lowest order
har!onic is the third order har!onic$ The lowest order har!onics can be eli!inated or reduced& if the
supply current has !ore than one pulse per half cycle$ In the pulse width !odulation sche!es the switch
is turned @) and @;; several ti!es durin each half cycle$ Selectin the proper type of !odulation and
increasin the nu!ber of pulses per half cycle we can eli!inate the lowest order har!onics$ The objective
of PWM is to shape and control the sinle phase output voltae in !anitude and fre*uency with the help
of a constant %"K1" voltae$ In PWM control of inverters the control sinal of desired fre*uency is
co!pared with repetitive trianular wave to enerate the switchin sinals for the inverter switches$ The
a!plitude of the control sinal '"@)TM@( is varied to !odulate the inverter output voltae while the
a!plitude of the trianular wave is kept constant$ The fre*uency of the trianular wave is the switchin
fre*uency& fs$ There are various !ethods for eneratin the PWM switchin pattern for converters$
05
wavefor! !odulatin the of ;re*uency
vefor! carrier wa the of ;re*uency
M
3 2 M Matio3 2;re*uency Matio Modulation
vefor! carrier wa the of %!plitude
wavefor! !odulatin the of %!plitude
M
8 M 1epth3 n 2Modulatio Inde4 Modulation
M
M
I
I

p
p
/,.),. SINGLE PULSE WIDTH +ODULATION9
In sinle PWM control there is only one pulse per half cycle and the width of the pulse is varied to control
the converter output voltae$ #ere& co!parin a rectanular control sinal of a!plitude '"@)TM@( with a
trianular wave of a!plitude 'TM/ enerates atin sinals$ The ratio of '"@)TM@( to 'TM/ is a control
variable and is defined as the a!plitude !odulation inde4 !a$
Fi@9 /,./
/,.),/ +ULTI PULSE WIDTH +ODULATION9
The har!onic content can be reduced by usin several pulses in each half cycle of the output voltae$
"o!parin the reference control sinal with a trianular carrier wave enerates atin sinals for turnin
@) and @;; the switchin devices$ The !odulation inde4 helps in controllin the output voltae$ This
type of !odulation is also known as unifor! pulse width !odulation 2.PWM3$
The nu!ber of pulses in each half cycle is found fro!
P B fCC/fO B 8fC/
07
Where !f O fre*uency !odulation ratio or the carrier ratio$
f" O carrier fre*uency or switchin fre*uency
fH O control sinal fre*uency of !odulatin sinal fre*uency$
Fi@9 /,.0
/,.),0 SINUSOIDAL PULSE WIDTH +ODULATION9
Instead of !aintainin the width of all the pulses sa!e& as in the case of !ultiple pulse width !odulation&
the width of each pulse is varied in proportion to the a!plitude of a sine wave evaluated at the centre of
the sa!e pulse$ The distortion factor and the lower order har!onics are reduced sinificantly$ "o!parin
a sinusoidal reference sinal with a trianular wave of fre*uency f" enerates the atin sinals$ This type
of !odulation is co!!only used in industrial applications$
0:
Fi@9 /,.1
/,..(a$ ADVANTAGES OF PULSE WIDTH +ODULATION
The availability of self co!!utated hih power se!iconductor devices have paved the way for wide
spread use of switch !ode converters for consu!er &industrial and power syste! applications $in
industries switch !ode converters are used as variable voltae fre*uency source for %" !otor drives and
constant voltae constant fre*uency uninterruptible power supplies etc$ !oreover PWM converters
convert /-P %" to 1" or vice versa at constant voltae $unlike thyristor Gbased fully controlled or se!i-
controlled converter& the PWM converter 8
The output voltae control can be obtained without any additional co!ponents$
1raws nearly sinusoidal current at unity power factor $thus& in PWM converter the input voltae
and current are in phase and the current is nearly sinusoidal With very Lo3 Total Ha!8oni4
Di"to!tion(THD3
It will reduce injection of har!onics to the rid and thus& better utili<ation of transfor!er and
less 7a!8oni4 2oll5tion,
Lo3e! o!de! 7a!8oni4" can be eli!inated or !ini!i<ed because of hih switchin fre*uency
and hiher order har!onics can be eli!inated& as their filter desin is easy$
0C
/,..(6$ DISADVANTAGES OF PULSE WIDTH +ODULATION
TECHNI:UE
Increase of switchin losses due to hih PWM fre*uency
Meduction of available voltae
,MI proble!s due to hih-order har!onics
There are different ways of eneratin the PWM SI=)%(S8
a$ #QST,MIS PWM
b$ SP%", ',"T@M PWM
c$ TM%P,R@I1%( PWM
d$ SI).S@I1%( PWM
/,./ SINUSOIDAL PW+ TECHNI:UE USED IN THE /> LEVEL INVERTER
The pri!ary function of a voltae source inverter 2'SI3 is to convert a fi4ed 1" to a %" voltae
with variable !anitude and fre*uency$ % si!plified circuit diara! for a two level voltae source
inverter for hih Gpower !ediu!-voltae applications is shown in the fiure 0$/:$the two level inverter
co!es fro! the fact that there are only two defined states for the inverter$ The inverter is co!posed of si4
roup of active switches s/-sC with a free wheelin diode in parallel with each switch dependin upon the
1" operatin voltae of the inverter& each switch roup consists of two or !ore switchin devices
connected in parallel$I=+TS or ="T are !ost co!!only used as the switches because of the hih
switchin fre*uency and low switchin losses$
Fi@9 /,.(9 two level voltae source inverter
0D
/
S
0
S
5
S
:
S
7
S
C
S
B
C
P
N
d
V
A
(@%1
A
i
O
B
i
C
i
The basic principle of the SPWM techni*ue used in the two level inverters is e4plained here$ The
reference sinal 2vcontrol3 which is enerally sinusoidal is co!pared with the hih fre*uency trianular
wave 2vtr/3 of constant a!plitude& vtr/ when vcontrol Svtr/ the PWM output will be hih 2state-/3 and output
will be low 2state-/3 for vcontrolTvtr/
Sinusoidal PWM pattern can be enerated by co!parin with the three phase reference sine wave
with a trianular wave& which is known as carrier wave$ The fre*uency of the carrier wave is always
reater than the reference wave $the PWM pulses are obtained by switchin the stated fro! low to hih
and vice versa
The output voltae of the inverter can be defined as8
W7en 4ont!ol D t!.& an B d4C/
W7en 4ont!ol Ft!.&ao B >d4C/
PWM fre*uency is the sa!e as the fre*uency of vtr/
%!plitude Is controlled by the peak value of control
;unda!ental fre*uency is controlled by the fre*uency of vcontrol
@ne li!itation of the PWM !ethod is that it allows only for a li!ited !odulation inde4& so it
does not fully use the 1" bus
Space vector !odulation techni*ue ives less har!onic distortion when co!pared to sinusoidal PWM9
therefore it is well suited for diital i!ple!entation$
/,.0 THREE> PHASE INVERTERS
Three-phase inverters are nor!ally used for hih power applications$ Three sinle phase half or
full bride inverters can be connected in parallel to for! the confiuration of a three phase inverter as
shown in the fiure below$ The atin sinals of sinle phase inverters should be advanced or delayed by
/0H
o
with respect to each other to obtain three phases balanced 2funda!ental3 voltaes$ If the output of the
0E
sinle phase inverters is not balanced perfectly in !anitudes and phases& the three phase output voltaes
are unbalanced$
Fi@9 /,.;
The transfor!er pri!ary windins are isolated fro! each other& whereas the secondary windins !ay be
connected star or in delta$ The transfor!er secondary is nor!ally connected in delta to eli!inate triple
har!onics 2nO5& C& FU3 appearin on the output voltaes and the circuit arrane!ent is shown in the
fiure80$/D
Fi@9 /,.<
The arrane!ent shown in fiure80$/E re*uires three sinle phase transfor!ers& /0 transistors& and /0
diodes
% three phase output can be obtained fro! a confiuration of si4 transistors and si4 diodes$ Two types of
control sinals can be applied to the transistors
/EH
o
conduction
/0H
o
conduction
0F
E:UIVALENT CIRCUIT DIAGRA+ OF A 0>PHASE INVERTER
Fi@9 /,.=
/,.0,. .=)
o
CONDUCTION
,ach transistor conducts for /EH
o
$Three transistors re!ain @) at any instant of ti!e$ When
transistors I/ is switched on& ter!inal a is connected to the positive ter!inal of the 1" in input
voltae $when transistor I7 is switched @)& ter!inal a is brouht to the neative ter!inal of the 1"
source$ There are si4 !odes of operation in a cycle and the duration of each !ode is CH
o
$the transistors
are nu!bered in the se*uence of atin the transistors$ The atin sinals shown in the wavefor!s in the
fiure0$0H are shifted fro! each other by CHo to obtain three phase balanced 2funda!ental3 voltaes$
The switches of any le cannot be switched @) si!ultaneously9 this would lead to a short circuit across
the 1" link voltae supply$ Si!ilarly to avoid undefined states and thus undefined %" output line
voltaes the switches of any le of inverter cannot be switched @;; si!ultaneously& this can result in
voltaes that depend on the respective line current polarity$
E:UIVALENT CIRCUIT FOR .=)
O
CONDUCTION
Fi@9 /,.*
5H
WAVE FOR+S FOR .=)
O
CONDUCTION
Fi@9 /,/)
5/
PHASE VOLTAGES FOR .=)
O
CONDUCTION
Fi@9 /,/.
50
Ta6le9 /,0 switch states for three-phase voltae source inverter
The table8 0$5 shows the E valid switchin states$ Transistors I/& IC in the fiure act as the switchin
devices S/& SC respectively $if two switches8 one upper and one lower conduct at the sa!e ti!e such that
the output voltae is Jor-vs the switch state is / whereas if these switches are off at the sa!e ti!e the
switch state is H$ State / to C produce non<ero output voltaes& states D and E produce <ero line voltaes
and the line currents freewheels throuh either the upper or the lower freewheelin diodes$ to enerate a
particular wavefor! &the inverter !oves fro! one state to another $thus the resultin %" output voltaes
are built up of discrete values of voltaes of Jvs&H&Vvs$to enerate a iven wavefor! &the selection of the
states is usually done by a !odulatin techni*ue that should assure use of only valid state$
55
There are 5 !odes of operation in each half cycle and the e*uivalent circuit
1urin !ode / for & where transistors I/& I:& IC conduct is shown below$
Fi@9 /,//
57
H
5
t


/
/
/
5
0 0
0
5
0 5
0
5
eq
s s
eq
s
an cn
s
bn
R R
R R
V V
i
R R
V i R
v v
V
v i R
+


1urin Mode 0 for&

0
5 5
t


Transistors I/& I0 and IC conduct$
Fi@9 /,/0
5:
1urin !ode 5 for&
0
5
t


Transistors I/& I0& I5 conduct$
Fi@9 /,/1
5C
WAVE FOR+S FOR THREE PHASE INVERTER WITH RL LOAD
Fi@9 /,/(
With resistive loads the diodes across the transistors have no functions$ If the load is inductive& the current
in each ar! of the inverter would be delayed to its voltae as shown in the fiure80$0:$
When transistor I7 is @;; the only path for the neative line current Ia is throuh diode 1/$
#ence& the load ter!inal a is connected to the 1" source throuh 1/ until the load current reverses its
polarity at t O t/$ 1urin the period for H W t W t/& transistor I/ cannot conduct$ Si!ilarly& transistor I7
starts to conduct at t O t0$
5D
/,.0,/ ./)
)
CONDUCTION
In this type of control& the transistor conducts for /0H
H
$ @nly two transistors re!ain @) at any
instant of ti!e$ The conduction se*uence of transistors is C/& /0& 05& 57& 7:& :C& and C/$ There are three
!odes of operation in one half-cycle$
/,.0,0 VOLTAGE CONTROL FOR THREE PHASE INVERTER9
% three phase inverter can be considered as three sinle phase inverters and the output of each
sinle phase inverter is shifted by /0H
H
$ The voltae control techni*ues that are !ost co!!only used for
three phase inverters are sinusoidal PWM& third har!onic PWM& CH
H
PWM and Space 'ector Modulation
/,.0,1 SINUSOIDAL PW+ FOR THREE PHASE INVERTERS
=eneration of atin sinals with sinusoidal PWM is shown in the fiure0$0C $There are three
sinusoidal reference waves each shifted by /0HH$ "arrier wave is co!pared with the reference sinal
correspondin to a phase to enerate the atin sinal for that phase$
Fi@9 /,/;
5E
AB
v
BN
v
AN
v
H
H
H
v
mA
v
B m
v
C m
v
cr
v
cr
V
X
m
V
X
d
V
d
V
d
V
0
t
t
t
t
/ AB
v
CHAPTER 0
SPACE VECTOR +ODULATION
TECHNI:UE
0,. SPACE VECTOR PULSE WIDTH +ODULATION
0,.,. FEATURES OF SPACE VECTOR PW+ TECHNI:UE
0,/ SPACE VECTORS
0,0 RELATIONSHIP %ETWEEN SPACE VECTOR AND SWITCHING
STATES
0,1 DWELL TI+E CALCULATION
0,( SWITCHING SE:UENCE
5F
In chapter 0 we have discussed about different !odulatin sche!es e!ployed for the efficient control of
the output voltae in a two level inverter in this chapter we will discuss about the space vector !odulatin
sche!e in detail
0,. SPACE VECTOR PULSE WIDTH +ODULATION
Space 'ector Modulation 2S'M3 Techni*ue has beco!e the !ost popular and i!portant PWM
techni*ues for three phase 'oltae Source Inverters for the control of %" Induction& +rushless 1"&
Switched Meluctance and Per!anent Manet Synchronous Motors$ The space vector pulse width
!odulation 2S'PWM3 techni*ue has rapidly ained favor a!on industrial drives !anufacturers as an
alternative to the traditional reularly sa!pled trianulation !ethod$
Space 'ector Modulation is used to obtain diital control of voltae source inverter$
0,.,. Feat5!e" of S2a4e Ve4to! PW+
The !ain ai! of any !odulation techni*ue is to obtain variable output havin a !a4i!u!
funda!ental co!ponent with !ini!u! har!onics$ 1urin the past years !any PWM techni*ues have
been developed for lettin the inverters to posses various desired output characteristics to achieve the
followin ai!8
/$ Wide linear !odulation rane
0$ (ess switchin loss$
5$ (ower total har!onic distortion$
The space vector !odulation 2S'M3 techni*ue is !ore popular than conventional techni*ue
because of the followin e4cellent features8
It achieves the wide linear !odulation rane %ssociated with PWM third-
o #ar!onic injection auto!atically$
It has lower base band har!onics than reular PWM or other sine based
Modulation !ethods& or otherwise opti!i<es har!onics$
7H
/:6 !ore output voltae then conventional !odulation& i$e$ better 1"-link .tili<ation$
More efficient use of 1" supply voltae$
S'M increases the output capability of SPWM without distortin line-line output voltae
wavefor!$
%dvanced and co!putation intensive PWM techni*ue$
#iher efficiency$
Prevent un-necessary switchin hence less co!!utation losses$
% different approach to PWM !odulation based on space vector representation of the voltaes in
the AB plane$
Space 'ector Modulation treats the inverter to a sinle unit capable of bein driven to eiht uni*ue states$
In the space vector !odulation& pulse width !odulated load line voltaes are enerated such that their
averae is e*ual to a reference load line voltae$
Fi@9 0,.9 two level voltae source inverter
;iure8 5$/ show a two-level inverter$ The status of the switches is denoted usin two switchin states P
and @$ Switchin state P denotes that the upper switch in an inverter le is @) while @ indicates the
@) state of lower switch$table85$/ define switchin states for each of the inverter l
7/
/
S
0
S
5
S
:
S
7
S
C
S
B
C
P
N
d
V
A
(@%1
A
i
O
B
i
C
i
Ta6le9 0,. switchin states of a two level inverter
There are two switches in each of the three inverter les$ #ence a total of eiht switchin co!binations
are obtained$ The eiht switchin states co!prise of si4 active and two <ero states$
When an upper switch is @)& the correspondin lower transistor is switched @;;$ Two switches
of the sa!e le cannot be in the @) state si!ultaneously as it leads to a short circuit$ Therefore& the @)
and @;; states of the upper switches S/& S5 and S: can be used to deter!ine the output voltae$ The
e*uivalent circuit of the inverter for various switchin states is shown in the table8 5$0$
Ta6le9 0,/ switchin states and their representation
;or three-phase voltae source inverter the relationship between switchin vector and line-to-line
voltae is iven by
The relationship between switchin variable vector and phase voltae vector can be e4pressed as
below8
70
1
1
1
]
1

1
1
1
]
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
]
1

c
b
a
V
V
V
V
d
ca
bc
ab
/ H /
/ / H
H / /
1
1
1
]
1

1
1
1
]
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
]
1

c
b
a
V
V
V
V
d
cn
bn
an
0 / /
/ 0 /
/ / 0
0,/ SPACE VECTORS
Space vectors are a representation of switchin states$ Space vector diara! for a two-level inverter
representin si4 active and two <ero switchin states is shown in the fiure 5$0$
Fi@9 0,/
The two <ero vectors are located at the centre of the diara!$ The space vectors re!ain fi4ed in space and
are also referred to as stationary vectors$ the anle between any adjacent two non-<ero vectors is CH
derees $!eanwhile& two <ero vectors 2vH and vD3 are at the oriin and apply <ero voltae to the load$ the
eiht vectors are called the basic space vectors and are denoted by vH& v/& v0& v5& v7& v:& vC& and vD
0,0 RELATIONSHIP %ETWEEN SPACE VECTOR AND SWITCHING STATES9
If the inverter operation in the three-phase is balanced then the load phase voltae as a function of
ti!e satisfy
75

/
V

H
V

5
V

0
V

7
V

:
V

C
V

j
P@@
PP@ @P@
@PP
@@P P@P
ref
V

@@@ PPP
SECTOR I SECTOR III
SECTOR IV SECTOR VI
SECTOR V
SECTOR
II

H 3 2 3 2 3 2 + + t v t v t v
CO BO AO
In a balanced syste! one of the variables is redundant and hence usin Parks transfor!ation& the
three phase variables can be represented with e*uivalent two phase variables as shown below$
20K5 is the scalin factor3
The space vector can now be represented as a two phase voltae in the 2A&B3 plane as

;ro! the above two e*uations we obtain
(et us now consider the active switchin state '/YP @ @Z$ The e*uivalent circuit confiuration is shown
below
The enerated three-phase voltaes are
77
1
1
1
]
1

1
1
1
]
1

1
]
1

3 2
3 2
3 2
5
7
sin
5
0
sin H sin
5
7
cos
5
0
cos H cos
5
0
3 2
3 2
t v
t v
t v
t v
t v
CO
BO
AO

3 2 3 2 3 2 t v j t v t V

+

[ ]
5 K 7 5 K 0 H
3 2 3 2 3 2
5
0
3 2
j
CO
j
BO
j
AO
e t v e t v e t v t V + +

d BO d AO
V t v V t v
5
/
3 2 &
5
0
3 2
d CO
V t v
5
/
3 2
;ro! the above two e*uations we obtain
Si!ilarly for state '0 YP @ @Z& we obtain
#ence all the si4 active vectors can be represented by a eneral e*uation as
Where kO /& 0U C
The table8 5$5ives the details of all the eiht switchin states and their correspondin space vectors
Ta6le9 0,0 output voltaes of different switchin states
7:
H
/
5
0
j
d
e V V

5
3 / 2
5
0

k j
d k
e V V

5
0
5
0

j
d
e V V

Thouh the space vectors are fi4ed& the reference vector rotates with an anular velocity iven by
2f is the funda!ental fre*uency of inverter output3
The anular displace!ent is iven by
The !anitude of the output voltae is deter!ined by the lenth of 'ref and the output fre*uency
is deter!ined by the anular speed of 'ref$ When 'ref co!pletes one revolution& the inverter output voltae
varies one cycle over ti!e$
0,1 DWELL TI+E CALCULATION
The objective of space vector switchin is to appro4i!ate the sinusoidal line !odulatin sinal 'r with
eiht space vectors$ 'ref can be synthesi<ed with three stationary vectors$ ;or e4a!ple a voltae vector in
sector / can be reali<ed by vectors '/& '0and the <ero vectors$ 1well ti!e represents the duty cycle of
the chosen switches durin a sa!plin period Ts 2ti!e taken by the reference vector to !ove fro! one
space vector to another$
Fi@9 0,0
7C
f 0

t
dt t
H
3 2
/
V

0
V

/
V
T
T
s
a

0
V
T
T
s
b

If '/ is active for ti!e T/& '0 is active for ti!e T0 and the <ero vectors are active for TH& then usin the
volt-second balancin principle
Where& Ta& Tb& TH are the dwell ti!es for the vectors '/& '0 and 'H respectively
The su! of the dwell ti!es of all the vectors e*uals the sa!plin period
"o!binin the above e*uation& we obtain
#ence we obtain the followin values of Ta& Tb and TH$
These relations have been derived for sector /$ #owever& for any other sectors& the followin eneral
e*uation can be obtained$
k O /& 0UC for sectors I& IIU$'I
7D

'

+ +
+ +
H
H H 0 /
T T T T
T V T V T V T V
b a s
b a s ref

d
j
ref ref
V V e V V
5
0
&
/



5
0
5
0

j
d
e V V

H
H
V

'

+
b d s ref
b d a d s ref
T V T V
T V T V T V
5
/
3 2sin
5
/
5
0
3 2cos

9 I8
9 Re

'


b a s
d
ref s
b
d
ref s
a
T T T T
V
V T
T
V
V T
T
H
sin
5
3
5
2 sin
5

5 K 3 / 2 [ k 5 K [ H <
The table8 5$7 ive the location of 'ref with respect to the dwell ti!es$
Ta6le9 0,1 dwell ti!es for different ranes of \
The !odulation inde4 is defined as
This can be !a4i!i<ed by !a4i!i<in 'ref$ The !a4i!u! !anitude of 'ref corresponds to the radius of
the larest circle inscribed within the he4aon$ #ence
;ro! the above two e*uations we obtain&
!a&!a4 O /
#ence the !odulation inde4 varies as H !a .
The !a4i!u! value of reference voltae is
#ence& the correspondin line voltaes
;or sinusoidal pulse width !odulation& the !a4i!u! funda!ental line-to-line voltae is
7E
d
ref
a
V
V
m
5

5 0
5
5
0
!a4 &
d
d ref
V
V V
5
!a4 &
d
ref
V
V
d
ref
!ine to !ine ref
V
V
V DHD $ H
0
5
!a4 &
!a4& &


d V V C/0 $ H !a4
#ence for a iven 1" bus voltae& the !a4i!u! inverter line-to-line voltae enerated by space vector
!odulation sche!e is /:$:6 hiher than that of sinusoidal pulse width !odulation sche!e
0,/ SPACE VECTORS
The space vector switchin se*uence should assure that the load line voltaes have the *uarter
wave sy!!etry to reduce even har!onic in their spectra$
The switchin se*uence desin re*uires that the nu!ber of switchin per sa!plin period Ts is
!ini!u! and this is i!ple!ented such that the transition fro! one switchin state to another involves
only two switches 2in the sa!e inverter le3$
The se*uence enerally chosen is VG& Vn& VnH.& VG,
The seven se!ent switchin se*uence for all the sectors is shown below
S,"T@M I
;i8 5$E
7F
S,"T@M II
;i8 5$F
S,"T@M III
:H
;i8 5$/H
S,"T@M I'
;i8 5$//
:/
S,"T@M '
fi8 5$/0
S,"T@M 'I
:0
;i8 5$/5
It can be observed that
/$ The dwell ti!es for the seven se!ents add up to the sa!plin period$
0$ The transition fro! one switchin state to the other involves only two switches
5$ Medundant switchin states are utili<ed to reduce the nu!ber of switchin$
7$ ,ach switch in the converter turns @) or @;; once per sa!plin period$
Till now we have discussed about the space vector !odulatin sche!e and the !athe!atical
calculations related to it and the dwell ti!e calculation for the si4 switchin states$ In the ne4t chapter
we will study the si!ulation results$
:5
CHAPTER 1

SI+ULATION OF TWO>LEVEL
INVERTER
(Sin5"oidal P5l"e Widt7 +od5lation and
S2a4e Ve4to! +od5lation$
:7
1,. INTRODUCTION TO +ATLA% C SI+ULIN-
1,/ SI+ULATION OF SINGLE PHASE PULSE WIDTH +ODULATED INVERTER
1,0 SI+ULATION OF THREE>PHASE SPW+ %ASED TWO>LEVEL INVERTER
1,1 SI+ULATION OF THREE>PHASE SV+ %ASED TWO>LEVEL INVERTER
1,( CO+PARISON OF SPW+ AND SV+ %ASED TWO>LEVEL INVERTER
In the previous chapters we have discussed about different !odulatin sche!es& and derived the
theoretical values for output voltaes for sinusoidal pulse width !odulation 2SPWM3 and space
vector !odulation sche!es 2S'PWM3$in this chapter we will develop a si!ulation block in
M%T(%+>SIM.(I)? and si!ulate the block and check the results practically$
1,. INTRODUCTION TO +ATLA% C SI+ULIN-
The si!ulation of control sche!es for two-level inverter is obtained usin M%T(%+ K Si!ulink
Software$ M%T(%+& the acrony! for M%TMI] (%+@M%T@MQ& is a fourth eneration
co!putin lanuae$ %lthouh M%T(%+ is pri!arily intended for nu!erical co!putin&
however an additional packae Si!ulink adds raphical !ulti-do!ain si!ulation and Model-
+ased 1esin for dyna!ic and e!bedded syste!s$ It provides an interactive raphical
environ!ent and a custo!i<able set of block libraries that helps in desinin& si!ulatin&
i!ple!entin and testin a variety of ti!e-varyin syste!s& includin co!!unications& controls&
sinal processin& video processin& and i!ae processin$ Si!ulink interated with M%T(%+
provides i!!ediate access to an e4tensive rane of tools that helps develop alorith!s& analy<e
and visuali<e si!ulations& custo!i<e the !odelin environ!ent& and define sinal& para!eter&
and test data$
1,/ SI+ULATION OF SINGLE PHASE PW+ %ASED INVERTER
::
1,/,. +odel9
To effectively understand the control strateies of three-phase syste!& the pulse width control
stratey was i!ple!ented for a sinle phase syste! initially and then e4tended to three phase
syste!s$ The block diara! of a sinle phase inverter operated with sinusoidal pulse width
!odulation is shown below$
Fi@5!e 1,. Pulse Width Modulation of Sinle Phase Inverter
1,/,/ De"4!i2tion9
Syste! specification8
1" voltae O //H'
;re*uency O :H#<

(oad8
%ctive power O /HHHMW
Meactive Power O /0HHM'%
:C
Power ;actor O H$E00
"arrier fre*uency O /EHH#<
Sa!plin ti!e O /e-:s
Switchin 1evices I=+T K 1iodes
The circuit contains a block containin sinle phase bride inverter !ade up of I=+T K 1iodes$
The choice of I=+Ts is justified as they are capable of providin reater switchin fre*uency and
hence lower switchin losses$ % sinle phase M( load is connected to this syste! whose ratins
have been !entioned above$ % volt!eter and a!!eter are connected to !easure the voltae and
currents$ In addition blocks which separate funda!ental and T#1 co!ponents fro! voltae are
used$ The respective wavefor!s are viewed in the scope$
The pulses are provided to the syste! by co!parin the !anitudes of sinusoidal wave and a
repeatin trianular wave usin a relational operator$ The sa!plin ti!e of /e-:s is !aintained$
1,/,0 Si85lation Re"5lt"9
:D
Fi@5!e 1,/ 2a3 'oltae Wavefor! and 2b3 "urrent Wavefor! for Modulation Inde4 /
Fi@5!e 1,0 2a3 'oltae T#1 and 2b3 "urrent T#1 for Modulation Inde4 /
:E
Fi@5!e 1,1 'oltae Wavefor! and 2b3 "urrent Wavefor! for Modulation Inde4 H$E
Fi@5!e 1,( 2a3 'oltae T#1 and 2b3 "urrent T#1 for Modulation Inde4 H$E
The si!ulation results obtained for various !odulation indices is shown below in table 7$/$
S, No, +od5lation
IndeI
C5!!ent
(f5nda8ental$
(A$
C5!!ent
THD (J$
Volta@e
(f5nda8ental$
(A$
Volta@e
THD (J$
/ /$H 7$0F0 H$DD /HF$F :/$E/
0 H$E 5$705 /$0C ED$C: DD$H7
5 H$C 0$:F /$CD CC$50 /H:$00
:F
7 H$7 /$DHE 0$05 75$D: /7D$C:
: H$0 H$ECHC 0$EF 00$H7 00F$:5
Ta6le 1,. Si!ulation results for various !odulation indices
Fi@5!e 1,; 2a3 =raph showin variation of funda!ental voltae w$r$t !odulation inde4
2b3 =raph showin variation of T#1 w$r$t !odulation inde4
The si!ulation was also perfor!ed varyin the carrier fre*uencies$ The results obtained have
been presented in table 7$0
S, No, +od5lation
IndeI
C5!!ent
(f5nda8ental$
(A$
C5!!ent
THD (J$
Volta@e
(f5nda8ental$
(V$
Volta@e
THD (J$
/ CHH 7$0F7 0$0F /HF$F :/$7E
0 FHH 7$0E: /$:7 /HF$D :0$0D
5 /HHH 7$5H5 /$5E //H$0 :0$H5
7 /0HH 7$0D: /$/: /HF$: :0$:H
: /:HH 7$5H/ H$F5 //H$/ :/$FD
CH
C /EHH 7$0F0 H$DD /HF$F :/$E/
D 0/HH 7$5H5 H$D5 //H$0 :0$0E
Fi@5!e 1,/ Si!ulation for various carrier fre*uencies
1,0 SI+ULATION OF THREE>PHASE SPW+ %ASED TWO>LEVEL INVERTER
1,0,. +odel9
The three-phase two-level inverter controlled by pulse width !odulation sche!e is presented
here$ The si!ulink !odel as well as the subsyste! eneratin ate pulses is shown below$
Fi@5!e 1,< Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation of Two-level Inverter
C/

Fi@5!e 1,= =ate Pulse =enerator for Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation
1,0,/ De"4!i2tion9
Syste! Specification8
1" voltae O //H'
;re*uency O :H#<

(oad8
%ctive power O /HHHMW
Meactive Power O /0HHM'%
Power ;actor O H$E00
"arrier fre*uency O /EHH#<
Sa!plin ti!e O /e-:s
Switchin 1evices I=+T K 1iodes
In this circuit a three phase bride !ade up of I=+T K 1iodes is used$ % three-phase M( load is
used$ The volt!eter and a!!eter !easure the phase voltae and line current respectively$ The
operation of I=+T K 1iodes is controlled by co!parin !odulation waves and carrier waves as
shown in the subsyste!$ % relational operator is used for this purpose$ % co!pli!ented sinal is
provided to the lower switch of the bride$ The sinal provided by the three subsyste!s is phase
displaced by /0H^$ This ensures that the switches in the three les are turned on after a phase
C0
shift of /0H^$ ,ach subsyste! provides two pulses& one for the upper switch in a le and the
other for the lower one$ % discrete si!ulation is perfor!ed usin a sa!plin ti!e of /e-:s is
used$
1,0,0 Si85lation Re"5lt"9
The fiures below show the sinusoidal pulse width !odulated inverter output wavefor! for
!odulation inde4 /$ ;or the iven specifications the 'oltae T#1 is found to be CD$DF6 of the
funda!ental voltae whereas the current T#1 was obtained to be /$DE6$ The low value of
current T#1 is due to the filterin effect of load inductance
Fi@5!e 1,* 'oltae Wavefor! and 2b3 "urrent Wavefor! for Modulation Inde4
C5
Fi@5!e 1,.) 'oltae T#1 and 2b3 "urrent T#1 for Modulation Inde4 /
% si!ilar trend is seen for !odulation inde4 of H$E$ The voltae and current T#1 levels are
F/$HE6 and /$FH6 of funda!ental values$ It can also be observed that the T#1 levels increase
with a decrease in the !odulation inde4$
C7
Fi@5!e 1,.. 2a3 'oltae Wavefor! and 2b3 "urrent Wavefor! for Modulation Inde4 H$E
C:
Fi@5!e 1,./ 2a3 'oltae T#1 and 2b3 "urrent T#1 for Modulation Inde4 H$E
The voltae and current variations for different !odulation indices is presented in table 7$5
S,
NO,
+od5lation
indeI
C5!!ent (f5nda8ental$
(J$
C5!!ent THD
(J$
Volta@e (f5nda8ental$
(V$
Volta@e
THD
(J$
/$ / 0$7ED /$7C /HF$F :0$HF
0$ H$E /$FF 0$H5 EE$0/ DE$:E
5 H$C /$7F 5$HE CC$// /H:$/E
7$ H$7 H$FF:: 7$/C 75$C7 /7E$7H
:$ H$0 H$:H75 :$77 0/$E7 05/$CE
Ta6le 1,0 Si!ulation results for various !odulation indices
The table clearly presents that the T#1 levels increase as the !odulation inde4 decreases$ %
raphical representation of this is presented in the fiure 7$/5
CC
Fi@5!e 1,.0 2a3 =raph showin variation of funda!ental voltae w$r$t !odulation inde4
2b3 =raph showin variation of T#1 w$r$t !odulation inde4
;ro! the raph it can be clearly observed that the ideal rane of operation is between !odulation
inde4 of H$E G /$H$ It is in this rane that the T#1 is lower and the funda!ental voltae obtained
is hiher$
The syste! was operated at different carrier fre*uencies$ The si!ulation results obtained have
been tabulated in table 7$7
S,
No,
F!eA5en4#
(HG$
C5!!ent(f5nda8ental$
(A$
C5!!ent THD
(J$
Volta@e(f5nda8ental$
(V$
Volta@e
THD
(J$
/$ CHH 0$:57 7$D5 //0$0 7E$C0
0$ FHH 0$7C7 5$HE /HF$0 :0$EE
5$ /HHH 0$7E 0$D5 /HF$D :0$5C
7$ /0HH 0$7F7 0$07 //H$: :/$0E
:$ /:HH 0$7D/ /$DD //H$/ :0$5/
C$ /EHH 0$7ED /$7C /HF$F :0$HD
D$ 0/HH 0$7CF /$5H //H$0 :0$HH
Ta6le 1,1 Si!ulation results for different carrier fre*uencies
1,1 SI+ULATION OF THREE>PHASE SV+ %ASED TWO>LEVEL INVERTER
CD
1,1,. +odel9
With an ai! to !ini!i<e the switchin losses and obtain an i!prove!ent in the 1" voltae
utili<ation& the space vector !odulation sche!e is i!ple!ented$ The si!ulink !odel used to
obtain this is presented below$
Fi@5!e 1,.1 Space 'ector Modulation of Two-level Inverter
1,1,/ S#"te8 S2e4ifi4ation9
CE
Technical 1ata8
1" voltae O //H'
;re*uency O :H#<

(oad8
%ctive power O /HHHMW
Meactive Power O /0HHM'%
Power ;actor O H$E00
"arrier fre*uency O /EHH#<
Sa!plin ti!e O /e-:s
Switchin 1evices I=+T K 1iodes
% three phase I=+T K 1iode bride which was used in the sinusoidal pulse width !odulation is
used here$ %ll the operatin conditions have been retained& however& the ate pulses have been
provided by a space vector !odulation block$ This block internally enerates the pulses for the
three les of the inverter$ These pulses are !ultiple4ed on to a sinle line and iven to the ate
input of the bride$ The si!ulation is perfor!ed by !aintainin the sa!e sa!plin ti!e of /e-:s
1,1,0 Si85lation Re"5lt"9
The voltae and current wavefor!s for !odulation inde4 / and H$E are shown below$ It can be
observed that the T#1 levels in space vector sche!e are obtained to be lower as co!pared to
sinusoidal pulse width !odulation$
CF
Fi@5!e 1,.( 2a3 'oltae wavefor! and 2b3 current wavefor! for !odulation inde4 /
Fi@5!e 1,.; 2a3 'oltae T#1 and 2b3 "urrent T#1 analysis for !odulation inde4 /
DH
Fi@5!e 1,.< 2a3 'oltae wavefor! and 2b3 "urrent wavefor! of !odulation inde4 H$E
Fi@5!e 1,.= 2a3 'oltae T#1 and 2b3 "urrent T#1 analysis for !OH$E
D/
Table 7$: presents the si!ulation results obtained for various !odulation indices$ % trend si!ilar
to that observed for sinusoidal pulse width !odulation sche!e is seen$ The funda!ental
co!ponent increases and the T#1 levels decrease with an increase in !odulation inde4$ The
raphical representation of this is shown in fiure7$/F

S,
No,
+od5lation
IndeI
C5!!ent (f5nda8ental$
(J$
C5!!ent THD
(J$
Volta@e (f5nda8ental$
(J$
Volta@e
THD (J$
/$ / 0$/5C /$DE F:$E0 CD$DF
0$ H$E /$DHF /$FH DC$5D F/$HE
5$ H$C /$0F/ 0$// :C$EE /0H$F5
7$ H$7 H$E:5F 0$:D 5E$0E /C/$F7
:$ H$0 H$7/: 5$/: /F$:: 07D$DD
Ta6le 1,( Si!ulation results for various !odulation indices
Fi@5!e 1,.* 2a3 =raph showin variation of funda!ental voltae w$r$t !odulation inde4
2b3 =raph showin variation of T#1 w$r$t !odulation inde4
The ideal rane of operation of the syste! is between !odulation inde4 H$E G /$H because it is in
this rane that the T#1 levels are lower and funda!ental co!ponent is hiher$
D0
The syste! was operated with various carrier fre*uencies$ The results obtained have been
tabulated in table 7$C
S,
No,
F!eA5en4#
(HG$
C5!!ent(f5nda8ental$
(A$
C5!!ent THD
(J$
Volta@e(f5nda8ental$
(Volt"$
Volta@e
THD
(J$
/$ CHH 0$:7F 7$FE //5$5 7F$F/
0$ FHH 0$:70 5$/H //0$D :H$H0
5$ /HHH 0$:7E 0$DC //0$F 7F$DD
7$ /0HH 0$:7C 0$5/ //0$D 7F$FE
:$ /:HH 0$:7D /$EE //5 7F$E/
C$ /EHH 0$/5C /$DE F:$E0 CD$DF
D$ 0/HH 0$:75 /$5E //0$F 7F$EE
Ta6le 1,; Si!ulation results for various carrier fre*uencies
D5
1,( CO+PARISON OF SPW+ AND SV+ %ASED TWO>LEVEL INVERTER
In this section we co!pare the results obtained usin sinusoidal pulse width !odulation and
space vector !odulation$ It has been observed that the T#1 levels with space vector !odulation
sche!e have been lowered$ Table 7$D presents the co!parative study$
S, No +od5lation
IndeI
S2a4e Ve4to! +od5lation Sin5"oidal P5l"e Widt7
+od5lation
Pe!4enta@e
In4!ea"e in
Volta@e
UtiliGed
(J$
F5nda8ental
Volta@e (V$
Volta@e
THD (V$
F5nda8ental
Volta@e (V$
Volta@e
THD (V$
/$ /$H /HF$F :0$HF F:$E0 CD$DF /0$E//
0$ H$E EE$0/ DE$:E DC$5D F/$HE /5$700
5$ H$C CC$// /H:$/E :C$EE /0H$F5 /5$FC/
7$ H$7 75$C7 /7E$7H 5E$0E /C/$F7 /F$/:C
:$ H$0 0/$E7 05/$CE /F$:: 07D$DD /H$7E:
Ta6le 1,< "o!parison of Space 'ector and Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation Sche!es
D7
CHAPTER (
CONCLUSIONS
D:
We have studied the si!ulation results of SPWM and S'PWM inn chapter : and have
tabulated the values of output current& voltae and T#1 for different values of !odulation
inde4&swichin fre*uency&
;ro! the results we can derive so!e conclusions which ives us a clear idea on the trend of
T#1 levels and output voltaes when the !odulation inde4 and switchin fre*uencies are
varied$ The conclusions obtained fro! the si!ulation results are8
%round /H-/:6 i!prove!ent in the 1" voltae utili<ation has been obtained with space
vector !odulation sche!e$
(ower T#1 levels have been obtained with space vector !odulation sche!e due to lower
switchin as co!pared to sinusoidal pulse width !odulation sche!e$
The wavefor! of '%+ is not half-wave sy!!etrical and hence it contains both even and
odd order har!onics$
The funda!ental voltae '%+ is proportional to the !odulation inde4 !a$
The T#1 of '%+ decreases with increase of !a$
The !ost suitable rane of operation in any !odulation sche!e is H$E-/$H$
The nu!ber of pulses per half cycle of the inverter funda!ental fre*uency does not affect
the T#1 sinificantly$
DC