Repairing

Structures using
Composite Wraps
First published in Great Britain and the United States in 2003 by Kogan Page
Science, an imprint of Kogan Page Limited
Reprinted in 2004 (twice)
Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism
or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, this
publication may only be reproduced, stored or transmitted, in any form or by any
means, with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of
reprographic reproduction in accordance with the terms and licences issued by the
CLA. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside these terms should be sent to the
publishers at the undermentioned addresses:
120 Pentonville Road 22883 Quicksilver Drive
London N1 9JN Sterling VA 20166-2012
UK USA
www.koganpagescience.com
© Kogan Page Limited, 2003
The right of Claude Bathias, Hiroshi Fukuda, Kyoshi Kemmoshi, Jacques Renard
and Hiroshi Tsuda to be identified as the editors of this work has been asserted by
them in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.
ISBN 1 9039 9649 X
British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data
A CIP record for this book is available from the British Library.
Printed and bound by Antony Rowe
Repairing
Structures using
Composite Wraps
edited by
Claude Bathias, Hiroshi Fukuda,
K yoshi Kemmoshi, Jacques Renard
& Hiroshi Tsuda
KOGAN
PAGE
SCIENCE
London and Sterling, VA
The 8th Japanese-European Symposium
on Composite Materials
April, 16-17, 2002 - Tokyo University of Science, Tokyo, Japan
Organized by
The Organizing Committee of the Japanese-
European Symposium on Composite Materials
Smart Structure Research Center
National Institute of Advanced Science and Technology
National Institute of Advanced Science and Technology (AIST)
Supported by
Japan Industrial Technology Association (JITA)
Embassy of France in Japan
French Association for Composite Materials (AMAC)
European Society for Composite Materials (ESCM)
This work was subsidized by the Japan Keirin Association
through its Promotion funds from KEIRIN RACE
Organizing Committee
Honorary Chairmen
K. KEMMOCHI Shinshu University, Japan
C. BATHIAS Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers, France
Chairmen
H. FUKUDA
J. RENARD
Tokyo University of Science, Japan
Ecole des Mines de Paris, France
Vice-Chairmen
K. KEMMOCHI Shinshu University, Japan
H. TSUDA National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science &
Technology, Japan
Advisory Board Members
T. KISHI National Institute for Materials Science, Japan
I. KIMPARA Kanazawa Institute of Technology, Japan
H. MIYAIRI Tokyo Medical & Dental University, Japan
Executive Committee Members
Japanese Members
K. KAGEYAMA
M. HOJO
Q. NI
J. TAKAHASHI
T. ISHIKAWA
H. NAGAI
K. AMAOKA
S. BANDOH
K. KIMURA
A. HAMAMOTO
Y. YAMAGUCHI
R. HAYASHI
University of Tokyo
Kyoto University
Kyoto Institute of Technology
University of Tokyo
National Aerospace Laboratory of Japan
National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science & Technology
Fuji Heavy Industries Ltd
Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd
Obayashi Corporation
Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Ltd
R&D Institute of Metals & Composites for Future Industries
Japan Industrial Technology Association
European Members
C. BATHIAS Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers, France
C. VISCONTI University of Naples, Italy
C. GALIOTIS University of Patras, Greece
H. LILHOLT Riso National Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark
MORTON Defense Evaluation and Research Agency, Farnborough, England
K. SCHULTE Technical University of Hamburg-Harburg, Germany
A. MARQUES University of Porto, Portugal
This page intentionally left blank
Table of Contents
Introduction 11
Part I. Repairing structures using composite wraps 13
Repairing efficiency of damaged steel structures using composite laminates
K. YAMAGUCHI AND I. KIMPARA 15
RC two-way slabs strengthened with composite material
G. FORET, O. LlMAN AND A. EHRLACHER 25
Structural soundness evaluation of GFRP pedestrian bridge
I. CHOU, K. KAMADA, N. YAMAMOTO, S. SAEKI and K. YAMASHIRO 35
Analysis of the efficiency of composites in improving serviceability of damaged
reinforced concrete structures
S. AVRIL, A. VAUTRIN, P. HAMELIN, Y. SURREL 47
Applications of retrofit and repair using carbon fibers
K. KIMURA AND H. KATSUMATA 61
Design and repairing of hydraulic valves using composite materials
N. JUNKER, A. THIONNET, J. RENARD 73
lonomer as toughening and repair material for CFRP laminates
M. HOJO, N. HIROTA, T. ANDO, S. MATSUDA, M. TANAKA, K. AMUNDSEN,
S. OCHIAI, A. MURAKAMI 83
Polymer adhesives in civil engineering: Effect of environmental parameters on
thermomechanical properties
K. BENZARTI, M. PASTOR, T. CHAUSSADENT, M.P. THAVEAU 91
Overwrapped structures : a modern approach ?
M.J. HINTON, J. COOK, A. GROVES, R. HAYMAND and A. HOWARD 105
8 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
Development of scarf joint analysis customized system (SJACS) - a guide for
standard analysis of composite bonded repairs
T. ITOH, T. TANIZ AWA, S. SAOKA 131
Facing progress of composite materials in the maintenance of aircraft
C. BATHIAS 141
Possibility of inverse-manufacturing technology for scrapped wood using wrapping
effect in prepreg sheet
K. KEMMOCHI, H. TAKAYANAGI, T. NATSUKI and H. TSUDA 151
High temperature behavior of ceramic matrix composites with a self healing matrix
J. LAMON and PH. FORIO 159
Part II. Development and use of smart techniques for strain measurement
or damage monitoring 171
Piezoelectric fiber composites for vibration control applications - development,
modelling, characterization
Y. VIGIER, C. RICHARD, A. AGBOSSOU, D. GUYOMAR 173
Health monitoring system for CFRP by PZT
J. H. Koo, T. NATSUKI, H. TSUDA, N. TOHYAMA and J. TAKATSUBO 183
Characterization of fibres and composites by Raman microspectrometry
PH. COLOMBAN 193
Demonstrator program in Japanese smart material and structures system project
T. SAKURAI, N. TAJIMA, N. TAKEDA and T. KISHI 203
Real-time damage detection in composite laminates with embedded small-diameter
fiber Bragg grating sensors
N. TAKEDA, Y. OKABE, S. YASHIRO, S. TAKEDA, T. MIZ UTANI and
R. TSUJI 215
Measuring the non linear viscoelastic, viscoplastic strain behavior of CFRE using
electronic speckle pattern interferometry technique
P.J-P.BOUQUET, A.H. CARDON 225
Mechanical property and application of innovation composites based on shape
memory polymer
Q. NI, T. OHKI AND M. IWAMOTO 237
Piezoelectric fibers and composites for smart structures
A. SCHONECKER, L. SEFFNER, S. GEBHARDT, W. BECKERT 247
Application of metal core piezoelectric fiber - embedded in CFRP
H. SATO, Y. SHIMOJO and T. SEKIYA 257
Table of contents 9
Part III. Process inprovement 265
Cure monitoring of composite using multidetection technique
M. SALVIA, E. CHAILLEUX, N. JAFFREZIC RENAULT, Y. JAYET 267
Mechanical behavior simulation of glass fiber reinforced polypropylene foam
laminates
T. NISHIWAKI and A. GOTO 281
Short-fibre-reinforced thermoplastic for semi structural parts : process-properties.
E. HARAMBURU, F. COLLOMBET, B. FERRET, J.S. VIGNES, P. DEVOS,
C. LEVAILLANT, F. SCHMIDT 293
Guidelines for a quality control procedure to ensure sound strengthening and
rehabilitation of concrete structures using FRP
J.L. ESTEVES and A.T. MARQUES 305
Numerical simulation of reinforcements forming : the missing link for the
improvement of composite parts virtual prototyping
P. DELUCA , Y. BENOIT 315
Monitoring of resin flow and cure using electrical time domain reflectometry
K. URABE, T. OKABE and H. TSUDA 323
Effects of manufacturing error on stiffness properties of composite laminates
P. VINCENTI, P. VANNUCCI, G. VERCHERY, F. BELAID 333
Mechanical properties of pultruded CFRPs made of knitted fabrics
H. FUKUDA, H. WAKABAYASHI, K. HAYASHI and G. OHSHIMA 343
This page intentionally left blank
Introduction
The eight Japanese-european symposium which has been held in Tokyo at the
university of science of Tokyo in 2002, continues a serie of symposiums the first
one of which was in 1989. The vocation of these symposiums which take place
every two years alternatively in Europe and in Japan, is to propose an opportunity
for industries and research centers to analyse fundamental questions dealing with the
use of composite materials and structures and to propose solutions.
The main theme of the eight Japanese-european symposium «Repairing structures
using composites wraps» is a major question for a variety of structural applications,
where it is desired to increase service life of their components. If damaged area is
localized and in small compared with the whole size of the structure, it is an
economical way to arrest the damage extension by a local repair while assuring
safety and reliability. For several years many investigations have been conducted for
reinforcement and rehabilitation of damaged infrastructures by their repair and
preservation with fiber reinforced plastics wraps or sheets.
During this symposium differents themes has been discussed concerning :
- Application fields:
- Compensation of civil infrastructures for stabilization or quake-resistance.
- Repair of composite structures.
- Repair of steel structures.
- Different types of reinforcements and techniques of wrapping
12 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
- Theoretical and experimental investigations :
- Characterization of the reinforcing effect
- Strength of structural members reinforced with bonding sheets
- Design and optimisation strategy
- Use of health monitoring techniques :
- To secure structures and to find optimal processing conditions
- To detect damage state and damage evolution according to different types
of loading.
The participation of different european countries as the Japanese participation during
all sessions has been the opportunity for fruitfull exchanges sometimes leading this
symposium to looks like a workshop during discussion.
To end, the editors would like to thank all institutions, associations, ministry and
embassy which supported this symposium and contributed to this successful
meeting.
Part I:
Repairing structures
using composite wraps
This page intentionally left blank
Repairing efficiency of damaged steel
structures using composite laminate
Koji Yamaguchi — Isao Kimpara
AMS R&D Center, Kanazawa institute of technology
3-1, Yatsukaho, Matto 924-0838, Ishikawa Japan
yamagu@neptune. kanazawa-it. ac.jp
kimpara@neptune. kanazawa-it. ac.jp
AB STRACT; Upgrading was required due to changes in usage of buildings, due to factors such
as deterioration and aging and change in occupancy. Composite (laminate) patch repairing
technique has gained widespread acceptance as an excellent method for repairing and
upgrading of existing structures because of the high strength to weight ratio, ease of
installation on site and the improved durability and corrosion resistance of the composite
material. In this study, composite patch repairing system was applied to crack arrester of
single notch steel beam, using two types of carbon fibers: first is a high strength carbon (H S),
and second is a high modulus carbon (H M). E ffect of externally bonded composite patch on
resistance of crack propagation was experimentally and theoretically showed based on linear
elastic fracture mechanics. Stress intensity factor and energy release rate in single notched
steel beam repaired with composite patch are obtained in the closed-form equations. Under
fatigue loading, resistance of crack propagation of test specimen repaired with H M was
higher than that of test specimen repaired with H S. H owever, delamination growth of H M
was more rapid than that of H M. Simulation of crack propagation and delamination growth
based on proposed theoretical analysis was in good accordance with experimental result of
those. It was shown that repairing efficiency and repairing life depend on material properties
of composite patch and characteristic bonding strength between base material and composite
patch.
KE Y W O RDS: composite laminate, repairing, fracture mechanics, bonding strength,
delamination growth
16 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
1. Introduction
Composite patch repairing system has been widely used in several fields. In
aeronautic engineering, composite patch repairing system has been applied to crack
arrester in a damaged aluminium plate.
Crack growth behaviour in a plate repaired with reinforcing patch was predicted
based on the finite element analysis and the integral equation approach. The effects
of adhesive thickness and patch thickness on crack growth behaviour were discussed
(Ratwani 1977). Under consideration of residual thermal stress induced by the
bonding process and effect of bending load, crack growth behaviour in the repaired
plate with composite patch was analysed theoretically (Rose 1982). From
experimental aspects of composite patch system, effects of adhesive cure
temperature, surface treatments before bonding on adhesive fatigue were
investigated based on studies on overlap joints, which were simulating repairs and
crack propagation behaviour in patched panels (Baker et al, 1984, Baker 1984).
Crack growth behaviour was undertaken to assess the effect on patching efficiency
of disbanding of the patch system and test temperature (Baker 1993). The boundary
element method is combined with the method of compatible deformations to
analyses the stress distributions in cracked finite sheets symmetrically reinforced by
bonded patches (Young et al., 1992). Cracked aluminium plates repaired with
composites patch was analysed using Mindlin plate finite theory instead of three-
dimensional finite element (Sun et al, 1996).
This problem was analysed using three layer technique, in which two-
dimensional Mindlin plate elements with transverse shear deformation capability
were used for all three layers: cracked plate, adhesive and composite patch
(Naboulsi et al., 1996). The effects of location and dimension of debonding area on
strength recovery were compared, as well as strength of panels with a completely
bonded reinforcement and cracked panels without any reinforcement were studied
(Denney et al., 1997). The effect of geometric nonlinearity on the damage tolerance
of the cracked plate was investigated by computing the stress intensity factor and
fatigue growth rate of the crack in the plate (Noboulsi et al, 1998). Quite recently
many studies have evaluated resistance efficiency of crack growth due to composite
patch by using various techniques of finite element method (Seo et al, 2001 etc).
Composite patch repairing system was little applied for steel structure. CFRP
sheets are shown to relive the stress concentration at the of circular holes in steel
plates (Okura et al, 2000)
In this paper, durability of a single notched beam repaired with externally
bonded composite under fatigue loading was experimentally and theoretically
investigated based on fracture mechanics. In the theoretical study, stress intensity
factor and energy release rate are obtained in closed-form equations. In the
experimental study, it is shown that several fracture modes of test specimens
changes due to characteristic of composite patch under static loading, as
Repairing of structures 17
schematically shown in Figure 1. Under fatigue loading, resistance of crack
propagation is evaluated in each composite patch. Crack propagation and
delamination growth is predicted based on the proposed theoretical analysis.
Repairing efficiency and repairing life are examined in terms of material properties
of composite patch and characteristic bonding strength between base material and
composite patch. Repairing design is discussed based on a change in fracture modes
and ambivalent relation between resistance of crack propagation and repairing life.
Figure 1. Schematical fracture mode of a single notch beam repaired with
externally bonded composite patch
Let the Young's modulus of the composite patch be E
R
. Assuming that through-
the-width debonding area with length 2c extends in both directions between the
adhesive interfaces symmetrically with respect to the crack plane, the debonded
composite patch can be represented as a spring with compliance A
d
, to form a two-
dimensional mechanical model (Kageyama et al, 1995)
2. Experiment
2.1. Test specimen and test method
Mild steel, SS410, was used as base specimen with a single-edge notch. The
width of the specimen was 20 mm, the height was 40 mm, and the distance between
two supports was 160 mm. Machined notch length was 16 mm and a fatigue crack of
2 mm was introduced at the tip of machined notch, as shown in Figure 5. The size of
the base specimen was chosen according to ASTM E399-83. Two kinds of CFRP
sheets (HS: high strength carbon and HM: high modulus carbon) were used to
reinforce the single edge notched specimen: Cl-30 (HS), which was made by Tonen
Corp., was a high strength CFRP sheet and C8-30 (HM) was a high-modulus CFRP
sheet. Three kinds of reinforcing sheet thickness by varying ply number were also
used: 1-ply, 2-ply and 3-ply. In total, 7 kinds of specimen were prepared.
18 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
Under fatigue loading, other factors defining the test included a 6-Hz test
frequency, an R ratio of 0.1 and a maximum load of 13000 N with load control. The
crack length and debonding length between the CFRP sheet and the base material
were measured.
Figure 2. Size of single notched steel beam repaired with composite patch
2.2. Result
The relationship between crack growth and DK for each test specimen is shown
in Figure 3. When reinforcing sheet is thicker, crack growth is also slower under
fatigue loading. However, test specimens repaired with 1-ply HS sheet have little
effect on resistance to crack growth. Test specimens repaired with HM sheet debond
off the base material before the relationship between da/dN and DK extend to
Region 11.
Figure 3. Relationship between apparent stress intensity and crack growth under
fatigue loading
Repairing of structures 19
K
I
was analysed based on the proposed theory. It was observed that the
relationship between crack growth and AK
I
of test specimens repaired with all kinds
of sheets was very similar to that of test specimen without repair, as shown in
Figure 4.
Figure 4. Relationship between true stress intensity and crack growth under
fatigue loading
3. Characteristic of delamination growth between steel and composite patch
3.1. CLS test
Bonding strength was evaluated based on energy release rate used by CLS test as
shown in Figure 5. CLS test has the advantage of easy measurement of the
debonding length and single lap joint. However, neutral axis was displaced in this
test specimen because this test specimen is not symmetric. Bending moment was
applied to this test specimen. A new data reduction method to evaluate bonding
strength based on energy release rate was proposed considering bending moment.
Figure 5. Schematic cracked lap shear test
20 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
3.2. Result
Figure 6. Relation between debonding growth rate and A energy release rate
range.
The relation between A energy release rate and debonding growth rate was
shown in Figure 6.
Open circles in Figure 6 were average of debonding growth rate. Relation
between fatigue debonding growth rate and A energy release rate was applied to
Paris law. Paris law was expressed as :
Linear line could be drawn for relation between debonding growth rate and A
energy release rate range. m
c
and C
c
in material constant were represented as a
follow :
Relation fatigue debonding growth and A energy release rate could be elucidated
using Paris law.
Repairing of structures 21
4. Simulation of crack propagation and delamination growth under fatigue
loading based on theoretical analysis
Under fatigue loading relation between crack propagation rate, da/dN, and A
stress intensity factor, AK, of steel without composite patch based on Paris low was
expressed as:
Assuming that material properties of steel and composite patch and size of test
specimen is constant, stress intensity factor and energy release rate was obtained
based on proposed theoretical analysis to substitute load, initial crack length and
initial delamination length. As follow, crack propagation rate and delamination
growth rate were obtained to substitute stress intensity factor and energy release rate
for Paris low. Crack propagation rate and delamination growth rate multiplied by
numerical cycle equal crack propagation length and delamination growth length.
New crack length and delamination length equal crack length and delamination
length added crack propagation length and delamination growth length respectively.
This process was continued according to record of relation between numerical cycle
and load. The flow of process to simulate crack length and delamination length is
shown in Figure 7. Crack length and delamination length of repaired steel with
composite patch could be predicted under fatigue loading. Simulating result of crack
length and delamination length were compared to experimental result, as shown in
Figure 8.
When delamination length was small, simulation was not close to experimental
result. Because proposed theoretical analysis was over the applicable limitation.
However, as for crack propagation rate and delamination growth rate, simulation is
closed to experimental result.
22 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
Figure 7. Simulation flow of crack length and delamination length under fatigue
loading based on proposed theoretical analysis
Figure 8. Comparison between experiment and simulation by crack length and
delamination length of repaired steel with composite patch
Repairing of structures 23
5. Repairing design using composite patch
Under fatigue loading, fracture modes of test specimens repaired with HM and
HS are summarized as shown in Table 1.
Table 1. Fracture modes of test specimens repaired with H M and H S under fatigue
loading
. ... Type of composite patch
Loading type _
HM HS
Repairing life Short Long
Resistance of crack ,,. , .
High low
propagation
Under fatigue loading, in the case of HM composite patch, crack propagation is
further suppressed, while, delamination growth occurs rapidly, leading to shorter
repairing life. In those structures repaired using composite patch, some trade-off
between repairing life and effect of resistance of crack propagation have to be
considered.
Fracture mode and repairing life might be controlled due to material properties
of composite patch and bonding strength. Therefore, it may be suggested that if a
suitable method is established to control material properties of composite patch and
bonding strength, fracture mode and repairing life can be controlled to give a certain
required repairing life.
6. Conclusion
A single edge notched beam repaired with externally-bonded CFRP sheet was
analyzed under three-point-bending load based on linear elastic fracture mechanics.
Reduction of stress intensity factor at the crack tip was calculated theoretically. The
increase in static and fatigue strength of test specimens reinforced with various
CFRP sheet patches was confirmed experimentally. Resistance effects of crack
propagation under fatigue loading were also evaluated experimentally. Relation
between debonding growth rate and energy release rate was elucidated using CLS
test. Crack length and delamination length of repaired steel with composite patch
under fatigue loading could be predicted based on proposed theoretical analysis.
Prediction was shown to be in a good accordance with the experimental result.
Repairing design using composite patch was discussed by suggesting that bonding
strength is a key parameter to control repairing life as well as material properties of
composite patch.
24 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
References
Baker, A.A., Callinan, R.J., Davis, M.J., Jones, R. and Williams, J.G., "Repair of Mirage III
aircraft using the BFRP crack-patching technique", Theoretical and Applied Fracture
Mechanics, vol. 2, 1984, p. 1-15.
Baker, A. A., "Repair of cracked or defective metallic aircraft components with advanced fiber
composites - An overview of Australian work", Composite Structure, vol. 2, 1984, p. 153-
181.
Baker, A.A., "Repair Efficiency in Fatigue-Cracked Aluminum Composites Reinforced With
BORON/EPOXY Patches", Fatigue and Fracture E ngineering Material Structure, vol.
16, 1993,p.753-765.
Denny, J.J. & Mall, S., "Characterization of Disbond Effects on Fatigue Crack Growth
Behavior in Aluminum Plate with Bonded Composite Patch", E ngineering Fracture
Mechanics, vol. 57, 1997, p.507-525.
Kageyama, K., Kimpara, I., & Esaki, K., "Fracture mechanics study on rehabilitation of
damaged infrastructures by using composites wraps", ICCM-X, Proceeding of ICCM-10,
Gold Coast, 1995, p. III-.597-604.
Naboulsi, S. & Mall, S., "Modeling of a cracked metallic structure with bonded composite
patch using the three-layer technique", Composite Structures, vol. 35, 1996, p.295-308.
Naboulsi, S. & Mall, S., "Nonlinear analysis of bonded composite patch repair of cracked
aluminum panels", Composite Structures, vol. 41, 1998, p.303-313.
Okura, I., Fukui, T. & Matsuzaki, T., "Application of CFRP sheets to repair of fatigue cracks
in steel plate", JCO M: JSMS CO MPSITE S-29, Proceeding of JCO M: JSMS
CO MPSITE S-29, Kusatsu, 2000, p. 133-136
Ratwani, M.M., "A Parametric Study of Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior in Adhesively
Bonded Metallic Structures", Journal E ngineering Materials and technology, vol. 100,
1977,p.46-51.
Rose, L.R.F., "A cracked plate repaired by bonded reinforcements", International Journal of
Fracture, vol. 18, 1982, p. 135-144.
Seo, D. C., Lee, J.J. & Jang, T.S., "Comparison of fatigue crack growth behavior of thin and
thick aluminum plate with composite patch repair", ICCM-13, Beijing, 18-22 June 2001.
Sun, T.S., King, J. & Arendt, C., "Analysis of Cracked Aluminum Plates Repaired with
Bonded Composite Patches", AIAA Journal, vol. 34, 1996, p.369-374.
Young, A. & Rooke, D.P., "Analytical of Patched and Stiffened Cracked Panels Using the
Boundary Element Method", International Journal Solids Structures, vol. 29, 1992,
p.2201-2216.
RC two-way slabs strengthened with
composite material
G. Foret, O. Limam, A. Ehrlacher
E cole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussees
Laboratoire Analyse des Materiaux et Identification
6 et 8 avenue B laise Pascal, Cite Descartes - Champs-sur-Marne
77455 MARNE LA VALLE E
foret@lami. enpc.fr
limam@lami. enpc.fr
ehrlacher@lami. enpc.fr
AB STRACT: This paper deals with strengthening of reinforced concrete two-way slabs by
means of composite material thin plates. The strengthened slab is designed as a three-
layered plate, bottom layer is composite material, the middle layer is the steel and the top
layer is the concrete. A simplified laminated plate model is used to describe the behaviour of
three-layered plate supported in four sides, which is subjected to a load in the centre. The
upper bound theorem of limit analysis is used to approximate the ultimate load capacity and
identify the different collapse mechanisms. Lastly, a parametric study is conducted for a RC
two-way squared slab strengthened with a squared composite thin plate.
KE Y W O RDS: Limit analysis, collapse mechanism, composite material, strengthening, RC slab.
26 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
1. Introduction
The use of externally bonded composite materials for strengthening bridges and
other reinforced concrete structures has received considerable attention in recent
years. This approach is applied to a board range of structural members such as
beams, columns, slabs or masonry walls (Meir 87). Because the composite plates are
externally bonded to concrete structures, it is also realised that the bond at the
interface between concrete and composite reinforcements has significant impact on
the overall performance of strengthened structural member. Experimental
investigations conducted by (Erik MA & al, 1995), (Shahaway & al, 1996) and
(Teng JG, 2000) demonstrate the advantages of strengthening RC slabs with
composite material. On the other hand, brittle and sudden failure due to
delamination of the bonded composite plates or sheets has also been observed.
Experimental investigation conducted by (Garden H.N. & al, 1998) on RC beams
strengthened with composite material shows that two cases take place, the first is
called "peeling -off failure" where by the whole thickness of the cover concrete has
been removed. This failure mode leaves the internal steel exposed and the cover
thickness still bonded to the plate. In the second case, the composite plate is left
exposed with no concrete bonded to it, after failure. Failure can occur in two
interfaces. When applied to multi-layered plates, classical Kirchhoff model fails to
take in to account shear stress at the interfaces. Failure of multilayered structures
often occurs by delamination. As consequence, analysis of separation between
layers becomes essential for these structures. We design the strengthened RC slab
with composite material as a three layer plate. The upper bound theorem of limit
analysis is applied with a simplified plate model for multi-layered plate (M4)
(Ehrlacher A. & al, 1999) (Hadj-Ahmed R. & al, 2001). It is used to describe the
different collapse mechanisms with failure modes in layers and interfaces. An
estimate of the ultimate load then follows from the upper bound theorem of limit
analysis by equating the rate of internal energy dissipation in the velocity
discontinuities sets to the rate of work done by the applied loading as the slab
deforms in this mechanism.
2. Mechanical model
Lets consider a rectangular RC slab strengthened with composite material with a
thickness h, length 21, a width 2L (Figure 1). A reinforced concrete slab
strengthened by composite material thin plate is designed as a three-layered plate,
bottom layer is composite material, the middle layer is the steel and the top layer is
the compressive concrete zone. The respective ply thickness are e
1
, e
2
and e
3
(Figure 2). A z-direction load Q is applied in the centre of the plate. The multi-
Repairing of structures 27
layered plate is described as an open cylindrical domain Q of R
3
, with a base
eoe R
2
and three layers. ( e
x
, e
y
, e
z
) is an orthogonal base vector of Q with
(e
x
, e
y
)eco.
Figure 1. Three layers plate
2.1. Velocity and stress fields
The multi-layered plate model (M4) gives 2n+l generalised velocity fields.
U (UJ j with cce {l,2}) is the average displacement rate in e
x
and e
y
direction,
W
3
is the overall average displacement rate in e
z
direction. N (NJ
xp
(x, y) with
a,|3e {l,2}) is the membrane stress tensor in layer i, i' ( TJ;'
+1
(x,y) with a € {l,2})
is the inter-laminar shear stress at the interface i,i+l.
The generalised strain velocities are given by; e (£afl(x,y)=—(—-+—-) with
2 3x,j dx
a
a, P e {l,2}) is the in-surface deformation velocity tensor associated to the
28 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
membrane stress tensor at layer i, D (D
a
''
l+1
= (U^
1
- U^ + -)) is
2 a
Xf x
the generalised velocity tensor associated to the inter-laminar shear stress at the
interface (U+l)-

Figure 2. RC slab strengthened with composite material
2.2. The upper bound theorem of limit analysis
The upper-bound theorem of limit (Johansen, 1962) and (Sale^on, 1983)
involves collapses kinematic fields with discontinuities in velocity fields, denoted
/ in layer i and D' in the interface (i,i+l). Velocity fields are kinematically
admissible (KA) when they occur with boundary limits. Let's define the dissipate
functions as follows:
Repairing of structures 29
Where, the internal energy dissipation is given by:
n . n
P
d
=V |[ 7C
T
(D
I> 1+
)]do>+ V r n
N
(n, y
i
)ds and the work done by the applied
i=l fa i=l p.v
loading as the slab deforms is given by Q.q(U) . q(U) is the generalised velocity
associated with Q and T? c co is the set of velocity discontinuities.
When Q £ K the slab decomposes.
3. Application to a three-layered plate
3.1. Boundary conditions and collapse criteria
The boundary conditions are given by;
Uj (x, y) = 0 for x = -L, U2(x, y) = 0 for x=- l and W
3
(x, y) = 0 for (x,y) in
3d), boundary of ft). Let's considering the next criteria on generalised stress fields;
3.2. Collapse mechanisms
We consider collapse mechanisms which result in a velocity discontinuity in
layers and interfaces. As indicated in figure 3, the field to is divided into 4 open sets
coi, cos, C0i' and 0)2'. In the case of layer mechanisms, they are rigid regions
intersections. An infinity of collapse mechanisms are considered by varying the
angle a. The velocity q(U) = W
3
(0) is related to the load Q.
30 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
3.2.1. Layers mechanisms:
In the case of layers mechanisms, we suppose that the velocity generalised
shearing strain rates in interfaces are null: D
M+I
=0, with ie{l,2}. A and B
respectively in layer 1 and layer 2 represents the velocity discontinuities between o)|
and oo,' in x-direction. A' and B ' respectively in layer 1 and 2 represents the
velocity discontinuities between 0)2 and 0)2' in y-direction. The KA velocity fields
are given by:
Figure 3.Definition ofcoi, 0)2. a)/' and (fy'
Repairing of structures 31
Velocity strain rate is q(U)= w
3
(0,y) = w
3
(0,y) with -y
0
<y <y
0
. A sufficient
condition for collapse is Q.q(U) > P
d
(U), which is thus given by:
By considering the velocity discontinuities with a layer mechanisms, we get the
sufficient two other sufficient conditions for collapse:
3.2.2. Interface mechanism
In this case of interface mechanism, velocity discontinuities is considered in
interfaces.
A sufficient condition for collapse is:
32 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
3.2.3. Mechanisms mixed
In this case of mixed mechanisms, the velocity discontinuities is considered in
one layer and one interface. We expose the mixed mechanism case concerning
layer 1 and interface (2,3)- We suppose that the rate of generalised shearing strain
between layers 1 and 2 is null.
When considering velocity discontinuity with a mixed mechanism, we obtain three
other similar conditions sufficient for collapse.
4. Parametric study
We consider a two-way squared RC slab strengthened by composite material. A
square slab corresponds to 1 = L with a thickness h =7 cm. Failure can occur in
layers 1, 2 and 3 with steel yielding, concrete crushing and rupture of composite thin
plates. Concrete compressive strength is f,!= 30 Mpa. The tension zone in the
concrete under the neutral axis is neglected. The compressive zone thickness is a. It
=3
is as a membrane layer and has a resultant force tensor N , which is applied at a
depth of a / 2. An approximated elastic method is used to calculate a. The
compressive stress tensor strength in concrete layer is given
by:N?
l c
=N2
2 c
=-0. 85af ^and Nj
2c
=-0.085af^. The steel reinforcement is the
same in x and y directions and given by As= 2(j)6/m. Steel strength is
f = 500 Mpa . The compressive and tension strength in the steel layer is given by
N
nt
=N
2
2
« =
A
s
f
y
>
N
nc =
N
n c = -A
s
f
y
and N?
2c
=O. The "peeling-off failure is
designed as a velocity discontinuity in interface (2,3). The composite thin plate
debonding is designed as a velocity discontinuity in interface (1,2). The shear stress
strength at the interface (1,2) is T
I c
u
= t
2c
''
2
= 5 Mpa, and at the interface (2,3) is
T
lc
2
'
3
= T
2c
2
'
3
= 3 Mpa. We consider that, a = 45° which corresponds to a load
minimisation.
Repairing of structures 33
We represent (Figure 4) the maximum supported loads for different types of
eight possible mechanisms as function of L. For layer mechanisms the maximum
supported loads remain constant. For mixed and interface mechanisms it increases
while L increases.
Figure 4. Ultimate loads for each collapse mechanisms.
5. Conclusion
According to our simplified model, RC slabs strengthened with composite
material can fail with a layer mechanism or with an interface mechanism or with a
mixed mechanism. The parametric study shows that for small slab elongation,
interface and mixed slab elongation are dangerous. For streamlined slabs, layer
mechanisms prove to be significant.
The M4-2n+l plate model doesn't take in account failure due to shear stress.
This effect can be depicted independently. The parametric study shows that for
streamlined squared slabs the maximum supported load remain constant while the
side length 1 increases.
34 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
6. References
Erik M.A., Heffernan PJ., "Reinforced concrete slabs externally strengthened with
FRP materials" In Taerwe L, editor. Non-metallic FRP reinforcement for
concrete structures, London: E & FN Spon; 1995. pp. 509-516.
Garden H.N., Quantrill R.J., Hollaway L.C., Thorne A.M., Parke G.A.R., "An
experimental study of the anchorage length of carbon fibre composite plate used
to strengthen reinforced concrete beams", Construction and building materials,
12(1998), pp 203-219.
Hadj-Ahmed R., Foret G., Ehrlacher E., "Stress analysis in adhesive joints with a
multiparticle model of multilayered materials (M4)", Int. Journal of Adhesion
and Adhesives, Volume 21, Issue 4, 2001, Pages 297-307.
Johansen, K.W., "Yield Line Theory", Cement and concrete Association, London,
1962.
Meir U., "Bridge repair with high performance composite material." Mater
Technique, 1987;4: 125-8.
Philippe M., Naciri T. Ehrlacher A., "A tri-particle model of sandwich panels",
Composite Science and Technology, 1999, p. 1195-1206.
Salen9on J., « Calcul a la rupture et analyse limite », Presses de I'E.N.P.C. Paris.
1983,366pp.
Shahawy M.A., Beitelman T., Arockiasamy M., Sowrirajan R., "Experimental
investigation on structural repair and strengthening of damaged prestressed
concrete slabs utilizing externally bonded carbon laminates", Composite B 1996;
27(3-4): p. 217-24.
Teng J.G., Lam L., Chan W., Wang J., "Retrofitting of deficient RC cantilever slabs
using GFRP strips.", J. Comp. Constr. L 2000; 4(2): p. 75-84.
Structural Soundness Evaluation of GFRP
Pedestrian Bridge
Iton Chou* — Keiji Kamada** — Naoki Yamamoto***
Shoichi Saeki**** — Kazuo Yamashiro*****
* Technology Planning Department, Research & Development
Ishikawajima-H arima H eavy Industries Co, Ltd
Shin-ohtemachi B ldg., 2-2-1, O htemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8182, JAPAN
iton_chou@ihi. co.jp
** Research & Development Department
Ishikawajima Inspection & Instrumentation Co., Ltd.
*** Structure & Strength Department, Technical Research Laboratory
Ishikawajima-H arima H eavy Industries Co, Ltd.
**** Research Institute, Public W orks Research Center
***** Roads & H ighways Division, North Region Civil E ngineering O ffice
O kinawa Prefecture
AB STRACT: This paper introduces the structure of the GFRP (Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastics)
pedestrian bridge, to which GFRP was first applied as the primary structure in Japan,
constructed in O kinawa Prefecture in April of 2000. Also described mainly of several
strength tests in this paper are the static loading and the natural frequency tests performed to
evaluate the soundness of the bridge structure. The static loading test evaluated the rigidity
of the main girders on the bridge without the pavement, and clarified that the shear rigidity
in the web had to be considered in addition to theflexural rigidity in the flange. The natural
frequency test evaluated the primary frequency of the bridge to be approximately 4.6 H z, and
clarified that the bridge did not cause an uncomfortable feeling in people crossing it.
KE Y W O RDS: pedestrian bridge, GFRP, structural testing, structural soundness, natural
frequency
36 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
1. Introduction
Japan is an island country with many coastlines. Steel and PC (Pre-stressed
Concrete) bridges, therefore, are subject to salt damage and the resulting corrosion.
Because the PC slabs of the Shingu Bridge (road bridge) in the Noto Peninsula,
Ishikawa Prefecture were damaged by salt, it was decided that a new bridge be
constructed, and FRP (Fiber Reinforced Plastics) was adopted as the material of this
new bridge (Mutsuyoshi 1992). In 1988 this FRP bridge was constructed. A
pedestrian bridge made of FRP alone was also built on an experimental basis by the
Public Works Research Institute (Sasaki 1996); it was a demonstration pedestrian
bridge and was built on the premises of the Institute.
In Okinawa Prefecture, a road park was recently constructed on the Ikei-
Tairagawa route that runs along the coastline (Nonaka 2000, Sangyo Shizai Shinbun Co.
2000, Katayama et al., 2000). Because the road park is exposed to salty wind
throughout the year, there is concern over the corrosion of the structures built there.
A pedestrian bridge running across the road park, therefore, was made using GFRP
(Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastics) because it is superior to steel and reinforced
concrete in corrosion resistance. This pedestrian bridge was completed in April of
2000. It is a two-span continuous girder bridge of 37.76 m in length and 3.5 m in
effective width. Because it was the first pedestrian bridge with its main structural
members made of GFRP to be built in Japan, some different types of structural
strength tests were conducted in the design stage to verify the structural soundness
(Chou et al., 2001 a, Chou et al., 2001 b, Yamamoto et al., 2001).
This paper describes two of these structural strength tests conducted to verify
the overall rigidity of the pedestrian bridge. One test was a static loading test
conducted in the work yard of Sunamachi's Steel Structure Division before a
footpath on the pedestrian bridge was paved. Another test was a natural frequency
test conducted on a temporary bridge built in Okinawa Prefecture after a footpath
on the pedestrian bridge was paved. This paper reports the results of these tests.
2. Structure of the FRP pedestrian bridge
The appearance of the GFRP pedestrian bridge is shown in Figure 1. The
general bridge arrangement and the cross section of the FRP pedestrian bridge are
shown in Figure 2. In Figure 1, the pedestrian bridge is viewed from the side of
Okinawa's main island toward Ikei Island; the left supporting point is P1, the right
supporting point is P3, and the central bridge footing is P2. These points correspond
to the same points on the general bridge arrangement shown at the left in Figure 2.
As is apparent from these figures, the pedestrian bridge is secured at the central
bridge footing.
Repairing of structures 37
Concerning the cross-sectional structure of the pedestrian bridge, both main
girders that have a channel cross-section are main structural members, as shown at
the right in Figure 2. A truss structure under the deck is joined to these main girders.
The main girder is of a three-part structure. One girder is joined to another girder
using joints at positions 4,650 mm to the right and left of the central bridge footing.
Figure 1. Land view of the GFRP pedestrian bridge
Figure 2. Side (left) and cross section (right) views (unit: mm)
38 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
3. Static loading test
3.1. Test method
Before a footpath on the pedestrian bridge was paved, a static loading test was
conducted to verify the rigidity of the main girders. Details of the test setup are
shown in Figure 3. The cross section of the main girder as well as how a load was
applied to the main girder are shown in Figure 4. In the work yard of Sunamachi's
Steel Structure Division, a static loading test was conducted on the pedestrian
bridge having no tile pavement on the deck slab.
(Note) F1 : Loading position in P1-P2 side (Load : 46.52kN {4744kgf})
F2 : Loading position in P2-P3 side (Load : 45.74kN {4664kgf} )
v-l~v-6 : Measurement positions for the deflection of main girder
Figure 3. Schematic view of the static loading test (unit: mm)
The deflection of the main girder was measured at six points (v-1 through v-6 in
Figure 3) and the longitudinal strain on the flange below the main girder was also
measured at twelve points. To measure deflection, a dial gauge that can measure 30
mm maximum was used. To measure strain, a two-axis strain gauge with a gauge
length of 10 mm (KFG-10-120D16-11 L30M3S, made by Kyowa Dengyo Co.,
Ltd.) was used.
Repairing of structures 39
Figure 4. Static loading test apparatus
(left: cross section of main girders, right: loading conditions)
A weight was placed on two H-steels to prevent a load from concentrating on
the deck slab and damaging it, as shown in Figure 4. H-steels were placed on the
brace of the truss structure under the deck. A load was applied to one point (Fl) on
the P1-P2 side and to one point (F2) on the P2-P3 side, as shown in Figure 3. The
load values are also shown in the figure. With a load applied to these two points, the
deflection of the main girder and the longitudinal strain on the flange of the main
girder were measured.
3.2. Results of the static loading test and observation
The results of the static loading test are shown in Table 1. In this table,
theoretical values and measured values are shown for comparison regarding the
deflection of the main girder and the longitudinal strain on the flange of the main
girder. A distance from the supporting point P1 at the left of the pedestrian bridge is
also shown (see Figure 3).
In calculating theoretical deflection values, the main girder was regarded as a
beam having a channel cross-section, and the deflection caused by the shearing of
the web was added to the deflection caused by the bending of the main girder. In
calculating the deflection caused by the bending of the main girder, the equivalent
modulus of the overall main girder, E (= 14.8 GPa {1510 kgf/mm
2
}), was
calculated using the equation shown below since the elastic modulus of the main
girder in the longitudinal direction is different from that of the web in the same
direction.
40 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
E
F
: Elastic modulus in tension when longitudinal strain is applied to the flange of
the main girder
The measured value is 15.2 GPa {1550 kgf/mm
2
}
E
w
: Elastic modulus in tension when longitudinal strain is applied to the web
The measured value is 13.3 GPa {1360 kgf/mm
2
}
I
F
: Moment of inertia of area at the flange 3.34 x 10
10
mm
4
I
w
: Moment of inertia of area of the web 8.95 x 10
9
mm
4
I: Moment of inertia of area of the overall main girder 4.24 x 10
10
mm
4
In calculating the deflection caused by the shearing of the web, the shear
modulus of the web measured during the test (G\v
=
2.8 GPa {286 kgf/mm
2
}) was
used. As a cross-sectional area, a cross section of the web alone was considered.
Theoretical values of longitudinal strain on the flange below the main girder
were calculated based on the bending moment at each point from the left supporting
point P1, assuming that a distance from a neutral axis of bending to the outside
surface of the flange is half the main girder's height 1600 mm.
The results shown in Table 1 indicate that not only deflection in bending but
also deflection in shearing must be taken into consideration. As shown in Figure 3,
some biased cloth layers were added to stacking sequence to supplement the shear
rigidity of the web of the main girder. Judging from the results of a static loading
test, it is presumed that more biased cloth layers should have been used. Because
the strength of the flange against longitudinal flexural stress must be considered at
the same time, simply increasing the number of biased cloth layers may not produce
good results. We need to make further improvements by making good use of this
experience.
Concerning the longitudinal strain on the flange below the main girder,
theoretical values are nearly equal to measured values at some points while
measured values are lower than theoretical values at other points; the results vary
widely. Because the main girder was made in the hand lay-up process, the actual
flange is thicker than a flange that was designed with a uniform thickness of 35 mm,
as shown in Figure 2. The thickness of the actual flange also varies more toward the
longitudinal direction. This is thought to be the cause of the difference between
theoretical and measured values. Overall, measured values are smaller than
theoretical values and therefore it is concluded that there is no problem with the
rigidity of the main girders of the pedestrian bridge.
Table 1 Results of the static hading test
Distance from the left pier P1 (mm)
Theoretical deflection value (mm)
Bending
Shear
Total
Measured deflection value (mm)
Longtudinal strain on the lower
flang of main girder (u mm)
Theoretical
Measuted
Distance from the left pier P1 (mm)
Theoretical deflection value (mm)
Bending
Shear
Total
Measured deflection value (mm)
Longtudinal strain on the lower
flange of mail girder (u mm)
Theoretical
Measured
4537
-
-
-
-
78
53
22 827
(Joint)

-
-
-
-81
•32
4919
(v-1)
4.02
0.77
4.80
5.70
-
-
23727
(Joint)
-

-
-
-46
-3
9838
(v-2)
5.49
1.55
7.04
5.74
-
23 982
(v-4)
1.07
1.54
2.61
2.33
-
-
10527

-
-
-
181
88
24 927
(Joint)
-
-
-
-
1
4
13527
(Joint)

-

-
54
44
25 827
(Joint)
• -

-
-
37
32
14 427
(Joint)

-
-

17
18
28288
(v-5)
2.97
3.09
6.06
3.72
-

14757
(v-3)
2.78
1.89
4.68
3.81
-
28827

-
-
-
154
75
15627
(Joint)

-
-
-
-34
-4
32594
(v-6)
2.44
0.75
3,19
2.62
-
-
16527
(Joint)

-

-
-72
-29
33327
-
-
-
-
68
42
(Note) 1 : Plus value of deflection represents the downward one.
2 : Plus and minus values of longtudinal strains represent tensile and compressive strains respectively.
42 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
4. Natural frequency test
4.1. Test method
Because it was decided that the FRP pedestrian bridge be first built and then its
footpath be paved, a natural frequency test was conducted on-site in Okinawa
Prefecture to verify the primary natural frequency. Details of the test setup are
shown in Figure 5. How a natural frequency test was conducted is shown in Figure
6. As acceleration sensors, a servo-type, low-frequency vibroscope (AVL-25A,
Akashi Co., Ltd.) and a detector (V401BR, Akashi Co., Ltd.) were used. The setting
of these acceleration sensors is shown in Figure 6; after aluminum foils were
affixed to the tile pavement, the acceleration sensors were set and secured using an
instant adhesive. As shown in Figure 5, the acceleration sensors were set at nine
points in the longitudinal direction of the pedestrian bridge and vibration was
applied to six points (@, CD, ®, ©, (2), and ®). Measurement was made and data
was collected at these six points. To cause vibration, a man jumped on each point,
as shown in Figure 6, and measurement was made three times at each of these six
positions.
® ~ ® Accelerometer installation positions
Figure 5. Schematic view of the natural frequency test (unit: mm)
Repairing of structures 43
Figure 6. Natural frequency test apparatus
(left: loading by the jumping, right: setup of acceleration sensors).
4.2. Test results and observation
The result of spectrum analysis based on data collected at points © is shown in
Figure 7. The first peak value appeared at a frequency of 4.60 Hz.
Assuming that the pedestrian bridge is a simple beam having one cross section,
primary and secondary natural frequencies can be calculated theoretically (Japanese
Society of Mechanical Engineers). Providing that the rigidity of a beam is El, the
mass per unit length is p and the length of a beam is L. The natural frequency f
when a beam vibrates in a traverse direction can be expressed, using the equation
[2]:
Here, A, is a coefficient and a combination of fixed support and simple support
techniques are used at ends of a beam. In this setup, the primary frequency is A,
=3.927 and the secondary frequency is A, =7.069. The length L is 19.677 m on the
P1-P2 side and it is 17.223 m on the P2-P3 side.
If El is defined as the design rigidity of a main girder (E =11.8 GPa {1200
kgf7mm
2
}) and p is defined as the actual measured weight, natural frequencies on
the P1-P2 and P2-P3 sides are as follows:
P1-P2 side - primary: 4.58 Hz, secondary: 14.84 Hz
P2-P3 side - primary: 5.98 Hz, secondary: 19.38 Hz
After this result is examined relative to the results shown in Figure 7, the
primary natural frequency of the pedestrian bridge should be about 4.6 Hz. A peak
value that appeared at 6.45 Hz in Figure 7 is considered to be equivalent to the
primary natural frequency on the P2-P3 side.
44 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
To ensure that people feel secure when walking on a pedestrian bridge, it must
be designed so that its primary natural frequency is controlled well below
approximately 2 Hz (1.5 to 2.3 Hz) (Japan Society of Roads & Highways 1981). It
is concluded from the results of the static loading test conducted that people can feel
safe and secure when walking on the GFRP pedestrian bridge being discussed in
this paper.
Figure 7. An example of the results on spectrum analysis
5. Conclusions
In developing the GFRP pedestrian bridge, a static loading test was conducted
before its footpath was paved and a natural frequency measurement test was
conducted after its footpath was paved. We found from the results of the static
loading test that both the flexural rigidity of the flange and the shear rigidity of the
web must be taken into consideration to make proper rigidity design for the main
girder and that the longitudinal strain on the flange below the main girder
constitutes no problem because measured values are mostly smaller than theoretical
values. We also verified from the results of a natural frequency measurement test
that the primary natural frequency of the pedestrian bridge is about 4.6 Hz and that
4.6 Hz is not the level of frequency that makes people feel unsafe (1.5 to 2.3 Hz)
when walking on it.
Repairing of structures 45
Acknowledgments
The authors would like to thank to the cooperation and advice of the staff of
Asahi Glass Matex Co,, Ltd for completing this work. We would like to extend our
sincere appreciation to Mr. Nayomon Uno, the chief engineer, and Mr. Nobuhiko
Kitayama, the staff engineer, at the Bridge & Road Construction Division, also to
the staff of the Structure & Strength Department at the Research Laboratory, and the
staff at the Instrumentation System Group of Ishikawajima Inspection &
Instrumentation Co., Ltd.
References
Chou I., Kamada K., Saeki S., Yamashiro K., "Experimental Evaluation on the Rigidity of
Main Girders and the Natural Vibration Frequency in FRP Pedestrian Bridge", IH I
E ngineering Review, vol.34, no.4, Oct. 2001 a, p. 101-105.
Chou I., Kamada K., Saeki S., Yamashiro K., "Experimental Evaluation on Joints in FRP
Pedestrian Bridge", IH I E ngineering Review, vol.34, no.4, Oct. 2001 b, p. 110-113.
Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers. Mechanical E ngineers' H andbook, A3 Mechanics
and Mechanical Vibrations (in Japanese).
Japan Society of Roads & Highways, Specifications for Pedestrian B ridges, 1981 (in
Japanese).
Kitayama N., Saeki S., Yamashiro K., "Schema of FRP Pedestrian Bridge Constructed in
Okinawa Prefecture", Proceedings of the 55
th
Annual Conference of the Japan Society of
Civil E ngineers, I-A, no.230, Sept. 2000 (in Japanese).
Mutsuyoshi H., "Application of FRP for Construction Structures", Journal of Japan Society
for Composite Materials, vol.18, no.3, May 1992, p.95-101 (in Japanese).
Nonaka K., "Zoom Up Bridge - Construction of FRP Pedestrian Bridge in Ikei-Tairagawa
Route (Okinawa Prefecture) - The First Application of Plastics for Main Structures",
Nikkei Construction April 28
th
, 2000, p.28-32 (in Japanese).
Sangyo Shizai Shinbun Co., The E ngineering Plastic Journal, no.712, June 2000 (in
Japanese).
Sasaki I., "Application of FRP for Main Structures of Pedestrian Bridge", Civil E ngineering
Letters, vol.38, no. 11, Nov. 1996, p.4-5 (in Japanese).
Yamamoto N., Chou I., Saeki S., Yamashiro K., "Analytical Evaluation on the Joint Structure
of the Main Girder in FRP Pedestrian Bridge", IH I E ngineering Review, vol.34, no.4,
Oct. 2001, p. 106-109.
This page intentionally left blank
Analysis of the Efficiency of Composites in
Improving Serviceability of Damaged
Reinforced Concrete Structures
Stephane Avril* — Alain Vautrin* — Patrice Hamelin — Yves
Surref**
* SMS/MeM, E cole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint E tienne, 158 Cours
Fauriel, 42023 Saint E tienne Cedex 2, France.
avril@emse.fr
vautrin@emse.fr
** L2M, Universite Claude B ernard Lyon I, 43 boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918,
69622 Villeurbanne Cedex, France.
hamelin@iutal2m. univ-lyonJ.fr
*** B NM-1NM/CNAM, 292 rue Saint Martin, 75141 Paris, France.
surrel@cnam.fr
AB STRACT: The mechanical behaviour of Steel-Reinforced-Concrete beams strengthened with
CFRP laminates bonded on the soffit is addressed. The displacement fields over the lateral
surface of the tested beams are measured with a grid method. It is shown that the behaviour
at the global scale is well assessed by the beam theory of B ernoulli. It permits to calculate the
average longitudinal strains in each component just from the curvature and the position of the
neutral axis. The displacement fields are also utilized to locate cracks and to measure their
widths. The method is applied to compare cracking in a damaged concrete beam before and
after bonding a composite laminate. It leads to an interesting characterization of crack
bridging induced by the repair and it proves that the serviceability has been enhanced.
KE Y W O RDS: reinforced concrete, repair with composites, crack bridging, optical method.
48 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
1. Introduction
Strengthening or repairing degraded Steel-Reinforced Concrete (RC) structures
with Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymers (CFRP) is nowadays gaining an increasing
success. The technique is well established practically and several commercial
processes are available all over the world (Ferrier 1999). On the other hand,
universal design guidelines are not yet available even if most of the task groups
[AFGC 2001] emphasize the need for special requirements to utilize these materials
in the field of civil engineering.
Rehabilitation of concrete can be related either to failure considerations or to
serviceability considerations. The latter is addressed here. Under service loads,
stresses should be limited to prevent the yielding of steel re-bars. Besides, wide
cracks may be harmful to internal steel (corrosion). According to several authors
(Triantafilou et al., 1992, Raoof et al., 1997), damage mechanisms near the cracks,
occurring before yielding of the steel, can also be responsible for the debonding of
the laminate.
General results on the behaviour of strengthened or repaired beams listed in the
literature (Quantrill et al., 1998, Mukhopadhyaya, 1999) show an increase in the
stiffness, a reduction of tensile strains in concrete, a delayed appearance of concrete
cracks and a narrower crack spacing. However, serviceability analyses are currently
mainly qualitative. Models involving tension stiffening or crack bridging are scarce.
Refined experimental studies are still necessary to understand local phenomena and
their influence onto the global behaviour of the structure.
The present study focuses on this problem. The grid method (Surrel, 1994) is
used to obtain global and local information on the mechanical behaviour under
service loads of cracked RC beams repaired with composites.
2. Experimental procedure
2.1. Specimens
The tested specimens are small-scale beams for more convenience and test
facilities. Their design is governed by the similitude theory which leads to the
different scale factors to be used with respect to the real-scale reference model.
These factors are obtained on the basis of a dimensional study (Ovigne et al., 2000).
The basic scale factor for lengths is 1/3.
Repairing of structures 49
Steel bars and stirrups dimensions (Figure 1) as well as aggregate size and
granulometry of the micro-concrete are also controlled to match the reference values
multiplied by the scale factors.
The real-scale model is a 2000x250x150 mm reinforced concrete beam designed
to fail in flexure by steel yielding and concrete crushing.
Figure 1. Details of the specimens and experimental set-up
2.2. Testing program on RC beams
A four-point bending test is carried out on five reinforced concrete beams whose
internal structure has been described (Figure 1). The main objectives of this first test
are:
- to create tensile cracks in order to simulate the degradation,
- to characterize the mechanical behaviour of cracked beams before
strengthening.
Each test is stopped at 60% of the load corresponding to the rebars yielding.
Then, the beams are unloaded. A second bending test is carried out directly up to
failure on one of the precracked beams. This beam is used as the reference
unstrengthened beam.
The other four, out of the five pre-cracked beams, are repaired with a composite
laminate bonded on the bottom surface. The bonded CFRP laminate is made of a
unidirectional high modulus carbon fibres taffetas (330 g/m
2
reference Hexcel
46320) and epoxy resin (Ciba LY 5052). It is directly polymerised on the specimen,
the first epoxy resin layer working as the bonding joint. The thickness of the
bonding joint is 0.4 mm and the thickness of the composite is 0.4 mm. A tensile test
carried out on such a laminate provides a Young modulus of 55 000 MPa.
50 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
After polymerisation, the repaired beams are loaded in flexure up to the steel re-
bar yielding load. The bending test and instrumentation are the same as the one used
in the case of unstrengmened beams.
2.3. Instrumentation
Each beam is instrumented with a 145-mm-long Mecanorma Normatex 3135 bi-
directional grid on a lateral surface over the constant moment span (Figure 1).
A grid is a set of parallel black lines drawn over a white surface. The process to
put it on the surface is very simple : the grids are directly deposited by transfer. A
bi-directional grid is then the superposition of two perpendicular unidirectional
grids. The only requirement to fulfill is that the grid is integral with the specimen.
In-plane displacements of the surface can be deduced from the deformation of
the grid lines (Surrel 1994). Several papers have already been published on this
method and the good setting of the parameters of it. Previous studies have conducted
to the validation for its application to concrete structures (Avril et al., 2001).
In our experiments, the grid pitch, i.e. the distance between two contiguous lines,
is 571 um. We use a numeric BASLER A113 CCD sensor with 1200x1200 pixels
connected to a PC in order to grab the images. The displacement computation is
performed with an in-house software called Frangyne2000.
The resolution of the measurement, i.e. the smallest displacement we are capable
to measure, is about 2 or 3 um, depending on the quality of the grid transfer. The
spatial resolution (Surrel 1999), i.e. the length of an individual sensor, is 1.2 mm.
3. Results
3.1. General aspect
Examples of displacement fields have been plotted in Figure 2a and 2b. These
displacements are similar whether the beam has been repaired or not. In particular,
discontinuities of u
x
field are always linked to the presence of a crack, as it was
shown in a previous study (Avril et al., 2002-1).
It can be noticed that the cracks never propagate beyond a certain height, which
is actually the location of the neutral axis of the beam. Once the neutral axis has
been determined, the field can always be divided into two main areas:
- above the neutral axis, the compressive area governed by the mechanics of
continuous media.
Repairing of structures 51
- below, the tensile area where the material is discontinuous and the mechanical
behavior is mainly controlled by crack opening mechanisms.
The main effects of the composite are analysed in the following sections,
focusing firstly on the global curvature, then on strains and finally on crack growth
and opening in the tensile area.
Figure 2a. E xample of an experimental u
x
field.
Figure 2b. E xample of an experimental u
y
field.
52 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
Figure 3a. Localisation of pixels where the absolute deviation of u
x
experimental
field from the beam model is less than 2 um for an unstrengthened RC
beam.
Figure 3b. Localisation of pixels where the absolute deviation of u
x
experimental
field from the beam model is less than 2 um for a strengthened RC
beam.
3.2. Global behaviour
At any step of loading, the actual beam is modelled by an equivalent continuous
and homogenous beam verifying the theory of Bernoulli. The displacement fields of
the modelled beam are only governed by two parameters: the curvature x and the
neutral axis position Z. The equations of beams lead to:
Repairing of structures 53
where: u
x
(x,y) is the modelled horizontal displacement field, u
y
(x,y) is the modelled
vertical displacement field, R
0
is the local rotation at the origin, u
x0
is the horizontal
displacement at the origin - u
x0
= u
x
(0,0) - and u
y0
is the vertical displacement at the
origin - u
y0
= u
y
(0,0).
All the parameters are identified from the experimental fields in the compressive
area. The purpose is to compare experimental and modelled fields. The comparison
is made for u
x
field by plotting locations where the modelled and the experimental
field u
x
are equal (Figure 3a and Figure 3b). The following criterion is used : at one
pixel, if the absolute difference between the experimental and the modelled
displacement is less than 2 um, then the pixel is black, else it is white. A cut off
value of ±2 um has been chosen because it is the resolution of the optical method.
It can be noticed that most of pixels in the compressive area respect the criterion,
both before and after repair (Figure 3). It means that the mechanics of this part of the
beam is not modified drastically by the composite effect and also that it is well
suited to the identification of the global curvature x. Only the stiffness is slightly
increased. For example, by investigating the moment / curvature diagram, one can
notice that for the same global curvature, the applied bending moment curvature is
increased (Figure 4).
3.3. Semi-global behaviour
In the tensile area, some rare locations are detected where the modelled and the
experimental field are similar. They are mostly concentrated in narrow strips aligned
perpendicularly to the length of the beam (Figure 3). The cross sections located in
these strips are the only ones to remain plane (even if only the surface displacement
is measured, it is assumed that the whole cross section remains plane : the internal
behaviour will be discussed further). The trends of u
x
(x , y=y
cs
) is linear in the
vicinity of the located strips, meaning that only the cross section at the middle of
each strip can be considered as remaining plane.
In the tensile area, the modelled longitudinal strain has no physical significance
for concrete, because stretching is rather an accumulation of crack widths than a real
material straining. Thus it is quite natural that only a few cross sections remain plane
after bending, since deformation modes are really different from the top to the
bottom of the beam. However, the existence of several plane sections observed
experimentally shows that the behaviour is globally similar to the one of a classical
beam.
As a matter of fact, at any cross section where there is no compatibility between
the displacement of the cover concrete and the displacement of the reinforcement,
sliding induces a shear transfer. Tensile and shear strains result in concrete. It proves
that at any cross section where there is concordance between experimental data and
the model, the sliding of reinforcements must be zero. Accordingly, the average
54 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
longitudinal strain, over the distance separating two contiguous cross sections
among the only ones to remain plane, is equal to the modelled longitudinal strain at
the same height.
Therefore, the following formula can be used for concrete in compression and
steel:
On the other hand, the average longitudinal strain over the composite is less
because of the residual strain when it was bonded:
Figure 4. Moment / curvature diagram for one tested beam
Repairing of structures 55
Figure 5. Stages of cracking in a RC beam repaired with composites.
3.4. Local behaviour
The longitudinal displacement field is utilized for crack visualisation and
characterisation (Avril et al., 2002-2). The results obtained for unrepaired and
repaired beams are quite different (Figure 5). This is the consequence of the
occurrence of two types of new cracks:
- most of them are oblique shear cracks : they do not propagate up to the neutral
axis but they are deflected towards the neighbouring pre-existing crack at the level
of the internal re-bars. They are called tributary cracks.
- a few are vertical and appear halfway between two pre-existing contiguous
cracks. They are not deviated in their propagation towards the neutral axis. They
may result of tensile stresses in the concrete induced by the action of crack bridging
of the composite laminate.
56 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
The creation of new cracks, especially tributary ones, is a phenomenon specific
to repaired beams. No new cracks are detected when the reference unrepaired beam
is loaded up to failure.
Thus, the tensile strain e
xx
(y
cs
) of the modelled beam corresponds in the tensile
area to the accumulation of two types of crack widths : large ones for pre-existing
cracks and smaller ones for the new ones (Figure 5). Crack width can be linked to
the global curvature by the following formula:
where: W(y
cs
) is the width of a vertical crack at the height y
cs
, D is the distance
separating the two localised plane sections which surround the investigated crack
(Figure 4), Q(y
cs
) is homogeneous to a strain: it takes into account either the
contribution of real straining of concrete before the creation of tributary cracks, or
the contribution of the new cracks opening. It results from the crack bridging by the
composite laminate, phenomenon that is mostly effective near the soffit.
It is worth noting the main difference between unrepaired and repaired beams
lies in Q(y
cs
). For steel-reinforced concrete beams, Q(y
cv
) is about zero. On the other
hand, for repaired beams, Q(y
cs
) can represent 20% of the modelled equivalent strain
e
xx(y
cs
)- However, when y
cs
is above the position of steel rebars, e
xx
(y
cs
) is negligible:
the contribution of Q(y
cs
) is mainly concentrated in the cover concrete.
4. Discussion
The objective is here to characterize the range of serviceability improvement
induced by bonding composite laminates. Two points are addressed:
- the stresses in concrete and steel,
- the maximum width of cracks.
The stresses in concrete and steel are derived from the strains multiplied by the
respective modulus. The strains in both materials are assessed directly from the
modelled beam, because the experimental results have proved that the modelled
strains and the experimental strains are similar in average. Finally, stresses are
proportional to the curvature x such as:
Repairing of structures 57
where o
s
is the steel stress, o
c
is the maximum concrete stress, E
s
the Young
modulus of steel, E
c
the Young modulus of concrete, d is the distance from the soffit
up to the steel rebars location and h is the height of the beam.
The maximum width of cracks is given by Equation [5]. It is thus generally
inferior to xDZ for a repaired beam because of tributary cracks. Moreover, D may be
lower for a repaired beam than for an unrepaired one because of new crack
occurrence. However, for simplicity purpose, we can keep xDZ as an upper limit for
crack widths in a repaired beam. Like the stresses, the crack width upper limit is also
proportional to the curvature x.
Therefore, a relevant criterion for characterizing serviceability improvement
induced by CFRP reinforcement is the loading increase that the structure can sustain
after repair for a given curvature. The rate is 10% for a curvature of 0.045 m
-1
in the
example plotted in Figure 4. This means that if the loading is increased of 10% after
repair, crack maximum widths will not be affected just thanks to the strengthening
effect. It is quite important since wide cracks may be harmful with regard to
penetration of moisture, salt or oxygen and then induce steel corrosion. Furthermore,
the stiffening effect is also significant with regard to stresses and may increase the
fatigue strength of the whole structure. Finally, it shows that the durability of a beam
can be increased by bonding a composite plate on its soffit.
However, this study is only a preliminary study and two points should be
examined more carefully:
- the behaviour of the structure is strongly non-linear, because of internal friction
between steel and concrete. Moreover, the loading of a real construction includes for
the most part its own weight. Both statement have consequences on the stiffening
effect of the external reinforcement.
- the mechanical properties of composites and adhesives are time-dependent.
Their damage or ageing may reduce the stiffening rate and annihilate the durability
enhancement (Ferrier 1999).
The former point is addressed here (Figure 4). It can be noticed that the curvature
diminution at a given moment is mainly dependent of the residual curvature
remaining after unloading. The stiffening effect could be improved if the residual
curvature was reduced, provided that the slope after strengthening was not changed.
Finally, the current results highlight the strong dependence of strengthening on
the history of the damaged structure. This dependence is being characterised
presently in our laboratory in order to supply relevant guidelines for the design of
flexural repairs with composites.
58 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
5. Conclusion
Five RC beams have been investigated. They have been cracked in order to
simulate service conditions of life of a real structure, and then strengthened with a
CFRP laminate bonded on the bottom surface.
Every beam has been equipped with grids over the lateral surface in the midspan
area. An in-house developed optical method, called the grid method, has been
utilized to extract displacement fields from the grid deformation. The analysis of
displacements fields has led to the main following conclusions:
- the grid method reveals to be well adapted for the study of cracks. The crack
width is measured accurately by calculating the height of discontinuities over the
field. A comparison between repaired and unrepaired beams shows that the effect of
rehabilitation by CFRP laminates is a significant reduction of crack widths.
- the detection of plane sections proves that the repair do not modify drastically
the behaviour of the structure. The parameters of an equivalent homogenous beam
can be identified, meaning that a beam of Bernoulli is still relevant to model the
mechanical behaviour of the repaired cracked structure.
- the moment/curvature curve of the identified modelled beam is complex. The
main effect of the strengthening is a slight stiffening. However, the effectiveness of
the stiffening effect strongly depends of the loading history of the damaged
structure.
This study has provided a first insight in composite potentiality for improving
serviceability and durability of constructions and buildings. The objective is now to
validate the results on full-scale specimens.
Acknowledgement
We are grateful to the "Region RH O NE -ALPE S" for its financial support to our
research work within the framework of the regional project: "rehabilitation of civil
engineering structures with composite materials: modelling of repaired cracked
beams".
6. References
AFGC, "Repair and strengthening of concrete structures by means of composite materials
with organic matrix", in: comptes rendus de l'Association Fransaise de Genie Civil,
Recommendations of the first task group concerning materials testing and manufacturing.
Repairing of structures 59
Avril S., Ferrier E., Hamelin P., Surrel Y., Vautrin A., "Reinforced Concrete Beams by
Composite Materials : Optical Method for Evaluation", proceedings of the International
Conference on FRP Composites in Civil E ngineering, CICE 2001, Ed. J.G. Teng,
Elsevier, 2001, Vol. 1, p.449-456.
Avril S., Vautrin A., Hamelin P., "Mechanical behaviour of cracked beams strengthened with
composites: application of a full-field measurement method", Concrete Science and
E ngineering, submitted January 2002.
Avril S., Vautrin A., Surrel Y., "Grid Method, Application to the characterization of cracks",
E xperimental Mechanics, submitted March 2002.
Ferrier E., "Composite-concrete interface behaviour under thermo-stimulated creep and
fatigue loading. Application to estimated calculation of RC beam durability", Doctoral
thesis UCB Lyon I, 1999.
Mukhopadhyaya P., Swamy R.N, "Debonding of carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer plate from
concrete beams", Proc. Inst. Civ. E ngrs., Structs. & B ldgs, vol.134: p.301-317,1999.
Ovigne P.A., Massenzio F., Hamelin P., "Mechanical behavior of small scale reinforced
concrete beams externally strengthened by CFRP laminates in the static and dynamic
domains", Proceedings of the 3
rd
International Conference on Advanced Composite
Materials in B ridges and Structures, Ottawa, 2000.
Quantrill R. J., Hollaway L.C., "The flexural rehabilitation of reinforced concrete beams by
the use of pre-stressed advanced composite plates", Composite Science and Technology,
vol.58: p. 1259-1275, 1998.
Raoof M., Zhang S., "An insight into the structural behavior of reinforced concrete beams
with externally bonded plates", Proc. Inst. Civ. E ngrs., Structs. & B ldgs, vol.122: p.477-
492, 1997.
Surrel Y., "Moire and grid methods in optics : a signal-processing approach", proceedings of
SPIE , vol.2342: p.213-220,1994.
Surrel Y., "Fringe Analysis", in Photomechanics, pp. 57-104, P.K. Rastogi Ed., Springer,
1999.
Triantafillou T.C., Plevris N., "Strengthening of RC beams with epoxy-bonded fiber-
composite materials", Mater. Struct, vol.25: p.201-211, 1992.
This page intentionally left blank
Applications of Retrofit and Repair using
Carbon Fibers
Kohzo Kimura — Hideo Katsumata
O B AYASH l Corporation Technical Research Institute, Tokyo, Japan
k.kimura@o-net.obayashi.co.jp
KATUMATA @o-net.obayashi.co.jp
AB STRACT. O boyashi Corporation has been studying application techniques using carbon fiber
since 1985. In the civil engineering of Japan, fiber reinforced plastics have been used for the
retrofit and repair of structures after the H ansin-Awaji earthquake in 1995. In this paper, the
summary of the retrofit techniques developed by O bayashi Corporation, called"Carbon fiber
Retrofitting System (CRS)" and "Torayca laminate system", and some applications using
these techniques are described.
KE Y W O RDS :: carbon fiber, CFRP laminate, retrofitting, repair, concrete structure
1. Introduction
Research and development of the concrete structures using the reinforcements
consist of high-strength fibers have been underway since the early of 1980's in
Japan. In 1986, the concrete curtain wall, pre-cast concrete outer panel mixed
chopped carbon fiber, was installed, and a pre-stressed concrete bridge using carbon
fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) for the pre-stressed strand was constructed in
Ishikawa prefecture in 1988 (Kimura et al., 2000).
In the civil engineering of Japan, fiber reinforced plastics (FRP) reinforcements
are mainly used for three objects, because of high-strength, light-weight and non-
corrosion. The first is on behalf of the conventional reinforcement bar and the
strand. The second is the retrofit material for existing concrete structures. The
demand of the carbon and the aramid fiber sheets for this use has been increased
year by year since 1995, after the Hansin-Awaji earthquake. The last is on behalf of
the steel members such as the steel pipe and the shape steel.
Since 1985, Obayashi Corporation has been studying application techniques of
carbon fiber (CF), including several cooperative studies with material manufactures
(Katsumata et al., 1988, 1996, Kobatake et al., 1993, Hagio et al., 1998). For
62 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
retrofitting and repair of existing reinforced concrete structures, we use three types
of carbon fiber products, those are CF strand, CF sheet and carbon fiber reinforced
plastics (CFRP) laminate. The retrofitting and repair techniques using these products
are the following three;
- Shear retrofitting by CF strands winding or CF sheets wrapping (Figure 1)
- Flexural retrofitting by CF sheets gluing or CFRP laminates bonding (Figure 2)
- Combination of the above two techniques
In this paper, the summary of applications of retrofit and repair using CF
developed by Obayashi Corporation are described.
Figure 1. Shear retrofitting by CF strands winding or CF sheets wrapping
gluing of CF sheets bonding of CFRP laminates
Figure 2. Flexural retrofitting by CF sheets gluing or CFRP laminates bonding
Repairing of structures 63
2. Seismic retrofitting method of existing concrete structures
2.1. Retrofitting of concrete column (Katsumata et al., 1988, 1996)
Some existing reinforced concrete columns do not have enough shear strength
and ductility against a several earthquake shock. We have developed a new seismic
retrofitting method using carbon fiber called "Carbon fiber Retrofitting System
(CRS)" in collaboration with Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation (Figure 1). In
procedure, carbon fiber strands consists of 12,000 monofilaments or carbon fiber
sheets are wound onto the surface of the existing columns. The carbon fiber strand
passes through resin bath filled epoxy resin and is winding around the concrete
structure. And carbon fiber sheet are placed by hand with the adhesive on the
concrete surface in the transverse direction.
This technique improves the earthquake-resistant capacity of the columns as
follows:
- Increase in shear strength
- Improvement of ductility
- Increase in compressive capacity
This method has the following advantages, comparing with the current methods.
- It is easy to provide required shear and ductile capacities.
- Retrofit works do not influence the stiffness of the retrofitted columns.
- It is possible to minimize increase in weight accompanied with retrofitting.
-There is no need of skillful workers in construction.
- It is easy to control the quality of construction.
The winding work of CF strand is carried out using an automatic winding
machine shown in Figure 3 in order to save labor and cost. This machine is also
applicable for retrofitting of bride columns.
Figure 3. CF strand winding machine
64 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
The carbon fiber winding machine consists of major four parts as shown below.
- Supporting wheel (lower ring) suspended by the suspending-chain and moved
up and down
- Rotating wheel (upper ring) coupled with the supporting wheel and rotated
with the epoxy resin impregnation unit.
- Suspending chain to suspend the supporting wheel from the ceiling.
- Epoxy resin impregnation unit to impregnate epoxy resin with the carbon
fiber.
Application: Osaka Castle (Katsumata et al., 2001)
Osaka Castle is one of the most famous historical buildings in Japan (Figure 4).
The building age is over 70, so many parts were damaged. The structural evaluation
also revealed that the building was not strong against the considerable maximum
earthquakes in future. Thus, the building was retrofitted, including structural
strengthening.
"The Carbon fiber Retrofitting System" was applied for short columns. CF sheet
are placed and glued by hand with impregnating epoxy resin (Figure 5). Cure for
FRP fabrication is carried out on site. However, for long columns, CF strand
winding is applied because CF winding is superior on work speed and quality
control and suitable for large-scaled applications. CF winding employs a winding
machine shown Figure 3 and CF strand supplies toward the column, impregnating
epoxy resin and rotating around the column.
Figure 4. O saka Castle Figure 5. Column reinforced by CF sheets
Repairing of structures 65
2.2. Retrofitting of concrete chimney (Kobatake et al., 1993)
Some of existing reinforced concrete chimneys in Japan have often damaged
and sometimes broken at the height of 2/3 or more of the total height when a large
earthquake attacked. This is because the previous design regulations did not
demand enough flexural strength in the top part of chimneys. Longitudinal
reinforcement should be performed for seismic retrofitting.
In 1987, Obayashi Corporation have developed in collaboration with
Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation a retrofitting method for increasing flexural
capacity of existing chimneys. The method employs CF sheets to longitudinally
glue onto the concrete surface in order to provide flexural capacity needed for
chimneys. It also employs CF strands to transversely wind on the outside of the
glued CF sheets in order to confirm the bond between the CF sheet and the
concrete surface and to prevent concrete from crack by the thermal stress owing to
smoke exhaustion. A special lift scaffold was developed for the retrofit works
(Figure.6, Figure 7).
This method overcomes the difficulties arising from the current retrofitting
methods. The technical merits are summarized as follows.
- The operation of the chimney is not disturbed because the outside of the chimney
is retrofitted.
- Increase in weight accompanied with retrofitting is negligibly small because CF
sheets, which are very light weight, are glued with epoxy adhesive.
- High retrofitting effect is obtained and the cost of retrofitting is reduced.
- The durability of concrete is improved because the CF sheets cover the outside of
the concrete surface and isolate from corrosive gas, acid rain and sea water spray.
In 1991, Japan Building Disaster Prevention Association made a technical
evaluation for this retrofitting technique. The evaluation of this association means
that the high technical significance of this CF gluing technique is publicly
authorized. Obayashi Corporation has already retrofitted over 55 chimneys for 10
years from 1991 to 2001.
For another application, as shown in Figure 8, a Japanese shrine gate "Torii" was
repaired using CF sheets.
66 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
Figure 6. Scaffold lift for field work Figure 8. Repair of "Torii'
Gluing of CF sheet Winding of CF strand
Figure 7. Sates of the retrofitting on chimney
3. Retrofit and repair method for existing beam and slab (Hagio et al., 1998)
The retrofit and repair method against flexural force using CFRP laminate has
developed by Obayashi, Toray and Sika Japan in 1996. This method is called
"Torayca laminate system". "Torayca" is a registered trademark of high performance
carbon fiber manufactured by Toray.
Repairing of structures 67
3.1. Material
The CFRP laminate shown in Figure 8 consists of high strength and high
modulus carbon fiber in an epoxy-based thermoset matrix and has 50mm width and
three kinds of thickness, 1.0mm, 1.5mm and 2.0mm. The carbon fibers in the
laminate with 1.0mm thickness are equivalent in 4 or 6 layers of CF sheet used in
practice.
The tensile strength of CFRP laminate is 2.4 kN/mrn
2
and the elastic modulus is
155 kN/mm
2
. CFRP laminate is prefabricated by pultrusion process and after cure
the contact face with the adhesive is pre-treated with sandind in the factory.
Epoxy resin adhesive of high cohesion is used for gluing onto the concrete
surface.
Figure 9. CFRP laminates and E poxy resin adhesive
3.2. Retrofit and repair method
This system has the following advantages, comparing with the current methods.
- CFRP laminate and CF sheet have the advantage of easy handling and high
corrosion resistance, and there is no change in the sectional dimension of structural
members before and after the execution.
- Thanks to the light-weight and the moderate stiffness of CFRP laminate, the
repair works are easily at narrow space, such as the repair of the footing beam or the
underside of the lowest floor slab (The left of Figure 10). Usually many equipment
pipes are arranged near the underside of floor slab, this system has made possible to
repair without movement of pipes (The right of Figure 10).
- In the case of upward work, due to the use of the high viscosity resin and the
light weight material there is neither need for mechanical equipment for pressing the
CFRP laminate onto the substrate nor it is necessary to provide supporting devices to
keep overhead CFRP laminate in place.
68 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
Figure 10. The repair of footing beam and underside of floor slabs using this system
The process of this system is following.
At first, the surface of the concrete has to been prepared by sand disk grinder and
then cleaned by vacuum cleaner. And necessary restoration work is carried out with
mortar or epoxy moral before application of the adhesive for the CFRP laminate. Next
the impregnation resin is applied by rubber spatula onto the concrete. Immediately
after resin scraped, the epoxy resin is applied in conical shape onto the completely
cleaning CFRP laminate by means of a specially developed instrument. The CFRP
laminate has carefully been pressed on by means of a hard rubber roller, squeezing out
the fresh adhesive at the sides. The conical shape of the adhesive layer allows
complete evacuation of air on both sides during the pressing on by roller. Excess
adhesive is carefully removed with spatula and the CFRP laminate surface is cleaned.
3.3. Application
Usually this system is applied for the repair and the retrofit of the concrete
structures as shown in Figure 2 and Figure 10, and accordingly the number of
application applied this system is over 80 for 5 years from 1996 to 2001. Two
specific applications applied this system, except for concrete structures, are
described below.
3.3.1. Kosaka mine office (wooden building; Akitaprefecture) (Onose et al., 2001)
This building, which is three stories wooden structure and has Renaissance style
dormer window and balcony, was constructed in 1905 and has been evaluated the
architectural worth and has been specified the cultural assets of Kosaka-cho in 1997.
After repair and restore to its original state, the building has been used for the resort
facility of the town.
The CFRP laminates have been used for the reinforcements of the wooden
beams. For the purpose of the application of this building, the structural
performances of CFRP laminates glued wooden beam was tested.
Repairing of structures 69
Figure 11. The appearance of the building Figure 12. Gluing of CFRP laminates
3.3.2. Shiriya-zaki lighthouse (brick construction; Aomori prefecture)(Kalsumata
et. al., 2001)
Shiriya-zaki lighthouse, located in the north end region of Honshu Island, is
beautiful brick tower (Figure 13) and has historical worth. It was designed by British
engineer R.H. Brunton and constructed in 1877, however the bending strength of the
tower against earthquake load was not enough. The upper part from the landing was
destroyed by a bombing at the second world war, and reconstructed by means of
reinforced concrete after the war. Retrofit was carried out using CFRP laminates.
Ten of 86 CFRP laminates arranged around the tower have tensioned and others
have glued onto the surface of bricks. The downside end of the tensioned CFRP
laminate has anchored hi the foundation newly constructed and the other has fixed
on the upper bed of the tower landing. The tensioned CFRP laminates have caused
compression to the bricks consequently the bending strength of the tower is
increased.
Figure 13. Appearance of the lighthouse Figure 14. Gluing of CFRP laminates
70 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
Prestress Axial Bars Confining Sheet
Figure 15. Retrofitting techniques for lighthouse
4. Conclusions
The repair and retrofitting techniques using carbon fiber products enable change
of sectional dimension of structural elements negligibly small and make easy to
execute in the site due to the superior properties of carbon fiber, light weight and
high strength. In civil engineering, the application of FRP products will be increased
in the future, as the advancements of material property are higher and higher.
References
Hagio H., Katsumata H., Kimura K and Kobatake Y., "A Study of Existing Reinforced
Concrete Structure Retrofitted by Carbon Fiber", First Asian-Australasian Conference on
Composite Materials (ACCM-l), 1998.
Katsumata H., Kobatake Y and Takeda T., "A Study on Strengthening with Carbon Fiber for
Earthquake-Resistant Capacity of Existing Reinforced Concrete Columns", Proceedings
of 9W CE E , 1988.
Katsumata H and Kobatake Y, "Seismic Retrofit with Carbon Fibers for Reinforced Concrete
Columns", Proceedings of 11W CE E , 1996.
Katsumata H and Kimura K., "Experience of FRP Strengthening for Historic Structures",
Proceedings of 7
th
Japan International SAMPE Symposium & E xhibition, 2001.
Kobatake Y, Kimura K and Katsumata H., "A Retrofitting Method for Reinforced Concrete
Structures Using Carbon Fiber", Development in Civil E ngineering 42, E lsevier, 1993.
Repairing of structures 71
Kimura K and Hagio H., "The Application of Fiber Reinforced Plastics (FRP) in the
Construction Field of Japan", The Third Composites Durability W orkshop, 2000.
Onose J., Kumagai M., Mizuno T and Yamada S., "The Experimental Study on Reinforcing
Historical Wooden Structure by Carbonfiber Plastic Board", Memories of the Tohoku
Institute of Technology, 2001.
Biography
Kohzo Kimura is a researcher of structural engineering, and his work deals with research and
development of new technology using new material.
Hideo Katsumata is a researcher of structural engineering, and his work deals with seismic
capacity evaluation and earthquake resistant construction.
This page intentionally left blank
Design and Repairing of Hydraulic Valves
using composite materials
Nicolas Junker*
,
**, Alain Thionnet **, Jacques Renard
**
* : KSB amri SA, Pare d'activites Remora, 33170, GRADIGNAN, France
** : E cole des Mines de Paris, Centre des Materiaux, 91003, E VRY, France
\. Conception and Design of a butterfly valve made of composite material
A butterfly valve is an industrial structure which has the ability to regulate water
streams in tubes. It is composed of an obturator, a body, an axis and several joints.
The materials mostly used are steel, cast iron and cast steel but, now days
considering a weight gain request, composite materials are studied to design new
butterfly valves.
As stratified composite tubes made of vinylester, polyester or epoxy reinforced
glass fibers are commonly used for transportation, composite valves should be
useful.
• First request is a weight gain, particularly for large metallic diameter valves,
like 600 mm, which cannot be mounted by a single person.
• Further some applications need a resistance to corrosion which can not be
always achieved with metallic materials : transportation of salted or sulfuretted
water, chemical applications, nautical engines.
One criterion for the choice of composite materials is stress intensity when
working. Other criterions as price, complexity of the process have to be considered
regarding to the choice of materials. Stress intensity in butterfly valves can be very
high (over 200 Mpa in traction or compression, over 100 MPa in transverse loading
at the contact points between axe and obturator).
To satisfy all of these criterions, it is necessary to use different staking of long
fiber composite materials. The sandwich conception has to be used for the whole
74 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
structure of the obturator to resist to bending. Sometimes metallic parts are needed
in transverse directions because of the weakness of composite plies perpendicular to
fibers.
Because composite material are heterogeneous, anisotropic and damageable
(transverse cracking, dclamination, fiber breaking), numerical techniques have been
dcvclopped like homogenization to take heterogeneities into account. Further
orientation methods are described to model anisotropy of the material. To model
damage the framework of Damage Mechanics has been used.
The purpose of this paper is to propose different step analysis to solve these
problems and to use them for designing valve obturator. Dclamination and
transverse cracking arc coupled with calculation to better predict l i fet i me of
butterfly valve during cycling.
2. Numerical Methods to calculate layered composite materials and
sandwich structures
2.1. Homogenization
The structures we want to calculate are made of laminated unidirectional
composite plies composed of long glass fibers wrapped into an cpoxy matrix. Each
ply has a given orientation. The stratification has a great number of layers allowing
to consider the whole material as an infinite periodic layered material. So the
techniques of periodic homogcnisation can be used [San, 1980].
The purpose of homogenization is to get the characteristics of a virtual
homogeneous material equivalent to the stratified one to calculate global structure.
By this way we evaluate the macroscopic stress and deformation fields and then by
localization procedure, we get the microscopic deformation and stress fields. The
mathematical equations involved in the homogenization procedure are explained
below in a very shortened way.
If we consider a periodic cell Y constituing a stratification. The physical fields
defined on this cell arc :
macroscopic stress and deformation
homogenized elasticity tensor
microscopic stress and deformation
: microscopic elasticity tensor
<f> v means the volumic average value of f over the cell
Repairing of structures 75
Macroscopic and microscopic fields are mathematicaly related by the volumic
average calculation : Z=<a>y, E=<e >
Y
- The homogenization steps are the
following:
- Calculation of the six elementary problems :
Calculation of the homogenized elastic characteristics
Finite element calculation of the structure,
Calculation of microscopic fields
- Calculation of Tsai-Hill criterion in each layer to obtain a failure criterion for
the whole stratification.
Following these steps during every FEM calculation, we can give in any part
of the structure (i.e. in each layer of the laminated material), the state of failure.
2.2. Transverse cracking
The proposed model [Ren, 1993] simulate the evolution of transverse cracking in
each layer of a laminated structure. The different steps of this model are described
on the figure 1. The results of coupling between calculation and the model can be
displayed on an example of butterfly valve with sandwich structure and stratified
composite material composed of a periodicity of two layers of unidirectional glass
fiber and epoxy matrix. Figure 2 shows the damage rate in the two layers of the
stratification.
2.3. Delamination
Our study is focused on delamination between macro components of the butterfly
valve, not delamination between all the layers of the stacking of composite parts.
76 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
Then our analysis is first at a macroscopic level. Damage Mechanics has been
used instead of Fracture Mechanics because we need more local information than
global energy balance. Our approach consider the interface between to
components by using a thin (0.001mm) layer of matrix. This method has been
developped by many authors [All, 1992], [Cri, 1998], [ Kim, 1998]. Variables
describing the behaviour of the interface measure the rate of damage : when their
value is 0, the interface is not damaged; when their value is 1, the interface is
completely delaminated; so the location of delaminated area is known according to
evolution of these variables.
Figure 1 : Schematic steps of ply cracking model.
Repairing of structures 77
Figure 2 : Ply damage coupling calculation of valve.
Different kind of interface elements have been used (Figure 3). These elements
are degenerated isoparametric volumic elements from which one direction has been
reduced to zero. The thickness of the interface is considered to be a material
characteristics of the interface.
Figure 3 : interface elements
Such elements can be used in 2D, pseudo 3D and 3D meshes to separate
macroscopic components. The next paragraph describes the use of such elements
during calculation of tubes and real industrial butterfly valve applications.
78 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
2.4. Orientation of strong anisotropic materials in thick shell with complex
shape
Classical thin shells encoutered in air plane design or other industrial design are
mostly modelized with shells elements when doing finite elements calculation. Such
elements have the advantage to simply define a normal vector to the surface they
map. Knowing this normal vector, you can easily define the orientation vector fields
of the heterogeneous and anisotropic material constituing the shell.
Our problem is that the shells constituing the sandwich butterfly valves are much
too thick to be described with shell elements; they can only be described by volumic
elements and the kinematic of a volumic element of automatic mesh (with
tetraedrons for example) does not give simply a normal vector field in every point
of the structure.
The solution we adopted was to perform a pre-fem-calculation giving as
a result the normal vector field in a particular simple way. On a thick shell
with complex shape you can define a bottom surface and a top surface. The
resolution of the Laplace equation on the shell with 0 as boundary condition
at the bottom and 1 at the top simply gives a field which gradient naturaly
describes the normal vector flield of the shell.
Figure 4 : Laplace bundary conditions
Repairing of structures 79
3. Application to industrial structures
3.1. Application to laminated plates with a circular hole
The studied structure is a four layers laminated holed plate submited to traction.
Layers are made of glass-fibers epoxy matrix. Four different stacking sequences are
studied and the damage field at the interface between the first and the second layer is
plotted.
The second stratification (30°, -30°, -30°, 30°) is the more susceptible of
delamination. Results prove the ability of the method to give pertinent evaluation of
delaminated area inside a stratification (Figure 5).
3.2. Application to a real composite butterfly valve
A real 250 mm diameter composite butterfly valve has been calculated and
tested. Both test and calculation give the same location of possible delamination
during the cyclic life of the valve (between exterior shells and the interior body of
the valve).
The fourth view shows the location of possible delamination at the interface
between exterior shells and the rest of the valve. Every numerical technique
explained in this paper has been used for this example.
Nethertheless if this qualitative result is interesting to caracterize the
delamination behaviour of the structure, the load rate at which delamination begins
is overestimated.
80 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
Figure 5 : Computation of holed composite plates
4. Conclusion
The design of industrial composite structure using fi ni t e element computation is
possible when some numerical tehcniques are developped. These techniques have to
take Damage Mechanics into account to refine the calculation wich could be to
pessimistic if it was only elastic and linear. The strong anisotropy of composite
needs the development of a special orientation method that is simple and can be
easily used in many different conceptions. The result of the use of all these
developped techniques simultaneously give an interesting evaluation of the
beheviour of an industrial structure giving the ability to optimise the conception in
terms of dimensions, shapes and material constitution.
Repairing of structures 81
Figure 6 : Damage coupled Computation of valve.
S.Bibliography
Allix O., Ladeveze P., 1992 "Interlaminar interface modelling for the prediction of
delamination" , Comp. Struct. 22, (1992), pp. 235-242.
Crisfield M.A., Mi Y., "Progressive Delamination Using Interface Elements". Journal of
Composite Materials, 32, 1998.
82 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
Kimpara I., Kageyama K., Suzuki K., "Finite element stress analysis of interlayer based on
selective layerwise higher-order theory", Composites Part A 29A, (1998), pp. 1049-
1056.
Renard J, Favre, J.P., Jeggy Th., "Influence of Transverse Cracking on Ply Behaviour :
Introduction of a Characteristic Damage Variable". Composite Science and
Technology, 46, 1993, pp. 29-37,
Sanchez-Palencia E., "Nonhomogeneous Media and Vibration Theory", Vol. 127 of Lecture
Notes in Physics Springer, Berlin, 1980.
lonomer as Toughening and Repair
Material for CFRP Laminates
M. Hojo* — N. Hirota** — T. Ando*** — S. Matsuda****
M. Tanaka* — K. Amundsen*** — S. Ochiai*****
A. Murakami****
* Dept. Mechanical E ngineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan
hojo@mech. kyoto-u. ac.jp
mototsugu@mech. kyoto-u. ac.jp
** Student, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan
*** Graduate Student, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan
****Dept. Chemical E ng., H imeji Institute of Technology, H imeji 671-2201, Japan
smatsuda@cheng.eng.himeji-tech.ac.jp
murakami@cheng.eng.himeji-tech.ac.jp
***** International Innovation Center, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan
ochiai@mech.kyoto-u.ac.jp
AB STRACT: Interlaminar fracture toughness under mode I and II loadings was investigated for
unidirectional CF/epoxy laminates with ionomer interleaf. The fracture toughness of ionomer
interleaved CF/epoxy laminates was much higher than that of base CF/epoxy laminates both
under mode I and II loadings. For mode I loading, the high level of the toughness was kept
constant with the crack growth. Mode I interlaminar toughness initially increased with the
increase of ionomer interleaf thickness, and then leveled off. For mode II loading, the
toughness continuously increased with the ionomer thickness, and reached 9 to 10 k J / m
2
,
which is one of the highest among already reported results. Using the high bonding properties
of ionomer, the repairability of delaminated composites was also tried. The delaminated
specimen was hot-pressed again, and the interlaminar toughness change after repair was
investigated. Although hot-pressing without additional ionomer film gave poor results, the
repair with ionomer film brought the toughness comparable to the virgin laminates.
KE Y W O RDS: delamination, fracture toughness, CFRP, interleaf, ionomer, repair
84 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
1. Introduction
Although almost twenty years have passed since the importance of delamination
was recognized (O'Brien 82), interlaminar strength is still one of the design limiting
factors in structural composite laminates. One of the most promising ways to
increase the interlaminar properties is to control the mesoscopic structure by
replacing only the resin layer at the prepreg interface to a tougher system. This way
is often called as "interleaf or "interlayer" method. The original way of this concept
is simply to insert conventional thermoset or thermoplastic interleaves (Sela et al.,
89, Aksoy et al., 92). A new commercial product with a heterogeneous interlayer
including fine thermoplastic particles, T800H/3900-2, has shown excellent
compressive strength after impact (CAI), and has already been applied for primary
structures of Boeing 777 (Odagiri et al., 96). Although this material indicated
excellent mode II fracture toughness, the mode 1 fracture toughness decreased
gradually with the increment of crack length (Kageyama et al., 95).
The above results suggested that both high ductility and high adhesion strength
are necessary for the interleaf materials to improve the interlaminar fracture
toughness (Hojo et al., 99). Ionomer was introduced as interleaf material because it
has high ductility and good adhesion to epoxy resin. Figure 1 shows the schematic
structure of the transverse section of the ionomer-interleaved carbon fiber
(CF)/epoxy laminates (Matsuda et al., 99). There is the interphase region of one- or
two- carbon fiber thickness between the ionomer interleaf and base lamina, where
epoxy and ionomer are mixed. Since the crack path is often arrested within the
interlayer region by CF, excellent interlaminar properties are expected.
In the present study, the mode I and II interlaminar fracture properties of the
ionomer-interleaved CFRP were first reviewed. Then, the repairability of
delaminated composites was investigated using the high bonding properties of
ionomer.
Figure 1. Schematic structure of transverse section near ionomer/base lamina
interface in ionomer-interleaved CF/epoxy laminates
Repairing of structures 85
2. Experimental procedure
Laminates used in this study were made from Toho Rayon UT500/111 prepregs.
Unidirectional laminates, (0)
24
, of the nominal thickness of 3 mm were molded in a
hot press. The curing temperature was 140°C, holding time was 120 min and the
pressure was 1 MPa. Ethylene based ionomer film was inserted at the mid-thickness
during molding process as interleaf. Here, ethylene methacrylic acid copolymer was
ionized partially by zinc iron (Murakami et al., 97). The thickness of ionomer film
was 12, 25, 100 and 200 mm. The laminates without interleaf were also prepared for
comparison. Starter slits were introduced into the laminates by inserting single 13
urn thick polyimide film during molding at midplane. Fracture toughness tests were
carried out both under mode I and II loadings using double cantilever beam (DCB)
and end notched flexure (ENF) specimens (JIS K7086).
Repair of laminates was also tried under mode I loading by hot-pressing the
delaminated specimen again with and without reinserting ionomer. After the
preparatory tests, final repair condition was selected as the hot press temperature of
130°C, holding time of 130 min and pressure of 2 MPa. The delaminated specimens
with and without ionomer interleaf were hot-pressed again with reinserted ionomer
and the same 13 (um thick polyimide film as starter slits. Using this condition, repair
without reinserting ionomer film was also investigated with 25- and l00um-
ionomer-interleaved laminates.
The tests were carried out in a computer-controlled servohydraulic testing
system (Shimadzu 4880, 9.8kN)(Hojo et al., 94, 97). The cross head speed was
controlled to be 0.5 to 1.0 mm/min in DCB tests, and the crack shear opening
displacement speed was controlled to be 0.03 mm/min in ENF tests (JIS K7086).
The crack length was computed from the measurement of the compliance by using
the calibration relation between the compliance and the crack length. The tests were
carried out in laboratory air. The energy release rate under mode I loading was
calculated using modified compliance calibration method. That under mode II
loading was calculated using compliance calibration curves for each specimen
(Matsuda et al., 97).
3. Results and discussion
3.1. Mode I and II interlaminar fracture toughness before repair
Since the scatter in the relation between the interlaminar fracture toughness and
the increment of crack length (Aa) is rather large, the average of several specimens
was calculated over subsequent 1 mm increment of the crack length for Aa < 10mm
and subsequent 5 mm for Aa > 10 mm. Then, Figure 2 shows the effect of interleaf-
film thickness on the R-curve under mode I. Both the initial values, G
Ic
, and the
propagation values, G
IR
, increased dramatically with the increase of the interleaf
86 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
Increment of crack length, Aa (mm)
Figure 2. Averaged relation between fracture toughness and increment of crack
length under mode I loading
Increment of crack length, Aa (mm)
Figure 3. Averaged relation between fracture toughness and increment of crack
length under mode I loading
Repairing of structures 87
thickness. For the ionomer thickness of 200um, the toughness increased about ten
times from the base laminates. Another important point is that the G
]R
values kept a
higher plateau value without respect to the crack length. This behavior was
completely different from that for T800H/3900-2 where the R-curve decreased, and
converged to the base laminate value.
In Figure 3, each G
UR
data point was calculated as the average value over
subsequent 1 mm increment of crack length in the relation between mode II fracture
toughness and increment of the crack length. The initial values of the fracture
toughness were simply calculated at the maximum load point under mode II loading.
Similar to the results under mode I loading, the whole R-curve increased markedly
with the increase of the interleaf thickness. For the ionomer thickness of 200um, the
toughness increased about twenty times from the base laminates. The actual
toughness value of 10 kJ/m
2
was also one of the highest among the already reported
results for CFRP laminates.
Microscopic observation showed that the crack path was arrested by the rigid
carbon fiber at the surface of the base lamina. For conventional interleaved
laminates, there was no toughened resin at the surface of the base lamina, and this
caused the decrease of the toughness. On the other hand, the crack was still inside
the toughened region for ionomer interleaved laminates. This is responsible for the
non-decrease of the propagation values of the fracture toughness with the increment
of the crack length under mode I loading.
For mode I loading, the permanent deformation of the ionomer was localized in
the vicinity of the crack path. This feature was almost the same without respect to
the ionomer thickness. In this case, the reduced stress intensity factor by the
introduction of the ionomer interleaf is responsible for the toughening mechanism
(Tanaka et al., 97), and only the existence (not the thickness) of the interleaf
contributes to the increase of the toughness. For mode II loading, the deformation
was expanded to the whole interlayer indicated by large permanent shear
deformation. This means the deformation of the whole interleaf thickness
contributes to the increase of the toughness, and is related to the linear increase of
the toughness with the interleaf thickness (Hojo et al., 99).
3.2. Repairability of laminates with ionomer
Figure 4 compares the results of fracture toughness tests after repair with
reinserting ionomer. The obtained propagation values, G
IR
, are comparable to the
ionomer-interleaved laminates with the same final ionomer thickness. Thus, the
repair is quite successful without deterioration. On the other hand, repair without
reinserting ionomer gave quite poor results as indicted in Figure 5. The toughness is
less than 10% of the ionomer interleaved laminates with the same original ionomer
thickness. The values are similar to those of base laminates.
88 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
Increment of crack length, Aa (mm)
Figure 4. Relation between mode I fracture toughness and increment of crack length
for 25fJm-ionomer-interleaved and base CFRP repaired with reinserting
ionomer
Figure 5. Relation between mode I fracture toughness and increment of crack length
for 25um-ionomer-interleaved CFRP repaired without reinserting ionomer
Repairing of structures 89
The transverse section of the laminates repaired without reinserting ionomer
indicated existence of voids at the interphase region. When the crack path was at the
interphase, the ability of rebonding is possibly rather weak, resulting in voids. This
is responsible for the poor repairability of laminates without reinserting ionomer.
4. Conclusions
Interlaminar fracture toughness of ionomer-interleaved CF/epoxy laminates was
investigated under mode I and II loadings. These laminates indicated dramatic
increase of the toughness from base CF/epoxy laminates both under mode I and II
loadings. The propagation values of the fracture toughness did not decrease from the
initial values with the increment of the crack length under mode I loading.
The delaminated specimen was hot-pressed again, and the interlaminar
toughness change after repair was investigated only under mode I loading. Although
hot-pressing without reinserting ionomer film gave poor results, the repair with
reinserted ionomer film brought the toughness comparable to the original ionomer-
interleaved laminates.
Acknowledgments
The authors would also like to thank Dr. B. Fiedler of Technical University
Hamburg-Harburg and Mr. M. Ando of Toho Tenax Co., Ltd. for their helpful
discussion.
References
Aksoy, A., Carlsson, L.A., "Interlaminar Shear Fracture of Interleaved Graphite/Epoxy
Composites", Composite Science and Technology, Vol.43, 1992, p.55-69.
Hojo, M., Ochiai, S., Gustafson, C-.G., Tanaka, K., "Effect of Matrix Resin on Delamination
Fatigue Crack Growth in CFRP Laminates", E ngineering Fracture Mechanics, Vol. 49,
1994,p.35-47.
Hojo, M., Matsuda, S., Ochiai, S., "Delamination Fatigue Crack Growth in CFRP Laminates
under Mode I and II Loadings-Effect of Mesoscopic Structure on Fracture Mechanism-",
Proc. International Conference on Fatigue of Composites, Paris, 1997, p. 15-26.
Hojo, M., Matsuda, S., Ochiai, S., Murakami, A., Akimoto, H., "The Role of Interleaf/Base
Lamina Interphase in Toughening Mechanism of Interleaf-Toughened CFRP", Proc.
ICCM12, Paris, 5-9 July, 1999, CD-ROM.
90 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
Kageyama, K., Kimpara, T., Ohsawa, I, Hojo, M., Kabashima, S., "Mode I and II
Delamination Growth of Interlayer-Toughened Carbon/Epoxy (T800H/3900-2)
Composite System", Composite Materials: Fatigue and Fracture, Fifth Volume, ASTM
STP 1230, Martin, R. H., Ed., ASTM, 1995, pp. 19-37.
Matsuda, S., Hojo, M., Ochiai, S., "Mesoscopic Fracture Mechanism of Mode II
Delamination Fatigue Crack Propagation in Interlayer-Toughened CFRP", JSME
InternationalJournal, Series A, Vol.40, 1997, p.423-429.
Matsuda, S. , Hojo, M., Murakami, A., Akimoto, H., Ando, "Effect of Ionomer Thickness on
Mode 1 Interlaminar Fracture Toughness for Ionomer Toughened CFRP", Composites,
Part A, Vol.30, 1999, p. 1311 -1319.
Murakami, A., Ooki, T., Asami, T., Hojo,, Ochiai, S., Matsuda, S., Moriya, K. "Interlaminar
Fracture Toughness and Damping Properties of Thermoplastic Ionomer Interleaved
Composite", Recent Advancement of Interfacial Materials Science on Composite
Materials '97, Siguma, Pub., 1997, p.75-79.
JIS K7086-1993, "Testing Methods for Interlaminar Fracture Toughness of Carbon Fibre
Reinforced Plastics", 1993.
O'Brien, T.K., "Characterization of Delamination Onset and Growth in a Composite
Laminate", Damage in Composite Materials, ASTM STP 775, Reifsnider, K.L., Ed.,
ASTM, Philadelphia, 1982, p. 140-167.
Odagiri, N., Kishi, H., Yamashita, M., "Development of TORAYCA Prepreg P2302 Carbon
Fiber Reinforced Plastic for Aircraft Primary Structural Materials", Advanced Composite
Materials, Vol.5, 1996, p.249-252.
Sela, N., Ishai, O., Banks-Sills, L., "The Effect of Adhesive Thickness on I nterlaminar
Fracture Toughness of Interleaved CFRP Specimens", Composites, Vol. 20, 1989, p. 257-
264.
Tanaka, K., Tanaka, H., Kimachi, H., "Boundary Element Analysis of Elastic Stress
Distribution in Cracked FRP under Mode I Loading", Trans. Japan Society for
Mechanical E ngineers, Vol. 63A, 1997, p. 1894-1901.
Polymer adhesives in civil engineering:
Effect of environmental parameters on
thermomechanical properties
K. Benzarti* — M. Pastor*—T. Chaussadent*— M.P. Thaveau**
*Laboratoire Central des Fonts et Chaussees (LCPC), Service Physico-chimie des
materiaux, 58 boulevard Lefebwe, 75732 Paris Cedex 15, France
benzarti@lcpc.fr
**Laboratoire Regional des Ponts & Chaussees, B P141, 71405 Autun, France.
AB STRACT: In this work, aging of two ambient curing thermoset polymers (an epoxy system and
a polyester based mortar), commonly used for civil engineering applications, has been
investigated. In a first part, microstructural evolutions of the adhesives in a standard
environment (50% relative humidity, 20°C) were studied. The polymerization kinetics of the
epoxy system was monitored by infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry
(DSC). These experiments showed that the crosslinking process of thermosetting systems
doesn't go to completion at ambient temperature. DSC analyses also revealed a mechanism of
physical aging leading to progressive evolution of the polymer network. In the second part,
the two materials were immersed in various model solutions (distilled water, salt solution,
concrete pore solution). Mass uptake of immersed samples was monitored as a function of
time, and influence of aging treatments on the thermomechanical properties was discussed in
terms of chemical and microstructural modifications of the polymer network.
KE Y W ORD S: epoxy, polyester, crosslinking, chemical or physical aging, viscoelastic behavior.
92 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
1. Introduction
Polymer adhesives, such as thermoset resins, are commonly used in civil
engineering for the repair of damaged concrete structures (bridges, walls, etc...). A
growing application is the reinforcement of cracked structures with bonded
composites. Implementation of this technique is based either on the use of
prefabricated composite plates or on wet lay-up process involving carbon fabrics
(Karbhari et al. 2000, Toutanji et al. 1997). Polymer adhesives also open up new
opportunities for the design of bridges, since parts of the structures could be
assembled by gluing in the future. Nevertheless, development of such structural
applications is still limited, due to an insufficient knowledge of the adhesive bond
durability. In fact, polymer joints are sensitive to environmental parameters such as
moisture, temperature or chemical attacks (Mukhopadhyaya et al, 1998, Nogueira et
al. 2001) and the resulting degradations may progressively affect the mechanical
strength of the adhesive bond. Moreover, polymer adhesives are often in contact
with concrete which is an alkaline and potentially aggressive medium (Chin et al.
2001). For all these reasons, there are still serious concerns about the long term
behaviour of repaired structures, and fundamental studies are needed in order to
identify mechanisms involved in the degradation of polymer joints and
adhesive/concrete interfaces.
According to the literature, degradation of epoxy joints mainly results from
moisture diffusion into the material. Ingress of water generally induces physico-
chemical modifications in the interfacial areas between adhesive and substrate or in
the bulk polymer, such as plasticizing effects (Zanni-Deffarges et al. 1995, Nogueira
et al. 2001). These modifications lead to a progressive loss of mechanical properties
which is function of the water content. Pick's model generally provides good
predictions for the diffusion of liquids in a bulk polymer (Chin et al 1999). For a
plane polymer sheet exposed to a diffusing fluid, the change of concentration C of
the diffusant, at a distance x from the contacting surface, as a function of time t and
diffusion coefficient D, is given by Pick's second law (Cranck et al., 1968):
An approximate solution of equation [1] is:
where m, is the mass uptake of the polymer at time t, m
oo
is the mass uptake at
equilibrium, and h is the sample thickness.
Repairing of structures 93
Epoxy resins cured with amine hardener are seldom subject to severe chemical
degradation, such as hydrolysis, since the crosslinked network has a good chemical
stability. However, if the polymerization is not fully achieved, residual monomers
may increase sensitivity of the epoxy network towards chemical attacks.
Polyester resins are much more sensitive to chemical aging than epoxy systems.
Indeed, hydrolysis of ester groups can occur in aggressive alkaline environments
(saponification) or in acidic media. Examples of hydrolysis in neutral salt
environments are also reported in the literature (Chin et al. 1999). The base-
catalyzed hydrolysis of ester linkages [3] leads to the formation of carboxyl groups
which can further react with hydroxides, such as KOH or NaOH, to yield
carboxylate anions COO
-
via reaction [4]. Such a degradation is irreversible and
usually reduces significantly mechanical properties of the polymer.
The objective of this work was to study two thermosetting systems commonly
used for the repair of civil engineering structures: an epoxy adhesive and a polyester
based mortar.
In a first part, the study focused on microstructural changes of the polymer
networks that can occur in a standard environment (50% relative humidity, ambient
temperature). Experiments were performed by infrared spectroscopy and differential
scanning calorimetry in order to characterize the polymer structure and its eventual
evolution.
In a second part, the behaviors of the two systems in aggressive environments
were investigated: accelerated aging tests were performed by immersing samples in
model aqueous solutions (distilled water, salt solution and an alkaline solution which
is representative of the concrete medium). The mass uptake of samples was
monitored as a function of aging time and the viscoelastic behavior of aged sample
was evaluated by dynamic mechanical analysis. Such accelerated tests may not be
entirely representative of the actual degradation processes in natural environments,
however, they can provide precious information on the sensitivity of the polymer
networks towards external aggressive factors.
2. Experimental
2.1. Materials
Two commercial thermosetting systems that are commonly used in civil
applications were chosen for this study: an epoxy system and a polyester based
mortar.
94 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
The epoxy system is a two components adhesive, constituted of a resin and a
polyamine based hardener. The resin is a viscous liquid and contains mineral fillers
(30 wt %) whereas the hardener is an unfilled paste. This polymer adhesive is used
to paste carbon fabrics on damaged concrete structures, according to the wet lay-up
process.
The polyester mortar is also made of two components: a polyester resin and
mineral fillers containing a small amount of peroxide catalyst (2 wt %). This system
is mainly used for road works but also for the repair of concrete structures.
Table 1 gives the compositions of the two systems and the recommended blend
ratios. Rectangular specimens (5x5x40 mm) were made by casting the viscous
mixtures into silicone moulds. Cure was performed at ambient temperature for the
two systems.
Table 1. Composition of the two thermoset systems.
Epoxy s
Resin
- Diglycidylether of
bisphenol A (DGEBA)
- CaCO
3
fillers (30 wt %)
ystem
Hardener
• Triethylenetetrarame
(TETA)
- Alkylethefamme
100 wt part of resin / 40 wt part of hardener
Poly
Resin
- Polyester
- Styrene
ester mortar
Filler and catalyst
- Si0
2
fillers (98%)
- Peroxide catalyst
(2wt%)
1 volume of resin / 1.5 volume
of fillers
2.2. E xperimental techniques
2.2.1. Physico-chemical characterizations
Chemical analyses were performed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy
(FTIR) using a Nicolet IMPACT 410 apparatus equipped with an ATR microscope
device (attenuated total reflectance). In a first step, this technique gave an evaluation
of the polymerization kinetics for the epoxy system: the peak intensity at 915 cm
-1
(epoxy rings) was monitored as a function of time, and normalized by rationing the
height of the peak of interest by the height of the aromatic C-H peak at 830 cm
-1
. In
a second step, surfaces of cured samples that were aged in model solutions, were
analyzed using the ATR microscope. Comparison with control samples gave
indications on eventual chemical degradations induced by aging treatments.
Experiments were also carried on by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC),
using a NETSCH DSC 200 apparatus, in order to evaluate the total heat of reaction
and the glass transition temperatures of materials. Analyses were performed in non-
Repairing of structures 95
isothermal mode in the range from -40 to 200°C under nitrogen environment, at a
heating rate of 10°C/min.
2.2.2. Characterization of the viscoelastic behavior
Viscoelastic properties of the materials were evaluated by dynamic mechanical
analysis, before and after aging treatments, using a Metravib visoanalyser. Tests
were performed on small samples (5x5x40 mm) in tension-compression mode with a
fixed displacement amplitude of 5 um and a frequency of 5 Hz. The analyzed
temperature range was between 30 and 150°C. This device provided information
about the storage modulus E' and the loss tangent tan8. The former is representative
of the molecular motion ability of polymer chains.
2.2.3. Accelerated aging treatments in aqueous solutions
Cured specimens were aged for various periods of time in model solutions, at
ambient temperature (20°C). These treatments were supposed to simulate aging in
aggressive environments. Three solutions were chosen: distilled water, a salt
solution representative of seawater (0.58 mol.L
-1
NaCl), and an artificial concrete
pore solution in order to simulate the alkaline environment of cementitious material
(0.5 mol.L
-1
KOH and 0.1 mol.L
-1
NaOH). Periodically, samples were removed from
the solutions, dried with filter paper, immediately weighed with a Mettler digital
balance and then returned to their bath. The procedure was repeated until the
samples reached a saturation level. An average of five samples was tested for each
material in each solution.
3. Results and discussions
3.1. Microstructural changes in a « standard » environment
3. 1.I. Structure of the cured epoxy system
In order to investigate the polymerization kinetics of the epoxy system, the
mixture (blend of resin and hardener) was analyzed by FTIR spectroscopy.
Figure 1 presents the evolution of the normalized peak intensity at 915 cm
-1
as a
function of time. The decrease of this intensity is related to the consumption of
epoxy monomers as the crosslinking reaction progresses. In a first stage, the rate of
the kinetics is very high, due to the reactivity of the aliphatic polyamine hardener.
96 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
Figure 1. E volution of the normalized epoxy peak intensity at 915 cm
-1
as
function of time for the epoxy system (IRTF spectroscopy
experiments).
Gelation occurs very early as the extend of reaction reaches 0.60, typically after few
hours. But in the first days, the kinetics is considerably slowed down and the extend
of reaction seems to stabilize around 0.9. The reaction mechanism is then controlled
by the slow diffusion of monomers in the polymer network.
DSC experiments were also performed on the liquid epoxy mixture (resin and
hardener). They provided values for the total heat of reaction (AH=243 J/g), for the
activation energy (E
a
=75 kJ/mol) and the glass transition temperature (50°C).
Figure 2 shows thermograms of two cured epoxy samples which had been
respectively elaborated 15 days (a) and 10 months (b) before the DSC
characterization. Both samples were kept at room temperature (20°C) and 50%
relative humidity before DSC analyses. On the two curves, exothermic peaks are
visible around 150°C and are related to the cure at high temperature of residual
monomers. Extend of reaction calculated from the residual heat of reaction are
respectively 0.9 and 0.92. These values confirm results from IRTF spectroscopy
experiments: due to the slow diffusion process at 20°C, the maximum rate of
conversion is close to 0.9, and the cure of the epoxy network is never fully achieved.
Therefore, about 10% residual monomers still remains trapped in the polymer
network. Moreover, an endothermic peak can be seen on the thermogram of the
older sample, just above the glass transition temperature. It is a structural relaxation
peak related to the phenomenon of physical aging which will be discussed in the
next section.
3.1.2. Influence of physical aging
Physical aging is a phenomenon common to all amorphous polymers in the
glassy state, where the molecular structure is out of thermodynamic equilibrium.
Repairing of structures 97
Physical aging is a manifestation of a slow spontaneous evolution of the polymer
towards its equilibrium state by time-dependant changes in volume, enthalpy and
entropy. This phenomenon is generally accompanied by an evolution of mechanical
properties, such as increase in stiffness and embrittlement of the material (Struik
1978 ). Enthalpy loss during the aging process is recovered during reheating of the
aged sample to above Tg (during a DSC experiment for instance). This enthalpy
recovery leads to the apparition of an endothermic peak on DSC thermograms,
above the glass transition temperature.
On figure 2, such an endothermic peak is seen for the 10 months old sample. It
means that epoxy systems used in civil engineering are subject to physical aging at
ambient temperature. This can be easily explained, since the glass transition
temperature of these materials is generally low (about 50°C) and ambient temperatures
lie in the range from Tg-30°C to Tg, where fast aging kinetics is observed.
A study is in progress in our laboratory in order to evaluate the influence of
physical aging on the mechanical properties of these thermoset systems.
Figure 2. DSC thermograms for the epoxy system (a) 15 days after sample
preparation (b) 10 months after sample preparation.
In this first part of the work, two main facts were observed: thermoset resins
cured at ambient temperature are not fully polymerized. Indeed, the extend of
reaction is limited and some monomers still remain trapped in the polymer network.
Therefore, further variations of temperature can lead to small evolutions of the
crosslink density. Moreover, DSC experiments revealed that a physical aging
process occurs in these materials at ambient temperature. This phenomenon is the
main process susceptible to induce microstructural changes in a standard
environment (20°C, 50% relative humidity).
98 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
3.2. Microstructural changes in aggressive environments
3.2.1. Mass uptake of immersed samples - diffusion phenomenon
Figure 3 shows evolutions of the mass uptake of samples as a function of the
immersion time, for the epoxy system (a) and the polyester mortar (b). Experiments
were performed at 20°C.
As shown by figure 3.a, immersion of epoxy samples in distilled water or in salt
solution led to a rapid mass uptake, resulting from the diffusion of liquid into the
material. In a second stage, uptake slowed down progressively and reached an
equilibrium around 5%. Situation is different in the alkaline solution, where the mass
uptake at equilibrium is close to 8%. For the three solutions, values of the equilibrium
mass uptake are elevated and can be explained by the low crosslink density of the
epoxy network (low Tg) or by the presence of residual polar groups that can promote
increased sorption of polar penetrants. Diffusion coefficient derived from Fick's
model [4] are respectively 7.1xl0
-9
cm
2
.s
-
', 4.9xl0
-9
cm
2
.s
-1
and 8.0xl0
-9
cm
2
.s
-1
for
distilled water, salt solution and alkaline solution in the epoxy network.
Figure 3. Mass uptake of immersed samples as a function of time
Repairing of structures 99
On figure 3.b, mass variations are globally lower for polyester samples than for
epoxy specimens, due to the large mineral filler content of the mortar (about 70 wt
%). An interesting feature is the rapid mass loss observed for samples that were
immersed in the alkaline solution (-1.5%). This phenomenon can be attributed to a
chemical degradation of the polyester matrix
3.2.2. Analysis of aged samples by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy
In order to verify if aging treatments induced chemical modifications of the
materials, infrared spectroscopy analyses were conducted on the surfaces of aged
samples, using the ATR microscope device.
Immersion of samples in distilled water or in salt solution at 20°C did not modify
FTIR spectra neither for the epoxy system, nor for the polyester mortar. Therefore, it
can be concluded that these two treatments did not induce any significant change of
the chemical structure of materials, and that diffusion of liquid in the polymer
network is the main aging process.
The situation is quite different when samples are immersed in the alkaline
solution. Figure 4 shows the FTIR spectra for the surface of the polyester samples
before (a) and after (b) immersion in the simulated concrete pore solution. Large
modifications are visible on the spectrum of the aged sample as compared to the
control spectrum: peaks related to the organic part of the polyester mortar are
removed from the spectrum of the aged sample (C=O linkages near 1720 cm
-1
and
C-O linkages at 1250 cm
-1
). On the other hand, new peaks related to the mineral part
of the mortar (silica fillers) appear at 1030, 780 et 694 cm
-1
. It can be concluded that
the surface of the aged sample has been degraded during immersion in the alkaline
solution: hydrolysis of the organic part of the mortar (polyester) according to the
saponification process described in [3] and [4] is probably involved. This is
consistent with the mass loss previously observed, since hydrolyzed fragments of the
polymer network can be released in the aqueous medium.
Modifications are also observed on the IRTF spectra of the epoxy sample that
was immersed in the alkaline solution, suggesting that some degradation of the
polymer network occurred during aging. However this degradation process has not
been clearly identified and is not accompanied by a mass loss of samples.
Previous results lead to the conclusion that the alkaline solution representative of
a concrete medium is a very aggressive environment, both for polyester and epoxy
thermoset systems. Of course, this result can not be generalized for a real civil
engineering application which is a much more complex situation. However it is
probable that such chemical degradations can also occur in the reality at
adhesive/concrete interfaces.
100 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
Figure 4. IRTF-ATR spectra for the surface of polyester samples
(a) reference (b) aging for110 days in the alkaline solution at 20°C.
3.2.3. Influence of immersion on viscoelastic properties
Viscoelastic properties of the two materials were also evaluated by dynamic
mechanical analysis, before and after aging in the various solutions.
Figure 5 shows evolutions of the storage modulus (a) and the loss tangent (b) as
a function of temperature for a reference epoxy system and for samples immersed 63
days in the three solutions. A significant decrease of the storage modulus is observed
for aged samples at temperatures close to ambient, as compared to the modulus of
the reference sample. This phenomenon can be attributed to the well known
plasticizing effect of the polymer network by water molecules: the creation of
hydrogen bonds between water molecules and polar hydroxyl groups of the polymer
leads to the break of intermolecular linkages (Nogueira et al 2001, Moy et al 1980).
This microstructural change is accompanied by a swelling of the polymer network
and by a drop of stiffness and mechanical properties. Moreover, figure 5.b shows an
increase of the loss tangent level at low temperatures for aged epoxy samples, and
Repairing of structures 101
suggests that the motion ability of the polymer chains is globally increased by
immersion treatments.
Figure 5. E volution of the storage modulus (a) and the loss tangent (b) as a function
of temperature for a reference epoxy and for samples immersed 63 days in
the various solutions
Figure 6 shows the evolutions of the storage modulus and the loss tangent as a
function of the temperature for the reference polyester and for samples aged 115
days in the various solutions. As it was noticed for the epoxy system, there is a drop
of the storage modulus of aged samples at temperatures close to ambient, due to the
plasticizing effect of the network by water molecules. Observed variations are less
important than they were for epoxy, since the organic content of the polyester mortar
is small. The level of the loss tangent at low temperature is also higher in aged
samples than in the reference material, which can be attributed to an increased
molecular motion ability.
Figure 6. E volution of the storage modulus (a) and the loss tangent (b) as a function
of temperature for a reference polyester and for samples immersed 115
days in the various solutions.
102 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
4. Conclusions
The aim of this work was to study aging of two thermoset polymers, an epoxy
system and a polyester mortar, in standard and in aggressive environments.
The first part of the study focused on the evolution of these materials in a
standard environment (20°C, 50 relative humidity). Polymerization kinetic of the
epoxy system was studied by 1RTF spectroscopy. These experiments showed that
the extend of reaction at 20°C is limited to 0.9 and that some monomers still remain
trapped in the polymer network. Therefore, further variations of the temperature can
lead to small evolutions of the crosslink density. DSC experiments also revealed that
a physical aging phenomenon can occur at ambient temperature, leading to a
decrease of the material enthalpy and volume. Further studies are needed in order to
evaluate the influence of physical aging on the mechanical properties of thermosets.
In the second part, samples of the two materials were immersed in various
aqueous solutions (distilled water, salt water and simulated concrete pore solution)
in order to simulate the effect of aggressive environments.
The mass uptake of samples was first monitored as a function of immersion time.
For the epoxy system, mass uptake is related to the diffusion of liquid into the
material and seemed to follow a Fickian behavior. For the polyester mortar, an
interesting feature was the mass loss resulting from immersion in the alkaline
solution, which was attributed to chemical degradations of the polymer network.
Surface analyses of the aged samples were then performed by FT1R-ATR
spectroscopy. Experiments showed that the chemical structure of the two materials
is not affected by immersion in distilled water or in the salt solution. However,
immersion in the alkaline solution induced saponification (ester hydrolysis) of the
polyester network.
Finally, the viscoelastic behavior of aged samples was investigated by dynamic
mechanical analysis. Plasticizing effects accompanied by a significant decrease of
the storage modulus at ambient temperature were observed for all samples immersed
in any of the three model solutions.
The authors would like to thank F. Farcas, P. Bartolomeo and E. Massieu
(LCPC) for their contribution to this work.
5. Bibliography
Chin J.W., Aouadi K., Haight M.R., Hugues W.L., Nguyen T., "Effects of water, salt solution
and simulated concrete pore solution on the properties of composite matrix resins used in
civil engineering applications", Polymer Composites, vol. 22, 2001, p. 282.
Repairing of structures 103
Chin J.W., Nguyen T., Aouadi K., 1999, "Sorption of water, salt water and concrete pore
solution in composite matrices", Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 71, 1999, p.
483-492
Cranck J., Park G.S., Diffusion in polymers, New-York, Academic Press, 1968.
Karbhari V.M. And Zhao L., "Use of composites for 21st century civil infrastructure",
Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and E ngineering, vol. 185,2000, p. 433.
Moy P., Karasz F.E., Polymer E ngineering and Science, vol. 20,1980, p. 315.
Mukhopadhyaya P., Swamy R.N., Lynsdale C.J., "Influence of aggressive exposure
conditions on the behavior of adhesive bonded concrete-GFRP joints", Construction and
B uilding Materials, vol 12, 1998, p. 427-446.
Nogueira P., Ramirez C., Torres A., Abad M.J., Cano J., Lopez J., Lopez Bueno I., Barral L.,
"Effect of water sorption on the structure and mechanical properties of an epoxy resin
system", Journal of Aplied Polymer Science, vol. 80, 2001, p. 71-80.
Struik L.C.E., Physical ageing of amorphous polymers and other materials, Amsterdam,
Elsevier, 1978.
Toutanji A., Gomez W., "Durability characteristics of concrete beams externally bonded with
FRP Composite Sheets", Cement and Concrete Composites, vol. 19, 1997, p. 351.
Zanni-Deffarges M.P., Shanahan M.E.R., "Diffusion of water into an epoxy adhesive :
comparison between bulk behavior and adhesive joints", Int. Journal of Adhesion and
Adhesives,\o\. 15, 1995, p.137-142.
This page intentionally left blank
Overwrapped Structures : A Modern
Approach ?
M J Hinton*, J Cook**, A Groves**, R Hayman** and A Howard'
* Future Systems Technology Division (FST), QinetiQ, Fort H alstead, Sevenoaks,
Kent, TN14 7B P, UK.
** Structures and Materials and Centre, FST, QinetiQ, Farnborough, H ampshire,
GU14 O LX, UK.
©QinetiQ Ltd 2002
E-mail to mi hinton@QinetiO.com
ABSTRACT. The concept of overcropping a pressure vessel with high strength material in the
form of wires or hoops has a history going back at least as far as the 13' century. In recent
years, the availability of reinforcing fibres with very high strength to weight ratios has given
this ancient concept a new lease of life. This paper starts from the early history of the subject,
setting in context the opportunities that are now possible with new high performance
materials. Particular attention is given to the concept of tensioned overwrapping where the
theory is presented for both thick and thin walled pressure vessels. Finally, examples of
lightweight, tension-overwrapped structures are presented to illustrate the current state of the
art.
106 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
1. Introduction
Although the overwinding of pressure vessels is a very old concept, the
availability in recent years of high strength, low density, fibres together with the
introduction of some novel manufacturing techniques, is leading to some exciting
technical developments and a range of new applications.
All of the early applications of overwinding were to vessels that were broadly
cylindrical in shape, typically guns or gas storage tanks. Originally, the idea of
overwinding was based on the observation that many materials (usually metals) can
be made with a much higher tensile strength when they are in the form of wires or
filaments than they can in bulk. For example, drawn steel wire may be considerably
stronger than a casting of similar composition. This arises partly by virtue of the
controlled amount of cold work involved in the drawing process, partly by virtue of
the better control of the heat treatment when in finely divided form and partly by the
avoidance of the large defects that can occur, particularly in castings.
The other driver behind overwinding is that in a cylindrical vessel subjected to
internal pressure loading the circumferential, or hoop, membrane load exceeds the
longitudinal load by a significant factor. For a closed cylindrical vessel the
hoop/longitudinal load ratio is approximately 2:1. For open-ended or partially open-
ended vessels it is higher. The load ratios occurring in various types of pressure
vessel are illustrated in Fig. 1. In an overwound cylinder the load is partitioned so
that the fibres take at least half the hoop load, leaving the metal in a balanced bi-
axial stress state (i.e. approximately 1:1) in which it acts at close to maximum
efficiency. This is illustrated in Fig. 2. The weight saving is achieved from the fact
that the overwind has a higher strength to weight ratio than the bulk material it
replaces.
If the strain to failure of the fibre exceeds that of the bulk material by a sizeable
margin then, for a pressure vessel, additional benefit can be obtained by applying the
overwind under tension. The effect of this is to drive the bulk metal into
circumferential and radial compression. The idea is illustrated in Fig. 3, which
shows a stress-strain curve for a typical metal liner material. Without pre-stressing,
the metal would start at a state represented by point A and then move under the
effects of the pressure loading to point B. With a tensioned overwrap, it is possible
to start at point C and move to point B. The effective extension of the elastic range
is obvious. However, the overwind starts in a state of tension and then experiences
the same incremental strain as the liner during pressurisation. It follows that for pre-
tensioning to be viable, the overwinding fibre must have an appreciably greater
breaking strain than the liner material, typically by a factor of at least two. It is also
helpful, although not essential, if its modulus is also at least comparable with that of
the liner material.
Repairing of structures 107
The overall result of applying a tensioned overwind to a pressure vessel is that
when the vessel is subsequently pressurised, it reaches its yield point or its ultimate
tensile strength at a higher value of internal pressure than would otherwise be the
case. This effect can be used to increase the burst pressure, increase the fatigue life,
give further reductions in weight or achieve some combination of all of these.
The modern fibres that are currently available have now made overwinding an
even more attractive proposition than it ever was. These fibres can be made into
composites with unidirectional strength to weight ratios exceeding those of bulk
metals by factors up to about 10 (Fig. 4). This has enabled spectacular weight
savings to be achieved on overwound structures comparatively easily, often by a
simple extension of the existing manufacturing method.
The principles of overwinding are also applicable to pressure vessels of non-
cylindrical shape, and one striking example of this, namely toroidal overwinding, is
also discussed in section 7.
2. History of Overwinding
The technology for producing large monolithic metal structures started to
develop from the 15
th
century, and then only in a very imperfect form. Overwinding
was first introduced as means of circumventing this difficulty by allowing large
pressurised structures to be built up from moderately sized components. Later,
when it became possible to cast or forge large metallic pressure vessels of acceptable
quality, overwinding was retained and used instead as a means of improving their
structural performance, a trend that continues to this day.
Since the thirteenth century, and perhaps earlier, it has been appreciated that
wrapping a strong reinforcing material in a hoopwise manner around the outside of a
structure increases its ability to withstand internal pressure. Early barrels for the
storage of foodstuffs employed metal hoops that held together an assembly of
wooden bars or staves. Exactly the same technique was used to produce the earliest
cannons (which are also pressure vessels) in the early fourteenth century. Closely
fitting staves would be placed around a wooden mandrel and temporarily fixed in
place. Initially these staves were of wood and later of iron. Hot iron rings would be
slipped onto the assembly and as they cooled would shrink and thereby press the
staves tightly together. This is shown schematically in Fig. 5. In the case of iron
barrels, the staves were then welded by raising to a white heat and the wooden
mandrel subsequently removed or burnt out. It can be seen that weaknesses were
bound to occur by this method of manufacture, and in the latter part of the fourteenth
108 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
century, when the casting of iron had sufficiently progressed, smaller barrels were
cast in one piece. However the practice of manufacture using iron staves and
reinforcing hoops was retained for larger barrels, of which the most famous example
is the 'Mons Meg' cannon. This barrel, which is 14 feet long and of 20 inch calibre,
was produced in 1453, and may still be seen on public display in Edinburgh.
Frequently these built-up barrels were wrapped in leather and wound with rope to
protect the structure from damage and corrosion. This method of gun barrel
construction remained unchanged until the introduction of wrought iron, which had
superior strength and reliability to cast iron. Wrought iron was used to make the
inner tube of the barrel, but it was still reinforced externally with iron rings for extra
strength.
In the seventeenth century, the first lightweight gun barrels were designed and
produced in Sweden. These were fabricated from hardened leather with iron or
brass reinforcing hoops and lasted 5-10 shots. A later barrel design of this type
consisted of a thin copper tube lashed with rope and covered with leather. The
barrel screwed onto a brass breech, itself strengthened with strips of iron. The use
of this type of construction was widespread in Europe, notably in Scotland and
Switzerland. The enhanced portability made possible by the comparatively low
weight was the principle attraction.
In time, steel was introduced and used to produce the inner tube of the barrel.
Wrought iron was still used for the hoops, which were shrunk on and varied in
thickness to provide the requisite strength. Thus thicker hoops were used over the
chamber section to contain the highest pressures and thinner hoops towards the
muzzle end of the barrel where the internal pressure is lower. By the late nineteenth
century these hoops were also being produced from steel. The higher strength
material allowed thinner sections and lighter barrels to be made. However the
integrity of these hoops had to be taken on trust. Imperfections in the structure were
only discovered when the gun was fired. It was after a number of serious incidents
involving bursting guns that the need to carry out a proof pressure test prior to use
became recognised.
By the mid 1850s, as gun sizes and gun power dramatically increased, the idea of
using highly drawn wire instead of hoops had been mooted, but it was not until the
1880s that this was implemented. After the basic tube had been produced it was
rotated in suitable machinery and drawn steel was wound on under tension.
Inspection of the wire during winding, and the fact that the tensioning process itself
tested the strength of the wire, increased confidence in the integrity of the finished
barrel. The tension also resulted in the inner tube being compressed, similarly to the
barrels with shrunk-on hoops, and being able to withstand higher firing pressures as
a result. This method of manufacture also resulted in lighter barrels, the first of
which was of 9.2inch calibre produced at the Royal Gun Factory in 1884. Wire
overwound construction then became the standard construction for British guns for
Repairing of structures 109
the next thirty years, encompassing naval and artillery pieces ranging from 3" to 15"
calibre. This manufacturing approach is shown in Fig. 6, where the basic gun
construction and quantities of wire used (several hundred miles per gun!) are clearly
illustrated.
The one drawback of wire wound guns, and the reason why their use was not
more widespread, was that the wire wrapping provided no longitudinal stiffness to
the barrel. This meant that gun barrels of this type were prone to droop under their
own weight and to 'whip' on firing the shot, and both of these led to increased
projectile dispersion. For the early guns the inaccuracy resulting from this was
insignificant compared with all the other sources of error, but as gun designs became
more advanced the effect became noticeable. Wire winding was eventually replaced
by 1/24-inch strip steel, which in turn was followed by shrunk-fit compound
cylinders and finally over the last thirty to forty years by monobloc forgings
machined to final dimensions.
In addition, a technique known as autofrettage is now widely used. This consists
of applying internal pressure to the barrel to take it beyond yield. On removal of the
pressure loading, the barrel bore is then left in a state of circumferential compressive
pre-stress in a similar manner to that brought about by tensioned overwrapping (Fig.
3). The main purpose of autofrettage is to aid fatigue life. It can be used on non-
overwrapped thick wall tubes. For overwound vessels it can be employed as an
alternative to the use of winding tension.
More details on the history of the use of overwinding on guns are given in
references 1 to 7.
3. Theory of Overwinding
Given that the idea of an overwrapped cylinder dates back to the 13
th
century, it
is not surprising that numerous theories for modelling overwrapped and multi-
cylinder pressure vessels have been developed. However, accurate methods of
analysis emerged only towards the end of 19
th
century when the classical theories of
'Elasticity' emerged based on advanced calculus techniques. In essence such
methods of analysis arose from the need for Victorian engineers to enhance their
understanding of structures following the rapid industrialisation in the UK and
elsewhere during the 19
th
century.
The universally accepted and definitive design equations for pressure vessels can
be ascribed to Lame 8 who solved the elastic equations of state for the type of
cylindrical vessel shown in Fig. 7 for both the circumferential and radial stresses to
obtain:
110 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
where r is the radius through the vessel and A and B are constants of integration.
The values of A and B values are derived from application of the boundary
conditions. For an internally pressurised cylinder the constants are simply derived
by setting the radial stress to zero at the outside radius and a value equal, but
opposite in sign,
8
to the applied internal pressure Pi at the inner radius. Equations (1)
and (2) can be suitably modified to account for material anisotropy, that is to
materials whose elastic properties are different in the radial (r) and circumferential
(0) directions, as shown in Fig. 7. Details of this more complex analysis are given in
reference 9.
While these equations are valid for all cylindrical pressure vessels, it can be
shown that for very thin-walled pressure vessels, they can be greatly simplified. For
cases where the internal pressure exceeds the external pressure, the respective
standard thin-walled circumferential and radial stress equations reduce simply to:
where P
0
is the external pressure, R is the mean radius and t is the wall thickness.
Such equations are significantly easier to use than the quadratic type equations
developed by Lame. As a result, for constructions involving isotropic materials, the
thin-walled cylinder equations can be used with little error when the ratio of R/t is
ten or greater. Rocket motor cases fall into this category. However, for gun barrels,
where the R/t ratio can approach unity, it is necessary to revert to the Lame
equations.
Where materials are highly anisotropic, as is the case with fibre reinforced
polymer composites, then the above guideline is no longer valid. For materials of
this kind the radial modulus (£R) will be significantly lower than the circumferential
modulus (E
H
), possibly some forty times lower. When internally pressurised, there
is a tendency for the tube wall to contract radially, i.e. effectively squash, which
leads to difficulties in transferring load into the outermost rings of fibres. Fig. 8
shows the hoop stress distribution as a function of radius for internally pressurised
thick walled tubes (of R/t = 3) having varying degrees of anisotropy. It is evident
that for a E
H
/E
R
ratio in excess of 10, the non-uniformity of fibre loading becomes
appreciable. For this effect to disappear the R/t value would have to be 30 or more
Repairing of structures 111
for a typical carbon fibre composite. It follows that considerable caution must be
applied when designing with advanced composites for pressure vessel applications.
This is equally true for composite overwraps on metallic liners.
Methods for analysing overwrapped cylinders consisting of steel wire or layered
steel strip had been developed by the start of the 20
th
century. These arose partly
from the need to model gun barrels and other high performance pressure vessels. In
these theoretical developments simple compound cylinders were modelled via
equations (1) and (2) for each layer in turn. A succession of simultaneous equations
was then built up and then solved for the resulting constants of integration. Where
differing materials were used, use was made of the Hookian equations
8
relating
stress to strain. At the same time continuity of radial displacement was maintained
across material boundaries.
For more complex situations, where pre-stressing is imposed by thermal
contraction of an outer cylinder, equations (1) and (2) are used in combination with
the Hookian stress/strain equations, but with an additional thermal expansion term
ccAT. Here a is the thermal expansion coefficient and AT the shrink fit temperature.
A series of simultaneous equations is again developed to obtain the integration
constants.
Pre-stressing was quickly recognised as a method of:
• Inducing a compressive pre-stress in the liner to increase the effective
elastic range of the material and thereby increase the operating pressure, as
illustrated earlier in Fig. 3;
• Offsetting thermal mis-match problems between dissimilar materials;
• Rigidly clamping the cylinder components together.
For the tension winding process, the theory has been developed whereby the
tension overwrap is mathematically represented by a pre-tensioned 'elastic' band
applied around the liner and previously applied layers. The equations of state are
again those developed by Lame suitably modified to Include material anisotropy as
appropriate. However, to determine the level of contraction, conservation of energy
is applied whereby the sum of the forces through the tensioning layer, previously
applied layers and liner is integrated to zero. The resulting compressive stress
change is then added to the stress state in all previously applied layers and liner
according to the principle of superposition. For the case where the layers are very
thin, e.g. composite overwraps which are typically O.lmm thick, the resulting
summation can be represented by an integral expression to reduce numerical
computation times.
112 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
The effect of temperature and internal pressure combined can be easily
accommodated by a simple extension of this approach.
4. Materials Selection
Table 1 outlines the mechanical and physical properties of a selection of some
currently available reinforcing fibres as well as traditional reinforcements such as
piano wire, leather and cast iron. The large difference between the two classes of
material explains why overwinding has received a new lease of life in recent years.
5. Dry Overwinding
For fibre reinforced composite laminates in general, a matrix is essential for
transferring loads from ply to ply. Without this mechanism, it would be impossible
to stress a muti-layer composite as intended. In an overwind, where the composite is
essentially unidirectional, this inter-ply load transfer mechanism is not needed.
Nevertheless, the matrix still performs two further important functions. Firstly it acts
as a lubricant during the forming operation, be this filament winding, pressing or
moulding, thus preventing fibre damage. It also protects the fibres from fretting
against each other during service. Secondly it allows more strength to be realised
from the fibres by virtue of the length-strength effect. The essence of this effect is
the observation that for all types of fibre the average measured strength decreases as
the length under test (the gauge length) increases. For glass and carbon fibres, the
magnitude of this is of the order of 10% strength reduction every time the gauge
length is doubled. This is a direct consequence of the strength being dominated by
the presence of flaws within the fibres and the higher probability of a critical flaw
existing in a long fibre than in a short one. This raises the question of what the
effective fibre gauge length is in a unidirectional fibre composite. Where a fibre
breaks, the load it was carrying is transferred into neighbouring fibres through the
matrix and back in again at the far side of the break. The length over which this
occurs (i.e. the effective gauge length) depends on the shear modulus of the matrix
and the interfacial shear strength. For carbon or glass fibre reinforced plastics it is
of the order of a millimetre. Without the matrix being present, the effective gauge
length would be much greater, as the only load transfer mechanism available is
friction between fibres. A simple estimate suggests that the effective gauge length
might be of the order of the tube diameter. From the above figures, it is evident that
this would seriously degrade the realisable strength.
However, the strength of drawn wire and of ropes and leather strips is largely
independent of gauge length. Moreover none of these materials is particularly
Repairing of structures 113
sensitive to abrasion. Consequently these considerations hardly apply, which
explains why they could be applied very effectively as overwraps without any
matrix to bind them together. More recently, since the mid-1970s, a class of fibres
known as aramids (current trade names Kevlar or Twaron) has become
commercially available. These fibres have strength to weight ratios similar to those
of carbon fibres but have some useful additional characteristics. Firstly, when
coated with an appropriate size, the aramid behaves as a textile fibre and needs no
further lubrication. For similar reasons it is not prone to fretting. Secondly, with
these fibres the length-strength effect is so small it is difficult to measure.
Consequently, these fibres also offer the prospect of dispensing with a resin matrix.
These considerations came to the fore in the late 1970s, when a requirement
arose in the UK for a rocket motor case for a weapon known as LAW 80 (Fig. 9).
This was to be designed as a cheap man-portable unguided anti-tank weapon that
was to be manufactured in considerable numbers. The central feature of LAW 80
was a projectile consisting of a warhead launched by a rocket motor. A conventional
solid propellant rocket motor is essentially a cylindrical pressure vessel containing
the propellant charge. The propellant generates gas as it burns and this gas exits the
rear of the motor through a relatively small aperture (nozzle) thereby creating thrust.
Structurally, a rocket motor case can normally be treated, to a good approximation,
as a closed cylindrical vessel.
For LAW 80, the requirements for the case were:
• Low, but not absolutely minimum weight;
• Of low cost, implying rapid production;
• To be manufactured in an ordnance factory with limited experience of non-
me tallies.
An exceptional feature of LAW 80 was that it had an extremely large throat by
rocket motor standards (Fig. 10). This, in turn meant that the membrane loads in the
cylindrical wall were in the ratio of 4:1 rather than 2:1 as would be the case in a
closed-ended cylindrical vessel. This fact renders the LAW 80 case a prime
candidate for overwinding as, in principle, approximately three-quarters of the metal
can be replaced by a lightweight overwind. While this would deliver the required
weight savings, there was concern that conventional wet winding would be
unacceptabiy slow for a mass produced item of this kind. In view of this, a decision
was made to pursue the dry overwinding route, and this resulted in suitable winding
machines being installed in ordnance factories within 18 months of the start of the
programme. The technique is now established as a standard UK method for rocket
motor case construction.
114 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
There were two particularly important issues that had to be resolved before the
design of LAW 80 could achieve safety clearance, both connected with the time-
dependent properties of aramid fibres, namely stress relaxation and stress-rupture.
In the context of a rocket motor case there has to be sufficient initial winding tension
to ensure that after many years of hot storage followed by firing cold (worst case),
the overwind will not relax to such an extent that it slips along the motor tube under
the very high acceleration loads. At the same time, the locked in stress must not be
so high that it results in failure under prolonged loading at elevated temperature (i.e.
stress-rupture). An intensive programme of research was needed to establish that
there is a viable 'window' of winding tensions that would avoid these two pitfalls
and guarantee a safe design. Some of the techniques used to give this assurance are
described in the following section.
6. Associated Test Techniques
The main experimental technique used to establish the magnitude of the
relaxation and stress-rupture effects in aramid fibres is the 'split ring' test.
With carbon fibres both relaxation and stress-rupture effects are very much
smaller and occur at higher temperatures. The main technique appropriate to
measuring these, the 'dog bone
1
test, is also described.
The 'Split Ring' Test:
This test was developed in-house specifically to qualify aramid fibres for the
LAW 80 programme. The test rig, shown in Fig. 11, consists of an eccentrically
bored ring, split in the axial direction at the thinnest cross-section and bent inwards
each side of the gap. This bending prevents the fibres under test coming into contact
with either a sharp edge or a small radius that might introduce high through-
thickness compressive stresses. Each ring is calibrated through suitable loading
pins. In use, lubricating tape is wound on the area of the ring that comes into
contact with the fibre and end clamps applied to pre-compress the ring by to a
known extent. The fibres are then wound on and the clamps released, leaving the
fibres under a known state of stress. Subsequent opening of the gap can be related
to the rate of relaxation. If the ring is set such that the fibre is at a sufficiently high
stress then a stress-rupture failure will eventually result. The design and use of this
test rig is fully described in references 10 and 11, and other techniques used for
measuring the short-term strength of aramids in reference 12.
Repairing of structures 115
The advantage of the split ring is that the test specimen is compact and robust, so
that it can be readily inserted in an oven or other chamber to allow stress-rupture or
relaxation measurements to be conducted in a variety of adverse environments.
A full characterisation of the stress-rupture behaviour of any type of fibre
requires a large number of measurements of time-to-failure at various stress levels
and temperatures. This requires a large number of split rings. The plot of time-to-
failure versus stress constitutes the stress-rupture curve for that temperature. For
aramids it is then possible to superpose these stress-rupture curves to a single master
curve using temperature-time superposition. For high temperature measurements,
split rings have been manufactured from maraging steel for thermal stability. These
rings are suitable for other fibre types, in particular carbon fibre and carbon prepreg
tows.
The 'D og bone'Test
The split ring technique, described above, was designed for stress-rupture testing
of single tows in a range of environments. An alternative technique, known as the
'dog bone' because of its shape, has been devised to test resin multi-layered
impregnated carbon fibre over-wraps at high service temperatures. Fig. 12 shows
this test specimen, which comprises a short thin-walled steel cylinder, over-wrapped
with a number of layers of tensioned prepreg tow. This test has been used to
monitor the progressive relaxation of the overwrap material at elevated temperature
by measuring the changes in the internal bore. Because carbon fibres are so stable,
this test in effect measures the relaxation effects in the resin.
The 'dog bone' test piece can also be used to determine the residual strength of
the overwind by internally pressurising the cylinders to failure after a period of
exposure.
7. Toroidal Pressure Vessels
The overwinding of toroidal vessels is a direct extension of the dry winding
technique used for rocket motor cases. In studying the use of 'Breathing Apparatus'
by fire brigades and divers, it became apparent that there would be considerable
ergonomic advantages to be derived from containing the compressed air supply in a
torus shaped vessel rather than in the conventional cylindrical geometry. For
example, it would protrude far less from the back, be far more comfortable to wear
and the pressure regulator could be sited in a protected position in the central hole.
As a structure, a toroidal pressure vessel has a similar efficiency to that of a
cylinder. However, over the years, the mass of cylindrical vessels has been
116 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
progressively reduced by the use of filament wound construction on top of a thin
metallic liner. To achieve a similar result with a toroidal vessel is not so simple, by
virtue of its topology.
Toroidal winding machines are widely used in the electrical industry for winding
transformers and other items of equipment but not for filament winding. It was
evident that such a machine could overcome the problem of feeding the filaments
through the central hole, and a small machine of this type had previously been used
in QINETIQ to investigate the feasibility of winding carbon and aramid fibres on
components with a central hole. For the breathing apparatus application, the
question was the extent to which a fully filament wound solution was feasible. Wet
filament winding on to a torus is extremely difficult by virtue of the complexity of
the machine and the fact that it would need to be gripped by rollers that would need
to contact the uncured resin. Rapid indexing of the torus during winding to produce
'helical
1
patterns presents further theoretical and practical difficulties that render full
filament wound solutions unattractive. Dry overwinding represents the best
compromise, and a vessel made in this way is approximately half the weight of the
all-metal equivalent. While this is not as light as a composite cylinder of the same
volume, with the toroidal shape it is possible to eliminate the mass of some of the
structure needed to mount the vessel on the body, and this broadly compensates for
the additional mass of the vessel itself. The advantage of the torus then manifests
itself in all the ergonomic advantages discussed previously. An overwound toroidal
pressure vessel complete with a pressure inlet is shown in Fig. 13. More details on
the design and construction of this vessel are given in reference 13.
8. Concluding Remarks
• The dry overwrap technique is now well established in the UK, and is now a
favoured method of construction for rocket motor cases. There may also be some
scope for the use of carbon fibre overwinds as a means of achieving similar benefits
within a smaller volume.
• The application of modern fibre materials to the overwinding of guns is a very
attractive option, and although not discussed in detail in this paper, is an area where
QINETIQ is actively researching at present. Some of this work is reviewed in
reference 14.
• There are potentially very large markets for overwound toroidal vessels in both
breathing apparatus and vehicle applications. The technology is still far from
mature, but the design problems are well on the way to being solved, as are the
winding issues.
Repairing of structures 117
• It is worth noting that for both guns and toroidal vessels, overwinding is
perceived to be the only viable method of achieving weight reductions. For guns,
fully composite solutions are ruled out on grounds of wear, erosion and temperature
capability. For toroidal vessels they are likely to be ruled out on grounds of
manufacturing complexity.
• One recent and rapidly growing market for lightweight composite pressure
vessels is in offshore oil and gas. Several initiatives are underway to develop
flexible risers and pressurised valve assemblies, where it is believed that tension-
overwrapped structures may offer an attractive alternative.
118 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
9. References
Hogg I., Batchelor J., "Naval Gun", 1978, Blandford Press.
V. Ian., I. Hogg., "British and American Artillery of World War 2", 1978, Anns and Armour
Press.
Carman W.Y., "A History of Firearms", Routledge and Kegan Paul, 4ed., 1970.
Gardine R., "The Eclipse of the Big Gun: The Warship 1906-45", 1992.
The Handbook of Artillery Weapons', RCMS, Shrivenham, 1988.
Hodges P., "The Big Gun - Battleship Main Armament, 1860-1945", 1981.
H. Melvin., Jackson H., "Eighteenth Century Gun-Founding", 1973.
Timoshenkol S., Goodier J.N., "Theory of Elasticity"' 3ed., 1970, McGraw-Hill Book
Company, New York.
Groves A., Margetson A.J., in Proceedings of the IMechE, Design in Composite Materials, 7-
9 March 1989. 'A Design Assessment for Metallic Pressure Vessels Circumferentially
Reinforced with a Pre-tensioned High-specific Strength Anisotropic Composite
Overwind'.
Cook J., Howard A.,: in RISO Conference (Denmark) pp 187-192, 1982. "A Compact Hoop
Test for Determining the Creep and Static Fatigue of Nominally Elastic Fibres and
Rings".
Cook J., Howard A., Parratt N.J., Potter K.D., : in RISO Conference (Denmark) pp 192-197,
1982. "Creep and Static Fatigue of Aromatic Polyamide Fibres".
Cook J., : in TEQC 1983, University of Surrey, publ. Butterworths, 1983. "Tensile Strength
Testing and Quality Control Procedures for Aromatic Polyamide Yarns".
Cook J., Chambers J. K., Richardsl B.J., : in European SAMPE Conference, Paris, April
1998. "Toroidal Pressure Vessels for Breathing Apparatus".
Groves, Hinton M. J., Howard A., : in Proceedings of 17th International Symposium on
Ballistics, Midrand, South Africa, 1998. "A Review of the DERA Composite Reinforced
Gun Barrel Programme".
Fibre type Young's
modulus
GPa
Tensile
strength
GPa
Density
kgm
3
xl0
3
Specific modulus
GPa^kg'
1
xl0
3
Specific strength
GPa-m^kg
1
xl0
3
Fibre
diameter
Mm
Various fibre types
Carbon fibres
High strength - PAN-based
Inter modulus - PAN-based
High modulus - PAN-based
Ultra high modulus - Pitch-based
Aramid fibres
Kevlar 49
Twaron
Glass fibres
E-glass
S-glass
224 - 235
294 - 303
380 - 436
588 - 827
117-130
115
73
90
3.53 -4.0
5.3 - 5.64
1.9 -4.21
2.2 - 2.37
2.7 - 2.9
2.8
3.4
4.7
1.75-1.79
1.77-1.9
1.84-1.9
1.94-2.18
1.45
1.45
2.60
2.49
128 -131
166 -159
206 -229
303 -379
80.7 -89.6
79.3
28.1
36.1
2.02 -2.23
2.99 -2.97
1.03 -2.22
1.13 -1.09
1.86 -2.00
1.93
1.31
1.89
7
5
5
10
11
12
15
10
Various resin systems
Epoxy
Bismaleimide
2.6 -3.8
3.2 -5.0
0.06 -0.085
0.048-0.110
1.1 -1.2
1.2 -1.32
2.36-3.17
2.67 - 3.79
0.054-0.071
0,040 - 0.083
-
-
Other materials for comparison
Designated as Piano wire
1
Designated as Pianoforte hard rawn
2
Cast iron - grey
Cast iron - white
Leather belt
210
-
110
152
-
3.0
1.86 -2.33
100
230
30 -50
7.8
-
7.15
7.70
-
26.9
-
15.4
19.7
-
0.38
0.23 -0.30
3
14.0
29.9
-
-
-
-
-
-
1
Science Data Book Kaye and Laby
3
Using the Kaye and Laby density value
Table 1: Mechanical properties of a selection of fibres and resins
120 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
a) Closed cylindrical pressure vessel
b) Open-ended cylindrical pressure vessel
c) Intermediate case - rocket motor with large throat
Figure 1 : The membrane load ratios in various types of cylindrical pressure vessel
Repairing of structures 121
Figure 2 : The principle of overwinding is that approximately half the thickness of
the metal can be replaced by overwind still leaving sufficient metal to carry the
longitudinal load.
Note 1: In practice, the overwind ends and vessel end closures require careful
design.
Note 2: When the tri-axial stress state in the metal is taken into account, rather less
than half the metal (typically 43%) can be substituted in this way.
a) Section through a closed cylindrical vessel of monolithic metal,
b) Section through an overwrapped closed cylindrical vessel.
122 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
Figure 3 : A schematic stress-strain curve for an overwound metal liner.
W ithout pre-tension in the overwind, the stress-strain state moves from point
A to point B as internal pressure is applied. W ith pre-tension in the overwind
(=pre-compression in the liner) the liner can be made to operate over a larger
range of strain, from C to B .
Repairing of structures 123
Figure 4: Strength to weight ratios for a number of high strength metals and
unidirectional polymer-composite materials
124 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
Figure 5 : A diagram showing how early barrels were built up around a wooden
mandrel. Iron staves are temporarily held around the wood while heated iron rings
are pushed over them. The rings shrink as they cool and hold the staves tightly
together. Finally, the entire structure is raised to a "white heat", welding the staves
together and burning out the wooden mandrel
Figure 6: W ire winding construction technique. The wire windings can be seen
clearly 1 n the dissected barrel.
Repairing of structures 125
Figure 7 : Circumferential and radial stresses in a thick walled cylinder under
internal pressure loading.
Figure 8 : H oop stress distribution for thick orthotropic cylinders.
126 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
Figure 9 : A LA W 80 man-portable anti-tank weapon.
Figure 10: A LAW 80 rocket motor case showing the membrane loads in the
cylindrical section in the ratio 4 (circumferential) : 1 (axial). In principle, three
quarters of the metal in the wall can be replaced by a lightweight overwrap and
there is still sufficient to take the axial loads.
Repairing of structures 127
Figure 11 : The split ring test piece used for the measurement of stress relaxation
and stress-rupture in aramid and other fibres.
128 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
Figure 12 : The 'dog-bone' cylindrical specimen used for the measurement of
relaxation and loss of residual strength on thick CFRP overwraps at elevated
temperature.
Repairing of structures 129
Figure 13 : A 9-litre toroidal pressure vessel overwrapped with aramid fibre.
This page intentionally left blank
Development of Scarf Joint Analysis
Customized System (SJACS)
A Guide for Standard Analysis of Composite Bonded
Repairs
Toru Itoh* — Tadashi Tanizawa** — Shyunjiro Saoka**
* Kawasaki H eavy Industries, Ltd. 1 Kawasaki-cho, Kakamigahara City, Gifu Japan
itoh_toru@khi. co.jp
** Kawaju Techno Service Corporation, 1 Kawasaki-cho 3-chome, Akashi, H yogo
Japan
techno-smg@corp.khi.co.jp
AB STRACT: Automated Finite E lement (FE ) analysis system was developed as a useful tool for
the analysis of composite bonded repairs. This system, Scarf Joint Analysis Customized
System (SJACS), will guide those who have little knowledge of FE analysis and help them
build a reliable FE model of bonded repairs and obtain reasonable results easily. The system
utilizes a commercial FE analysis code and customizes it so that FE models are generated
automatically based on the simple input data of geometry, materials and loads. Shear and
peel stresses of adhesive layer as well as stresses of the parent structure and repair patch can
be displayed on the screen of a personal computer. The system was developed in conjunction
with the activities of Analytical Technique Task Group of Commercial Aircraft Composite
Repair Committee.
KE YW O RDS, composite repairs, scarf joints, finite element analysis, standardization, CACRC,
tensile tests
132 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
1. Introduction
Composite materials have been applied to aircraft structures since more than a
few decades ago. Application of composite materials reduces weight of structures
and saves fuel consumption. As the application of composite materials expanded,
airlines began to realize the inconvenience of the repair of composite structures. The
main problem of composite repairs is that each Original Equipment Manufacturer
(OEM) requests airlines to apply their own repair materials and repair processes
according to their Structural Repair Manual (SRM). If airlines operate aircraft
manufactured by multiple OEM's, they should store a variety of repair materials of
different material specifications and apply different repair process specifications
even though composite parts themselves look quite similar.
In 1991, Commercial Aircraft Composite Repair Committee (CACRC) was
established under the sponsorship of Air Transport Association (ATA), International
Air Transport Association (IATA), and Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) to
develop and improve maintenance, inspection and repair of commercial aircraft
composite structure and components as it is written in the charter of CACRC.
Members of CACRC are regulatory agencies, OEM's, Airlines, Training
Organizations, Material Suppliers, Repair Station, and others who are interested in
the activities. Through the ten years activity, ten Aerospace Material Specifications
(AMS), four Aerospace Information Reports (AIR), and five Aerospace
Recommended Practices (ARP) were published. There are seven Task Groups in
CACRC, i.e., Repair Materials, Repair Techniques, Design, Inspection, Training,
Airline Inspection & Repair Conditions, and Analytical Repair Techniques.
Members are cooperatively working to establish standard documents.
As for the standardization of analysis for composite repairs, Analytical
Technique Task Group (ATTG) was organized in 1999. As it is written in its charter,
the purpose of this activity is to develop a guide of generally accepted stress analysis
methods used for the design and substantiation of composite repairs. After two years
discussion, ATTG has almost finished drafting the standard guide for the analysis of
composite repairs.
In 1999, New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization
(NEDO) granted three years research on standardization of analytical technique of
composite repairs to Society of Japanese Aerospace Companies (SJAC) based on the
subsidy from Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI). SJAC has selected
Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd. (KHI) as a contractor to perform the research.
SJAC and KHI have participated in ATTG of CACRC since 1999 and involved in
the activities to develop analytical standard for composite repairs.
Repairing of structures 133
2. Repair and assessment of composite structures
2.1. D amage and repair of composite structures
Composite parts of aircraft incur various damages during operation. The main
sources of damages are lightning strike, tool drop, service vehicle collision, and
impact by hail, runway debris, and birds. Repair methods for aircraft composite
structures are prescribed in detail in SRM. SRM is the proprietary of OEM's and is
not open to public. However, if open literatures with regard to composite repairs are
investigated, repair methods utilized in airlines or repair stations will be made clear
to some extent (Armstrong et al. 1997), (Hart-Smith et al.1986), (Niu, 1992). Repair
methods are dependent upon the type of structures, location of damages, size and
type of damages, and so forth. Figure 1 depicts damages and repairs of composite
structures.
Figure 1. Classification of damages and repair methods
Among the various repair methods, scarf bonded repair has been widely adopted
for the repair of composite structures. Scarf bonded joint is able to transfer loads
efficiently with minimum stress concentration of adhesive layer as well as the parent
structure and repair patch at the periphery of the repair patch. Typical process of this
134 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
repair is shown in Figure 2, where a sandwich panel composed of composite skins
and a rigid form core is repaired with composite repair patch.
Figure 2. Typical bonded repair
Repairing of structures 13 5
2.2. Assessment of composite repairs
When damages are within the scope of SRM, airlines repair the damages
according to SRM. However, if damages found are larger than those prescribed in
SRM and affect the flight safety of aircraft, airlines will ask OEM's how to repair
the parts. Since airlines do not want to ground aircraft for a long time, repair method
should be determined in a short time. Airlines may propose repair methods to
OEM's to make use of their experience and repair materials in stock. Various
analytical methods have been proposed to evaluate the strength of bonded joints in
the past. Hart-Smith proposed a useful analytical method with computer codes in
1970's, which has been widely used to evaluate the strength of bonded joints (Hart-
Smith 1973). Parameters which affect the strength of bonded joints are the taper
ratio, the stiffness of the parent structure and repair patch, and the material
properties of the adhesive layer. The analytical methods should take into account
these factors. Finite Element (FE) Analysis method is also a powerful tool to analyse
the bonded joints in detail especially for the complex configuration.
3. Development of SJACS
3.1. Advantages and disadvantages of FE analysis
Although Hart-Smith method is a useful tool to evaluate the strength of bonded
joint, it gives results based on the assumption introduced in the derivation of the
equations. If detail analysis is necessary to evaluate the composite repairs, FE
Analysis is adequate means for the purpose. It is able to solve problems of complex
contoured parts as well as 2-dimensional repairs. While FE analysis has an
outstanding advantages as mentioned above, it usually takes weeks to make a sound
FE model and obtain reasonable results. Pre- and Post processors provided by
suppliers of FE analysis codes have been improved greatly in the past decades to
assist stress engineers. However, experts of FE analysis are still necessary to
perform such FE analysis. In general, airlines do not have such experts of FE
analysis, or sufficient time for the evaluation of bonded repairs.
3.2. SJA CS
In order to overcome the aforementioned disadvantages of FE analysis,
automated analysis scheme was developed to provide a useful tool for the analysis
of composite bonded repairs. This system, Scarf Joint Analysis Customized System
(SJACS), will guide those who have little knowledge of FE analysis and help them
136 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
build a reliable FE model of bonded repairs and obtain reasonable results in a short
time. The system utilizes a commercial FE analysis code, MSC visual Nastran for
Windows 2001 (vN4W), and customizes it so that FE models are generated
automatically based on the simple input data of geometry, materials and loads. Shear
and peel stresses of adhesive layer as well as stresses of the parent structure and
repair patch can be displayed on the screen of a personal compute.
This system can analyse both 1-D and 2-D repairs. Figure 3 and 4 show input
data windows of 1-D and 2-D repairs, respectively. For 1-D repair analysis, the
parent structure and the repair patch are modelled with Bar elements. Adhesive layer
is modelled by combination of two non-linear rod elements aligned tangential and
normal to the adhesive layer, for vN4W does not have non-linear spring elements.
The simplified modelling scheme (Loss et al. 1984) is employed in this 1-D analysis
system.
Figure 3. Input data for 1-D scarf joint analysis
As for the 2-D repair analysis, the parent (base) structure and repair patch are
modelled by Shell elements, and adhesive layer is modelled by non-linear Solid
elements. A cover ply, which is very common in the actual repair, is included in the
Repairing of structures 13 7
repair patch. By changing geometric parameters of repair patch, circular patch as
well as rectangular patch with corner radius can be modelled without difficulty.
Figure 4. Input data for 2-D scarf joint analysis
4. Verification by test results
4.1. Test specimen and test conditions
Scarf joint coupon tests and thick adherend lap joint tests were performed in
1999 to obtain test data to evaluate the adequacy of the bonded joint analysis. Toray
Fabric FF6273H-24 was used for the composite adherends, and FM-300K was used
as an adhesive material. A composite laminate was cured first and taper sanded to
yield three taper ratios: 1:10, 1:15, and 1:20. Then, the same composite material was
laid up with adhesive FM-300K. Tensile tests were conducted in Low Temperature
Dry (LTD), Room Temperature Dry (RTD), and Hot Temperature Dry (HTD)
conditions.
138 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
4.2. Comparison of test data and output of SJACS
SJACS was used to analyse the test specimens of 1-D repair as described above.
Input data for this analysis is shown in Figure 3. Shear stress and strain relation of
adhesive was taken from MIL-HDBK-17-1E. Figure 5 shows the shear stress
distribution along adhesive bond line for three load levels in RTD condition. Figure
6 shows the result of the specimen with taper ratio 1:15, where maximum shear
stresses at the edge of scarf joint are plotted against applied loads with solid points.
Non-linear behaviour of adhesive was accounted for in the analysis. It is clear that
extrapolation of the analysis results in the prediction very close to the test results.
Figure 5. Adhesive shear stress distribution along bond line
Repairing of structures 139
Figure 6. Comparison of analysis and test result5. Conclusions
5. Conclusions
To make use of the advantages of FE analysis, Scarf Joint Analysis Customized
System (SJACS) was developed, which will guide engineers who have little
knowledge of FE analysis and help them build a reliable FE model of bonded
repairs. Since FE model can be generated easily, this SJACS enables engineers to
perform parametric study for the bonded joints to determine the adequate repair
configuration. Results obtained by SJACS were compared with test results and
showed reasonable coincidence.
Acknowledgements
The authors would like to thank NEDO and Japanese Standard Association
(JSA) for providing adequate guidance for this study. Our appreciation extends to
Mr. Kazuhiko Inoue of SJAC for encouragement and various supports in the course
of this research. The authors express appreciation for Mr. Yoshio Noguchi of
National Aerospace Laboratory (NAL) for obtaining valuable test data. Various
comments and suggestions for this research provided by Project Committee
members are gratefully acknowledged.
140 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
References
Armstrong, K.B and Barrett, R.T., "Care and Repair of Advanced Composites," SAE, 1998.
Hart-Smith, L. J., "Design Details for Adhesively Bonded Repairs of Fibrous Composite
Structures," Douglas Paper 7637, 1986.
Hart-Smith, L. J., "Adhesive-Bonded Scarf and Stepped-Lap Joints," NASA CR 112237,
1973.
Loss, K.R. and Kedward, K.T., "Modelling and Analysis of Peel and Shear Stress in
Adhesively Bonded Joints," AIAA Paper, 84-0913.
Niu, M.C.Y., "Composite Airframe Structures," Conmilit Press Ltd., 1992.
Facing the Progress of Composite Materials
in the Maintenance of Aircraft
Claude Bathias
CNAM/ITMA
2 Rue Conte - 75003 PARIS - France
bathias(a),cnam.fr
I. Introduction
It is universally quoted that 80% of airline accidents and incidents are a result of
human error. Such error includes the actions of pilots, air traffic controllers,
engineers and others. However, improper maintenance followed as the second
highest cause of aircrafts fatalities during the 90
th
. While better engines, airframe,
navigation systems have improved the safety of aviation over the past decades, there
are still opportunities to improve the performances of maintenance.
Carrier
American Airlines DC- 10
Eastern Airlines L-101 1
JAL 747
Aloha Airlines
BM AirTours 737
United Airlines DC- 10
Continental Express
Northwest Airlines
Location
Chicago
Bahamas
Japan
Hawaii
Manchester
Iowa
Texas
Norita
Initiating Failure
Engine separation
O-rings
Bulkhead
Fuselage failure
Burner Can
Fan disk failure
Deicing boot
Engine separation
Date
5/25/79
5/05/83
8/12/85
4/28/88
1/08/89
7/19/89
9/11/91
3/01/94
Figure 1. E xamples of maintenance error (from FAA)
The figure 1 given by the FAA, lists several accidents where the probable cause
was maintenance related. In all those cases, only metallic components was involved.
The figure 1 shows the importance of maintenance in the past and at the present time
where the age of the commercial jet fleet is higher and higher. According the
inventory of the Douglas company (figure 2), of the active 2863 aircrafts on 1995,
142 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
over 1167 have exceed the original 20 years design objective. Some aircrafts have
exceed thirty years of service. It means that the maintenance program must be
developed beyond the initial standards.
Figure 2. Inventory of Douglas commercial jet fleet (from Douglas Company)
To the manufacture, weight reductions, structural requirements,
manufacturability and production costs have long been obviously priority. Only
recently, maintainability and repairability have been added to this list, associated
with composite structures.
Composite material usage has increased to typically represent about 20% of all
structural weight in current aircraft design.
For the operator, this now represents a significant percentage of structure
requiring a new range of engineering skills, materials, and equipment to maintain. It
has also necessitated the adaptation of existing inspection methods and the
development of new inspection techniques to ensure the continued integrity of these
structures. The importance of these facts has been focused in the last few years by
the number of Airworthiness Directives which have been issued on such structures.
2. Services experiences
For an historical point of view it is interesting to notice a report of British
Airways given recently about the supersonic Concorde aircraft for which of few
components were made in carbon fiber composite material. The primary flight
Repairing of structures 143
control surfaces are composite structures which have operated about six thousands
of flights at supersonic speed in conditions of heat and ultrasonic vibration not
normally encountered by such structures on conventional aircraft. When the first in-
flight damage to Concorde rudder occurred on 1990 and with no retrieved failed
parts to examine, an assumption was made that some form of impact damage
instigated a rapid failure. However, trailing edge disbond was suspected as a result
of paint stripper entering the bond line and non-destructive testing (NDT) ultrasonic
inspection was introduced at the trailing edge. Following additional problems, a
repeat four flight inspection of the remaining area was introduced. Realizing that
this regime could not continue, all rudders were removed and sent to a specialist
center for immersion C-scan inspections which, being a more sensitive technique
detected many more areas end potential areas disbond. This caused considerable
disruption to the operations of Concorde as the repair of the structure was complex
and time consuming. To enable the operation to continue and because under such
conditions so little was known about the aging effects and disbond propagation rates
on the structure, that a damage limit of one square inch was set with a repeat
monitor inspection of three flights only. It does not take much imagination to realize
the resources required to continuously inspect for a square inch defect and less still
to appreciate that the probability of missing such a defect would be relatively high.
Inevitably the only acceptable long term answer was to build a complex set of new
surfaces at considerable cost.
For a general point of view, the ACEE program conducted by NASA Langley is
the best documentation to illustrate in service experience about different composite
components (figure 3). The discussion that follows summarizes some typical
examples:
- L-1011 Kevlar 49-Epoxy Fairings
The L-1011 fairings were fabricated with Kevlar 49 fibers (in fabric form), F-
155 and F-161 epoxy resins, and Nomex. During the ten year service evaluation
period, the Kevlar 49-epoxy fairings installed on L-1011 aircraft were inspected
annually. Minor impact damage from equipment and foreign objects was noted on
several fairings, primarily the honeycomb sandwich wing-to-body fairings. Surface
cracks and indentations were repaired with filler epoxy and, in general, the crack did
not propagate in service.
- B-737 Graphite Epoxy Spoilers.
The B-737 spoilers used three different graphite-epoxy unidirectional, tape
systems: T300-5209, T300-2544, and AS-3501. the spoilers were fabricated with
upper and lower graphite-epoxy skin, aluminium fittings, spar and honeycomb core,
and fibreglass-epoxy ribs. During the 13 year-service evaluation period, several
types of damage were encountered, with over 75% of the damage incidents being
related to design details. Damage was most often due to actuator rod interference
with the graphite-epoxy skin, which was resolved by redesigning the actuator rod
ends. The second most frequent cause of damage was moisture intrusion and
corrosion at the sparto-center hinge fitting splice. Miscellaneous cuts and dents
144 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
related to airline use were also encountered. Damage from hailstones, bird strikes,
and ground handling equipment occurred on several spoilers.
- DC-10-Graphite-Epoxy-Rudders
The graphite Epoxy T300-5208 rudders were installed on DC-10 aircraft since
1976. There were seven incidents that required rudder repairs, including three minor
disbands, rib damage due to ground handling, and damage due to lightning. Minor
lightning strike damage to the trailing edge of a rudder and rib damage occurred
while the rudder was off the aircraft for other maintenance. The lightning strike
damage was limited to the outher four layers of graphite-epoxy, and a room-
temperature repair was performed in accordance with procedures established when
the rudders were certified by the FAA. The rib damage was more extensive, and a
portion of a rib was removed and rebuilt.
Components in service
Aircraft
L-1011
B-737
C-130
DC- 10
B-727
L-1011
B-737
S-76
206L
CH-53
TOTAL
Component
Fairing panels
Aileron
Spoilers
Horizontal stabilizer
Center wing box
Aft pylon skin
Upper rudder
Vertical stabilizer
Elevator
Aileron
Horizontal stabilizer
Tail rotors and horizontal
stabilizer
Fairing, doors, and vertical fin
Cargo ramp skin
Originally
18
8
108
10
2
3
15
1
10
8
10
14
160
1
350
As of June
1991
15
8
33
8
2
2
10
1
8
8
8
0
51
1
139
Start of
service
January 1973
July 1973
October 1974
August 1975
April 1976
January 1987
March 1980
<March 1982
March 1984
February
1979
March 1981
May 1981
Figure 3. NASA ACE E composite structures flight service summary
To conclude this short review, a study performed be British Aerospace and United
Airlines in 1998 is summarized. This study concerning Airbus A320, is based on
639 records and 53 airframe annual visits (figure 4). It is said that 61% of routine
maintenance actions are devoted to composite materials.
Repairing of structures 145
Figure 4. Distribution of maintenance record write-ups (639 records total) by
material type for A320 wings and stabilizer (from B ritish Aerospace)
3. Source of Defects and Damage
According to the services sources, many factors can influence the maintainability
of composite components. Among them, the most important are listed below:
- Conceptual design: damage resistance, hole effect more important than fatigue
resistance
- Manufacturing defects: voids, delamination, surface impacts
- In service defects: penetration damage, erosion, delaminations, moisture,
temperature, lightning.
4. Inspections
Compared to the relative simplicity of conventional metallic structures, composite
materials present more complexities for maintenance.
146 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
Historically the secondary structure inspections have generally been visual. But,
for primary structures the operator is increasingly having to employ more reliable
ways of detecting damage to ensure continued integrity. These methods include X-
rays, ultrasonics, thermography, and C-scan techniques. They all need specialized
technical engineers to accomplish and inevitably have additional requests. The
inspection effort is directed towards disbond and delamination, the main agents are
moisture, followed impacts manufacturing, processing problems, and corrosion of
aluminium honey comb cored structures. X-rays and thermography will successful
detect moisture. Experience (usually very costly) can however dictate that a
predetermined level of detectable moisture is cause for removal and repair.
The ultrasonic (single side or through transmission technique) and C-scan
inspections detect disbond and determination but can be affected by skin thickness
and skin-to-core bond-line irregularities. C-scan requires the part to be removed
from the aircraft.
Three recommendations for NDT to be successful in detecting the extend of
damage in composite structures are:
- Suitable NDT methods and facilities including safety
- Excellent operators of NDI equipment to ensure accurate and reliable results
- Available data bases because NDT methods are comparative in nature.
5. Repair
Repairing even relatively minor damage in composite components requires
specific materials, highly experienced technicians, special tooling, interpretation of
original drawings. Furthermore, a controlled temperature and moisture is mandatory
during repair.
It is becoming apparent to the operator that the material and the time-consuming
preparatory work for the repair of composite structures are factors not taken into
account at the design stage, but it is important for the operational economics of the
aircraft.
6. In - service lessons from Airbus fleet
In - service lessons from maintenance, inspection and repair of the Airbus fleet are
very interesting because composite structures were extensively introduced for more
than 20 years.
Repairing of structures 147
Also, investigators find themselves facing the possibility that, for the first time
ever, mechanical failure of a composite part may have played a role in the crash for
American Flight 587 on November 2001.
Following Aviation Weeks, this accident was the 15
th
fatal accident involving an
Airbus airliner (excluding acts of war terrorist) in the 20
th
years since the European
plane-maker's initial production aircraft, an A300B, first flew. In reports on each of
the 14 mishaps, investigators concluded that mechanical or structural failure did not
cause or contribute to any of the accidents.
In 13 of the 14 previous crashes, crew error was identified as the main factor.
Wind shear was pegged as the cause of the 14
th
previous fatal mishap, summaries of
the accidents show. Weather played a role in seven of the 14 previous accidents,
including the wind shear occurrence.
Models involved in the 15 fatal Airbus accidents were three A300Bs, three A300-
600s, four A310s, four A320s and one A330. Two of the crashes came during non-
revenue flights (an Airbus test flight and a training flight by a carrier).
Investigators are a long way from determining precisely why Flight 587, an
Airbus A300-600, went down shortly after takeoff, but so far, all indications are that
the separation of the tail played a key role. Six attachment fittings that hold the tail
to the fuselage apparently came free, meaning either something caused the pins that
secure the fittings to break, or the fittings themselves failed. Nothing hit the tail,
investigators said, meaning it broke away for some other reason.
Several different types of failure are seen on the composite fin attach lugs. The six
fin lugs attach steel double lugs, or clevises, on the fuselage. Three fin lugs failed at
the lug hole itself-both forward attachments and the aft right attachment to have
failed in net tension because the break line is essentially perpendicular to the pull
force.
The other three lugs (both center points and the aft left lug) failed away from the
lug hole, because the clevises are still holding parts at the fin. The experts said that
the aft left attachment appears to have failed in skin delamination. The center left
lug failed in a nearly straight line parallel to bolts added to try to stop a delamination
(figure 5).
148 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
Figure 5. Repair and fracture of the center left lug of AA 587 vertical stabilizer
(from www.ntsb.gov/E vents/2001)
It is clear from the figure 5, that the fracture of the center left lug occurred outside
the area which was repaired. For the moment, there is no evidence that one or
several of the fittings was damaged before Airbus 587 crashed. At the contrary,
Aviation Week had published a calculation showing the large rudder motions on
Airbus A300-600 R, can create forces exceeding ultimate load on the vertical carbon
fiber composite stabilizer.
Repairing of structures 149
7. Conclusions
In conclusion of this short review based on in-service lessons from aircraft
maintenance, it is shown that maintenance of composite parts is a new problem with
several facets:
- new NDT methods
- education and training of operators
- design for maintainability
- new standardization
8.References
1- http://www.aviationnow.com
2- FAA-NASA - International Conferences on the Continued Airworthiness of Aircraft.
This page intentionally left blank
Possibility of Inverse-Manufacturing
Technology for Scrapped Wood using
Wrapping Effect in Prepreg Sheet
Kiyoshi Kemmochi* — Hiroshi Takayanagi**
Toshiaki Natsuki** — Hiroshi Tsuda**
* Faculty of Textile Science and Technology, Shinshu University
3-15-1, Tokida.Ueda, Nagano 386-8567, Japan
kemm@giptc.shinshu-u. ac.jp
** Smart Structure Research Center
National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology
Tsukuba AIST Central 2, Tsukuba, 305-8568, Japan
h. takayanagi@aist.go.jp
ming.xia@aist.go.jp
hiroshi-tsuda@aist.go.jp
AB STRACT: This is a study of wood composites produced by combining unidirectional carbon
fiber-reinforced plastic and wood. The mechanical properties and strength reliability of wood
composites could be largely improved by using only a small amount of carbon fiber-
reinforced plastic. The tensile and bending rigidities of wood composites were investigated
based on the laminated plate theory and rule-of-mixtures. In analyses of bending deflection
and strain, the largest analytical errors were between the two procedures. The reason for
these differences is that the laminated plate theory deals with the off-axis stress-strain
relation of a unidirectional layer, whereas the rule-of-mixtures does not.
KE Y W O RDS: laminated plate theory, rule-of-mixtures, shear deformation, off-axis stress-strain
relation, anisotropy
152 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
1. Introduction
Global warming and desertification attributed to mass consumption and the
waste of energy and products have become serious problems. The preservation of
the earth's environment and natural resources is pertinent to the survival of all
human beings. Recently, studies on environmentally conscious composite materials
have received considerable attention. With the development of production
technology and improved production methods, wood composites can be
manufactured by simple processes. Various wood composites, such as those
reinforced with fiber and plastics, are currently being studied(Kawai 97).
As new materials and products are developed, it is very important to investigate
and predict their mechanical properties. In this study, a composite structure
composed of a small amount of unidirectional (UD) carbon fiber-reinforced plastic
and wood was manufactured in order to improve the performance of wood and
utilize the used wood, and
mechanical properties were
evaluated with the use of
tensile and bending tests.
The effect of the ply
orientation and thickness
ratio of a UD layer on the
rigidity of wood composites
were investigated with the
use of the laminated plate
theory and rule-of-mixtures.
Figure 1. A schematic diagram of a tensile test
2. Materials and methods
Vertically sawn western hemlock (Tsuga heterophyJJa Sarg., specific gravity
0.43 in dry air) is used for wood.
Prepreg,P2053-15 (carbon
fiber T800H, epoxy resin
2500, weight percent 30 of
resin) produced by Toray
Co., Ltd., Japan, was used.
It adheres to a 31 cm x31
cm wooden board at a
temperature of 170 , a
pressure of 0.5 MPa, and a
holding time of 90 min.
Specimens were cut out
from board by using a
Figure 2. A schematic diagram of a three-point
bending test
Repairing of structures 153
numerically controlled router. The tensile specimens shown in Fig.l were processed
according to the Japanese Industrial Standard Z2112 scaled down to 290mm from
390mm. Table 1 lists the specimen dimensions under the tensile and bending tests.
Specimens of T and B, shown in Table 1, are the specimens without the carbon
fiber-reinforced plastic. The number of wood composite specimens was five,
whereas the numbers of Specimens T and B were 15 and 10, respectively. Tensile
and three-point bending tests were carried out with an Instron testing machine. For
the three-point bending test shown in Fig. 2, the distance between supporting noses
was 240mm, and specimens were loaded at a loading rate of l0mm/min. The elastic
constants of the UD layer and wood are shown in Table 2. The shear modulus of the
UD layer was calculated from Hayashi's equation for anisotropic plates. The
bending modulus of wood was obtained from the deflection caused by the bending
moment obtained by reducing shear deformation. Because the transverse Young's
modulus and the shear modulus of wood were not dominant, they are assumed to be
one-twentieth (Sawada 70) of the longitudinal Young's modulus. Poisson's ratio of
wood was assumed to be 0.4 (Sawada 70).
Table 1. Specimen dimensions of wood composites
Kinds of
loading
Tensile
Bending
Specimen
No.
T
TP1
TP2
TP3
B
BP1
BP2
BP3
Number
of plies
0
1
3
5
0
1
3
5
UD layer
thickness
(mm)
-
0.137
0.412
0.686
-
0.134
0.424
0.695
Thickness
(mm)
15
15
17
17
Width
(mm)
5
5
17
17
Table 2. E lastic constants of UP layer and wood
UP layer Wood
Properties
Tensile
162.0
8.81
4.57
0.332
Tensile
11.4
0.57
0.57
0.40
Bending
12.5
0.69
0.69
0.40
154 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
3. Results and discussion
3.1. Calculation of tensile and bending rigidities of wood composites
Consider wood composites of a UD layer thickness h
s
, wood thickness h
c
, and
width b, as illustrated in Figs.l and 2. Wood composites were subjected to tensile
and three-point bending load as shown in Figs.l and 2, respectively. The coordinate
system is also shown in Figs.l and 2. The tensile and bending specimens were
symmetrical with respect to the x-axis. In the analysis, the principal material
directions of the wood coincided with the x- and y-axes and were fixed, whereas the
principal material directions of UD layer varied. The effects of the ply orientation
and thickness ratio of the UD layer on the rigidity of wood composites were
investigated with the use of the laminated plate theory and the rule-of-mixtures.
3.1.1. Laminated plate theory (Tsai et al., 1980)
Based on Hooke's law, the force tensor {N} and the moment tensor {M} of a
wood composite can be written as
For a symmetrical wood composite, the matrix elements of Aij, B y, and Dij
.respectively, are expressed as follows
where I
s
and I
C
are the geometrical moments of inertia of the UD layers and wood,
respectively. are the off-axis modulus components for the UD layers and
and wood, respectively. is the mean modulus component.
Considering that the wood composites are subjected to tensile load as shown in
Fig.l, Young's modulus E,.(0) in the .x-axis direction can be obtained by
For a beam under three-point bending with a span of L as shown in Fig. 2, the
deflection and strain at the center of a beam can be given by
Repairing of structures 155
where
3.1.2. Rule-of-mixtures.
The tensile modulus is given by
where E
s
is the modulus of UD layer, written as
and E C is the modulus of wood in the principal material direction.
For the wood composite beam, the deflection and strain at the center of the beam
can be given by
3.2. Relation between the observed deflection and strain and the calculated ones.
Table 3 shows the mean experimental Young's modulus and the calculated one
based on the laminated plate theory under tensile load. The coefficients of variance
are also shown in Table 3. For tensile tests, Young's moduli of the wood composites
increased when the thickness of the UD layers was increased. The moduli and
strength of reliability of the wood composites could be largely improved using only
a little of the fiber-reinforced plastic. For the tensile property, Young's modulus
increased by 56% when the wood was substituted for a UD layer of only 1.8 %.
Because the span depth ratio in the bending test was below 15, the shear
deformation (Sawada et al., 1968) had to be considered and was calculated based on
the energy method. Shear deformation was reduced from the observed total
deflection. Table 4 shows the mean experimental deflections caused by the bending
moment and the calculated ones based on the laminated plate theory under the
bending load. Table 5 shows the mean experimental strains and calculated ones
based on the laminated plate theory under bending load. The coefficients of variance
are also shown in Tables 4 and 5.
The bending rigidity and strength reliability could be largely increased when
three-ply UD layers were used. It can be shown that the bending rigidity will slowly
decrease as the UD layer thickness increases.
156 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
Table 3. Comparison of the experimental Young's
modulus with the calculated one
Specimen ^exp ^ f^
ca]
£
exp
/
No.
Mean C
-
V
- (GPa) £'
(GPa) (%)
v cal
T 11.4 19.5
TP1 17.8 18.1 14.2 1.25
TP2 23.3 12.6 21.7 1.07
TP3 26.6 9.6 25.2 1.06
* C.V.: Coefficient of variance.
Table 4. E xperimental deflections caused by the
bending moment at a bending load oflkN compared
with the calculated ones
£ C
Specimen exp <)
ca
, exp
No . Mean C.V." *. / ?
(mm) (%)
(mm)
°aA
B 3.86 7.5
BP1 2.61 3.2 2.73 0.96
BP2 1.63 2.1 1.59 1.03
BP3 L25 3.0 1.25 1.00
* C.V.: Coefficient of variance.
Table 5. E xperimental strains at a bending load of IkN
compared with calculated ones
c p
Specimen exp £*
ca|
exp
No.
Mea
" C.V.*
3 £
(IP'
3
) (%) (
IU
' ^1
B 5.80 9.7
BP1 3.64 3.4 4.07 0.90
BP2 2.31 4.5 2.22 1.04
BP3 U61 4.9 1.64 0.98
* C.V.: Coefficient of variance.
Repairing of structures 157
Figures 3 and 4 contain the
analytical results for the bending
test. The wood composites with
various ply orientations and the
thickness ratio (2h, Ih) of the UD
layer were analyzed based on the
laminated plate theory and the
rule-of-mixtures. Figure 3 shows
the properties of normalized
deflection and strain with respect
to ply orientation. The normalized
deflection and strain increased
when the ply orientation was
increased. Normalized deflection
and strain were lowest at 0° and
highest at 90°, remaining almost
constant at an angle greater than
45°. It can be shown from the
stress analysis of the UD layers
and wood that the stresses
predicted by the lamination
theory vary more slowly with the
ply orientations than those
predicted by the rule-of-mixtures.
It has been shown that the
analytical error between the
laminated plate theory and the
rule-of-mixtures was larger in
Specimen BP1 than in Specimen
BP3. The analytical error
between the laminated plate
theory and the rule-of-
mixtures was highest at a ply
orientation of 15° to 18°. The
reason for this difference is that
the laminated plate theory
describes the off-axis stress-strain
relation of the UD layer, whereas
the rule-of-mixtures does not.
Figure 4 shows the variation of normalized deflection and strain with respect to
thickness ratio. The calculated values of normalized deflection based on the
laminated plate theory coincided with the calculated values of normalized strain.
The calculated values of normalized deflection based on the rule-of-mixtures,
however, were larger than the calculated values of normalized strain.
Figure 4. E ffect of thickness ratio on
normalized (a) deflection and (b) strain
Figure 3. E ffect of ply orientation on
normalized deflection or strain
158 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
4. Conclusions
Tensile and bending rigidities and strength reliability can increase drastically
when a small UD layer is used. Experimental results show that the tensile property
can be significantly improved by using one-ply UD layer, and the bending property
can be significantly improved with a three-ply UD layer.
Tensile and bending properties were calculated based on the laminated plate
theory and rule-of-mixtures. The effect of the ply orientation and thickness ratio of a
UD layer on the rigidity of the wood composites was investigated. In analyses of
bending deflection and strain, the largest analytical errors were between the two
procedures within a ply-orientation range of 15° to 18° and at a thickness ratio of
2.5%. The reason of these differences is that the laminated plate theory involves the
off-axis stress-strain relation of the UD layer, whereas the rule-of-mixtures does not.
References
Kawai S., "Current trends in research and development on wood composite products",
Mokuzai Gakkaishi., vol.43, 1997, p.617-622.
Sawada M., "Strength properties of wooden sheet materils", Mokuzai Gakkaishi, vol.16,
1970, p.251-256.
Sawada M and Yamamoto H., "Studies on wooden composite beams: Deflection
characteristics within proportional limit of wooden composite beams", Research B ulletins
of the College E xperiment Forests, College of Agriculture, Hokkaido University., vol.26,
1968, p. 11-44.
Tsai S.W and Hahn H.T., "Introduction to Composite Materials'", Technomic, Connecticut,
1980, p.217-276.
High temperature behavior of ceramic
matrix composites with a self healing matrix
P. Forio and J. Lamon
Laboratory of Thermostructural Composites
UMR 5801 (CNRS-SNE CMA-CE A-Universite B ordeaux 1)
3 allee de la B oetie
33600 Pessac
France
lamon@lcts. u-bordeaux.fr
A B STRACT: The fatigue behavior of a SiC/Si-B -C composite with a self-healing multilayered
matrix via chemical vapour infiltration (CVI), is investigated at high temperatures in air. The
influence of glass healing on damage and lifetime is detemined. Contribution of various
phenomena including oxidation-, loading- and temperature-related mechanisms is evaluated
on basis of tangent modulus degradations. In afirt step, features of the mechanical behavior
and damage under monotonic loading at room temperature are established.
KE YW O RDS : Ceramic matrix composite, fatigue behavior, high temperature, glass healing.
160 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
Introduction
Ceramic matrix composites reinforced with long fibers are potential candidates for
use in aerospace industry, under severe conditions of temperatures and environment.
For instance, the SiC/SiC composites consisting of a SiC matrix reinforced using
SiC fibers display some favorable characteristics such as high mechanical properties
and a good resistance to high temperatures.
It is well acknowledged that the properties of fiber/matrix interfaces determine the
mechanical behavior of brittle-matrix composites (Evans et al., 1989, Kerans et al.,
1988). Furthermore pyrocarbon (PyC) has proven to be a tremendously efficient
interphase to control fiber/matrix interactions and the composite mechanical
behavior (Naslain, 1993, Droillard et al, 1996). But pyrocarbon is sensitive to
oxidation at temperatures above 450°C. In order to protect the PyC interphase
against oxidation, multilayered composites and matrices have been developed
(Lamouroux et al., 1995), and composites with multilayered interphases or matrices
have been investigated (Carrere, 1996, Forio, 2000). Such multilayered matrices
contain phases which produce sealants at high temperatures causing healing of the
cracks and preventing oxygen from reaching the interphase and fibers (Forio, 2000).
Damage is influenced by composite structure. SiC/SiC composites made using
chemical vapor infiltration (C VI) of a woven fiber preform display a heterogeneous
structure consisting of infiltrated tows, large pores (referred to as macropores), and a
uniform layer of matrix over the fiber preform (the intertow matrix). Figure 1 shows
an example of composite structure. Damage under monotonic loading results from
matrix cracking, first in the intertow matrix, then in the transverse infiltrated tows
and finally in the longitudinal tows (Guillaumat et al., 1993).
This paper investigates the damage and lifetime of a textile SiC/Si-B-C composite
with a self-healing multilayered matrix. Tangent modulus has been used for damage
characterization during fatigue at high temperatures..
1. Material and experimental procedure
The SiC/Si-B-C composite was produced via Chemical Vapor Infiltration by
SNECMA (France). It consists of a woven preform of tows of treated (proprietary
treatment, SNECMA) SiC fibers (Nicalon, Nippon Carbon Co., Japan), coated with
a thin layer of pyrocarbon (interphase) and a multilayered matrix which contains
phases of the Si-B-C ternary system (Fig 2). Fiber volume fraction was about 40%,
and residual porosity was about 10-13%. Dog bone shaped test specimens with the
following dimensions were prepared : 200 mm x 16 mm x 4.5 mm.
Repairing of structures 161
Tensile tests were performed at room temperature for determination of reference
mechanical behavior and associated damage. Cross-head displacement rate was 0.05
mm/min. The polished surface of specimens was inspected during the tests, using an
optical microscope. Images were recorded using a digital camera under increasing
strains : 0.08%, 0.10%, 0.15%, 0.20%, 0.25% 0.30%, 0.40%. Then they were stored
on disks using a PC.
Figure 1 : Microstructure of a textile SiC/SiC composite
Figure 2 : Microstructure of the multilayered matrix of a SiC/Si-B -C composite
Deformations were measured using an extensometer (gauge length = 25 mm).
Unloading-reloading cycles were carried out, in order to estimate tangent modulus.
Tangent modulus is derived from the slope of the stress-strain curve on reloading
(Guillaumat et al, 1993, Forio et a/., 2001).
Cyclic and static fatigue tests were performed using an Instron testing machine, in
air at 600°C and 1100°C under load-controlled conditions (Table 2). Cycling
162 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
frequency was 0.25 Hz and stress ratio R = a
min
/a
ma
x = 0.1, where o
min
and a
max
are
respectively the minimum and the maximum applied stresses. o
max
as well as the
stress applied during pre-cracking were selected with respect to the induced damage,
on the basis of the mechanical behavior at room temperature. Deformations were
measured using an extensometer with A1
2
O
3
rods (25 mm gauge length). Unloading-
reloading cycles were carried out, at a rate of 400 MPa/min (R = 0), in order to
estimate tangent modulus.
After ultimate failure, test specimens were examined using scanning electron
microscopy and optical microscopy.
2. Results and discussion
2.1. Mechanical behavior at room temperature
Tensile stress-strain curves (a-e) show the typical features of non-brittle composite
behavior (figure 3), including a non-linear domain beyond the proportional limit
reflecting damage tolerance.
Table 1 : Damage in SiC/Si-B-C composite at room temperature during
monotonic loading
Young's
Modulus
E
0
(GPa)
191
Stresses (MPa)
0
70
150
220
365
Strains(%)
0
0.37
0.1
0.25
0.8
0.86
Relative
tangent
modulus E/E
0
1
1
0.75
0.45
0.25
= 0.5V
f
E,/E
0
«
Damage
Elastic
deformations
Cracking in the
intertow matrix
Matrix
cracking in the
transverse tows
Matrix
cracking in the
longitudinal
tows
Saturation
Ultimate
failure
Stress induced damage is reported in table 1. It is comparable to that observed in
conventional 2D SiC/SiC (Guillaumat et al., 1993). It can be also noticed from table 1,
Repairing of structures 163
that the tangent modulus decreases steeply during the first two stages of damage, and
then much gently during cracking in longitudinal tows. The terminal value of relative
tangent modulus is equivalent to the minimum value E/Eo = 0.5 Vf Ef/E
0
, indicating
that the load is carried solely by the fibres (Forio et a/., 2000). Individual fiber breaks
occur under high stresses near the ultimate failure (Forio et al., 2000).
It is worth pointing out that a significant amount of damage involving the intertow
and in the intratow matrix was generated during pre-cracking (strain = 0.25%). The
corresponding value of initial tangent modulus is E/Eo « 0.45.
04 0.6
Deformatton(%)
Figure 3 : E xample of tensile stress-strain behavior for a SiC/Si-B -C composite
under monotonic loading at room temperature
2.2. Lifetime and damage during fatigue
The lifetime data (Table 2), show that there is no significant influence of fatigue
conditions (static or cyclic fatigue) nor of precracking. The lifetime drops when the
applied load is 220 MPa. Much longer lifetimes were obtained at 1100°C.
It is worth pointing out that the lifetime of a conventional SiC/SiC composite is
much shorter under comparable conditions (< 1 hour under a smaller constant stress
(100 MPa), at 700°C (Carrere, 1996)).
The magnitude of tangent modulus during the fatigue tests is determined by the
amount of initial damage and it depends on temperature (Fig. 4 and Fig. 5). The
initial damage was induced either by the applied load during the first cycle or by the
pre-cracking load. It is indicated by the initial value of relative modulus E(t
0
)/E
0
).
164 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
Table 2 : Testing conditions and lifetimes
Specimens Temperature o
max
Precracking Frequency Lifetime Lifetime
(°C) (MPa) (Hz) (hour) (Cycles)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
600
600
600
600
1100
1100
1100
1100
150
150
150
220
150
150
150
220
No
No
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
No
0
0.25
0.25
0.25
0
0.25
0.25
0.25
12h03min
I5h20min
13h23min
4h02min
4h55min
52h32min
49hl4min
2hl Omi n
***
13461
11680
***
3302
46239
43788
1675*
failure by thermal shock
At 600°C, when E(t
0
)/E
0
) > 0.47, tangent modulus decreases slowly (figure 4, test
specimen 2). The initial damage consists of two families of cracks located in the
intertow matrix and in the transverse tows (table 1). When E(t
0
)/E
0
) = 0.47, tangent
modulus remains constant during 2000 cycles and then decreases gently (test
specimen 3, figure 4). When E(t
0
)/E
0
) < 0.47, the modulus decrease is more
significant than previously (a
max
= 220 MPa, test specimen 4, figure 4). The initial
damage is more severe and it involves cracks in the longitudinal tows (those parallel
to the loading direction) (table 1).
At 1100°C (Fig. 5), similar trends are observed, but the modulus decreases are less
significant: tangent modulus decreases when E(t
0
)/E
0
) > 0.47 (test specimens 6 and
8), and remains constant when E(t
0
)/E
0
) = 0.47 (test specimen 7).
The modulus decreases reflect an environment-activated damage, which may be
attributed to extension of debond cracks as a result of oxidation of pyrocarbon
interphases. They are observed at 600°C essentially, but also at 1100°C when initial
damage involves cracks in longitudinal tows.
2.3. Failure and damage observations
The fracture surfaces of those specimens that were tested at 600°C were generally
flat, with limited fiber pull-out (Fig. 6). Examination of polished longitudinal
sections revealed the presence of cracks in the intertow matrix, in the transverse tow
matrix and also in the longitudinal tow matrix. For specimens 1 and 2, E(t
0
)/E
0
) >
0.47 : therefore the matrix cracks in the longitudinal tows were not created during
loading (table 1). The applied stress (a
max
= 150 MPa) was insufficient to generate
them according to data reported in table 1. They probably appeared during the
fatigue tests, as a result of oxidation. For specimens 3 and 4, E(to)/E
0
) < 0.47 : it
Repairing of structures 165
seems logical to attribute the presence of such cracks to the load applied during
fatigue (220 MPa , specimen 4) or during pre-cracking (specimen 3), according to
table 1. Limited healing features were identified on those specimens tested at 600°C.
Figure 4 : E volution of relative elastic modulus
during cyclic fatigue at 600°C in air
Figure 5 : E volution of relative elastic modulus
during cyclic fatigue at 1100°C in air
During the tests at 1100°C, failure occurred in those regions of specimens
subjected to lower temperatures (500°C - 600°C), as a result of the temperature
gradient associated to the cold grip testing method. Polished longitudinal sections of
those regions at the temperature of 1100°C, were inspected using optical
microscopy. No crack was detected in the longitudinal tows of specimens 5 and 6 :
E(to)/E
0
) > 0.47. In specimens 7 and 8, E(to)/E
0
) < 0.47, matrix cracks were found in
longitudinal tows. Figure 6 shows evidence of crack healing. The cracks appear to
be filled by a glass which may consist of fused silica.
166 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
Figure 6 : Micrograph showing a fracture surface after fatigue at 600°C
Figure 7 : Glass healing of cracks near a macropore at 1100°C
2.4. D iscussion
The longest lifetimes were obtained on those specimens tested at 1100°C. This can
be attributed to the contribution of crack healing, which was observed essentially at
this temperature. Extension of the cracks initiated in the intertow matrix and in the
transverse tow was detected only after the tests at 600°C. It can be related to
oxidation of pyrocarbon interphases when crack healing is not effective. These
cracks then reach the periphery of longitudinal tows. The degradation of pyrocarbon
interphases at the periphery of longitudinal tows influences load sharing, leading to
overloading of the longitudinal tows and further matrix cracking. Under larger loads
the initial cracks reach the longitudinal tows (pre-cracking load or 220 MPa).
Repairing of structures 167
Damage may be attributed to debonding induced by degradation of interphases
within the longitudinal tows and to associated matrix cracking.
The fatigue behavior is well illustrated by the plots of relative tangent modulus
versus strain (referred to as E(e)/E
0
in the following) shown in figures 8 and 9.
Pertinent strains are those at the beginning of the unloading cycles dedicated to
tangent modulus measurement. It is interesting to compare the E(e)/E
0
curves
obtained in fatigue with the reference curves determined during monotonic tensile
tests performed in argon respectively at 600°C and at 1100°C, that reflect composite
response to stress induced damage (Forio, 2000).
Figure 8 : Relative modulus versus deformation for specimens tested at 600°C.
Figure 9 : Relative modulus versus deformation for specimens tested at 1100°C
168 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
Figure 8 shows that the E(e)/E
0
curves at 600°C are well predicted by equation (1)
which describes tangent modulus dependence on elastic damage (Forio et al., 2001)
The E(
e
)/E
0
curves are always located below the reference curve.
Those curves determined under 150 MPa are identical. They are independent of
the fatigue loading conditions (static or cyclic) and initial damage. Terminal
values of relative tangent modulus are generally E(t
0
)/E
0
) < 0.47. Under 150 MPa,
a strain of 0.25% was reached. Under 220 MPa, strains are larger than 0.3%. All
these data are consistent with the presence of matrix cracks within the longitudinal
tows (table 1).
At 1100°C, the E(e)/E
0
curves obtained under 150 MPa do not coincide with the
hyperbola predicted by Eq. 1 (figure 9). They are located above or below the
reference curve, depending on the values of initial tangent modulus E(t
0
) and strain.
If the strain increase resulted from damage only (elastic deformation), the E(e)/E
0
curves would be located below the master curve and would be predicted by equation
1. When crack healing operates alone, E(t) and e (t) remain constant and the E(e)/E
0
curves would amount to a single data point (E (t) = E (t
0
), e (t) = e (t
0
)) whose
location is dictated by E (t
0
). The E(
£
/E
0
curves indicate a slight modulus decrease
(when E(t
0
)/E
0
> 0.47) or a constant modulus (when E(to)/ E
0
< 0.47) but a
significant strain increase in both cases (e (t) > e (t
0
)). Therefore, the E(£)/E
0
curves
can be logically attributed to a combination of crack healing (limiting oxidation-
induced damage) and creep of fibers (Bodet et al., 1996), responsible for the
significant deformation increases in the absence of damage when E(to)/ E
0
< 0.47
(the load is carried only by the longitudinal bundles) or with a slight damage when
E(t
0
)/ E
0
> 0. 47.
The E(e)/E
0
curve obtained under 220 MPa coincides with the hyperbolas
predicted by Eq. 1 (Figure 9) and it is identical to that determined at 600°C. This
indicates that the composite experienced damage during fatigue as previously at
600°C and that crack healing was not effective, because the crack opening
displacement was too large.
3. Conclusion
A SiC/Si-B-C composite with a self-healing multilayered matrix was investigated
under static and cyclic fatigue loading conditions at 600°C and 1100°C in air.
Repairing of structures 169
Fatigue behavior depends on temperature, loading history (i.e. initial damage created
during pre-cracking or loading), and magnitude of applied load. Lifetime depends on
temperature and applied load. A significant influence of crack healing on damage
and lifetime was determined from trends in tangent modulus and from scanning
electron microscopy. Crack healing, as it reduces or stops the amount of oxygen that
migrates towards the pyrocarbon interphases, limits fatigue damage and leads to
substantial lifetime improvements. Crack healing by production of a glass from
oxidation of the multilayered matrix was particularly effective at 1100°C. At
1100°C, crack healing, limited damage and creep were evidenced. At 600°C,
contribution of crack healing was limited. Damage during fatigue involved
extension of initial cracks and debonding within the longitudinal tows, as a result of
oxidation of interphases.
4. Acknowledgements
This work was supported by Snecma and CNRS through a grant given to P.F. The
authors wish to thank E. Pestourie for valuable discussions, SNECMA for the
production of samples, B. Humez for assistance with mechanical tests, J. Forget and
C. Dupouy for manuscript preparation.
5. References
Evans A.G. and Marshall D.B., «The mechanical behavior of ceramic matrix composites »,
Ada Met
it
vol. 37, n° 10,1989, p. 2567-2583.
Kerans R.J., Hay R.S., Pagano N.J., Parthasarathy T.A. « The role of the fiber-matrix
interface in ceramic matrix composites », Am. Ceram. Soc. B ull., vol. 68, n° 2, 1988, p. 429-
442.
Naslain R. "Fiber-matrix interphases and interfaces in ceramic matrix composites processed
by CVI", Composite Interfaces, 1993, p. 253.
Droillard C. and Lamon J., "Fracture toughness of 2-D woven SiC/SiC CVI-composites with
multilayered interphases", J. Am. Ceram. Soc., vol. 79, n° 4, 1996, p. 849-858.
Lamouroux F., Pailler R., Naslain R., Cataldi M, French Patent n°95 14843, 1995.
Carrere P.,« Thermostructural behavior of a SiC/SiC composite », Ph.D Thesis, n° 1592,
1996, University of Bordeaux 1.
170 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
Forio P., « Thermostructural behavior and lifetime of a 2D woven SiC/Si-B-C composite with
a self-healing matrix », Ph.D Thesis, n° 2171, 2000, University of Bordeaux 1.
Guillaumat L., Lamon J., « Multicracking of SiC/SiC composites », Revue des Composites et
des Materiaux Avances, vol. 3, n° hors serie, 1993, p. 159-171 (in French).
Forio P., Lamon J., « Fatigue behavior at high temperatures in air of a 2D SiC/Si-B-C
composite with a self-healing multilayered matrix », Advances in Ceramic Matrix
Composites VII, Ceramic Transactions, vol. 128, p. 129-140, 2001.
Bodet R., Lamon J., Jia N., Tressler R.E., « Microstructural stability and creep behavior of Si-
C-O (Nicalon) fibers in carbon monoxide and argon environments », J. Am. Ceram. Soc.,
vol. 79, n°10,1996, p.2673-2686.
Part II:
Development and use of
smart techniques for strain
measurement or damage
monitoring
This page intentionally left blank
Piezoelectric Fiber Composites for vibration
control applications
Development — modelling - characterization
Y. Vigier* - C. Richard** - A. Agbossou* - D. Guyomar**
* Laboratoire Materiaux Composites (LaMaCo)
E SIGE C-Universite de Savoie -73376 Le B ourget du Lac Cedex - France
yves. vigier@univ-savoie.fr
amen, agbossou@univ-savoie.fr
Laboratoire de Genie E lectrique et Ferroelectricite (LGE F)
INS A de Lyon. B at. G. Ferrie - 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex - France
crichard@ge-serveur. insa-lyon.fr
guyomar_insa@yahoo.fr
AB STRACT: The fabrication of a planar piezoelectric composite transducer made with
commercial PZT fibers is presented. A method for the PZT volume fraction control is
described and a set of resonators are made and characterized to derive the fiber properties.
Two fabrication methods are proposed for the integration of a piezocomposite actuator to an
epoxy cantilever beam. Coupling coefficient of these actuators are measured and compared to
a bulk PZT type one. Vibration damping capabilities are derived showing the advantage of
using piezocomposite. The optimisation of the proposed structure given showing the
possibility of using short fibers.
KE Y W O RD : piezoelectricity, PZT fiber, composites, vibration damping, modelling
174 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
Figure 1: The variation of the PZT fiber volume fraction with the coating layer
thickness control, r is the fiber radius andx the epoxy layer thickness.
1. Introduction
Following the development of composite materials for structural applications,
the idea of dispersing piezoelectric ceramic elements in a lighter matrix has been
experimented in the late 70's for improving material robustness and decreasing
density (Newnham 1980). One of the major realizations is known as the 1-3
connectivity piezocomposite, consisting in piezoelectric rods aligned in parallel and
embedded in a polymer matrix. This material exhibits interesting properties for
hydrostatic sensors or ultrasonic transducers. Most recent efforts led to the
development of commercial PZT fibres with diameter ranging from l0um to 250
um (Yoshikawa 1995). Sheets or plies of 1-3 piezocomposites used for vibration
control or cantilever actuation are made with one or more layers of long fibres with
interdigitated electrodes allowing the poling and activation of the transducers with a
reasonable voltage (Bent 1997). It is the purpose of the present paper to describe an
original method for the fabrication of composites made with commercial PZT fibers,
and allowing control of the PZT volume fraction. PZT fiber properties are derived
from the evaluation of composite properties on a large volume fraction distribution.
Coupling coefficient and damping performances obtained on cantilever beams
actuated with these piezocomposites are described showing the advantage of such
adaptable material. Finally, the description of a novel piezocomposite fabrication
process points out the possibility of using short fibers without much degrading the
composite performances.
2. PZT fiber properties evaluation
In order to derive the PZT fiber properties and to demonstrate the possibility for
PZT volume fraction control, a set of samples with different volume fractions was
made and evaluated using a resonance method (IEEE Standart ANSI STd 176-
1987). From the various master curves giving the composite properties versus the
Development and use of smart techniques 175
PZT volume fraction and using a simple homogenisation model, the fiber properties
were derived.
2.1. Sample fabrication
The PZT fibers used were PZT5A manufactured by Ceranova Corp. The average
fiber diameter is 138um. The epoxy used was a standard composite processing
epoxy LY5052 + HY5052 hardener from Ciba Specialty Chemicals. In order to
control the volume fraction, it was assumed that the PZT fibers could be closely and
naturally packed in a mould and that the volume fraction could be controlled by the
introduction of an epoxy layer previously deposited on each fiber as shown on
Figure 1. The volume fraction is therefore a function of the epoxy coating thickness
x. In order to be able to reach easily various coating thickness, a spacer consisting in
voided glass microspheres was added during the coating process. The following
route was used: with a usual dip-coating technique, an epoxy resin layer was first
deposited and gelified at 60°C. Then glass powder was projected on the fibers. After
final curing, a last epoxy layer was finally added. The global coatings were
sufficiently regular and the thickness compatible with the desired volume fractions.
In this process the final epoxy coating thickness is a function of the gelation time
which allows the control of the first coating adhesive force (Lee 2000).
The coated fibers were cut to proper size in length (18mm), naturally packed in a
mould (4x4x20mm) and epoxy was finally poured under vacuum to fill-in the
remaining voids.
2.2. Sample characterization
For measurements, various samples were cut: length expander bar (4x4x10mm)
for 3.3 mode characterization, thickness expander plate (4x4x1mm) for thickness
mode and lateral expander bar (4x2x1mm) for 1.3 mode characterization. A classic
conductive ink (Du-Pont E5007) was used for electroding both composite ends.
Poling of the whole batch was conducted in a 80°C oil bath with a 2KV/mm electric
field for 1 minute. This conditions were found to be a good trade-off between
remnant polarization, coercive field and a large parasitic electric leakage current and
electric breakdowns for temperature above 100°C (Lee 2000).
176 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
Figure 2: dielectric permittivity and charge coefficient versus the PZT volume
fraction for the PZT 5A/E poxy piezocomposites
Property I PZT 5A Fiber I Bulk PZT 5A
e
33
T
/£o 1064 1700
e
33
s

0
742 830
R
3
| -0.19 -0.34
k
33
0.55 0.70
k
t
0.46 0.48
d
33
220 pC/N 374 pC/N
d
3
, -75pC/N -171 pC/N
s, i ^ I . 5 5 E- I 1 Pa'
1
I . 64E- 1I Pa'
1
s
33
^ ~ 1.70E-llPa'' ~ 1. 88E- l l Pa '
s,," 1.49E-I 1 Pa'
1
1.44 E-11 Pa'
1
s
33
p
" 1.19
E
-llPa' 0.946 E- l l Pa'
1
p I 7000-7300 SI I 7750 SI
Table I: fitted PZT 5A fiber properties compared to bulk PZT material
Figure 2 shows e
33
T
and d
33
as a function of the PZT volume fraction. The results
show classical behaviours for composites and it is interesting to remark that a 30 %
PZT volume fraction composite gives a k
33
coupling coefficient close to 50% with a
d
33
close to 200 pC/N. Finally The main discrepancy was that the composite
properties extrapolation to 100% PZT was generally lower than the bulk PZT 5A
data. These values were then modified (while keeping coherence of the data set) and
the homogenisation modelling was iterated in order to get a good fit between the
theoretical and experimental values. The fitting was done considering k
33
, k
t
, d
33
, d
31
,
£33
T
> s
33
E
and SH
E
as functions of the PZT volume fraction
The final set of data for the PZT 5A fiber given in Table 1 allows a good global
fit. It is interesting to remark that most of the fiber properties like permittivity,
charge coefficient, coupling coefficient are slightly lower (20%) than that of bulk
Development and use of smart techniques 177
PZT. The results also depends on the PZT fiber batch used. This extensive study was
done on the first batch supplied, more recent but only partial results showed higher
coupling coefficients, but still 10% lower than bulk (for k
33
).
Figure 3: insertion of planar PZT fiber composite segments in the epoxy bea.
3. Integration of a composite transducer in a cantilever beam
In order to make the evaluation of the composite performances for a vibration
damping application, the piezocomposite previously described was inserted in a
cantilever structure, clamped on its extremity and vibrating on its first bending
mode. 16 composite inserts (with an average 15% PZT volume fraction), 30mm
wide, 10mm long (along polar axis) and 1.5mm thick, were inserted following an
anti-parallel arrangement on the upper and lower faces of an epoxy beam ( 400mm
long, 30mm wide and 5mm thick) as on Figure 3. From impedance measurements,
the coupling coefficient of the first bending mode was derived using the usual
relation:
where co
s
and 0}, are respectively series and parallel (or short-circuited and open-
circuited) resonance angular frequencies. The beam was further driven with an
electromagnet at constant force around these resonance frequencies. The tip
displacements were monitored as a function of the frequency under open circuit and
short circuit conditions, and then when the inserts are shunted with an adapted
resistor R (Hagood 1991) given by :
Figure 4a shows the various plots obtained in these 3 configurations, it allows to
quantify the transducer performance for a piezoelectric passive resistive damping
178 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
device. A 28% vibration amplitude reduction is obtained with an overall 21.7%
effective coupling coefficient.
Figure 4: vibration damping performances of the piezocomposite actuated (a) and
bulk PZT actuated (b) epoxy beam. O pen circuit, short circuit and matched resistive
shunt resonance behaviours are compared.
Figure 5: piezocomposite coupling and Young Modulus variations compared to the
beam bending coupling coefficient. The PZT is PZT5A (nominal data).
As a matter of comparison, the same measurement obtained with a si mi l ar beam
(Richard and al. 2000) equipped with bulk PI 94 (Saint-Gobain Quartz) PZT plates
working in the 3.1 mode exhibited a 11% effective coupling coefficient with a 5%
Development and use of smart techniques 179
vibration reduction amplitude (Figure 4b). Moreover in the later case, the active PZT
material quantity was twice the total PZT content of the composite actuated beam.
Two arguments have to be pointed out: first, in the composite, the ceramic is
working in the 3.3 mode, leading to a better coupling coefficient, and secondly the
actuator elasticity is better adapted to the elasticity of the structure resulting in
optimised coupling. This point is illustrated on Figure 5 comparing for various PZT
volume fraction the piezocomposite k
33
coupling coefficient and elastic modulus to
the beam effective coupling coefficient. Properties of the composite are obtained
with an homogenisation approach (Vigier 2001) and the global beam modelling is
made with the ANSYS FEM code. For low PZT volume fractions, there is not a
strong mismatch between the beam and actuator elastic constants, the coupling of
the composite material is quite optimal resulting in optimum beam response near a
10% volume fraction. This optimum depends on the considered vibrating
mechanical structure stiffness which could benefit of a tailored actuating material.
4. Composite beam with short fibers: UD-segmented technique
In order to simplify the fabrication procedure and to increase the global
capacitance of the final transducer, a second fabrication procedure was
experimented leading to much less manipulation stages and using interdigitated
electrodes. Figure 6 illustrates the method which gives the UD-segmented
piezocomposite (UD for Uni-Directional) opposed to the previous UD-inserted
technique.
First (Fig 6a) an epoxy beam structure is moulded (150mm long, 15mm wide and
5mm thick) and a cavity (45mm long, 10mm wide and 1.2mm deep) is hollowed on
each face. Pre-coated PZT5A fibers (40 mm long) are then inserted in each cavity
(Fig 6b). The fiber coating was set to get a 15% volume fraction as in the previous
case. Three layers are necessary to fill the cavities, they are afterward embedded
with polymer degassed and reticulated. Then grooves (0.3mm thick and 1.2mm
deep) perpendicular to the fibers are made using a diamond cut-off blade used for
the "dice-and-fill" processing technique (Fig 6c). Both fiber inserts are then
segmented into smaller sections (2mm long for the proposed experiment). The
grooves internal surface are electroded with a silver ink (Fig. 6d) defining composite
elements 2mm long. These elements are wired in parallel using a silver ink wiring
pattern with driving lines running along the beam edges (Fig 6e). After the grooves
re-impregnation, the piezocomposite elements are then poled in-situ (same poling
conditions than previously described) and are then arranged with anti-parallel poling
directions.
180 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
Figure 6: fabrication steps of the UD segmented piezocomposite beam.
Figure 7: Fiber aspect ratio optimisation of the UD segmented piezocomposite
(a) and damping performance of the experimental beam (b).
Development and use of smart techniques 181
After poling the wiring is modified to get opposed strains on the upper and lower
faces of the transducer thus allowing piezoelectric coupling to flexure motion. The
main advantage of this procedure, except less fiber manipulation, is the much higher
total electric capacitance of the actuator. For comparison, the UD-segmented
transducer capacitance is 440pF while the larger UD-inserted one was only 120pF.
Increasing the transducer capacitance means decreasing the resistance of the
matched damping resistor or allowing easier transistor switching capabilities when
implementing the Synchronised Switch Damping (SSD) technique (Richard 2000).
The beam was then characterized in terms of coupling coefficient and vibration
damping performance whith the transducer shunted with a 3.8 MQ matched resistor
according to equation [2]. Figure 7a shows a 28% vibration amplitude reduction and
an overall 18% effective coupling coefficient.
An important point is that in this last case the composite is composed of short
fibers (2mm instead of 10mm long) and very few degradation of the coupling
coefficient is observed. It is therefore interesting to derive what is the limit length
for which there is a notable decrease of the transducer performance. Modelling of
the stress transfer was conducted using the ANSYS FEM code with periodicity
conditions. Using different loading conditions, homogenised composite section
properties were obtained taking into account the fiber length or more precisely the
fiber aspect ratio (length to diameter ratio). Then the global flexure mode effective
coupling coefficient was derived as a function of the fiber aspect ratio (Vigier 2001).
The result is shown on Figure 7b. This points out that there is a slight decrease of the
coupling coefficient down to an aspect ratio of 5 (a 0.75mm length for a fiber
diameter equal 150um), then a sharp decrease between 5 and zero. This means that
piezocomposite with short fibers are still effective and that this fabrication
procedure could be extended down to a 1mm groove spacing, allowing a fourfold
increase of the capacitance without affecting much the coupling coefficient
5. Conclusion
Piezoelectric Fiber composites were made from commercial PZT 5A fibers with
an original technique allowing PZT volume fraction control over a range extending
approximately from 10% to 70%. Characterization of a batch of resonators gave the
composite properties variations versus the volume fraction. It allowed the PZT fiber
properties derivation through the use of a simple homogenisation model. Fiber
coupling coefficients were found to be 10% to 20% lower than bulk PZT. These
composite were used to perform vibration damping experiments. An epoxy beam
was equipped. Results obtained were better than with a bulk PZT actuator plate. The
piezocomposite is working in 33 mode and its elasticity is much well matched to a
vibrating polymer structure. An alternative method for the composite fabrication
was experimented leading to short piezocomposite segments. It pointed out the
possibility of operation with short fibers. The critical fiber aspect ratio resulting in
notable composite properties degradation was found to be close to 5, thus allowing
182 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
the use of short 1mm segments. Use of short segments results in higher actuator
capacitance and lower voltage facilitating vibration damping conditions especially
with the Synchronised Switch Damping technique (SSD).
Acknowledgements
The authors wish to thank the Region Rhone-Alpes for partial support.
References
Bent A. A. - Active fiber composites for structural actuation- , Ph.D Thesis, The
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, January 1997.
Hagood N.W., Von Flotow A., "Damping of structural vibrations with piezoelectric materials
and passive networks", Journal of Sound and Vibrations - Vol. 146, no.2, 1991
Lee H.S., Richard C. and al.. "Fabrication and Evaluation of 1.3 PZT Fiber / Epoxy
Composites", Proceedings of the 2000 IE E E -ISAF Symposium, Honolulu, August 2000.
Newnham R.E., Bowen L.J., Klicker K.A. and Cross L.E."Composite Piezoelectric
Transducers" Materials in E ngineering, Vol. 2, pp. 93-106, 1980.
Richard C., Guyomar D. and al. "Enhanced semi-passive damping using continuous switching
of a piezoelectric device", Proceedings of the 7
th
SPIE -ICSSM Symposium, March 2000
Vigier Y. "Materiaux Composites a fibres piezoelectriques pour applications en controle de
vibration ", Doctoral Thesis, Universite de Savoie, no. 2001CHAMS019, October 2001.
Yoshikawa S.Y., Selvaraj U., Moses P. and al.. " Pb(ZrTi)O
3
[PZT] fibers : Fabrication and
Measurement methods " Journal of Intelligent Materials and Structures, Vol. 6, 1995
Health Monitoring System For CFRP By
PZT
Ja-Ho Koo — Toshiaki Natsuki — Hiroshi Tsuda
Junji Takatsubo
Smart Structure Research Center
National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology
Tsukuba AIST Central 2, Tsukuba, 305-8568, Japan
jaho-koo@aist.go.jp
AB STRACT: In this work, we manufactured the piezoelectric ceramics transducers embedded
CFRP and its more exact source location method on microcracking was investigated.
E specially, we studied the way to determine the arrival time when high level noise is included
and to use wavelet transformation when the amplitude of symmetric mode is so small that
searching the arrival time is difficult. The transducers were able to detect the signals without
any amplifier well. Control of oscilloscope by personal computer made real-time health
monitoring possible. W hen a signal included a large noise in front of the real response,
backward searching method (B SM) was useful to eliminate it. W avelet transformation (W T)
method was useful to determine the arrival time of the symmetric mode Lamb wave as well as
that of anti-symmetric mode. O n the other hand, we introduced a theory of plate to calculate
the more exact wave velocity in any case of laminates including non-symmetric laminates.
KE Y W O RDS: smart structure, acoustic emission, health monitoring, piezoelectric ceramics,
source location, lamb wave
184 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
1. Introduntion
A large portion of the recent studies on smart materials and structures are
concentrated on CFRP (Tang et al., 1998, Prosser et al., 1999, Seale et al., 2000,
Seydel et al., 2001). CFRP has so high specific strength and rigidity that it is used at
important parts in aeronautic and astronautic field. Therefore, if it fails the loss is
also so large. In order to prevent such failure, real-time health monitoring on
microcracking like matrix cracking, debonding, delamination, transverse cracking
and fiber breakage is required.
If the microcracking takes place, the released energy propagates as elastic wave.
The elastic wave consists of symmetric mode Lamb wave and anti-symmetric mode
Lamb wave. In the case of the study to identify the source of external shock similar
to vertical shock, to deal with anti-symmetric mode is useful because out-of-plane
component is dominant. Contrarily in the case of identifying a microcrack,
symmetric mode is available as it has in-plane component.
So, in this work, we manufactured the piezoelectric ceramics transducers
embedded CFRP and its more exact source location method on microcracking was
investigated. Especially, we studied the way to determine the arrival time when high
level noise is included and to use wavelet transformation when the amplitude of
symmetric mode is so small that searching the arrival time is difficult.
2. Theories
2.1. General solution of wave velocity in angle ply laminates
In the case of arbitrarily laminated plates, for example [ 10/20/30/.../180], coupling
stiffness and coupling normal-rotary inertia coefficient should be considered to
evaluate the non-symmetric components.
We used the same assumption for the displacement field as that of Yang, Norris
and Stavsky (Yang et al., 1966). That is as follows.
where u, v, w are the displacement components in the x, y and z directions, u
0
and
v
0
are the midplane displacement components, and w
x
and w
y
are the rotation
components along the x and y axes, respectively. The stress-strain relations for any
layer are given by
Development and use of smart techniques 185
where Qij for I, j = 1, 2, 6 are plane-stress reduced stiffnesses, and Qy for I, j - 4, 5
are transverse shear stiffnesses. Defining the force and moment resultants per unit
length as
where h is the thickness of the plate, we have
where the laminates stiffnesses are given by
The shear correction factors KJ and KJ are included to account for the fact that the
transverse shear strain distributions are not uniform across the thickness of the
plate. Neglecting body forces, the equations of motion are
186 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
where and p is the mass density.
For wave propagation, we consider plane waves of the type
where k is the wave number, m and n are the direction cosines of the wave vector in
the x and y directions, respectively, w is the circular frequency, and
and are the amplitudes of the plane harmonic waves. Substituting Eq. [4] and
Eq.[7] into Eq.[6], we can obtain Eq.[8].
where MJJ are as follows
Development and use of smart techniques 187
Then, the characteristic equation for symmetric and anti-symmetric wave mode is
expressed as follows.
The phase velocity (to/k) and the group velocity (deo/dk) can be obtained from
above equation.
188 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
2.2. Arrival time determination
2.2.1. B ackward searching method
Because the detected AE signals include some noise in front of main signal, the
conventional threshold method sometimes makes mistake on determination of
arrival time. Therefore we use Backward Searching Method (BSM) which is not
influenced by the front noise. In BSM, as shown in Fig. 1, when some points group
that proceeds backward from maximum peak enters into a limited range, the last
point of the group becomes the first arrived point.
Figure 1. B ackward searching method
2.2.2. W avelet transformation method
The definition of the continuous wavelet transformation (WT) of a function f(t) is
as follows (Kishimoto et a/., 1995):
where a > 0 and the overbar means the complex conjugate. From WT we can get the
information of behavior of a particular frequency component in time domain. The
calculation can be carried out at high speed by FFT. The mother wavelet used in this
work is Gabor function (Eq. [12]). Its Fourier transform is expressed as Eq. [13].
Here, (wo is the center frequency and y is positive constant.
By WT method, we can determine the difference of arrival times for arbitrary frequency
Development and use of smart techniques 189
component because the peak on the ((0,t) plane means the arrival time of the group velocity at
the frequency. It can be applied to both of symmetric mode and anti-symmetric mode.
2.3. Source location
Suppose that Tj and t; are the true and measured arrival times of /-th transducer
respectively. The true arrival time is expressed as follows:
where (x, y) is a source position, (Xj, y^ is a transducer position, is a radius of
transducer, and Vj is the velocity in the direction. If fj is defined as Eq. [15], we can
find the (x,y) that satisfies Eq. [16] by nonlinear least-square method.
Here E is convergence limit.
3. Experimental setup
Figure 2. Photograph of the polyimide sheet with piezoelectric ceramics and
circuit
190 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
We manufactured six kinds of CFRP specimen ([0/90]
2s
, [0/±45/90]
s
, [0/30/-
60/90]
s
, [0
4
/90
4
], [0
2
/45
2
/-45
2
/90
2
], [0
2
,30
2
/-60
2
/90
2
]). The properties of a layer are
as follows : E
x
= 119.35 GPa, Ey = 9.16 GPa, v
x
= 0.355, p = 1.51g/cm
3
. Polyimide
sheet with four embedded piezoelectric ceramics (Fig. 2) was inserted to each
center layer. The dimension of the specimen is 145x200x1.8mm. The thickness and
diameter of the piezoelectric ceramics is 200fim and 5mm.
For source location test of out-of-plane AE source, pencil lead break test was
carried out at the position of x=40, y=90mm. The pencil lead is 0.5mm 2H type.
Any amplifier was not used. The block diagram is shown in Fig. 3.
Figure 3. B lock diagram of experimental setup
4. Results and discussion
Fig. 4 shows the case of [0/90]
2s
. There are four signals detected at each channel
in Fig. 4(a). The signals were modified with 0-point correction and noise filtering
Fig. 4(b). In order to avoid the influence of the residual large noise, arrival times
were searched with BSM Fig. 4(c). In this case, the source location error is very
small, about 1 mm.
On the other hand, we also tried to test the WT method on the same signals. As
shown in Fig. 5(a), the center frequency of the symmetric mode of the detected
signal (eg., 1 ch.) is 474 kHz. Fig. 5(b) shows the WT coefficients of 474 kHz
component in time domain. We let the first peak arrival time. The source location
error is also very small, about 1 mm.
In the case of the other five specimens, source location analysis gave good results.
Development and use of smart techniques 191
Figure 4. (a) detected signal, (b) filtered signals and (c) arrival times by B SM in
[0/90]
2s
Figure 5. (a) W T of channel I and (b) W Tat 474 kH z
5. Conclusions
Some piezoelectric ceramics were embedded into CFRP thin plate for sensing the
simulated AE signal in this work. The transducers were able to detect the signals
without any amplifier well. Control of oscilloscope by personal computer made
real-time health monitoring possible. When a signal included a large noise in front
of the real response, backward searching method was useful to eliminate it. Wavelet
transformation method was useful to determine the arrival time of the symmetric
mode Lamb wave as well as that of anti-symmetric mode. On the other hand, we
can calculate the more exact wave velocity with the 5x5 matrix of M in any case of
laminates including non-symmetric laminates.
References
Tang B., Henneke II E. G, Stiffler R. C., Acousto-Ultrasonics: Theory and Application, New
York, Plenum, 1988.
192 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
Prosser W., Gorman M., Humes D., Journal of Acoustic E mission, vol. 7, 1999, p.29.
Prosser W., Scale M., Smith B., J. Acout. Soc. Am., vol. 105, 1999, p.2669.
Scale M., Madaras E., J. Compo. Mater., vol. 34, 2000, p.27.
Seydel R., Chang F. K., Smart Mater. Struct., vol.10, 2001, p.354.
Yang P. C, Norris C., Stavsky Y, Ml J. of Solids and Struct., vol. 2, 1966, p.665.
Kishimoto K., Inoue, H., Hamada M., Shibuya T., J. Appl. Mech., vol. 62, 1995, p.841.
Characterisation of Fibres and Composites
by Raman Microspectrometry
Ph. Colomban
1
LADIR-UMR7075 CNRS & UPMC,
2 rue Henry Dunant 94320 Thiais, France
colomban@glvt-cnrs.fr
AB STRACT: Raman spectrometry is a unique technique providing information on the
structure, short-range order and stress of solid through the intensity, polarization,
wavenumber and bandwidth of the Raman peaks. The paper provides a comprehensive study
on Raman spectroscopy versatility as a fast and non-destructive tool for the understanding
and imaging of phase organisation as well for the prediction of the mechanical properties
(tensile strength, the Young's modulus (E )) of fibres. Selection of the laser exciting
•wavelength gives micron lateral resolution and reduces the in-depth penetration to ~<100nm,
allowing the analysis of fibre surface, coatings and interphases. Stress-induced Raman shifts
can be used to determine the stress/strain in any phase a few micron in scale. Quantitative
results follow from wavenumber calibrations.
KE YW O RDS: Raman, Imaging, Stress, Strain, Fibres, Interphases
also Consultant at ONERA 92322 Chatillon France
194 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
1. Introduction
As heterogeneous materials, composites need to be analysed at different levels: the
fibre (including coatings) nanostructure, the matrix microstructure, the fibre-matrix
inter-phase (micron scale or less), bundles and lamina/fabrics (tens of microns to
millimetre scale) and finally the structure level. Modelling fibre stress mathematically
would be difficult, especially in the case of coated fibres. Indeed, inter-phase materials
promote stress relaxation, due to higher compliance, micro-cracking or thermal
expansion mismatch. The deficiency of micro-mechanical models to predict the
composite strength was attributed to the random nature of the failure and the need to
use statistical methods, the variety of failure modes, and the very local nature of failure
initiation. Another deficiency was the lack of an experimental technique capable of
measuring stress distribution from the fibre scale (a few micrometers) to the lamina
scale (a few millimetres) and finally to the part level. The recent development of
micro-Raman spectroscopy as a micro-mechanical experimental technique has
profound consequences on the understanding of solid mechanics in general and
heterogeneous material micro-mechanics in particular. Micro-Raman spectroscopy is
the only technique capable of measuring local stress in a wide range of materials with
a spatial resolution of ca. Ium. In recent years, a considerable number of instrumental
developments were made. Microscopes allow wide solid angle collection of the
scattered light, with improved geometrical resolution (confocal setting). Yet, series-
imaging (also called mapping) of an area can be achieved by a step-by-step scanning
of the sample, with a finely focused laser beam. Raman spectra fitting procedures then
allow the reconstruction of various maps.
2. The Fibre Nanostructure Level
The Raman effect results from the modulation of the (laser) light by optical
vibrations of the atoms/molecules. If the energy of the laser approaches those of the
various electronic states of the material (in other words if the material is coloured),
then near-resonant/resonant Raman scattering occurs and the penetration depth can
be reduced to a few tens of nanometers. This makes Raman microscopy a method of
surface analysis (Colomban 00). Raman spectroscopy is sensitive to the chemical
bonds as well as to their relative organisation and allows analysis whatever the state
of polymorphism or crystallinity of the compound. The use of various exciting laser
lines allows a specific, topological or chemical analysis.
2.1. Correlation between Raman Spectra and Particle Size
In "large" crystals, the phonons propagate "to i nfi ni t y" and the first order Raman
spectrum only consists of "q=0" Brillouin zone centre phonon modes (momentum
selection rule). However, since impurities or lattice disorder, including the surface
Development and use of smart techniques 195
where atoms environment is singular, destroy crystalline perfection, the pnonon
function of many crystals is spatially confined. This results in band broadening and
wavenumber shifts and can enhance the intensity of symmetry forbidden modes.
This was first observed for semi-conductors but also exists in most materials issued
from liquid or polymeric routes (Suzuki et al, 01). This phenomenon becomes
dominant in nano-sized grains because the number of atoms at or near the surface
becomes equal to those in the bulk. Thus, important information regarding the lattice
disorder can be obtained from simple shape analysis of Raman bands, which can be
made using the spatial correlation model. Figure 1 presents the Raman spectra of a
SiC fibre and its fit according to the spatial correlation model. See Colomban et al.
(Colomban et al, 02) for a comparison of SiC grain size in various fibres.
Band assignments in disordered carbons are still being discussed. Pure diamond
and graphite having sharp peaks at 1331 and 1581 cm'
1
, respectively, the first
temptation was to assign the main two bands of amorphous carbons to diamond-like
and graphite-like entities, the reason why the bands were named D and G (Fig. 1).
There is actually no doubt that G band ensues from the stretching mode of C
sp
- C
sp
bonds (E
2g
symmetry in graphite crystals). Resonance excites the bonds and makes the
usual "structural approach" (group theory assignment) inappropriate. C
sp
2
-C
sp
3
bonds
must concentrate at carbon crystallite grain boundaries, in contact with the favourably
sp
3
-hybridized Si and C atoms of the SiC fibre network. On account of the small size
of carbon moieties, their contribution will be large. The density of these bonds is
proportional to L
g
2
, where L
g
represents the mean size of graphitic moieties, while
C
sp
2
-C
sp
2
density should obey L
g
3
dependence. As a matter of fact, the intensity ratio
ID/IG is proportional to L
g
"' (Gouadec et al., 01; ib. 02; Tuinstra et al., 70).
Figure 1: Centre, example of Raman spectrum of a H i-S Nicalon™ SiC fibre
showing both the SiC and C fingerprints (A, = 5145nm, see the text for the label
explanation); left, detail on the Si-C modes region (TO and LO modes) fitted with
the phonon confinement model. L is the calculated "grain" size and q the wave
vector position within the B rillouin zone; right, modification of the C-C bond
stretching modes for 12 different exciting wavelengths in the 450-680 nm range.
196 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
2.2. Correlation between Raman Spectra and Strength
Each point on Fig. 2 (left) corresponds to a given annealing temperature. There is
obviously a linear correlation between the ultimate strength in SiC fibres and Raman
D
1350
band parameter. Its wavenumber and width shi ft respectively by 10 cm"
1
and
15 cm"
1
every GPa (Gouadec et a/., 01; Colomban et al., 02). The linearity suggests
macroscopic (strength measurement) and microscopic (Raman spectrum) responses
to stress obey the same phenomenon. The average failure strength can be considered
as the summation of the local response (seen in Raman) of the chemical bonds to
micro-stress. Other correlation, between Raman spectra and micro-hardness, have
been evidenced and discussed (Amer et al., 99; Gouadec et at., 01). In carbon-rich
fibres, the S
e
extensometry parameter (see further) is proportional to
E
-0.5
(Gouadec etal. 02).
Figure 2: Correlation between Raman parameters (D band: left y-axis, the
wavelength; right y-axis, the bandwidth "L") of NLM and H i Nicalon
IM
SiC fibres
and the mechanical strength measured at different temperatures (x-axis). The plot of
the full-width-at-half-height of carbon peak shows the diffusion of carbon during the
synthesis of the composite (black dots, pristine fibre; open dots, embedded in Ti
alloy).
3. The Composite Micrestructure Level
3.1. Phase Analyse of Coatings and Interfacial Regions
It is well established that the nature of the fibre-matrix interfacial region is very
important for the thermo-mechanical behaviour of composites. Information about
the change of the fibre surface can be obtained from the examination of extracted
fibres or by in situ analysis of the fibre surface, periphery and core on composites
sections polished nearly parallel to the fibre axis (Gouadec et al, 01). Coating and
surrounding matrix can be analysed in the same way. For instance Figure 3 shows a
spectral map-scan (2|xm step) recorded on a perpendicular section of a SCS-6
Development and use of smart techniques 197
Textron™ fibre embedded in a Ti6242 alloy (Gouadec et al, 00, Colomban 00).
Fives zones are straightforward. From the fibre periphery: i) the pure carbon
overcoating, the pure SiC outer zone with the broad SiC fingerprint characteristic of
nanosized, heavily faulted SiC, iii) the zone containing highly disordered graphitic
carbon and various types of SiC polytypes, iv) a carbon interphase and v) the
graphitic carbon core fibre. Comparison between the spectra of a pristine SCS-6
fibre and that embedded in the Ti6242 alloy (Fig. 2) evidences the physical and
chemical changes induced by the processing, the carbon diffusion from the core to
the first fibre periphery.
Figure. 3: Map-scan along the white rectangle on the optical micrograph (2/Mn
step) showing the different Raman spectra imaging the carbon content of a (140jUm
diameter) SCS-6 Textron™ fibre embedded in a Ti 6242 alloy. Carbon spectra of
H i-Nicalon™ fibres embedded in a celsian matrix in "micros-configuration
(examination of a single fibre) and "macro"-configuration (simultaneous
examination of more than 1500 fibres) with A= 514.5 nm.
Similar analyse has been made on Hi Nicalon™ fibres reinforced monoclinic
celsian prepared at the NASA Glenn Research Center (Cleveland, USA) (Gouadec
etal.,01).
4. In situ Stress and Strain Measurement
Usually the harmonic oscillator approximation is used to describe the atomic
motions. Within this approximation, solid lattice spacings and Raman wavenumbers
should be independent of the temperature. When anharmonicity is taken into
account, the vibrational energy level of the oscillator are not equally spaced and the
potential is anymore symmetrical: any stress- (Ae), pressure-(Ap), temperature-(AT)
induced interatomic distance alteration should change the interatomic force
198 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
constants and results in atomic vibrations wavenumber shift. (Av), e.g. for the strain
Ae and the stress Aa (Colomban 00):
This is the principle of Raman extensometry.
Following the pioneer works of Anastassakis and of Gardiner on the study of
stressed silicon and oxide films, Galiotis (Galiotis 93) and Young (Young 94) were
the first to demonstrate that the stress-induced-Raman shift could be used to follow
the deformation of aramid and carbon fibres in polymer-matrix model composites.
The results, obtained through this method on carbon fibres-reinforced (model)
polymer matrix composites, have been extensively discussed by Schadler & Galiotis
Schadler et al., 95), Beyerlein et al. (Beyerlein et al, 98), Kawagoe et al,
(Kawagoe et al, 99), Amer & Schadler (Amer et al, 99) and Galiotis et al. (Galiotis
et al, 99). Most studies over the past ten years concerned carbon and aramid fibres
and their reinforced model composites, but some data on SiC/C fibres embedded in
different matrices are now available (Yang et al, 94, ib 96, Gouadec et al, 98;
Chollon et al, 98, Colomban 00, Colomban et al, 02). The study of Ceramic
(CMCs) and Metal Matrix (MMCs) Composites is more complex. It is mandatory to
check that the wavenumber shift provoked by the local laser-induced heating
remains lower than the wavenumber determination accuracy. The calibration
procedure on single fibres loaded by controlling the applied strain is described by
Gouadec et al., 98. Fibres extracted from composites or thermally treated, in order to
mimic the surface evolution during the composite synthesis need to be used to
obtain more reliable data. S
e
, is close to -7 and -10 cm'V% for carbon fibres,
-4 cm'V% and -2.7 cm-'/% for the NLM-Nicalon™ and Hi-Nicalon™ SiC fibres.
Isolated carbon precipitates have typical -2/-3 cm"V%. S
e
increases with Raman band
order, i.e. by using an harmonics or a combination band as a probe: S
e
is -28.9 cm"
V% for the second order 4290 cm'
1
combination (2xD+G) of the FT700™ carbon
fibre (Tonen, Japan) when first order Sp is only - 9.2 cm"V% (Gouadec et al. 02).
4.2. Limitations of the Technique and Corrections
The major limitations of the techniques are: i) a poor transparency of the matrix
for many "real" composites, ii) the rather small wavenumber shift which makes a
well-defined procedure mandatory and iii) the fact that thermally induced Raman
shifts depend on the illuminated and the adjacent phases (thermostat). Another
limitation is that the fibre strain is calibrated only in the axial direction. Although,
the translucency of ceramic/polymer matrices is sometimes sufficient to perform
analysis of embedded fibres (up to 20-50 urn below the surface (Karlin et al. 97, ib
98, Wu et al., 97) analysis is usually performed on polished sections. This is
mandatory for metal (MMCs) and ceramic (CMCs) matrix composites. However,
Development and use of smart techniques 199
given the difference in matrix stiffness with respect to organic matrices, the transfer
length reduces to a few microns or less (to be compared with hundreds of microns
for polymer matrix composites. Hence, valuable data can be measured on MMC or
CMC polished sections (Wu et al, 97; Gouadec et al., 00; ib 01).
Examples of in situ results are sketched in Figure 3 & 4. The Reference
wavenumber is obtained on the non-embedded, bare, coated or extracted fibres. Any
localised heating induced by the laser impact will lead to an overestimate of tensile
stresses and an underestimation of compressive ones (Gouadec et al., 01).
Figure 4: Schematic of the error when thermal effects are neglected: solid line,
measurement without any correction; dashed line: corrected wavenumber after
subtraction of the thermal induced down shift.
Not only the recording conditions but also the statistical dispersion between the
fibres (batch, diameter, coating, environment...) must be taken into account to
ascertain the effect of chemical degradation or stress concentration on the Raman
spectra. The best method to obtain a statistical view is macro Raman examination
(Fig. 3). With the ca. 2-3 mm diameter of the laser (macro) spot, thousands of fibres
can be examined simultaneously. The recorded spectrum integrates the contribution
of all the fibres. Such a study using macro-configuration is very promising to
determine the mean properties of composites. However good spectra are only
obtained if the fibre spectrum dominates those of the matrix and coatings.
5. Perspectives
The improved sensitivity of the most recent spectrometers decreases the
recording time requested to map relevant parameters and, hence, facilitates the
imaging of the physical, structural and chemical state, at the micron scale.
Unpublished results show S
e
depends on the laser wavelength, which is correlated
with laser penetration, for carbon bands. In-depth probing might be considered.
Laser polarisation might also improve the accuracy of the method and could makes
possible the discrimination between axial and radial components.
200 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
The author wishes to thank Drs. S. Karlin, J. Wu, G. Gouadec and M. G. Sagon,
for their contributions. Special thanks are due to Drs N.P. Bansal (NASA) and M.
Parlier (ONERA) for the samples they provided us with.
6. References
Amer M.S., Schadler L.S., "The Effect of Interphase Toughness on Fibre/Fibre Interaction in
Graphite/Epoxy Composites: An Experimental and Modelling Study," Journal of Raman
Spectroscopy, vol.30, no. 10, 1999, p.919-28.
Amer M. S., Busbee J., Leclair S.R., Maguire J. F., Johns J., Voevodin A., "Non-destructive,
In situ, Measurements of Diamond-like-Carbon Film Hardness using Raman and Rayleigh
Scattering", Journal of Raman. Spectroscopy, vol 30, no. 10, 1999, p. 947-50.
Amer M.S., Schadler L.S., "The Effect of Interphase Toughness on Fibre/Fibre Interaction in
Graphite/Epoxy Composites: An Experimental and Modelling Study," Journal of Raman
Spectroscopy, vol.30, no. 10, 1999, p.919-28.
Beyerlein I.J., M.S. Amer, L.S. Schadler, S.L. Phoenix, "New Methodology for Determining
in-situ Fibre, Matrix and Interfaces Stresses in Damaged Mult i fi ber Composites", Science
and Engineering Composites Materials, vol. 7, no. 1-2, 1998, p.151-204.
Chollon G., Takahashi J., "La microscopic Raman appliquée aux composites Carbon/Carbon",
Actes des I I
cmes
Journees Nationales sur les Composites -JNC //, Arcachon, 18-20
Novembre 1998, vol. 2, AMAC, Paris, p. 777-85
Colomban Ph., "Raman Micro-spectrometry and Imaging of Ceramic Fibers in CMCs and
MMCs"; in Advances in Ceramic Matrix Composites V; Ceramic. Transactions, vol. 103,
2000, p.517-540.
Colomban Ph., "Raman Micro-spectrometry and Imaging of Ceramic Fibers in CMCs and
MMCs", Ceramic. E ngineering Science Proceedings, vol. 21, no. 3, 2000, p. 143-53.
Colomban Ph., Gouadec G., " Non-destructive Mechanical Characterization of (nano-sized)
Ceramic Fibers", Actes 7"' Conference & E xhibition of the E uropean Ceramic society -
E uro Ceramics VII, Brugge, 9-13 September 2001, Key E ngineering Materials vols. 206-
213, 2002, p. 677-80.
Galiotis C., "Laser Raman Spectroscopy, a new Stress/strain Measurement Technique for the
Remote and on-line Non-destructive Inspection of Fiber Reinforced Polymer
Composites", Materials Technology, vol. 8, no.9-10, 1993, p.203-9.
Galiotis C., Paipetis A., Marston C., "Unification of Fibre/Matrix Interfacial Measurements
with Raman Microscopy," Journal of Raman. Spectroscopy, vol. 30, no. 10, 1999, p. 899-
912.
Gouadec G., Karlin S., Colomban Ph., "Raman Extensometry Study of NLM202 and Hi-
Nicalon SiC Fibres," Composites Part B , vol. 29B, 1998, p. 251-61.
Development and use of smart techniques 201
Gouadec G., Colomban Ph., "De 1'analyse micro/nanostructurale et micromecanique a
1'imagerie des fibres de renfort d'un composite a matrice metallique", Journal de Physique
IV France, vol 10, 2000, p. Pr4-69-PR4-70.
Gouadec G., Colomban Ph., " Non-Destructive mechanical characterization of SiC fibers by
Raman spectroscopy", Journal of The European Ceramic Society, vol.21, 2001, p. 1249-
59.
Gouadec G., Colomban Ph., Bansal N. P., "Raman study of Hi-Nicalon-Fiber-Reinforced
Celsian Composites: I, Distribution and Nanostructure of Different Phases", Journal of
The American Ceramic Society, vol 84 no.5, 2001, p.l 129-35.
Gouadec G., Colomban Ph., Bansal N. P., "Raman study of Hi-Nicalon-Fiber-Reinforced
Celsian Composites: II, Residual Stress in Fibers", Journal of The American Ceramic
Society, vol. 84, no. 5, 2001, p.l136-42.
G. Gouadec, Ph. Colomban, "Measurement of the residual Stress of Matrix-Embedded Fibers
by Raman Spectrometry: State of the Art and Perspectives", Actes 7
th
Conference &
E xhibition of the E uropean Ceramic Society - E uro Ceramics VII, Brugge, 9-13
September 2001, Key E ngineering Materials, vols. 206-213, 2002, p. 617-20.
Gouadec G., Forgerit J.P., Colomban Ph., " Choice of the working conditions for Raman
extensometry of carbon and SiC fibers by 2D correlation", Composites Sciences &
Technology, 2002.
Karlin S., Colomban Ph., "Raman Study of the Chemical and Thermal Degradation of As-
Received and Sol-Gel Embedded Nicalon and Hi-Nicalon SiC Fibres Used in Ceramic
Matrix Composites," Journal of Raman Spectroscopy, vol. 28, 1997, p.219-28.
Karlin S., Colomban Ph., "Micro Raman study of SiC-oxide matrix reaction," Composites
Part B , vol. 29B, 1998, p. 41-50.
Kawagoe M., Hashimoto S., Nomiya, M. Morita M., Qiu J., Mizuno W., Kitano H.," Effect
of Water Absorption and Desorption on the Interfacial Degradation in a Model Composite
of an Aramid Fibre and Unsaturated Polyester Evaluated by Raman and FT Infra-red
Microspectroscopy", Journal of Raman Spectroscopy, vol. 30, no. 10, 1999, p. 913-18.
Schadler L.S., Galiotis C, "Fundamentals and Applications of Micro Raman Spectroscopy to
Strain Measurements in Fibre-Reinforced Composites," International Material Review,
vol. 40, no. 3, 1995, p. 116-34.
Suzuki T., Kosacki I., Anderson H., Colomban Ph., "Electrical Conductivity and lattice
defects in Nanocrystalline Cerium oxide thin films", Journal of The American Ceramic
Society vol. 84 no. 9,2001, p. 2007-14.
Tuinstra F., Koenig J.L., "Characterization of Graphite Fiber Surfaces with Raman
Spectroscopy," Composites Materials, vol. 4, 1970, p. 492-99.
Wu J., Colomban Ph., "Raman Spectroscopy Study on the Stress Distribution in the
Continuous Fibre-Reinforced CMC," Journal of Raman Spectroscopy, vol. 28, 1997, p.
523-29.
Yang X., Young R.J., "Fibre Deformation and Residual in Silicon Carbide Fibre Reinforced
Glass Composites", B ritish Ceramic Transactions, vol. 93, no. 1, 1994, p. 1-10.
202 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
Yang X., D.J. Bannister, R.J. Young, "Analysis of the Single-Fiber Pullout Test Using Raman
Spectroscopy: Part I I I , Pullout of Nicalon Fibers from a Pyrex Matrix", Journal of The
American Ceramic Society, vol. 79, 1996, p. 1868-74.
Young R.J., " Raman Spectroscopy and Mechanical Properties", in Characterization of Solid
Polymers, S.J. Spells Ed., p. 224-75, London, Chapman & Hall, 1994.
Demonstrator Program in Japanese Smart
Material and Structures System Project
Tateo Sakurai* — Naoyuki Tajima* — Nobuo Takeda**
Teruo Kishi***
* R&D Institute of Metals and Composites for Future Industries
3-25-2 Toranomon, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-0001, Japan
sakurai@rimcof.or.jp
tajima@rimcof.or.jp
** Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo
*** National Institute for Materials Science
A B STRA CT: The Japanese Smart Material and Structure System Project has started in 1998 and
has been developing several key sensor and actuator elements. This project consists of four
research groups such as structural health monitoring, smart manufacturing, active/adaptive
structures, and actuator materials/devices. In order to integrate the developed sensor and
actuator elements into a smart structure system and show the validity of the system, two
demonstrator programs have been established. B oth demonstrators are CFRP stiffened
cylindrical structures with 1.5m in diameter and 3m in length. A Damage Detection and
Damage Suppression function is to be demonstrated by the first one, and the second one
demonstrate a suppression of vibration and acoustic noise generated in the composite
cylindrical structure. The present status of the demonstrator program is presented.
K E Y W O RDS: smart materials and structures, composite structures, damage detection, damage
suppression, noise and vibration reduction
204 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
1. Introduction
The "R&D for Smart Materials and Structures System" project has proceeded
since late 1998 as the five-year program, being supported by NEDO (New Energy
and Industrial Technology Development Organization), Japan. The project is one of
the Academic Institutions Centered Programs, namely, collaborated research and
development among universities, industries and national laboratories. At first, it
consisted of four sub-themes which were 1) Health Monitoring, 2) Active and
Adaptive Structures, 3) Smart manufacturing, and 4) Actuator Materials and
Devices. In early 2000, the Concept Demonstrator Program was added to the
project. It is aimed at evaluating what extent research and development items of sub-
themes have attained their targets and establishing common basic technologies for a
future " Smart Structure System".
The Concept Demonstrator is focused on an aircraft fuselage of the composite
structures and designed to integrate several research and development results into it.
Two demonstrators are being manufactured. The one is aimed at Damage Detection
and Damage Suppression, and the other is at Noise and Vibration Reduction.
The NEDO "R&D for Smart Materials and Structures" project in Japan is now the
first runner of the Academic Institution Centered Programs in Japan, where the
collaborated research and development among universities, industries and national
laboratories are conducted. Seven universities, seventeen companies and one
national laboratory take part in the project. RIMCOF (R&D Institute of Metals and
Composites for Future Industries) is the management office of the project. The
project includes the above four sub-themes and the Concept Demonstrator Program.
Four sub-themes are mainly basic element level research and development and the
Concept Demonstrator is actual application-oriented one. The organization of the
project is shown in Figure 1.
The Concept Demonstrator
is designed so as to integrate
research and development
results of four sub-themes. Of
course, we could not use any
results at the start point of the
project. Therefore we started
the preliminary design of the
Concept Demonstrator two
years later after the research
and development of four sub-
themes started.
Figure 1. O rganization of the
project
Development and use of smart techniques 205
2. Selection of demonstration themes
Before starting the preliminary design, we discussed what themes were
appropriate for the purpose of the Concept Demonstrator Program. At first, we asked
participating members for submission of demonstration theme proposal. Over
thirteen proposals were submitted, but it was difficult to include all of them into one
or two demonstrators. So, we selected demonstration themes in accordance with the
following criteria, namely;
1) Is the theme an advanced technology?
2) Do users need the theme for future fuselage structures of an aircraft?
3) Is it possible to show the results of the developed research and development
on the demonstrator?
4) Is it appropriate to schedule of the project?
Finally, seven themes were selected and classified into the following categories as
shown in Table 1.
They are also divided into groups for two Demonstrators respectively, that is;
(1) Damage Detection and Damage Suppression: Theme #1 through #6
(2) Noise and Vibration Reduction: Theme #7
Table 1. Demonstration themes
#
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Demonstration
Categories
Real Time Detection of
Impact Damage
Damage Detection
Damage Suppression
Smart Manufacturing
Noise and Vibration
Reduction
Demonstration Themes
Optical Fiber Sensors Embedded into CFRP
Laminated Structures
Integrated Acoustic Emission Sensor Network
Systems
Strain Distribution Measurement in Wide Area
Using Distributed BOTDR*
1
sensors
Damage Detection by electric conductivity change
in Smart Patch (Carbon fiber composite sheets)
Damage Suppression System Using Embedded
SMA (Shape Memory Alloy) Foils
Smart Manufacturing of Low Cost Integrated
Panel by RTM (Resin Transfer Molding)
Noise and Vibration Reduction Technology in
Aircraft Internal Cabin
* 1 Brillouin Optical Time Domain Reflectometer
206 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
3. Concepts of demonstrators
As mentioned earlier, the demonstrator is focused on an aircraft fuselage.
Although it is desirable to test ful l size fuselage in the view of actual demonstration,
it is expensive and takes long time in design and manufacture. Moreover, it needs
wide space and a lot of test and measurement facilities. On the other hand, it is
difficult for a small demonstrator to simulate primary physical parameters of the
full-scale fuselage due to minimum gauge of materials and standard parts (bolts,
nuts, rivets and so on). Stress and strain are key parameters for demonstration theme
#l-#6 of Table 1 (Damage Detection and Damage Suppression) and natural
frequencies for #7 (Noise and Vibration Reduction). As a result of trade-off study,
the diameter of 1.5m (approximately 1/3-scaled size of a small class jetliner) is
determined.
It is impossible for the 1/3-scaled demonstrator to simulate both parameters of
stress/strain and natural frequencies simultaneously and, moreover, it is difficult for
only one demonstrator to perform all tests within the period of limited schedule.
Consequently we decided to prepare two demonstrators.
Structures of the demonstrators are mainly made of composites, but some parts
that are not influential for physical parameters are made of metals due to
development cost reduction. Because of simulating an aircraft fuselage, inner
pressure and external bending moment are to be loaded for the Damage Detection
and Damage Suppression Demonstrator. On the other hand, speakers and/or shakers
excite externally the Noise and Vibration Reduction Demonstrator without bending
moment and inner pressure. Images of both demonstrators are shown in Figure 2 and
Figure 3 respectively.
Figure 2. "Damage detection and damage suppression demonstrator" left
Figure 3. "Noise and vibration reduction demonstrator" right
Development and use of smart techniques 207
4. Damage detection & damage suppression demonstrator
4.1. Structure of test article
Preliminary design of test article for the Damage Detection and Damage
Suppression Demonstrator is summarized below, and the outline of the test article is
shown in Figure 4.
-Test article: consists of composite materials, simulating an aircraft fuselage with a
length of 3m and diameter of 1.5m.
-Structure: a build-up structure with composite skin-stringer panels and aluminum
alloy frames. The panels are divided into four along the circle, and also the support
and the loading jigs at both ends are also divided into four corresponding to the
panels. The bulkhead panel can be freely removed/mounted, allowing a fastener
joint to be connected to the loading jig section.
-Arrangement: The frame and stringer have a pitch of about 500mm and 150-
200mm, respectively. The test article has a floor inside of the fuselage for test
preparations.
-Material: The skin-stringer panels are carbon fiber reinforcement composite. The
frames are made of aluminum alloy such as 2024 and 7075. The support and loading
jigs at both ends are made of steel.
Figure 4. Demonstration test article
208 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
(1) Upper panel
The upper panel is divided into three lengthwise at STA1000 and STA2000. The
skin in the range of STA1000-2000 is integrated with small-diameter optical fiber
newly development in the present project for impact damage detection. The skin and
stringer of upper panels are co-cured. Connection on the horizontal axis is made
with butt joints.
(2) Side panels
The side panels are not divided in the 3m lengthwise directions, and the skin-
stringer panels are co-cured. The external panels have optical fibers embedded under
the layers of the skin and stringer between STA500 through 2500 as BOTDR sensors
for wide- range strain distribution measurement.
(3) Bottom panel
The bottom panel is divided into three lengthwise at STA 1500 and STA2500.
Shape memory alloy foils are embedded in the external panel on the STA 1500 -
2500 starboard for damage suppression. To reduce the production risk, the skin and
stringer are assembled with the secondary bonding. Likely with the top panel, the
connection on the length of the panels are made with butt joints, and the joints with
the side panels are made with lap joints allowing it to pull out the electric heating
terminals.
(4) Bulkhead panel
A part of the pressure bulkhead at the load side has a removable structure, where
the RTM formed panel is attached for the pressure test.
4.2. Test
(1) Test fixture
The Demonstrator is mounted to the test frame on the cantilever mode, and the
fuselage bending load and internal pressure are applied.DFigure5 illustrates the
demonstrator test setup.
(2) Test loadO
Shear load (approx. 20 tons at max) is applied to the free ends of the test article as
a bending load. Internal pressure (0.75atm at maximum) is applied to the test article.
Various levels of impact loads (approx. 50 joules at maximum) are applied to the
upper panel.
(3) Test sequence
The test is performed in the order of load-unload test, static test, pressure test and
impact test. In the load-unload test, the bending load is gradually increased in a
Development and use of smart techniques 209
quasi-static condition. Before and after each test, visual and ultra-sonic inspections
are performed. The test sequence is shown in Figure 6.
Figure 5. Demonstrator test setup
Figure 6. Test sequence
4.3. D emonstrator theme verification
The engineering contents to be verified in each demonstrator theme shown in
Table 1 are outlined below. Verification positions in test articles are indicated in
Figure 4.
(1) Real Time Detection of Impact Damage using Optical Fiber Sensors embedded
into CFRP Laminated Structures
Using small-diameter optical fiber sensors embedded in the upper panel, detection
of any impact damage and identification of its location are demonstrated. They are
verified in the impact test phase.
(2) Real Time Detection of Impact Damage using Integrated Acoustic Emission
Sensor Network Systems
Using the AE sensor mounted on the side panel, time of occurrence, location and
magnitude of the impact load are identified. They are verified in the impact test
phase.
210 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
(3) Strain Distribution Measurement in Wide Area Using Distributed BOTDR
sensors
Using optical fibers embedded in the side panels and externally installed to the
overall test article, damage location and its magnitude are identified from the wide
range strain distribution that is measured. Performed in the static test phase.
(4) Damage Detection by electric conductivity change in Smart Patch (Carbon fiber
composite laminate)
Two types of smart patches, carbon fiber fracture type and conductive particle
dispersion type, will be applied at the bottom panel of the demonstrator both in load-
unload and static test phases to demonstrate the smart patches memorize the applied
maximum strain.
(5) Damage Suppression using Embedded SMA (Shape Memory Alloy) Foils
Aims to verify that the shape memory alloy foils embedded in the bottom panel can
suppress the occurrence and growth of damages. In the load-unload test phase, the
evaluation is performed by comparing the occurrence times of damage depending on
whether or not the shape memory alloy foil is present or not.
(6) Verification of Smart Manufacturing of Low Cost Integrated Panel by RTM
(Resin Transfer Molding)
An optical fiber sensor, used for monitoring the manufacturing on the bulkhead
panel with RTM process, is verified in order to measure strains in the pressure test
phase.
4.4. Test schedule
The test schedule of Damage Detection & Damage Suppression Demonstrator is
shown in Table 2.
Table 2. Test schedule of damage detection & suppression demonstrator
II 2001 I 2002
A MJ U A S I ON DI J F MA MJ I J A S l ON Dl J F M
Design
Manufacture
Test Preparation
Test
Evaluation
Development and use of smart techniques 211
5. Noise and vibration reduction demonstrator
Acoustic absorption materials have good noise reduction features in high
frequency range. But, in low frequency range, they need thick absorption layers in
order to reduce noise level significantly. Therefore, it is a practical solution to use
active noise control in low frequency range and acoustic absorption materials in high
frequency range. In Noise and Vibration Reduction Demonstrator, the target
frequency range is below 500Hz.
The demonstrator is of the same size as the Damage Detection and Damage
Suppression Demonstrator as mentioned in "Concepts of Demonstrators". Skin
panel thickness, dimension of stringers and frames and spaces between the stringers
as well as the frames of the Noise and Vibration Reduction Demonstrator are
different from the Damage Detection and Damage Suppression Demonstrator due to
differences of key parameters to be simulated. In this demonstrator, natural
frequencies are key parameters to be simulated. All the natural frequencies of the
demonstrator cannot meet those of the assumed jet liner. Therefore our policies to
placement of natural frequencies are the followings.
(1) To meet approximate natural frequencies of panel one bay enclosed by stringers
and frames
(2) To meet the order of structural vibration natural frequencies and acoustic
vibration natural frequencies
In accordance with the above policies, dimensions of stringers and frames, space
of them and shape of end caps are designed. High performance PZT actuators are to
be used which the "Actuator Materials and Devices" group developed.
The conventional way to reduce the noise in the internal cabin of the aircraft is to
mount the sound absorption material. Sound absorption material is effective in noise
reduction in a high frequency range, however not in a lower frequency range.
Therefore, noise reduction with structure vibration control has been studied in
research organizations worldwide. For the time being, however, verified noise
reduction methods only apply to the specific frequencies and narrow band frequency
zone. In this test, therefore, we manufacture a test article assuming an aircraft
fuselage with a size 1/3 of that of a small size passenger aircraft. Applying the
internal-cabin noise reduction technologies developed in the "active/adaptive
structure technology development" to the above test article, we plan to demonstrate
the noise vibration reduction in a wide range of low frequencies for the
active/adaptive structure.
The outlines of Noise and vibration Reduction Demonstrator are described below.
212 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
5.1. Test objectives
There are two objectives in this test, which are:
- Increase the attenuation factor by 20 percent or more, and
- Decrease the noise level by 3 dB or more.
5.2. Test article
The test article is illustrated in Figure 7. At present, using software such as
NASTRAN/MATLAB for the test article, acoustic vibration analysis and control
simulation are performed to determine the number and arrangement of the PZT
actuators that are optimal for noise and vibration reduction. We are also designing
the applicable control rules.
5.3. Test contents
The outline of the test is illustrated in Figure 8. This test consists of three items
as listed below.
(1) Test for obtaining vibration characteristics data
The vibration characteristics (natural frequency/vibration mode/attenuation
factor) of the test article wi ll be derived from the vibration force and vibration
acceleration data obtained from the test article structure by applying a vibration load
to the test article with a vibration exciter.
The vibration characteristics of the test article derived above are used to
verify/review the PZT actuator arrangement based on the existing control rule design
and to tune such control rules.
(2) Vibration control test
The vibration load is applied to the test article with the vibration exciter both
when the noise/vibration control system is operating and when it is not operating.
Then, the vibration characteristics of the test article (natural frequency/vibration
mode/attenuation factor) are derived from the obtained vibration force and vibration
acceleration data on the test article structure.
It is verified that, by comparing the attenuation factors of the control system when
operating and when not operating, the attenuation factor is improved by about 20
percent or more.
(3) Noise control test
A noise load is applied to the test article from an external speaker in the anechoic
room to obtain the sound pressure level data inside of the test fuselage both when
the noise/vibration control system is operating and when it is not operating.
Development and use of smart techniques 213
It is verified that, by comparing the internal sound level of the test fuselage
obtained when the control system is operating and when it is not operating, the
Shape and basic size: Cylinder, 1.5m
DIA
x3.0m
L
(exclude the bulkheads)
Structural arrangement:
Material of structures:
Sensor:
Actuator:
Skin/Stringer/Frame
Skin; C/EP FRP (P3060B-12)
Stringer/Frame/Bulkhead; Al Alloy
PZT/Accelerometer/Microphone/Strain gauge
PZT
sound pressure level decreases by 3dB or more.
Figure 7. Test article of noise and vibration reduction demonstrator
Figure 8. Test configurations
214 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
5.4. Test schedule
The test schedule is shown in Table 3.
Table.3. Test schedule of noise and vibration reduction demonstrator
II 2001 I 2002
A M J |J A SIO NDIJ FMA MJ J J A S |O N D|J F M
Design of test article
Manufacture of test article
Vibration charactaristics acquisition
PZT installation
V bration control test
Noise control test
Evaluation
6. Conclusions
The "R&D for Smart Materials and Structures" project has just finished the fourth
year of the five-year program. From the third year, the project has focused on two
demonstrators such as 1) Damage Detection and Damage Suppression and 2) Noise
and Vibration Reduction. Now, the detail design of both demonstrators has
completed and some components are being fabricated and assembled. In the next
fiscal year (FY2002, April to March), the final assembly will be conducted and the
test is scheduled in the autumn. The test results will become available in the next
fiscal year.
Acknowledgement
This research is being conducted as a part of the "R&D for Smart Material and
Structures System" project within the Academic Institutions Centered Program
sponsored by METI entrusted to RIMCOF through NEDO (New Energy and
Industrial Technology Development Organization) in Japan.
We, herewith, gratefully acknowledge the support of METI, NEDO and all of the
researchers from industries, universities and national Institutes who have been
participating in this project.
Real-Time Damage Detection in Composite
Laminates with Embedded Small-Diameter
Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors
Nobuo Takeda — Yoji Okabe — Shigeki Yashiro
Shin-ichi Takeda — Tadahito Mizutani — Ryohei Tsuji
Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo
c/o Komaba O pen Laboratories, The University of Tokyo
4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8904, Japan
Takeda@compmat. rcast. u-tokyo. ac.jp
AB STRACT: Newly developed small-diameter fiber B ragg grating (FB G) sensors, whose outside
diameter was 52 mm, were applied for the damage detection in CFRP laminates. The FB G
sensors are very sensitive to non-uniform strain distribution along the entire length of the
gratings. Thus reflection spectra from the embedded FB G sensors deformed because of the
strain concentrations at tips of transverse cracks or the change in the strain distribution due
to a delamination. These deformations of the spectra could be reproduced by theoretical
calculations. From these results, it was found that the small-diameter FB G sensors could
detect the occurrence of the transverse cracks and the delamination quantitatively in real
time.
KE Y W O RDS: CFRP, fiber B ragg grating sensor, transverse crack, delamination, health
monitoring, reflection spectrum
216 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
1. Introduction
CFRP composites are used in various fields owing to their high specific strength
and specific modulus. The failure process of CFRP laminates involves unique
microscopic damages, such as transverse cracks and delaminations (Takeda et al.,
1994). The detection of these damages in real time is important in order to make
practical use of the CFRP laminates effectively and reliably.
A candidate for the sensing device of the microscopic damages is a fiber Bragg
grating (FBG) sensor. FBG sensors are very sensitive to non-uniform strain
distribution along the entire length of the gratings (Huang et al., 1994). The strain
distribution deforms the reflection spectrum from the FBG sensors. Taking
advantage of the sensitivity, the authors applied FBG sensors for detecting
transverse cracks that caused non-uniform strain distribution in CFRP laminates
(Okabe et al.,2000).
However, the cladding of common optical fibers is 125 mm in diameter, which is
almost the same as the normal thickness of one ply in CFRP laminates and
approximately 20 times larger than the diameter of carbon fibers. Thus, when the
normal FBG sensors are embedded into CFRP composites, there is a possibility that
the optical fibers might deteriorate the mechanical properties of the laminates. In
order to prevent the deterioration, small-diameter FBG sensors have recently been
developed by the authors and Hitachi Cable Ltd. (Satori et al., 2001). The outside
diameter of polyimide coating is 52 mm, and the cladding is 40 mm in diameter.
The small-diameter FBG sensors could also detect transverse cracks in CFRP
cross-ply laminates sensitively (Okabe et al., 2002). In this research, the authors
attempted to detect transverse cracks in CFRP quasi-isotropic laminates using the
same method. Furthermore, the small-diameter FBG sensors were applied for the
detection of the delamination in CFRP laminates.
2. Detection of transverse cracks in a quasi-isotropic laminate
2.1. E xperimental procedure
Bragg gratings were fabricated to have periodic refractive index changes in the
cores of the small-diameter optical fibers. The outside diameters of the polyimide
coating, the cladding, and the core are 52 mm, 40 mm, and 6.5 mm, respectively. The
grating length is 10 mm, and the grating period is about 0.53 mm. The profile of the
refractive index modulation was controlled as a cosine function to suppress the
side-lobe of the reflection spectrum (Satori et al, 2001).
These FBG sensors were embedded in CFRP T800H/3631 (Toray Industries,
Inc.). The laminate configuration was quasi-isotropic: [45/0/-45/90]
s
. The FBG
sensor was located in -45° ply on the border of 90° ply. Since the optical fiber was
embedded to be parallel to carbon fibers in -45° ply, it was hardly broken by the
Development and use of smart techniques 217
stress concentrations due to transverse cracks that run through the thickness and
width of the 90° ply.
Quasi-static tensile load was applied to the specimen by a material testing system
(Instron Corporation, Load Frame 5582) at room temperature. The loading speed
was 0.25 mm/min. Tensile strain was measured with a strain gage attached on a
surface of the specimen, and the tensile load was measured with a load cell. The
optical fiber was illuminated by an amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) light
source unit (Ando Electric Co., Ltd., AQ6310 (155)). The reflection spectrum was
obtained under tensile loading by using an optical spectrum analyzer (Ando Electric
Co., Ltd., AQ6317), and the specimen was unloaded after the spectrum measurement.
Then, a polished edge surface of the specimen was replicated on a cellulose acetate
film with methyl acetate as a solvent. From the replica film, the positions and
numbers of transverse cracks in 90° ply were observed. This loading/unloading
procedure was repeated as the maximum strain was increased, until the specimen
fractured completely.
2.2. E xperimental results
Figure 1 shows the crack density p measured through the loading/unloading test
for the quasi-isotropic laminate with the embedded small-diameter FBG sensor as a
function of the tensile strain e. The crack density was defined as the number of
transverse cracks per unit length along the loading direction in 90° ply.
In Figure 2, the reflection spectra measured at various strain levels are shown.
They correspond to the data (A) - (E) in Figure 1. While there was no transverse
crack, the spectrum kept its shape and the center wavelength shifted corresponding
to the strain. After transverse cracks appeared, the reflection spectrum deformed and
became broad with an increase in the crack density p.
Figure 1. Crack density pas a function of strain e measured for the quasi-isotropic
laminate with the embedded small-diameter FB G sensor
218 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
Figure 2. Reflection spectra measured at various values of tensile strain £ These
correspond to the data (A) - (E ) in Figure 1
2.3. Analysis
For confirmation that the change in the form of the spectrum was caused by
transverse cracks, the spectrum was calculated theoretically. In the calculation, it
was assumed that the FBG sensor was affected only by the axial strain distribution,
and the optical fiber adhered perfectly to the matrix of the -45° ply.
At first, the non-uniform strain distribution in the FBG sensor was calculated
using FEM analysis with ABAQUS code. The CFRP laminate was analyzed by a
3-D model that included transverse cracks in 90° ply and the optical fiber in ^45° ply.
The positions where transverse cracks occurred were determined from the
observation of the replica films. The axial strain in the core was obtained along the
Figure 3. Calculated reflection spectra, which correspond to the measured spectra
in Figure 2
Development and use of smart techniques 219
entire length of the FBG sensor. Next, the distributions of the grating period and the
average refractive index of the FBG were calculated from the axial strain
distribution (Van Steenkiste et al., 1997). Then the reflection spectrum was
simulated from the distributions using the software "IFO_Gratings" developed by
Optiwave Corp. This program can calculate the spectrum by solving the couple
mode equations using transfer matrix method (Kashyap 1999).
The calculated results of reflection spectra are shown in Figure 3. These spectra
correspond to those in Figure 2. The change in the form of the calculated spectrum is
similar to that of the measured one. These results show that the change in the
spectrum is caused by the non-uniform strain distribution due to the occurrence of
the transverse cracks. Thus, the transverse cracks in quasi-isotropic laminates can
also be detected from the deformation of the reflection spectrum.
2.4. D ependence of spectrum width on crack density
With increase in the crack density, the width of the reflection spectrum changed
in both the experimental result and the theoretical calculation. Thus, the spectrum
width and crack density were plotted as a function of the tensile strain in Figure 4.
The spectrum width was defined as full width at quarter maximum (FWQM) and
normalized by the value before loading. The FWQM obtained from the experiment
has the same tendency of an increase as the crack density. On the other hand, the
calculated FWQM increases drastically at the early stage of the crack accumulation,
and the values are much larger than the experimental results. This is because the
calculated spectrum has many peaks over the broad range whose wavelength is
longer than that of the maximum peak. This difference between the measured and
calculated results may be due to the inaccuracy of the strain distribution calculated
by FEM analysis and inexact optical parameters of the small-diameter FBG sensor
used for the theoretical calculation. However, the calculation result agrees
Figure 4. Crack density and spectrum -widths as a function of tensile strain
220 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
Figure 5. E mbedment position of small-diameter FB G sensor
qualitatively with the experimental result. Thus, the crack density in quasi-isotropic
laminates can be evaluated quantitatively by the spectrum width.
3. Detection of detainination
3.1. E xperimental procedure
The above technique was also applied to the detection of delamination. The
specimen was CFRP composite T800H/3631 and the laminate configuration was
cross-ply [90]
10
/0
4
/90
10
]. As shown in Figure 5, the FBG sensor was embedded in 0°
ply to be parallel to carbon fibers and in contact with 90° ply. A strip type
delamination was grown along a 0°/90° interface by four-point bending test. For the
delamination onset from the tip of a transverse crack, a vertical notch was
introduced at the mid-span of the specimen. The transverse crack occurred from the
root of the notch and reached the 0°/90° interface. An end of the FBG sensor was set
on the tip of the transverse crack in order to propagate the delamination in one
direction within the region of the grating.
Quasi-static bending load was applied to the specimen with a four-point bending
device at room temperature. The optical fiber was illuminated by the ASE light
source, and the reflection spectrum was obtained with the optical spectrum analyzer
after unloading. The length of the delamination was measured from soft X-ray
photograph. The total delamination length was expressed by d and divided into the
left part d\ and the right part d
r
.
3.2. E xperimental results
Figure 6 shows the reflection spectra measured at various steps or the
delamination progress. These spectra were normalized by the intensity of the highest
various steps of the
Development and use of smart techniques 221
Figure 6. Reflection spectra measured at various steps of delamination progress:
(a) d = 0.0 mm, d
r
= 0.0 mm; (b) d = 5.4 mm, d
r
= 2.8 mm; (c) d = 8.4 mm, d
r
=
4.2 mm; (d) d= 13.0 mm, d
r
= 6.4 mm
component. When there was only a transverse crack before the occurrence of the
delamination, the reflection spectrum had only one sharp narrow peak as shown in
Figure 6(a). After the delamination was initiated from the crack tip, another peak
appeared at longer wavelength. The intensity of the longer wavelength peak
increased relatively with an increase of the delamination length.
3.3. Analysis
The reflection spectra were also simulated theoretically. In this case, the laminate
including the delamination was analyzed using 2-D plane strain model. From the
calculation, the strain distribution at 25 mm above from the 0°/90° interface, where
the center axis of the embedded optical fiber was positioned, was obtained. Then,
the longitudinal strain distribution in the 0° ply was assumed to be the same as the
axial strain distribution in the FBG sensor, and the reflection spectrum was
simulated from the strain distribution.
Figure 7 shows the calculated results, which are also normalized by the intensity
of the highest component. These spectra reproduce the measured spectra shown in
Figure 6 very well. The strain distribution that was obtained by FEM analysis and
used for the calculation of the spectrum in Figure 7(c) is plotted in Figure 8. This
strain distribution mainly consists of two strain levels: level I and II. Thus, the
reflection spectrum was calculated on the assumption that the FBG sensor was
subjected to the uniform strain of level I or II. As a result, it was found that the
longer and shorter wavelength peaks of the spectrum in Figure 7 corresponded to the
strain of level I and II, respectively. The level I and II are related to the strain at the
delaminated area and that at the bonded area, respectively. Hence, as the
222 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
Figure 7. Calculated Reflection spectra, which correspond to the measured
spectra in Figure 6
delamination length increases, the region of the uniform strain at the level I wi ll
enlarge, so that the intensity of longer wavelength peak in the spectrum wi l l increase
consistently.
For the quantitative evaluation of the delamination length, the intensity ratio of
the two peaks I
L
/Is is defined, where /I
L
, and I
S
are the intensities of longer and shorter
wavelength peaks, respectively. Figure 9 shows the logarithmic plot of the intensity
ratio against the delamination length along the FBG sensor, which is expressed by d
r
in Figure 5. During the d
r
is less than 4.2 mm, the I
L
/I
S
obtained from the experiment
and that from the theoretical calculation are almost the same. However, when the d
r
is over 4.2 mm, the increase of the calculated I
L
/I
S
becomes larger than that of the
measured I
L
/I
S
. This difference was caused by the error of delamination length
measurement using soft X-ray radiography. Since intralaminar delaminations were
Figure 8. Strain distribution along the FB G sensor at d = 8.4 mm and d
r
= 4.2 mm
Development and use of smart techniques 223
Figure 9. Intensity ratio of the two peaks against delamination length along the
FB G sensor
found in 0° ply around the tip of the interlaminar delamination by the observation at
a polished edge surface using optical microscope, the d
r
measured from the soft
X-ray photograph might be larger than the actual length of the interlaminar
delamination due to the existence of the intralaminar delaminations. Thus, the peak
intensity at the longer wavelength in the calculated spectrum was estimated to be
higher than that in the measured spectrum. However, since the intensity ratios
obtained from both experiment and calculation increase in monotone with an
increase of the delamination length, the intensity ratio of the two peaks can be an
effective indicator for quantitative evaluation of the delamination length.
4. Conclusions
In this research, newly developed small-diameter FBG sensors, whose cladding
and polyimide coating diameters are 40 mm and 52 mm, respectively, were applied to
detect the transverse cracks and the delamination in CFRP laminates.
First, for the detection of the transverse cracks, the FBG sensor was embedded in
-45° ply of a CFRP quasi-isotropic laminate [45/0/-45/90]
s
. When a tensile load was
applied to the specimen, the form of the reflection spectrum from the FBG sensor
was distorted sensitively, as the crack density in 90° ply increased. Then the
reflection spectrum corresponding to the measured one was calculated theoretically.
The calculated spectrum reproduced the change in the form of the spectrum very
well. From this agreement, it was confirmed that the change in the spectrum was
caused by the non-uniform strain distribution, which was induced by the transverse
cracks. Hence, the transverse cracks in quasi-isotropic laminates could also be
224 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
detected from the deformation of the reflection spectrum. Furthermore, the crack
density could be evaluated quantitatively by the spectrum width.
Secondly, the delamination originating form a tip of a transverse crack in a
cross-ply laminate [90
10
/0
4
/90
10
] was detected using a similar technique. After the
FBG sensor was embedded in 0° ply on the border of 90° ply, the delamination was
grown along a 0°/90° interface by four-point bending test. When the delamination
appeared, the reflection spectrum had two peaks, and those intensities changed
depending on the delamination length. From theoretical calculation, it was
confirmed that the two peaks corresponded to the uniform strain at the delaminated
area and that at the bonded area. Hence, the intensity ratio of the two peaks was
found to be an effective indicator for the prediction of the delamination length.
Acknowledgements
This research was conducted as a part of the "R&D for Smart Materials Structure
System" project within the Academic Institutions Centered Program supported by
NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization), Japan.
References
Huang S., Ohn M.M., LeBlanc M., Measures R.M., "Continuous arbitrary strain profile
measurements with fiber Bragg gratings," Smart Mater. Struct., vol. 7 no. 2, 1998, p.
248-256.
Kashyap R., Fiber B ragg gratings, San Diego, Academic Press, 1999.
Okabe Y., Mizutani T., Yashiro S., Takeda N., "Detection of microscopic damages in
composite laminates with embedded small-diameter fiber Bragg grating sensors," Compo.
Sci. Technol., 2002, (accepted for publication).
Okabe Y, Yashiro S., Kosaka T., Takeda N., "Detection of transverse cracks in CFRP
composites using embedded fiber Bragg grating sensors," Smart Mater. Struct., vol. 9 no.
6, 2000, p. 832-838.
Satori K., Fukuchi K., Kurosawa K., Hongo A., Takeda N., "Polyimide-coated small-diameter
optical fiber sensors for embedding in composite laminate structures," Proc. SPIE , vol.
4328, 2001, p. 285-294.
Takeda N., Ogihara S., "In situ observation and probabilistic prediction of microscopic failure
processes in CFRP cross-ply laminates," Compo. Sci. Technol., vol. 52 no. 2, 1994, p.
183-195.
Van Steenkiste R.J., Springer G.S., Strain and temperature measurement with fiber optic
sensors, Lancaster, Technomic, 1997.
Measuring the non-linear viscoelastic,
viscoplastic strain behaviour of CFRE
using the electronic speckle pattern
interferometry technique
Pascal, J.-P. Bouquet - Albert, H. Cardon*
Department Mechanics of Materials and Constructions (ME MC),
Vrije Vniversiteit B russel (VUB ),
Pleinlaan 2,
B -1050 B russels- B elgium
Pascal.B ouquet@,vub. ac. be
* mbourlau@vub. ac.be
AB STRACT: Polymer matrix composites behave as viscoelastic-viscoplastic anisotropic
continua. Various models, based on the viscoelastic behaviour, propose an accelerated
characterisation procedure for composites that would allow the prediction of long term
properties from short-term experiments including time-stress-superposition procedures and
non-linear viscoelastic behaviour under creep conditions. Creep measurements of test
specimen provided with strain gages and/or extensometers are not conclusive on the lifetime
prediction of these carbon-fibre reinforced epoxy matrix composites. The question arises of
the failure initiation in the test specimen and the ability to measure the mechanical response
of the unidirectional composite material. Digital imaging methods like the E lectronic Speckle
Pattern Interferometry are full field techniques to determine in situ properties at a local scale
commensurate with the continuum modelling procedure.
KE YW O RDS: Creep, E lectronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry, viscoelasticity, viscoplasticity
226 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
1. Introduction
The matrix of a polymer-based composite is time dependent and is sensitive to
the environmental conditions. Unidirectional reinforced polymer matrix composites
behave as viscoelastic-viscoplastic anisotropic continua, which concerns not only
the stiffness but also the strength characteristics.
Various models for the lifetime prediction consider the changes in stiffness
properties as an expression of damage superposed to a viscoelastic-viscoplastic
model. These models based on the viscoelastic behaviour propose an accelerated
characterisation procedure for composites that would allow the prediction of long
term properties from short term experiments including time-temperature-stress-
superposition procedures and non-linear viscoelastic behaviour as well as models
to predict delayed failures such as creep ruptures.
Creep measurements obtained from different load levels of test specimen
provided with strain gages and/or extensometers were not conclusive. The question
arises of the failure initiation in the test specimen and the ability to measure the non-
homogenisation in mechanical response of the unidirectional composite material.
Digital imaging methods like the Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry are
techniques to determine in situ properties at a local scale commensurate with the
continuum modelling procedure. The resolution of the method combined with the
area of inspection drastically improves the monitoring of the strains on the outer
surface.
It is emphasised that the measurement doesn't allow in depth measurement like
e.g. ultrasonic inspection, however it presents some promising features, especially if
the in-depth events can be related to the surface behaviour. Testspecimen are
subjected to artificially introduced defects, a hole, as to simulate mechanical
behaviour in the presence of non-homogeneities or damage.
2. Non linear viscoelastic-viscoplastic analysis
The method to describe the viscoelastic behaviour used is based on the
generalised time-temperature-stress superposition principle as developed by
Schapery. In a uniaxial stress situation the equation describing the strain is:
Development and use of smart techniques 227
where dY' = — is the reduced time and S
0
the instantaneous compliance, AS is the
transient compliance and g
0
, g1, g2 and as are the non-linearising functions.
Creep and creep recovery tests have shown that plasticity has to be included in
the analysis. The Zapas-Crissman functional was proposed.
Summarising all the sources of deformation we obtain the strain as a function of
elastic, viscoelastic, viscoplastic and damage behaviour.
3. Damage analysis
Typically modulus degradation in measured stress-strain behaviour together with
permanent deformation is used as a basis of the extent of damage in a polymer
matrix composite. This assumption has to be used with much care since this is only
valid as long as the measurement technique is to obtain strain values commensurate
with the size of the inferred damage region or a "representative volume element"
(RVE). One might question if the strain measured by an electrical strain gage or
extensometer is truly representative of the strains within the damaged regions
especially when failure occurs outside the strain measurement device range. Moduli
determined by this classical measurements may not be representative of local
constitutive behaviour and analytical models based upon global observations. One
can imagine that under constant creep conditions, stresses are not uniform but differ
on the whole test area resulting in a non-homogenuous strain field. Carbon fibre
reinforced epoxy resin test samples were subjected to incremental loading. Ten
linear load cycles proportional to a tenth of the ultimate stress value were performed
and the strains were measured with strain gauges. The respective stiffness to each
load cycle was calculated (Figure 1).
228 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
Figure 1: stiffness evolution for |90°|
10
laminates
From these measurements the evolution of the stiffness as a function of its
loading history is hardly noticeable. One would assume that the specimen would be
affected mechanically when loaded at stresses commensurate to the rupture stress.
Modulus calculations from cyclic mechanical loading of testspecimen with strain
gages were not conclusive.
4. Tensile creep lifetime analysis
The original purpose of the research was to obtain a prediction model for the
lifetime of a long-fibre thermoset matrix composite based on the knowledge and
experimental experience of the Schapery model for non-linear viscoelastic
behaviour. Lifetime prediction, as discussed by Hiel, was based on the free energy
accumulation during creep and was based on a chain of mechanical Kelvin models
approximated with the Power Law. Experiments until failure for various creep
levels and different off-axis laminates were performed but gave non-satisfactory
results, e.g. Figure 2.
Development and use of smart techniques 229
Figure 2: experimental creep strain curves at an equal elevated stress level
5. Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry
The technology is based on the scattered reflection of incident light on a rough
surface. By applying monochromatic laserlight on the surface of the testspecimen
the scattered light will have a characteristic granular appearance the so-called
speckle pattern (Figure 3). Each point from the reflection surface scatters the
emitted wave. The path lengths travelled by these waves, from source to object
point to the receiving point, can differ from zero to multiples of wavelengths,
depending on surface roughness and the geometry of the system. Interference of the
de-phased but coherent waves arriving at the receiving point will cause the resultant
irradiance to be anything from dark to fully bright. The resultant of the waves
arriving at a neighbouring point will probably give a quite different brightness. This
variation in resultant irradiance from one receiving point to another is the cause of
laser speckle. This type of speckle is known as the objective speckle.
230 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
Figure 3: Speckle image of a carbon-epoxy specimen with a hole
When using two identical waves symmetrical incident on an object surface; a
camera aligned perpendicular to the reflecting surface will visualise an interferencial
image due to the combination of the two speckle patterns. The camera video signal
corresponding to the interferometer image plane speckle pattern of the undisplaced
object is stored electronically, whereas the live video image of the displaced object,
detected by the camera, is subtracted from the stored picture electronically.
Figure 4: the interference fringe image of the specimen of Figure 3 upon
loading.
The output is then high-pass filtered, rectified and displayed on a monitor where
the correlation fringes are observed in real time. In order to understand the
formation of fringes, consider the intensities of the beams Ibefore, before displacement
and Igfterthe intensity after displacement in each point of the image.
Development and use of smart techniques 231
where f is the phase difference between the reference beam and the object beam
before the displacement, Df is the phase change caused by the displacement
Assumed that the camera output signals V
before
and V
afier
are proportional to the input
image intensities, the subtracted signal V, is then given by
Figure 5: set-up of the ESPI camera in a tensile test
232 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
Figure 6: Block diagram of the electronic speckle pattern interferometer set-up
6. Crack area monitoring on a CFRE beam with a central hole
It has been observed that the area of increased strain at the initiating failure is
hardly detectable with the strain gage technique due to its limited measurement base
and the averaging of the measurement over it's measurement area.
A hole was drilled centrally in a composite specimen as to monitor the strains in
the vicinity of the inhomogeneity. The [+/-45
0
, 90°
3
]
s
specimen was subjected to a
tensile test t i l l rupture. From these pictures, Figure 7 and Figure 8, the non-uniform
strain field is visualised, especially the initiation of the rupture is noticeable at the
circumference of the hole at the left and right side for both x and y deformations.
Figure 7: Deformation x-direction [mm]
Development and use of smart techniques 233
Figure 8: Deformation y-direction [mm]
In Figure 9 the broken specimen is shown. It is noticed that the crack
propagation is different in its location for each layer of the laminate, but started at
the location of the strain disturbances at the left and right side of the circumference
of the hole.
Figure 9: ruptured test beam [+/-45
0
,90°
3
]
s
234 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
7. Conclusion
From the experiments we obtain information with a high resolution for the
local strain response on the surface of a composite of carbon fibre reinforced
epoxy resin.
The aim of the analysis of the non homogeneous strain around the hole is to
understand the mechanical behaviour of materials and especially of fibre reinforced
polymer composites in the vicinity of discontinuities like cracks or voids. The
further research consists in the analysis of crack induced CFRE material.
Microscopic discontinuities are hard to measure with classical strain gage
techniques.
This technique shows some attractive features in the analysis of complex mechanical
systems like composite materials.
Acknowledgements
This research was made possible by financial support from the Science fund of
the Flemish region (FWO-Vlaanderen) and the Research Council of the Vrije
Universiteit Brussel (OZR-VUB).
8. References
Schapery, R.A., 1967, "Stress analysis of viscoelastic composite materials", Journal of
Composite Materials, 1: pp. 153-192.
Hiel, C., 1983, "The nonlinear viscoelastic response of resin matrix composites", PhD-thesis
VUB -Virginia Polytechnic Institute.
Cardon, A.H., Bouquet, P., Van Vossole, Chr., "Structural integrity, durability and reliability
of polymer based composite systems - recent developments (What do we need? What is
available?), Proc. of the International Conference on Composite Science and Technology
(ICCST-3), Durban, South Africa, pp. 217-222.
Brinson, H.F., "Matrix dominated Time dependent failure predictions in polymer matrix
composites", Composite Structures 47 (1999): pp.445-456.
Ennos A. E., Speckle Interferometry; Dainty J.C. (ed.), Laser speckle and related
phenomena, pp. 203-253; ISBN 0 387 07498 8.
Development and use of smart techniques 235
Proceedings International -workshop: "Video-Controlled Materials testing and in situ
microstructural characterization", 1999, Ecole des Mines de Nancy (France).
Wattrisse B., Chrysochoos A., Muracciole J.-M. and Nemoz-Gaillard M, "Analysis of strain
localization during tensile tests by digital Image correlation", E xperimental Mechanics
(SE M), Vol.41, n°. 1, March 2001.
This page intentionally left blank
Mechanical Property and Application of
Innovative Composites Based on
Shape Memory Polymer
Qing-Qing Ni — Takeru Ohki — Masaharu Iwamoto
Kyoto Institute of Technology
Division of Advanced Fibro-Science in Graduate School
Matsugasaki, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585, Japan
nqq@ipc. kit. ac.jp
b622071 l@ipc. kit. ac.jp
iwamoto@ipc. kit. ac.jp
AB STRACT: Recently, shape memory polymer as one of functional materials has received much
attention and its mechanical properties have been investigated. Shape memory polymer of
polyurethane series has the glass transition temperature (Tg) around the room temperature.
B ased on the large change in modulus of elasticity above and below Tg, the material has
excellent shape memory effect. In this study, the glass fiber reinforced shape memory polymer
was developed for wide applications in the fields of industry, medical treatment, welfare and
daily life. The specimens with different fiber weight fractions were fabricated and their
mechanical behavior was mainly investigated experimentally. Then, the influence of fiber
weight fraction on the shape memory effect was evaluated. It was confirmed that static and
cyclic behavior of the shape memory polymer was improved by the reinforcement of fibers and
the shape memory effect was measurably kept in the developed composites.
KE Y W O RDS, shape memory polymer, stress-strain-temperature relation, mechanical property,
fiber weight fraction
238 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
1. Introduction
Recently, shape memory materials have received much attention in industries and
the other fields, particularly for Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs) that are a group of
metallic alloy and exhibit a shape memory effect. On the other hand, shape memory
polymers (SMPs) are mentioned as one of such shape memory materials. Although
SMPs indicate a phenomenon that the deformed shape returns to the original shape by
heating, the mechanism of shape memory effect and the change of mechanical
properties in the SMPs were different from those in the SMAs. Compared with SMAs,
SMPs have the advantages, such as lightweight, large recovery ability, superior
processability and lower cost. Most of SMPs has the glass transition temperature (Tg)
around the room temperature. Based on a consequence of the thermo-elastic phase
transformation and its reversal at the temperatures above and below Tg, SMPs have
excellent shape memory effect. This means that SMPs may also be used as a
temperature sensor or an actuator.
In the SMPs, the polyurethane series has following advantages: the forming
processes for other thermoplastic polymer can still be used; the shape recovery
temperature can be set at any value within ±50K around the room temperature; there
exist the large differences of the mechanical properties (Tobushi et. al, 1991, 1992 &
1998), the optical property and the water vapor permeability at the temperatures
above and below Tg. Based on these advantages, the SMP of polyurethane series are
expected to have wide applications in the field of industry, medical treatment, welfare
and daily life. However, the use of these materials was quite limited due to low
strength of the polyurethane SMP bulk.
In this study, fiber reinforced composites based on SMP were developed in order
to overcome the low strength of SMP bulk. The materials developed were the glass
fiber reinforced SMP of the polyurethane series with different fiber weight fractions
(Ni et. al, 1999 & 2000). For the practical use of developed composites, it is
important to clarify the fundamental mechanical and cyclic properties to meet the
reliability requirement. Additionally, the thermo-mechanical behaviors, such as
stress-strain-temperature relations with the influence of thermal factors, are also
important. Thus, the mechanical properties of the developed composites with
different fiber weight fractions (SMP bulk, 10wt%, 20wt%, 30wt%) and testing
temperatures (Tg-20K, Tg, Tg+20K) were evaluated in static tensile test. Cyclic tests
in two conditions, i.e., constant strain and constant stress, were performed at room
temperature (Tg-20K) with different fiber weight fractions. Then, thermo-mechanical
cycle tests with consideration of both mechanical and thermal factors were carried out
and the influence of fiber weight fraction and the thermal condition on shape memory
effects was investigated.
Development and use of smart techniques 239
2. Experimental procedure
2.1. Fabrication of specimens
As the matrix of developed composites, the shape memory polymer (DIARY,
MM4510: MITSUBISHI HEAVY INDUSTRIES Co., Ltd.) was used with Tg about
318K. As the reinforcement, the chopped strand glass fibers with fiber length of 3mm
(03MA411J,ASAHI FIBER GLASS Co., Ltd.) were used.
The matrix and reinforcements were compounded by a twin screw extruder
(LABOTEX-300, produced by JAPAN STEEL WORKS Co., Ltd) at the cylinder
temperature of 483K and the screw rotation of 200rpm. The fiber weight fractions
were SMP bulk, 10wt%, 20wt% and 30wt%, respectively. Dumbbell type specimens
(JIS K7113 Typel) were fabricated by an inline screw type of injection molding
machine (Plaster Ti-30F6, produced by TOYO MACHINERY and METAL Co., Ltd.)
after enough drying of compounded materials at 353K. The fabricated specimens are
non-weld. The cylinder temperature, mold temperature and injection speed were
483K, 303K and 27.4 cm
3
/sec, respectively. Figure 1 illustrates the geometry of a
specimen.
Figure 1. Geometric shape and size of specimen
2.2. E xperimental equipment
The experimental equipment used in this study was an Instron Universal Testing
Instrument (Type 4466) with a temperature-controlled chamber. Heating or cooling
for specimens was controlled by compressed and heated or cooled air in the
atmosphere condition and the temperature was measured by a thermocouple near the
specimen. The tip of the thermocouple was put between two 1.5mm thickness plates
with the same material as the specimen to make the same temperature condition
within the specimen.
240 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
2.3. Static tensile test
The static tensile test was performed with cross head speed of 5mm/min. wi t hi n
the temperature-controlled chamber at the testing temperatures of 298K(Tg-20K),
318K(Tg) and 338K(Tg+20K), respectively. The strain was calculated by the ratios of
the elongation obtained by the crosshead displacement to the span length (60mm)
with a maximum of 300% due to the limit of the chamber.
2.4. Mechanical cycle test
Mechanical cycle tests were performed at room temperature (298K=Tg-20K). For
the testing condition of constant stress, the upper limit stress was set to be 50% value
of the maximum stress in a static tensile test. For the testing condition of constant
strain, the upper l i mi t strain value was set to be 50% value of the strain at the
maximum stress in a static tensile test. Both cyclic tests were performed at the
crosshead speed of 5 mm/ mi n. unt i l the cycle numbers of 20,40 and 60, respectively,
to observe the influence of cycle number and fiber weight fraction on mechanical
behavior.
2.5. Thermo-mechanical cycle test
Figure 2. The schematic of thermo-mechanical cycle test
Thermo-mechanical cycle tests were performed to investigate the strain recovery
after different number of cyclic loading. Figure 2 shows a schematic of stress-strain
Development and use of smart techniques 241
curves in a thermo-mechanical cycle. The specimen was loaded to the strain e
m
at a
constant crosshead speed of 5 mm/min. at the temperature T
h
(Process 1). Then, it was
cooled to the temperature T| by keeping the same strain e
m
(Process 2). After five
minutes at the temperature T
1,
the load on the specimen was taken off (Process 3), and
then the specimen was heated from T
1
to T
h
during ten minutes under no-loading
(Process 4). This forms one thermo-mechanical cycle and then the test was repeated to
N cycles. The conditions for the thermo-mechanical cycle test were as follows: E
m
=100%, T
h
=338K, T,=298K, the crosshead speed of 5mm/min., and N=5. The strain
was measured as done in the static tensile test.
Figure 3. The stress-strain curves in static tensile test at T=298 K
3. Results and discussion
3.1. Static tensile property
In calculation of the experimental data, the engineering stress and strain were used.
Figure 3 shows the stress-strain curves at the testing temperature of 298K(Tg-20K).
The figures for 318K(Tg) and 338(Tg+20K) were omitted. When the temperature was
at T=298K(Tg-20K), the 10wt%, 20wt% and 30wt% specimens had small fracture
strain, while the bulk specimen was of a upper yielding point and had no fracture
within the strain range of 300%. However, the yielding phenomenon was observed for
all different fiber weight fraction specimens due to occurrence and growth of local
necking during testing. For the stress-strain curves at T=318K(Tg), 20wt% and
30wt% specimens ruptured at the strain of 120% and 220%, respectively. However,
the bulk and 10wt% specimens had no fracture within the testing limit strain of 300%.
At higher temperature T=338K (Tg+20K), the specimens indicated a lower stress and
the final fracture did not occur within the strain range of 300% except the 30wt%
specimen.
242 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
Figure 4. The Relationship between Temperature and Young's modulus
Figure 4 shows the relationship between temperature and Young's modulus. The
large change of Young's modulus above and below Tg was observed for all of
specimens, which is a key point to utilize and control the shape memory effects of
SMP based materials. In other words, the result in Fig.4 means that the developed
materials may have shape memory effect.
The results in the static tensile tests can be remarked briefly as follows: a obvious
increment of the strength of the developed materials when fiber weight fraction
increased; a high Young's modulus and high yield stress at low temperature; a large
change in Young's modulus above and below Tg for all materials.
3.2. Mechanical cycle property
Figure 5 shows the stress-strain curves in constant strain cycle tests. For the
specimens with different fiber weight fractions, a large hysteresis loop was observed
at first cycle and there was no obvious difference in the loop shape except the slope of
the loop, which corresponded to the Young's modulus. It is considered that the large
hysteresis loop at first cycle is contributed by matrix deformation and failures around
fibers. However, the loops following the first cycle showed almost no hysteresis due
to the characteristics of SMP with a training effect. Figure 6 shows the total residual
strain after prescribed cycle numbers of 20,40, and 60. The total residual strain in the
bulk and 10wt% specimens increased between 20 cycles and 40 cycles, and tended to
be stable after 40 cycles. But it seems to be unchanged in 20wt% and 30wt%
specimens even the cycle number was larger. This indicates that reinforcement fibers
mixed in the SMP will reduce stress decrement and stabilize the cyclic behavior of
developed materials.
Development and use of smart techniques 243
Figure 5. The stress-strain curves in mechanical cycle test
Figure 6. The Residual strain for each fiber weight fraction
after cyclic loading
244 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
3.3. Thermo-mechanical cycle property
Figure 7 shows the stress-strain curves in a thermo-mechanical cycle test. The
maximum stresses and Young's modulus in each cycle increased with the increment of
the cycle number N. This may be caused by the strain hardening of the materials. Here,
let us look at the strain e
r
(see Fig.2), i.e., the strain recovered when the materials
were heated from T
1
to T
h
without loading (Process4).
Figure 7. The stress-strain curve for 10wt% in thermo-mechanical cycle test
Figure 8. The relationship between strain recovery ratios and the number of cycle
Development and use of smart techniques 245
The relationship between the strain recovery ratio and the number of cycle are
shown in Fig.8. The strain recovery ratio is defined by the value of e
r
/ e
m
. In
recovery ratio at first cycle, considerable difference appeared for the specimens with
different fiber weight fractions. It is clear that the strain e
r
in the specimens with fiber
weight fractions of 10, 20 and 30 indicated greatly lower value than that in bulk
specimen. But, the strain e
r
after second cycle was almost unchanged.
However, the parameters, such as the recovery time and temperature, may control
strain recovery ratio. In the case of changing recovery temperature to 358K (Tg+40K)
by keeping recovery time (10 minutes) same, the relationships between the strain
recovery ratio and the number of cycle are shown in Fig.9. Recovery ratio was high in
all specimens in comparison with the case of the recovery temperature 338K (Fig.8)
and varied greatly with different fiber weight fractions. With these results, the
recovery temperature may be a dominant parameter as compared with the recovery
time in the shape recovery effect.
Figure 9. The strain recovery ratios at 358 K
4. Conclusions
In this study, the composites based on the SMP were developed and their cyclic
behavior and shape memory effects were investigated by the experimental approach.
The results obtained are remarked as follows.
1. The tensile strength of the developed materials became higher with the
increment of fiber weight fraction under each temperature condition.
2. The resistance to cycle loading for the composites with SMP was clearly
improved due to reinforcement fiber.
246 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
3. It is predicted that there exists an optimum fiber weight fraction between 10wt%
and 20wt% to have an extremely low residual strain during cyclic loading.
4. The temperature was a dominant parameter as compared with recovery time for
the shape recovery effect, and this wi l l be a useful opinion in the practical use.
5. It was confirmed that developed composites measurably keep the shape memory
effect.
References
Ni Q., Ohsako N., Sakaguchi M, Kurashiki K and Iwamoto M., "Mechanical Properties of
Smart Composites Based on Shape Memory Polymer", The 24th Composites Symposium of
Japan Society for Composites Materials, Japan, 1999 p. 17 (in Japanese).
Ni Q., Ohsako N., Sakaguchi M, Kurashiki K and Iwamoto M., "Mechanical Properties of
Smart Composites Based on Shape Memory Polymer", JCO M: JSMS CO MPO SITE S-29 of
the society of Material Science, Japan, 2000, p. 293 (in Japanese).
Tobushi H., Hayashi S. and Kojima S., "Mechanical Properties of Shape Memory Polymer of
Polyurethane Series", Transactions of the Japan Society of Mechanical E ngineers, A, 57,
1991, p. 146 (in Japanese).
Tobushi H., Hayashi S. and Kojima S., "Cycle Deformation Properties of Shape Memory
Polymer of Polyurethane Series'", Transactions of the Japan Society of Mechanical
E ngineers, A, 58, 1992, p. 139 (in Japanese).
Tobushi H., Hayashi S. and Kojima S., "Constitutive Modeling for Thermo-mechanical
Properties in Shape Memory Polymer of Polyurethane Series", Transactions of the Japan
Society of Mechanical E ngineers, A, 64, 1998, p. 186 (in Japanese).
Piezoelectric Fibers and Composites for
Smart Structures
Andreas Schonecker — Lutz Seffner — Sylvia Gebhardt—
Wieland Beckert
Fraunhofer IKTS
W interbergstr. 28
D-01277 Dresden, Germany
Andreas. Schoenecker@ikts.flig. de
Lutz.Seffner@ ikts.flig.de
Sylvia.Gebhardt@ ikts.flig.de
W ieland.B eckert@ ikts.flig.de
AB STRACT: This paper describes advanced and cost-efficient manufacturing of
piezoceramic fibers, piezoelectric composite materials made thereof and intended
applications in the field of smart structures, health monitoring and diagnostics.
KE Y W O RDS: piezoceramic fibers, piezoelectric composites, ultrasound transducer, actuator
•wrap
248 Repairing Structures using Composites Wraps
1. Introduction
Lightweight design has become very important in a multitude of industrial
applications mainly to reduce the effects of accelerated mass. However, lightweight
structures often suffer from vibrational sensitivity, tendency to buckling, and low
damage tolerance. These issues beckon a need for adaptive mechanical properties
coupled with the ability to monitor structural integrity and conduct diagnostics to
ensure safety and reliability.
A promising way to solve these problems is the use of mult i funct i onal materials
(Hagood et.all.,1993; Schmidt et.all., 1992). Critical deformations, accelerations or
other physical quantities can be detected and measured by integrated sensors. In
combination with suitable real-time controllers these impacts can be reduced or
eliminated throughout the use of structurally conformable, embedded or applied
actuators (Crawley et.all., 1989). The most well known and promising of these
sensing/actuating materials are piezoceramics. Much progress in the field of smart
structure technology is expected by using piezoceramic fibers and composites.
This paper gives a summary of our work on piezoceramic fibers (chapter 2),
piezoelectric fiber composites made thereof (chapter 3) and the perspective on their
applications (chapter 4).
2. Piezoceramic Fibers
Various methods of preparing piezoceramic fibers have been documented,
among them the sol-gel process (Yoshikawa, et.all.,1994; Glaubitt, et. all., 1997),
suspension extrusion (CeraNova, 2000) and suspension spinning process (Cass,
1991;Taeger et.al, 1998).
In our case, the fiber production is based on a cellulose forming, suspension and
spinning process, known as the LYO CE LL-process (Taeger et. al, 1998). See Fig. 1.
Essentially, commercial PZT powders are dispersed in a mixture consisting of a
cellulose - NMMO (N-methylmorpholin-N-oxid-monohydrate) solution. The
dispersion is pressed through a nozzle defining the fiber cross-section. The NMMO
organic is replaced by water in the coagulation bath accompanied by network
formation of the cellulose binder. As result, filaments of ceramic green fibers are
obtained. Subsequently, the green fibers are dried and fired.
The LYO CE LL-process allows for the production of a variety of advanced
ceramics on an industrial scale. Different filament shapes, hollow fibers as well as
bi-component fibers have been manufactured successfully. Fig. 1 (right) shows an
example of sintered PZT fibers consisting of 250 mm in diameter and 150 mm in
length. Such fibers have been commercialized by the Smart Material Corp. (Florida,
USA, www.smart-material.com). They are made from Type II and Type VI (U.S.
Navy designation standards) piezoceramics and are offered in the diameter range
between 100-800 mm.
Development and use of smart techniques 249
Figure 1. Schematic of green fiber preparation according to the LYO CE LL process
/courtesy TITK Rudolstadt, see (Teager et.al. 1998)/. After sintering, the fibers are straight
and ready for composite fabrication.
The level of functional properties is 55-60 % of that of monolithic ceramics,
which is attributed to the unusual high surface to volume ratio of fibers. Table 1
shows typical fiber data. Improvements are expected by compositional
modifications.
Table 1. Properties of Piezoceramic Fibers. (The relative values are deduced by
relating the fiber data to the monolithic ceramic data of the same composition.)
Piezoceramic
Navy Type VI
Navy Type II
Navy Type II
Fiber-0
urn
300
250
140
e
33. f
T/e
0
Relative e-value d
33.f
Relative d- value
% pC/N %
2525
1300
1063
66
62
63
690
470
374
55
51
59
250 Repairing Structures using Composites Wraps
3. Piezoelectric Composites
3.1. Composites vs. Monolithic Piezoceramics
Composites of parallel aligned piezoelectric rods embedded in a passive
polymer matrix (see Fig. 3 left) show superior properties for ultrasonic transducer
applications as compared to monolithic piezoceramics plates of the same geometry.
They combine a high coupling coefficient, low acoustic impedance, low mechanical
quality, minimized lateral mode coupling and an intermediate dielectric constant
(Smith et .all., 1989). The quasistatic as well as dynamic properties are anisotropic,
which allows for decoupling of the in-plane properties from those in the normal
direction.
Composite laminates that utilize piezoelectric fibers for structural control (see
Fig. 3, right) have been under rapid development in the recent past as they offer
many advantages over traditional piezoceramic actuators (Williams, 2000):
They are more robust than brittle monolithic piezoelectric materials.
They can be made to conform to the curved surfaces of realistic applications.
They can be added along with conventional fiber-reinforced laminate.
They exhibit in-plane actuation anisotropy, which affords them the ability to
apply both bending moments and twisting motions.
They exhibit in-plane sensing anisotropy.
The in-plane arrangement of fibers and the use of interdigitated electrodes allow
much higher forces or displacements to develop by capitalizing on the stronger
longitudinal (d
33
constant) piezoelectric effect.
Figure 3. Schematic of 1-3 piezoelectric composites as used for acoustic transduction (left)
and for structural control (right). The ceramic fibers are embedded in a polymer matrix (not
shown). The acoustic transducers are terminated by layer electrodes (left, not shown), whilst
interdigital electrodes (IDE ) are applied on the surface of the composite patches (right).
Development and use of smart techniques 251
3.2 Composites by "Arrange & Fill"
Piezoceramic-polymer 1-3 composites (using our methodology) are prepared by
epoxy infiltration of fiber bundles and dicing of the cube-shaped blocks
perpendicular as well as parallel to the direction of the fibers. In the first case,
strain-stress sensing piezoelectric sheets are obtained, usable in the quasistatic as
well as ultrasound frequency domain. The sensitivity is primarily in the normal
direction of the sheet, thus decoupling of transversal mechanical stimulation is
achieved. Sensing elements for Health Monitoring & Diagnostics as well as Non-
Destructive Testing are seen to be the primary applications.
In the second case, flexible piezoelectric sheets with in-plane sensing or
actuation anisotropy are obtained. In this case, interdigitated electrodes (IDE) are
applied on the sheet surface. This approach allows for the preparation of large size
flexible wraps, serving as the actuator and/or sensor part in smart structures.
As shown by optical microscopy at low fiber contents < 25 vol % the distribution
is statistical, whereas a more regular arrangement occurs at higher phase volume
fractions, e.g. > 50 vol. %.
Figure 4. Cross section of 1-3 piezoflber composites with 25 vol% (left), 50 vol% (middle)
and 65 vol% (righ) . The PZT fibers are spaced randomly.
4. Intended Applications
4.1 Ultrasonic Transduction
The properties of 1-3 composites with random element spacing, as prepared
using our technology, correspond to those expected theoretically. The thickness
resonance frequency is defined by the frequency constant of the material of about
252 Repairing Structures using Composites Wraps
1550 Hz m and the thickness of the sample. So far, samples in the wide resonance
frequency from 50 kHz to 2 MHz have been prepared and tested by diverse
customers. As seen in Fig. 5, spurious modes around the thickness vibration are
completely suppressed.
Figure 5. Impedance /Z/ and phase angle theta as function of frequency measured on 1-3
fiber composites with random element spacing (fibers : PZT Navy Type II, 2 50 mm, composite:
65 vol% , sample size 20mm x 20mm) showing only the thickness vibration mode at 1,5 MH z.
No spurious modes occur. (Fiber composites with various characteristics are commercially
available by the Smart Material Corp., Florida, USA)
4.2 Sensor Patches: Coupling in Normal D irection
The sensing capability of thin patches of 1 -3 composites, as sketched in Fig. 3
(left) with thickness of 200 - 300 mm have been investigated using a testing
machine. See Fig. 6.
Figure 6. Plot of testing machine after 10
8
cycles applied on 5 mm x 5 mm samples at 35°C
1 - Charge yield from piezo-composite; 2 - Charge yield from PVDF, amplification 8 x
3 - Applied stress, amplitude 10 Mpa; 4- Strain measured by a Laser system
/courtesy Dr. B runner, Fraunhofer - ISC/
Development and use of smart techniques 253
The yield of charge was found to be 8 times the value of that for a conventional
PVDF sensor. The signal turned out to be very stable under the test conditions.
Flexible sensor patches of large size are available, see Fig 7.
Figure 7. Flexible sensor patch with normal load sensitivity fixed on a glass tube.
4.3 Sensor / Actuator W raps: In-plane Coupling
There is a general interest in fiber composites for actuation (Janas et.all,1998,
Wilkie et. all, 2000, Schonecker et. all, 2000). We succeeded in preparing flexible
actuating/sensing components by slicing 1-3 composite blocks into thin layers. The
structure of which corresponds to that sketched in Fig. 3 (right) with a tolerable
misalignment of the single fibers. IDEs serve for field coupling. If the IDEs are
applied on one side only, the component works like a bending actuator. See fig. 8.
Full characterization and improvement of the structural design is still under
investigation. The scope of design is determined by geometrical factors such as fiber
diameter, sample thickness, straightness of fibers, finger electrode width/spacing
(Beckert et. all., 2001), and selection of the constituent phases.
The fiber composites are expected to show improved robustness, flexibility,
damage tolerance and handling capability.
Figure 8. B ending of the fiber composite along the middle axis depending on the driving
voltage (parameter).
254 Repairing Structures using Composites Wraps
5. Conclusion
Piezoceramic fibers allow for a unique and cost-efficient piezo-transducer
technology. Ultrasound transduction materials with suppressed spurious modes can
be prepared for working frequencies between 50 kHz - 4 MHz. The acoustic
impedance can be adjusted to the needs of sonar applications, non-destructive testing
and biomedical diagnosis. Flexible piezoelectric components with sensing and
actuating anisotropy have been developed. They are expected to find widespread
applications in smart structures. R&D at Fraunhofer-IKTS is still ongoing. Products
are being commercialized in co-operation with Smart Material Corp., Florida, USA.
Prototype samples are available for evaluation, (www.smart-material.com).
Acknowledgements
The authors would like to thank Thomas Daue, John Wright, Fumio Aikawa,
Dieter Vorbach and Giinter Helke for valuable discussions and assistance.
12. Bibliography/References
Hagood N.W., Bent A.A., "Development of Piezoelectric Fiber Composites for Structural
Actuation", Proc. 43th AIAA ASME, Adaptive Structures Forum, April 19-22, 1993, La
Jolla, CA
Schmidt W., Boiler C.,"Smart Structures - A Technology for Next Generation Aircraft", 15 th
Meeting AGARD - Structure and Materials Panel, Lindau, 5.-7.10.1992
Crawley E.F., Anderson E.H., "Detailed Models of Piezoceramic Actuation of B eams", 1989,
AI AA Journal
Yoshikawa S., Selvaraj U., Moses P., Jiang Q., Shrout T.. "Pb(Zr,Ti)O 3 (PZT) Fibers-
Fabrication and Properties"', Ferroelectrics 154 (1994) 325-330.
Glaubitt W., Watzka W., Scholz H., Sporn D., "Sol-gel processing of functional and structural
ceramic oxide fibers"; J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 8(1997) 29-33.
CeraNova Commercial Brochure, 2000 CeraNova Corp.
Cass. R. B., "Fabrication of Continuous Ceramic fiber by the Viscous Suspension Spinning
Process": Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull. 70(1991) 3,424-29.
Teager E., Berghof K., Maron R., Meister F., Michels Ch., Vorbach D., " Lyocell products
with build-in functional properties", Chem. Fibers Int., vol. 48, 1998, p. 32-35.
Development and use of smart techniques 255
Smith W.A., Shaulov A., Auld B., "Design of Piezocomposites for Ultrasonic Transducers",
Ferroelectrics, 91 (1989), pp. 155-162
Williams R. Brett, "An Introduction to Composite Materials with Active Piezoelectric
Fibers", Lecture Virginia Tech, 2000
Janos, B. Z. and Hagood, N. W., "O verview of Active Fiber Composites Technologies,"
Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on New Actuators - ACTUATOR 98,
June 98, Bremen, Germany.
Wilkie, W. K., Bryant, G. R., High, J. W. et al., "Low-Cost Piezocomposite Actuator for
Structural Control Applications," Proceedings, SPIE 7
th
Annual International Symposium
on Smart Structures and Materials, Newport Beach, CA, March 5-9, 2000.
Schonecker A., Sporn D., Watzka W., Seffner L., Wierach P., Pannkoke K., "H igh-
Performance Piezoelectric Thin Fibers and Sheets as Functional Components for Smart
Materials", Proceedings, SPIE 7
th
Annual International Symposium on Smart Structures
and Materials, Newport Beach, CA, March 5-9, 2000.
Beckert W., Kreher W. S., "Modelling Piezoelectric Modules with Interdigitated Structures"
Proceedings of 11th International Workshop for Computational Mechanics and Computer
Aided Design of Materials (IWCMM 11), Freiberg (Germany), September 2001, to be
published in Computational Materials Science
This page intentionally left blank
Application of Metal Core-Piezoelectric
Fiber
Embedment in CFRP
Hiroshi Sato — Yoshiro Shimojo — Tadashi Sekiya
Smart Structure Research Center
National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology
Tsukuba AIST Central 2, Tsukuba, 305-8568, Japan
h-sato@aist.go.jp
AB STRACT: Research on piezoelectric fibers was started in the Active Materials and Structures
Laboratory at MIT in 1992. Now, these fibers are used in commercial products, such as ski
boards and tennis rackets for vibration suppression. H owever, these fibers have some
disadvantages. For example, interdigitated electrodes are necessary for the use as sensors
and actuators. Furthermore, they are fragile because of the ceramics. These problems were
solved using metal core piezoelectric fibers manufactured by a hydrothermal method. The
fibers obtained are difficult to be broken and require no electrodes. Using the novel fiber a
new smart board was developed.
KE Y W O RDS: metal core piezoelectric fiber, CFRP, smart board, sensor, actuator
258 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
1. Introduction
Piezoelectric material has been used for sensor and actuator. Recently much
attention is being paid to the application of piezoelectric material for structure
health monitoring and vibration control on embedding into composite materials
such as CFRP and GFRP. In the composite including piezoelectric material, it is
important to minimize the harm to the mechanical performance of composite. As
one solution, the Active Materials and Structures Laboratory at MIT proposed to
use piezoelectric material in fiber shape (Bent et al, 1993). They say that their
fiber is strong, conformable, and therefore can be used to some commercial
products, such as ski board and tennis racket for suppressing the vibration.
However, their fiber has disadvantages, as interdigitated electrodes are necessary
for the use as sensor and actuator and the fragility is not completely solved. In
order to solve these problems, we propose piezoelectric fiber wi t h metal core,
which is fabricated by the hydrothermal method. The advantages of our
piezoelectric fiber are as follows:
(1) No need of electrodes.
Generally, the piezoelectric material needs one couple of electrodes in using as
sensor and actuator. However, in our piezoelectricity fiber, the electrode is not
required, since the metal core in the fiber can be used as one electrode and CFRP
itself becomes ground electrode because of the high electric conductivity of the
carbon fiber.
(2) Difficult to be broken
Although piezoelectric ceramics such as PZT are fragile, the fragility can be
overcome by the metal core.
(3) High resistance to the noise from the outside.
The sensitivity of the sensor is evaluated by S/N ratio. Therefore, it is important
how to increase an output signal from the sensor and how to decrease a noise from
the surroundings. Our fiber is embedded in CFRP composite with high electrical
conductivity. Therefore, the CFRP composite easily cuts off the noise from the
outside, and it is possible to enhance the signal from the sensor.
(4) Decrease of the thermal stress
Sol gel method and extrusion method are considered as the other ways to produce
the piezoelectric fiber including metal core. However, it is necessary to sinter at high
temperatures as high as 1000°C to obtain the final product. At that time, ceramics
may be broken, because of the difference in the thermal expansion coefficient
between metal core and piezoelectric ceramics. Using the hydrothermal method, the
influence of the thermal expansion can be reduced, since the hydrothermal
temperature is 150°C or less. Furthermore, the polarization processing is
unnecessary.
Development and use of smart techniques 259
(5) Low cost
Manufacturing cost is a problem. The hydrothermal method enables to produce
fibers in a large number at one time. Then, it is possible to utilize for sensor and
actuator only by embedding in the CFRP composite.
In this paper, we make piezoelectric fibers with metal core using a hydrothermal
method and develop the fiber-embedded CFRP smart board. In addition, it is shown
that this board can generate the vibration and detect the vibration.
2. Metal core-piezoelectric fiber
Piezoelectric PZT fibers with metal core were fabricated by a hydrothermal
method same as reported by Shimomura in Tokyo Institute Technology (Shimomura
et al., 1991). And now, micro ultrasonic motor, excitation type tactile sensor and
gyroscope are developed as the application example (Kurosawa et al., 1999; Sato et
al, 1999). This method has many advantages further than Sol-Gel, sputtering and
CVD techniques as follows:
(1) PZT thin film (about 5 to 50 mm) can be fabricated on the three-dimensional
titanium structure.
(2) The crystalline film is deposited at temperatures as below as 1500.
(3) The resultant film needs no polarization process.
(4) The thickness of PZT layer can be controlled by repeating the crystal growth
process.
In the hydrothermal process, PZT precipitates according to the following reaction,
This method consists of two processes, that is, nucleation process and crystal
growth process. In the nucleation process, titanium substrate was hydrothermal-
treated in the mixed solution of zirconium oxychloride, lead nitrate and potassium
hydroxide in an autoclave. The reaction condition is 140°C for about 24h. Ions Pb
2+
and Zr
4+
are supplied from the solution and titanium substrate itself is Ti
4+
source.
Thus, PZT nuclei are formed on the titanium substrate surface.
After the nucleation process, the titanium substrate was subjected to the crystal
growth process in order to increase the thickness of PZT layer. In this process,
titanium tetrachloride was added to the above solution as further Ti
4+
source, and
reaction was made at 120°C for about 24h. Then PZT crystals are subsequently
grown on the nuclei. Figure 5 shows a SEM image after the crystal growth process.
It can be seen that PZT crystal grains of about 5 to 10 um in size are grown on the
titanium substrate.
260 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
Figure 1. SE M image of PZT thin film
3. Application to the smart board
By embedding sensor and actuator in the composite structure, and as a result by
giving health monitoring and vibration suppression functions, it becomes possible
that the structure of reliability is increased and the span of life is extended. That
time, it is necessary to consider the shape of sensor and actuator so as to minimize
harmful influence on the mechanical performance of the composite material. We
reduce the influence by embedding the piezoelectric fiber in the CFRP composite
along the direction same as that of the carbon fibers. We made a cantilever structure
with piezoelectric fibers embedded on CFRP composite, as shown in Figure 2.
Piezoelectric fibers are put on the six layers-stacking of CFRP prepreg. Then,
prepreg are pressed under 0.3MPa at for 135D for 2 hours by using a hot press, and
the CFRP composite[ 02 / 902 / 02 ] in which the piezoelectric fibers were embedded
was produced. This cantilever is 70mm in length, 30mm in width and 0.7mm in
thickness.
3.1. Use as actuator
The piezoelectric material needs two electrodes (upper electrode and lower
electrode), when used as sensor and actuator. However, in our piezoelectricity fiber,
the electrode is not required. The metal core in the fiber can be used as one
electrode, and CFRP composite plays role of ground electrode because of the high
electric conductivity of the carbon fiber.
Development and use of smart techniques 261
In this experiment, six piezoelectric fibers were embedded in the cantilever
structure. 50V AC voltage was applied between six titanium cores and CFRP
composite, then the piezoelectric fibers were elongated or shrank due to the
converse piezoelectric effect. Finally, CFRP board was bent by deformation of the
piezoelectric fibers. We measured this bending displacement of the beam tip using a
laser displacement meter as shown in Figure 3.
Figure 4 shows relationship between input frequency and vibration displacement
of the beam end. It can be seen from this figure that the cantilever vibrates in the
range of about l0nm to lmm having a resonant point at about 180Hz.
Figure 2. Fabrication process of the smart board
Figure 3. B lock diagram of experimental system
for examination of actuator function
262 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
Figure 4. Relationship between applied frequency and
vibration displacement of the beam end
3.2. Use as sensor
Next we applied this board as a vibration sensor. In this experiment,
electromagnetic vibrator was put on the tip of the cantilever to make reference
vibration. Piezoelectric fibers on the CFRP board are shrank or elongated as the
board is bent. Then an electric charge was generated from the piezoelectric fiber by
the direct piezoelectric effect. This electric charge was detected by using Lock in
amplifier, as shown in Figure 5.
Figure 6 shows relationship between applied vibration and output voltage as a
function of frequency. The solid line indicates the displacement of the tip of
cantilever measured by laser displacement meter and the dotted line means an output
voltage came from our piezoelectric fiber. From this figure, it is proved that the
output voltage from the fiber is almost proportional to the magnitude of the
reference vibration.
Development and use of smart techniques 263
Figure 5. B lock diagram of experimental system
for examination of sensor function
Figure 6. Relationship between reference vibration
and output voltage of the piezoelectric fiber
4.Conclusions
In this paper, we developed piezoelectric fiber with metal core wire and
proposed new smart board incorporated this piezoelectric fiber on the surface of the
CFRP composite. It was shown that these complex fibers could be used as sensor
and actuator in the CFRP board. As further smart application of this piezoelectric
fiber, it is expected to extend to construct self-sensing, health monitoring and
vibration control systems. In the near future, it may be possible to produce linear
sensor network using this fiber.
264 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
References
Bent, A., Hagood N and Rodgers J., "Anisotropic Actuation with Piezoelectric Fiber
Composites", Proceedings of the DGLR Conference, Germany, 1993.
Kurosawa K. and Higuchi T., "A Cylindrical Shaped Micro Ultrasonic Motor Utilizing PZT
Thin Film", Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors and
Actuators (Transducers'99), 1999, p. 1744-1747.
Sato H., Fukuda T., Arai F and Itoigawa K, "Parallel Beam Gyroscope", Proceedings of the
10th International Conference on Sol id-State Sensors and Actuators(Transducers'99),
1999, p. 1586-1589.
Shimomura K., Tsurumi T., Ohba, Y and Daimon M., "Preparation of Lead Zirconate
Titanate Thin Film by Hydrothermal Method", JpnJ.AppI.phys., Vol. 30, 1991, p. 2174-
2177.
Part III:
Process Improvement
This page intentionally left blank
Cure monitoring of composites using
multidetection technique
Emmanuel Chailleux* — Michelle Salvia* — Nicole Jaffrezic-
Renault* — Yves Jayet** — Abderrahim Maazouz*** — Gerard
Seytre**** — Ivan Kasik*****
*IFO S, UMR CNRS 5621, E cole Centrale de Lyon
36 avenue Guy de Collongue, 69131 E cully, France
e-mail: Michelle.Salvia@ec-lyon.fr
**GE MPPM, UMR CNRS 5510, INSA deLyon
20 avenue A.E instein, 69621 Villeurbanne, France
***LMM, UMR CNRS 5627, INSA deLyon
20 avenue A.E instein, 69621 Villeurbanne, France
****LMPB , UMR CNRS 5627, Universite Claude B ernard,
43 boulevard du 11 novembre, 69622 Villeurbanne, France
*****IRE E , Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic
Chaberska 57182 51 Prague, Czech Republic
AB STRACT : Since the last decade, fibre reinforced plastics have been increasingly used as
components in engineering structures. Ageing, load-transfer, and off-axis behaviour of
composites are directly dominated by the viscoelastic matrix properties linked to the cure
process. So there is a growing need for sensors, which provide real-time, in situ monitoring
of the manufacturing process. This study proposes to follow the cure mechanism of an epoxy-
amine resin simultaneously using three sensors embedded in the material: a fibre-optic
sensor (refractive index), a piezoelectric element and a dielectric sensor.
KE Y W O RDS: cure monitoring, optical fibre, dielectric, ultrasound, thermoset.
268 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
1. Introduction
High performance composites have been used extensively in high-tech areas,
such as aerospace and automobile industries etc. Numerous primary structural parts
are made with these materials. In particular, epoxy resin reinforced with continuous
glass fibre is a system with good mechanical properties and low density. The
reinforcing fibre dominates largely the mechanical behaviour when the composites
are loaded in the fibre direction. However, ageing, load-transfer, and consequently
creep and off-axis loading are directly dominated by the viscoelastic matrix
properties (epoxy resin) linked to the cure process.
Three sensors, good candidates to provide in situ evaluation of the thermoset
matrix cure process, have been developed in previous work: fibre-optic sensors
(Chailleux et al, 2001), piezoelectric sensors (Jayet et al., 1998) and microdielectric
measurements (Pichaud et al., 1999).
This study proposes to monitor the cure of an epoxy-mine system, using these
sensors simultaneously on the same sample. The multidetection monitoring will be
performed in terms of refractive index, viscoelastic properties, and conductivity.
This multidetection technique allows these parameters to be determined in the same
experimental conditions. This point is particularly important because the epoxy-
amine reaction is exothermic, so kinetic parameters depend strongly on the sample
geometry and quantity. Comparing the results should enable us to understand the
information provided by the in situ sensors for each step of the epoxy-amine cure
mechanism. Particular attention will be given to the changing physical properties,
from the liquid to the solid state.
2. Theoretical part
2.1. Cure of epoxy-amine system
The amine-cured epoxy system gives a three-dimensional macromolecular
network synthesised by the polyaddition of polyfunctional molecules. The final
morphology of this three-dimensional network, which determines the properties of
the material, depends on this transformation. During the thermoset resin cure, there
is an interaction between the chemical kinetics and the changing physical properties,
which may involve an incomplete degree of conversion of the system. This
phenomenon is particularly important because the glass transition temperature is a
function of the degree of conversion. Di Benedetto's approach (Di Benedetto 87)
assumes that this relation is independent of the cure temperature:
Process improvement 269
where T
g0
,T
goo
are the glass transition temperatures of, respectively, the unreacted
resin mixture and the fully cured resin (l, is an adjustable parameter). This relation
has been compared with success to experimental data for an epoxy-amine system
(Pichaud et al, 1999). The chemical transformation involves first the epoxy groups
with the primary amine to give secondary amine. The secondary amine reacts with
the epoxy group to give tertiary amine. These two reactions are competitive.
Moreover, two phases may appear during the reaction according to the cure
temperature: gelation and/or vitrification. Gelation is the liquid to rubber transition,
which occurs when the system reaches a certain degree of conversion. This degree
of conversion corresponds to the time when an infinite network is formed. The gel
point can be determined with fraction gel experiments or dynamic mechanical
spectrometry. This transition is not frequency dependent. Vitrification is rubber to
glass transition, which occurs when the glass transition increases to the temperature
of cure. This transition is frequency dependent. The occurrences of these transitions
according to the cure temperature have been reported by Enns and Gillham in
numerous works (Enns and Gillham, 1983,1983b).
2.2. Refractive index
The refractive index measurement is carried out using an embedded fibre optic
sensor (Figure 1). The principle of this sensor is based on measurement of angular
distribution of light transmitted through the optical fibre (Figure 2). The difference
between the cladding and core refractive indices is directly responsible for the light
guiding properties of optical fibres. So, by partially removing the cladding and
immersing the stripped region in an external medium it is possible to monitor its
refractive index variation. However, the refractive index of the new medium has to
obey the relation: n
core
>n
medium
>n
cladding
in such a way that guiding conditions and
external medium sensitivity will hold. The optical fibre has to be selected in
accordance with the tested material. A theoretical model allows the refractive index
of the surrounding medium to be determined by fitting the angular distribution of
the transmitted light power data. The model is based on the following parameters:
refractive indices of the core, claddings, and external media, core and cladding
length, then diameter of the core. The coating media (epoxy resin and silicone in
this work) are considered to be imperfect dielectrics, so their refractive indices have
imaginary parts related to optical loss. The silica core is considered to be lossless.
Moreover, due to a relatively large core diameter (about 300 mm) it is possible to
use theories of geometrical optics. To monitor the dynamic reaction of
polymerisation a fixed angle of incidence is chosen. The sensitivity and the ability
of this optical sensor have been reported hi a previous work (Chailleux et al, 2001).
270 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
Figure 1. Schematic of the fibre sensor detection system
Erreur! Signet non defini.
Figure 2. Angular distribution of the transmitted light power for the fibre-optic
sensor immersed in cured and uncured epoxy resin
In order to understand the optical response of the epoxy system during the
reaction, it is necessary to study how the chemical and physical structure contribute
to the refractive index. The Lorentz-Lorentz formula links the refractive index (n) to
the molecular weight (M), the molar refractivity (R) and the density (p):
The molar refractivity is independent of temperature or physical state and, for
large number of compounds it is additive for the bonds present in the molecule
(Bauer et al., 1960). Knowing that the three-dimensional network is synthesised by
the polyaddition of polyfunctional molecules and, assuming that chemical
transformation during the reaction is insignificant in terms of molar refractivity and
molecular weight, the Lorentz-Lorentz formula during cure can be written as
follows:
Process improvement 271
where k(t) is a kinetic dependent parameter. This assumption implies the refractive
index variation is only due to density during cure. Moreover, it has been verified
that the relation between n and p can be considered linear in the refractive index and
density range of epoxy-mine during cure. Numerous works report contradictory
results about density and degree of cure relationships for epoxy-amine systems.
Cizmecioglu et al (1986) assumes the increase in density (measured at room
temperature) with conversion is due to the cross-linking points, which reduce the
free volume of the resin system. Cizmecioglu finds a linear relation between density
and conversion, independent of cure temperature. It is to be noted that the epoxy
system (TGDDM-DDS), used in this case, was in a non-stoichiometric ratio
([epoxy]/[amine]=2). On the other hand, Enns et al. (1983b) show that density
decreases as conversion extends (whereas glass transition increases) hi the case of a
stoichiometric mixture of Epon828 cured with DDS. This result is explained in
terms of the non-equilibrium nature of the glassy state. From these observations, it
seems the relationships between density (and so refractive index) and extent of
reaction may not be easy to predict. Experimentally, Afromowitz and Lam (1990)
measured the refractive index according to the extent of reaction for an Epon828
cured with 14 phr-m-phenylenediamine. They find that the refractive index grows
linearly with the extent of reaction until the system reaches a critical degree of
conversion for T
cure
= 90°C and 130°C and a perfect linear relation for T
cure
= 60°C.
2.3.yiscoelasticproperties by ultrasound
The study of ultrasonic wave propagation was used for long time to monitor the
cure of thermoset resin (Sofer and Hauser, 1952). The technique used in this work is
based on the measurement of the electrical impedance of piezoelectric ceramic. In
this work, the electrical impedance is measured in the frequency range of the
ceramic thickness vibration mode (2.2 MHz). A one-dimensional approach is
sufficient to model the electrical impedance according to the frequency in relation
with the axial vibration mode. An analytical expression is obtained by considering
the fundamental relations of piezoelectricity and the wave propagation equation for
a harmonic longitudinal excitation in a viscoelastic material. The geometry of the
one-dimensional problem is shown in Figure 3. The validity of this model has been
presented in previous works (Perrissin-Faber and Jayet, 1994, Jayet et al, 1998).
272 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
Figure 3. Geometry of the one-dimensional model, p: density, V: longitudinal sound
velocity, Att: ultrasonic attenuation, h
33
: piezoelectric constant in the ZZ' direction,
b
33
: dielectric constant.
The unknown ceramic parameters are determined by analysing the response of
the electrical impedance when the element is immersed in a medium of known
ultrasonic properties. The experiment is then performed on the epoxy system from
the initial liquid mixture to the solid state. Figure 4 shows the electrical impedance,
in the frequency range of the ceramic thickness mode of vibration, at the end of the
epoxy cure. The model (continuous line) allows the longitudinal sound velocity (V|)
and the attenuation (a
1
) to be determined. An optimisation algorithm, based on a
simplex optimisation method, is used to fit the experimental data (circle).
The relations between ultrasonic wave propagation and mechanical properties in
viscoelastic medium are well known. The wave equations for an harmonic
longitudinal excitation in such a material give the following relationships (with
reasonable approximation in the ultrasonic frequency range):
where M' and M" are respectively the storage and loss longitudinal modulus, p is the
density and w is the radian frequency. The complex modulus (M*) determined from
velocity and attenuation is the linear combination of the bulk and shear modulus:
M* = K* + 4/3 G*. During cure, the increase of the molecular weight involves an
increase of the mechanical properties from the liquid to the glassy state. The
complex modulus is well known as an interesting parameter to study the elastic
properties as well as the relaxation spectra of thermoset resins during cure.
Numerous works report dynamic mechanical experiments to determine the gelation
and vitrification transitions. Nevertheless, the viscoelastic response must be
explained carefully due to the high frequency used (2.2 MHz). Morel (Morel et al,
1989) assumes that (3 transition, usually determined under 0°C at low frequency, is
higher than room temperature at ultrasonic frequency.
Process improvement 273
Figure 4. Module of the ceramic electrical impedance when the element is
immersed in cured epoxy (circle). Continuous line is drawn using the theoretical
model with the following parameters: V=2400m/s, Att=8.10
-6
Np.m
-1
.H z
-1
2.4.D ielectric behaviour
When dielectric material is put into an alternating electric field, conduction and
polarisation phenomena take place in the material. The knowledge of the phase angle
between input voltage and current delivered through the material and of the current
amplitude allows the sample complex permittivity (e* = E' + j e") to be determined.
The parameter chosen for study is conductivity (a). Conductivity is deduced from the
dielectric loss factor (e") and the frequency of the measurement (w).
with EO being the permittivity of the free space. During cure, conductivity variations
are firstly due to ionic mobility and, secondly to dipolar motion. The best conditions
to measure conductivity due to ionic transport are low frequency as well as low
viscosity. On the other hand, the dipolar relaxation times are responsible for the
conductivity when the measurement is made at high frequency and when the
viscosity of the system reaches a critical level. It is to be noted that dipolar response
is frequency dependent whereas ionic response is frequency independent. During
274 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
the epoxy cure, the ionic impurities are responsible for the ionic conductivity until
the viscosity reaches certain value (Pichaud et al., 1999).
The dielectric response will be then due to dipolar motion in close relation with
viscosity. In this study, dielectric measurement is performed using Micromet
eumetric system III apparatus. This device generates a sinusoidal signal that is
transmitted to sensor electrodes. The electrode configuration is an interdigited comb
pattern. The software linked to this device provides complex permittivity and
conductivity according to the frequency. Thus, it is possible to obtain the dielectric
relaxation spectra in relation to the dipolar motion.
3. Experimental part
3.1. E xperimental setup
The epoxy resin is commercial DGEBA (LY 556 resin from Ciba) cured with
IPD (IsoPhorone Diamine from Aldrich). Resin and hardener are mixed in
stoichiometric ratio. Glass transitions of the initial and fully cured resin are:T
g0
= -
37°C and T
goo
= 155°C. The gelation limiting temperature is T
gel
=32°C.
In order to have gelation and vitrification successively, the measurement should
be performed between 32°C and 155°C .The refractive index of the initial mixture
measured at room temperature with an Abbe refractometer is 1.555. In order to
monitor the reaction simultaneously with the three sensors the resin is cured in an
instrument-equipped mould (Figure 5). The mould enables the insertion of an
optical fibre and the immersion of the dielectric sensor as well as the piezoelectric
ceramic in the resin. The mould is pre-heated to the test temperature. The mixture is
then poured while the responses of the sensors are recorded (Figure 6).
3.2. Temperature effect
hi the first stage, the output signals of the sensors reflect the competition between
temperature and reaction. The mechanical characteristics and refractive index fall
continuously while the conductivity increases. These phenomena must be attributed to
the density and viscosity decrease as resin temperature increase, In this polymeric
liquid state M' is equivalent to the bulk modulus K' since G' << K' (Ferry 1990) and so
M' depends on the free volume. On the other hand, G" is not necessarily negligible
compared to K". Thus, the loss modulus M" depends on the resin viscosity. Ferry
gives the following relation: M"=w(hv+4/3h) where hv and h' are the bulk (or
volume) viscosity and standard viscosity. According to equation [3], density is
responsible for the refractive index decrease. Also, the conductivity variation can be
explained, in this liquid state, since ionic mobility rises while viscosity decreases
Process improvement 275
(Pichaud et al, 1999). It is to be noted that the small variation of density (2%
calculated from the refractive index) induced by the temperature increase, leads to a
non-negligible effect on the bulk modulus (24%) as well as on conductivity (36 %).
This effect is particularly important because it depends on the storage conditions (Rath
et al, 2000) (temperature, moisture), since softening of the unreacted resin is linked to
the macromolecular initial state: molecular weight, cross-linked density and
consequently initial glass transition temperature. The earlier change in conductivity,
compared to the output signals of the other sensors, can be explained both by the
material zone analysed and by the different sensor locations. As previously mentioned,
the optical fibre is embedded in the middle of the sample and both dielectric and
ultrasonic sensors are located at the mould/resin interface where the temperature
threshold is reached earlier than in the bulk of the material. The signal output of the
dielectric sensor is due to phenomena occurring at the sensor/resin interface (like the
optical fibre) while the US response is linked to bulk properties.
Figure 5.. Schematic of the instrument-equipped mould
276 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
Figure 6. Multidetection monitoring -T
CJirc
=90°C
3.3. Cross-link effect
Before the resin reaches the test temperature, the output signals of the sensors
begin to reflect the cross-linking reaction. The mechanical characteristics and
refractive index rise, while conductivity decreases. Cross-linked node formation
leads to a decrease in free volume and an increase in viscosity. The refractive index,
which is representative of this free volume, shows sigmoidal variation. At first, M
1
and tan8 rise slowly, then increase dramatically, respectively when n reaches 20%
and 50% of its asymptotic value. Then, tan 8 presents two peaks while M
1
shows
sigmoid variation. This M' variation denotes the occurrence of the shear elastic
response of the resin (G'). At the same time, the decrease of conductivity, first
linked to the formation of microgel resulting in a decrease of the ionic mobility,
begins to be the consequence of dipolar relaxation times. In fact, conductivity
curves pass through maxima in dependence on frequency tests. These maxima are
linked to vitrification (Wang et al., 1994). Taking into account the frequency
dependence of this relaxation phenomenon, vitrification times at 2.2 MHz are
determined from the dielectric measurements (Figure 7).
Process improvement 277
Figure 7. Vitrification time at 2.2 MHz extrapolated from dielectric measurement
From this result, the vitrification time measured at 2.2 MHz seems to be close to
the first tan5 maximum. In order to estimate gelation time, viscosity h' has been
measured with a dynamic mechanical analyser (DMA) between 1.58 rad/s and 100
rad/s. Figure 8 shows tand compared to h' during cure for two temperatures: 70°C
and 90°C.
The h' dramatic increase, which appears after the first tans maximum, shows
that the system is close to gelation. Vitrification time, measured at 2.2 MHz, and
gelation, appear in the time range for T
cure
=70°C and 90°C. From this result, the
second peak on tan 6 curves could be explained by an interaction between gelation
and vitrification. This point must be verified in future works. It is to be noted that
both conductivity and refractive index are not linked to any particular event during
the dramatic increase in viscosity, and so to the gelation phenomenon. At the end of
polymerisation, the variations of the dielectric, mechanical and optical parameters
reflect the low rate of the reaction since the cure mechanism is now controlled by
the molecular diffusivity. It is interesting to note that M' is more sensitive at the end
of the reaction than the refractive index and conductivity (Figure 6).
278 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
Figure 8. Loss factor and Viscosity versus cure time for Tcure =70°C (continuous
line) and 90°C (dotted line)
4. Conclusion
An amine-epoxy cure process was evaluated in terms of refractive index,
viscoelastic properties and conductivity. These properties were measured
simultaneously in the same experimental conditions, using three sensors able to
provide in situ monitoring the cure process of composites. The difference in kinetics
could be attributed to the different sensing location. In fact, the dielectric sensor and
optical fibre provide information at the sensor/resin interface while the US
technique informs about bulk behaviour. The temperature effect, on the introduction
of the resin, allows the relationships between density (from refractive index),
viscoelastic properties and conductivity of the unreacted resin to be determined, and
could be linked to the initial mixture quality. During the isothermal cross-linked
reaction, an increase in density is measured, linked to the chemical kinetics. The
elastic modulus determined from the US measurement rises firstly due to the bulk
modulus and, secondly increases dramatically when the shear modulus becomes
non-negligible. The occurrence of the shear elastic response is linked to the first
relaxation phenomenon on the loss coefficient (tans). This relaxation is attributed to
vitrification from the dipolar relaxation observed on the conductivity curves using
the frequency-time dependence criteria. It appears that the vitrification, determined
from US measurements at 2.2 MHz, occurs close to the gelation transition for T
cure
=70°C and 90°C. These results show that multidetection monitoring provides a
Process improvement 279
powerful tool for understanding the changes in physical properties of thermoset
during cure.
Acknowledgements
The authors would like to thank Vlastimil Matejec, (Institute of Radio
Engineering and Electronics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic), Jean-
Michel Vemet (IFOS laboratory, Ecole Centrale de Lyon), Lucien Deville
(GEMPPM, INSA de Lyon) and Susan Goodacre (Ecole Centrale de Lyon) for their
assistance.
References
Afromowitz M.A., Lam K.Y., "The optical properties of curing epoxies and applications to
the fiber-optic epoxy cure sensor", Sensors and Actuators, A21-A23, 1990, p. 135-139.
Bauer N., Fajans K., Lewin S., Physical methods of organic chemistry vol.1 -Part II,
ch.XVIII, Interscience publishers, 1960, p.l 162-1169.
Chailleux E., Salvia M., Jaffrezic-Renault N., Matejec V., Kasic I., "In situ study of the
epoxy cure process using a fiber optic sensor", Smart Materials and Structures, vol.10,
2001,ppl-9.
Cizmecioglu M., Gupta A., Fedors F., "Influence of cure conditions on glass transition
temperature and density of an epoxy resin", Journal of applied polymer science, vol.32,
1986, p. 6177-6190.
Di Benedetto T., "Prediction of the glass temperature of polymers: a model based on the
principle of corresponding state", Journal of Polymer Science, vol. 25, 1987, p. 1949-
1969.
Enns J., Gillham J., "Effect of the extent of cure on the modulus, glass transition.water
absorption, and density of an amine-cured epoxy", Journal of applied polymer science,
vol.28, 1983, p. 2831-2846.
Enns J., Gillham J., "Time-temperature-transformation (ttt) cure diagram: modeling the cure
behaviour of thermoset", Journal of applied polymer science, vol. 28, 1983, p. 2567-
2591.
Ferry J.D., Viscoelastic properties of polymer ch.18, John Wiley and Sons, 1980, p.562-568.
Jayet Y., Baboux J., Guy P., "The piezoelectric implant method:implementation and practical
application, Proceedings of 4th E SSM and 2nd MMR Conference, Harrogate IOP
Publishing, 1998, p. 505-510.
Morel E., Bellenger V., Bocquet M., Verdu J., "Structure-properties relationships for densely
cross-linked epoxide-amine systems based on epoxide or amine mixtures", Journal of
Materials Science, Vol. 24, 1989, p. 69-75.
280 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
Perrissin-Faber I., Jayet Y., "Simulated and experimental study of the electric impedance of a
piezoelectric element in a viscoelastic medium", Ultrasonic, vol. 32, 1994, p. 107-112.
Pichaud S., Deuteutre X., Fit A., Stephan F., Maazouz A., Pascault J.P., "Chemorheological
and dielecric study of epoxy-mine for processing control", Polymer international vol. 48,
1999,p 1205-1218.
Rath M., Doring J., Stark W., Hinrichsen G., "Process monitoring of moulding compounds by
ultrasonic measurements in compression mould", NDT and E International, 33 ,2000, p.
123-130.
Sofer G., Hauser E., "A new tool for determination of the stage of polymerisation of
thermosetting polymers", Journal of Polymer Science, 8 , 1952, p.611-620.
Wang Y., Argiriadi M., Limburg W., Mahoney S., Kranbuehl D. D., Kranbuehl D. E.,
"Monitoring polymerization and associated physical properties using frequency
dependent sensing" Polym. Mat. Sci. and E ng, 70, 1994, p. 279-80.
Mechanical behavior simulation of glass
fiber reinforced polypropylene foam
laminates
Tsuyoshi Nishiwaki* — Akihiko Goto**
* ASICS Corporation, R. & D. Dept.
6-2-1, Takatsukadai, Nishi-ku, KO B E , 651-2271, Japan
waki@tiger4.sp. asics. co.jp
** O saka Sangyo Univ., Dept. of Information Systems E ng.
3-1-1, Nakakakiuchi, Daito, O SAKA, 574-8530, Japan
gotoh@ise.osaka-sandai.ac.jp
AB STRACT: A glass fiber reinforced PP foam (GF/PP foam) can produce the contrary
requirement properties, for example high specific modulus and high damping. The GF/PP
foram is a heterogeneous material with some designing parameters, fiber volume fraction,
foaming ratio. In this study a simplified numerical model of GF/PP foam is proposed. In case
that mechanical behaviors of the heterogeneous plates are predicted.consideration of the
heterogeneity is an important key. In thisproposed method, GF and matrix foam are
represented by orthotropic shell and beam elements, respectively. The reduction raio in the
cross-sectional area of beam elements corresponds to the foaming ratio. In order to check the
validity of the proposed model, 3-point bending and eigenvibration analyses are performed
and compared with experimental results.
KE Y W O RDS: GF/PP foam, foaming raio, heterogeneous numerical model, bending analysis,
eigenvibration analysis
282 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
1. Introduction
In order to fabricate fiber reinforced plastics (FRP) with the more excellent
properties, various reinforcements and matrices have been proposed. In the
conventional designing, mainly the requirement properties have been static or quasi-
static strength and modulus. Nowadays dynamic properties such as eigenfrequencies
and damping are focused. In the homogeneous materials, the above static properties
are contrary to the above dynamic properties. To put it the other way round, high
damping material cannot produce the high strength and stiffness. However FRP have
a possibility to produce both the excellent static and dynamic properties. This is
because FRP is a heterogeneous material. The static and dynamic properties are
affected by reinforcement fiber and matrix, respectively. In case that the optimized
fiber, matrix and reinforced shape are selected, the FRP can produce the high
strength, high modulus and high damping at the same time. Hybrid composite
materials (Goto et al., 1996) and FRP with flexible interphase (Nishiwaki et al.,
2002) have been fabricated in order to propose a new FRP with high static and
dynamic performances. Moreover a new FRP based on the foaming technique, fiber
reinforced plastic foam has been proposed. For the FRP foam, there are various
designing parameters, fiber volume fraction, foaming ratio and fiber orientation.
Therefore FRP foam can produce the more extensive mechanical parameters, as
compared with the conventional FRP.
In the application of FRP foam to the actual products, the prediction of the
mechanical properties is very important. In this prediction, the finite element method
is a very powerful and convenient tool. However the direct application of the
conventional homogeneous model to the numerical simulation of FRP foam causes
various issues. In the other words, numerical modeling considering the heterogeneity
of FRP foam is required.
In this paper, numerical modeling method of the FRP foam composed of short
glass fiber and polypropylene(PP) foam is proposed. Two types of simulations, static
bending and eigenvibration analyses by using the proposed modeling method are
carried out and the validity of the modeling method is checked by the comparison
with the experimental method. Finally the eigenvibration behaviors of the laminated
FRP foam are also discussed.
2. Test specimens
Powder typed PP and chopped glass fiber (GF, length 10-20mm, diameter 10-
13mm) are used. Figure l(a) shows the typical fabrication process of the glass fiber
reinforced polypropylene foam (GF/PP foam). First of all, PP powder and GF are
mixed with water surface active agent foam. Secondly the mixture is sheeted due to
some drying processes. Thirdly the sheet are thermally expanded and molded.
Figure l(b) shows the photomicrograph of GF/PP foam finished. In this study 6
Process improvement 283
types of GF/PP foam plates with various densities are used. The fiber weight
fraction and nominal thickness are constantly 54% and 5mm, respectively. Table 1
shows the list of specimens, here Type-1 denotes the lightest GF/PP foam and Type-
6 denotes the GF/PP foam with the highest density, 1.04 as a convenience.
Figure 1. GF/PP foam
Table 1. Type number list and properties
Type
1
2
3
4
5
6
Density [ g/cm
3
]
0.27
0.40
0.54
0.68
0.77
1.04
GF fraction
| [ wt% 1 [ Vf% ]
54.0 5.80
54.0 5.64
54.0 11.67
54.0 14.69
54.0 16.60
54.0 22.47
3. Modeling method
In case that the mechanical behaviors of the heterogeneous composite structures
are predicted, the application of homogeneous model with the equivalent stiffness
causes various problems. As already mentioned, the stiffness and damping are
mainly affected by GF and PP foam, respectively. This indicates that the numerical
modeling considered the heterogeneity is required. The application of the
homogeneous model with the equivalent stiffness must not give us direct
information for the designing. In our previous studies, the simplified heterogeneous
numerical model called as quasi-three-dimensional model has been proposed and the
validity has been also checked for various simulations (Nishiwaki et at., 1993, 1995,
1996, Tanimoto at al., 2001 ). In this modeling, the composite laminated structure is
defined as the stacking structure with fiber plates and interlaminar matrix. The
284 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
quasi-three-dimensional model is constructed by shell and beam elements, which
correspond to reinforcement fiber plate and interlaminar matrix, respectively. The
application of the quasi-three-dimensional modeling method to GF/PP foam plate is
proposed.
Figure 2 shows the modeling concept proposed in this paper. At first, the plate
is divided into n layers in the thickness direction. This division produces the
interlaminar matrix. Figure 2(a) indicates the example with n=2. GF is gathered on
the neutral surface in each layer, as shown in Figure 2(b). Then each layer is
divided into 3 layers, PP foam layer / GF layer / PP foam layer. The GF and PP
foam layers are represented by orthotropic shell and beam elements. In the GF
layer, the fiber volume fraction is 0.907, that is the theoretical maximum value
(Hull, 1992 ). Shell elements are connected by beam elements corresponding to PP
foam in the thickness direction. Here, the outmost PP foam layers are ignored. In
the previous quasi-three-dimensional modeling, beam elements have dotted
rectangular cross-section as shown in Figure 2(c). In this case, beam elements
have the smaller cross-section in order to represent the void. Table 2 shows the
parameters of all Types. These values can be easily calculated by densities of GF
and PP, those are 2.5g/cm
3
and 0.9g/cm
3
.
Figure 2. Modeling concept for GF/PP foam
Table 2. List of geometric parameter and contents of constituents in Type-1 to -6
Type
1
2
3
4
5
6
size [ mm ]
270*270*4.8
Total
wei ght [ g]
94
140
189
238
269
364
GF
wt [ % 1
54.00
V f [ % ]
5.80
8.64
11.67
14.69
16.60
22.47
Mat r i x volume [ cm3 ]
PP foam
329.61
319.68
309.10
298.51
291.82
268.29
PP
48.04
71.56
96.60
121.64
137.49
186.04
Void
281.57
248.12
212.50
176.87
154.33
82.25
Process improvement 285
The thickness of shell element, t
1
can be calculated by :
where n is division number in the thickness direction. Vf denotes the fiber volume
fraction listed in Table 2. As already mentioned, the target has a constant thickness
of 5mm. Then the dimensions of beam element cross-section, L
1
and W| can be
obtained from:
where LO and WO denote the dimensions in the conventional quasi-three-
dimensional model corresponding to the conventional FRP. r denotes a void co-
efficient, which can be calculated by :
Vppfoam denotes the volume of PP foam listed in Table 2. V
PP
is obtained from Vp
Pfoam
minus void volume, V
Void
.
By using the above procedure, the proposed model has the constant material
properties listed in Table 3. The differences in the proposed models corresponding to
Type-1 to Type-6 are the shell element thickness and cross-sectional dimensions of
beam element.
Figure 3. Dimensions in beam element with void
Table 3. Material properties applied to the proposed model
shell element
E
L
=19.6 GPa, E
T
=12.7 GPa, E
z
=7.84 GPa, NU
LT
=0.03,
G
LT
=6.37 GPa, G
LZ
=3.92 GPa, G
TZ
=3.14 GPa, Den=2.27g/cm
3
beam element
E=0.12 GPa, NU=0.4, Den=0.90 g/cm
3
286 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
4. Analytical procedure
In order to check the validity of the proposed modeling, two types of analyses
were carried out. In these analyses, n is set to 2, this indicates the minimum element
number.
4.1. Three-point bending analysis
The object has 100mm length, 15mm width and 5mm thickness. The span
length is 80mm. Figure 4 shows the numerical model with n=2. This model has 40
shell elements and 33 beam elements. The fabrication process of GF/PP foam plate
has the rolling process as shown in Figure l(a). This indicates that the GF/PP foam
plate has an orthotropy. Two types of bending analyses were performed. One is that
the rolling direction (L) is set to be x direction in Figure 4. The other is that the
width direction (T) is set to be x direction. From these simulations, flexural moduli
in Type-1 to -6 were predicted.
Figure 4. Numerical model with n=2 used in the 3-point bending simulation
4.2. E igenvibration analysis
The object has 270mm length, 270mm width and 5mm thickness. In this
analysis, 1st, 2nd and 3rd eigenfrequencies and vibration modes are predicted under
the free boundary condition. The model with n=2 has 50 shell and 36 beam
elements.
5. Analytical results
In order to check the validity of the analytical results, experimental
measurements were carried out. In the three-point bending test, INSTRON testing
machine was used. In the eigenvibration test, modal analysis system ( AD3542, A &
D Co.Ltd.) was used. In this modal analysis, GF/PP foam plate was suspended by a
fine string. This is equivalent with the analytical free boundary condition.
Process improvement 287
Figure 5 shows the flexural modulus plotted against density obtained from
analytical and experimental results. Judging from these figures, it was confirmed
that both the relationships had similar tendencies in both the directions. On the
whole, predicted moduli are little smaller than experimental ones. This is derived
from the small division number, n=2 in the thickness direction. In this modeling, as
already mentioned, the outmost PP foam layers are ignored. Therefore the error in
analytical and experimental moduli can be reduced with increasing n.
Figure 5. Comparison of density dependency in analytical and experimental results
Table 4 shows the comparison between analytical and experimental results. In
the eigenvibration analyses, 1st, 2nd and 3rd eigenvibration modes were 1st torsional
mode, 1st bending mode in T direction and 1st bending mode in L direction,
respectively. This order was supported by the experimental results. The order cannot
be affected by GF/PP foam density. All the differences in both the eigenfrequencies
are smaller than 12%. This indicates that not only stiffness matrices but also mass
matrices in the proposed model are valid.
288 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
Table 4. Comparison in eigenvibration modes
1st ( 1st torsional) 2nd ( 1 st trans.bending) 3rd( 1st longt.bending)
Type
1
2
3
4
5
6
FEM exp error
88.28
88.43
88.36
83.39
78.87
79.91
79.58
78.81
87.58 78.67
88.06 ! 84.91
0.12
0.11
0.11
0.06
0.11
0.04
FEM
119.90
120.20
120-l0
119.90
119.40
119.40
exp error
123.80
124.52
122.43
124.00
126.82
133.87
-0.03
-0.03
-0.02
-0.03
-0.06
-0.11
FEM exp error
148.90 144.03 i 0.03
149.00 153.74 -0.03
149.00 152.06 -0.02
148.90 160.00 -0.07
148.30 159.15 -0.07
148.60 169.34 -0.12
error = (FEM-exp)/ exp
6. Discussions
In the previous chapter, the proposed model with n=2 could predict both the
static flexural moduli and eigenfrequencies of GF/PP foams with various densities.
In this chapter, n dependency on the flexural modulus is first discussed. Secondary
eigenvibration properties of GF/PP foam laminates with various stacking are
discussed.
Figure 6. Comparison of density dependency in analytical and experimental results
Process improvement 289
The PP foam volume ignored depends on n. In the other words, the volume of
the PP foam ignored is decreasing with increasing n. Figure 6 shows the 3-point
bending analytical results with n=2, 3 and 4. For all analytical results, it was
confirmed that the flexural modulus was proportional to the density. Flexural
modulus obtained from n=4 is larger than that from n=2. This is derived from
reduction in PP foam volume ignored. As shown in Figure 6, three lines obtained
from the proposed model are within the dispersion of experimental results. It was
concluded that the simplest numerical model with n=2 was most effective for the
prediction of the flexural modulus on GF/PP foam considering the total solution
time. The total solution time with n=2 is 7 sec. on PC ( HP Limited, Pentium II,
450MHz).
The eigenvibration properties of three layered GF/PP foam laminates with
various density distributions are also predicted. The specimens have 250mm length,
200mm width and 14.4mm thickness. Here length and width directions are set to
L(rolling direction in Figure l(a)) and T directions, respectively. The specimens
used are Type-242, -323, -545, -616 and -646. Type-242 denotes the skin layers are
Type-2 and core layer is Type-4. Each layer has the constant thickness of 4.8mm.
For the adhesive between GF/PP foams epoxy resin was used. The epoxy resin was
not modeled, because the adhesive has much higher stiffness and smaller thickness
as compared with each layer thickness. Figure 7 shows the modeling example of
Type-616 with n=2. In this modeling, cross-section of beam element changes at the
interlamina between Type-6 and Type-1. This interlamina was modeled by using two
types of beam elements with different cross-sections as shown in Figure 7(b). By
using the model, 1st, 2nd and 3rd eigenfrequencies and vibration modes were
predicted under the free boundary condition. Table 5 shows the comparison between
analytical and experimental results. From this table, the order of the modes excited
is same as that of single layer as shown in Table 4. For all the laminates, it was
concluded that the proposed was very effective for the eigenvibration properties of
GF/PP foam laminates.
Figure 7. Modeling example of Type-616 laminate
290 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
Table 5. Comparison between analytical and experimental results in eigenvibration
modes for GF/PPfoam laminates
1st ( 1st torsional) 2nd (1st T.bending) 3rd (1s t L.bending)
Type
242
323
545
616
646
FEM exp error
333.40 1 319.60
407.20 363.00
410.00 387.21
374.40 388.42
413.30 ! 418.65
0.04
0.12
0.06
-0.04
-0.01
FEM exp error
532.90
562.90
631.30
607.00
677.20
524.46 0.02
585.40 -0.04
627.79 0.01
601.89 0.01
680.78 -0.01
FEM exp error
643.50 624.26 0.03
681.80 725.98 -0.06
687.40 764.08; -0.10
729.50 753.64 -0.03
814.00 816.34 0.00
error = (FEM-exp)/ exp
7. Conclusions
For the prediction of the flexural modulus and eigenvibration properties of
GF/PP foam plate, the simplified heterogeneous numerical model was proposed. The
validity was checked by comparison with experimental results. The advantage of the
proposed model is the independent consideration of components in GF/PP foam.
GF/PP foam has three components, GF, PP and void. By using the proposed model,
influences of these components on the whole GF/PP foam plate can be individually
predicted. Therefore it was confirmed that the proposed model was very effective
tool for the actual designing.
References
Goto A and Maekawa Z., "Analysis of vibration damping properties of hybrid composite with
flexible matrix resin", Material Science Research International, vol.2, no.3, 1996, p. 160-
165.
Nishiwaki T and Tange A., " Static and dynamic properties of unidirectional CFRP laminates
with flexible interphase", Composite Interface, 2002, in press.
Nishiwaki T and Yokoyama A., "A simplified tensile damage analysis method for composite
laminates using a quasi-three-dimensional model", Composite Structures, vol.25, 1993,
P.61-67.
Nishiwaki T and Yokoyama A., "A quasi-three-dimensional elastic wave propagation analysis
for laminated composites", Composite Structures, vol.32,1995, P.635-640.
Process improvement 291
Nishiwaki T and Yokoyama A., " A q uasi-three-dimensional strength analysis method for
laminated composite materials.", Proceedings of American Society for Composites,
vol.11, 1996, p.150-158.
Tanimoto Y and Nishiwaki T., "A numerical modeling for eigenvibration analysis of
honeycomb sandwich panels", Composite Interface, vol.8, no.6,2001, p.393-402.
Hull D., An introduction to composite materials, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press,
1992.
This page intentionally left blank
Short-fibre-reinforced thermoplastic for
semi structural parts: process-properties
Eric HARAMBURU*' ** — Francis COLLOMBET*
Bernard FERRET* — Jean-Stephane VIGNES**
Pierre DEVOS*** — Christophe LEVAILLANT****
Fabrice SCHMIDT****
* Laboratoire de Genie Mecanique de Toulouse
Institut Universitaire de Technologie Paul Sabatier
133 avenue de Rangueil, 31077 Toulouse cedex 4, France
E ric.H aramburu@gmp.iut-tlse3.fr - Francis.Collombet@gmp.iut-tlse3.fr
B ernard.Ferret@gmp. iut-tlse3.fr
** MICRO TURB O Groupe SNE CMA
8 chemin du Pont de Rupe - B P. 2089 - 31019 Toulouse cedex2, France
Jean-Stephane.Vignes@microturbo.snecma.fr
* * * DRIRE Midi-Pyrenees
12 rue Michel Labrousse - B P. 1345 - 31019 Toulouse cedex2, France
pierre. devos@industrie.gouv.fr
**** E cole des Mines d'Albi Carmaux / CRO ME P
Campus Jarlard - Route de Teillet - 81013 Albi Cedex 09, France
levailla@enstimac.fr - schmidt@enstimac.fr
AB STRACT. This work concerns the high pressure injection of semi structural polymer -short
fibre reinforced-parts. A research group composed of three aeronautic firms of Toulouse and
two academic laboratories of the French Midi-Pyrenees Region, intends to deal with these
global problems involving the manufacturing process to the structural analysis of the injected
parts. More precisely, this -work concerns the interfacing of the industrial computation tools
of fibres orientation and mechanical response of structures. Relying on orientation data, the
computation and the localization of the distributions of homogeneous elastic properties are
performed for three industrial parts, which are respectively a body of aircraft pressure valve
(Liebherr Aerospace), a first stage stator (Microturbo) and a fan wheel (Technofan).
KE Y W O RDS: Short-fibre-reinforced composites; Fibre orientation; Injection molding;
Computational structure mechanics.
294 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
1. Introduction
The presented work lies within the scope of a research project which relates to
the high pressure injection moulding of semi structural technical polymer -short
fibre reinforced- parts. From a collective reflection carried out by equipment
suppliers of the aeronautical sector of the Midi-Pyrenees Region emerged an
increasing need related to the replacement of metallic materials by polymeric
composites. Competition, in the sector of aeronautics, justifies the interest in
thermoplastic short fibre reinforced composites. Indeed those allow reducing the
current production cost of certain parts concerned with high mechanical
characteristics and precise geometry.
In a more detailed way, there is an interest in lightening the on board systems, in
increasing the production series and the productivity, matching the function
integration requirements. However, a certain number of obstacles can be noted such
as strong heterogeneity of materials, dependence with the manufacturing process
both the final mechanical characteristics and geometrical forms as well as an
inexperience in the field of process and non destructive control techniques. Although
the aeronautic requirements have to be respected, the project is not reduced to a
simple substitution of metallic materials by advanced technical materials but must
also be linked to a new design of the part.
The industrial part of the project is to develop, to produce and to validate the
following composite parts (Figure 1), a body of aircraft pressure valve, a fan wheel
and a first stage stator for a gas turbine based on the industrial competences of the
Midi-Pyrenees.
Body of aircraft pressure valve First stage stator with an assembly Fan wheel
(Liebherr Aerospace) of composite blades (Microturbo) (Tcchnofan)
Figure 1. Industrial goals (in UItem 2300)
The objective of the research consists in characterizing the coupling between the
design and the manufacture of semi-structural composite parts injected with short
fibres, in order to carry out a stress analysis representative of heterogeneity of the
injected item. It is well-known that the reality of the composite material only exists
in the achieved part and strongly depends on the manufacturing process. However
there is no optimization method of the process, no design tool available to the
industrial engineering and design departments being able to deal with this reality. It
Process improvement 295
represents an impediment of the economic interest of the composite solution
regarding the traditional metal solutions.
As far as injected short fibre composites are concerned, it is of major importance
to be able to determine either the local orientation of the fibres or the presence of
welded joints induced by the filling mode of the moulds or the voids. Indeed to
design the mould, the plastic moulder has to know the distributions of the fibres
orientation in order to control the shrinkages while cooling. In the same way, before
designing the mould, the mechanical engineer has also to be sure of the fibres
orientation to realise a reliable mechanical design according to the heterogeneity of
the material. Thus, the orientation mechanisms during the filling are the common
denominator between the plastic moulder and the mechanical engineer's works.
The research group thus intends to deal with the global problems represented by
the manufacturing process to the structural analysis and the final control of the
defects within the injected parts, in respect to the experimental and numerical
aspects. Together with the industrial firms, the academic partners are the research
team PRO
2
COM of the LGMT and the CROMeP of the Engineering School of the
Mines in Albi-Carmaux (EMAC). Three PhD. works are supported. This paper more
particularly features the assessment about the research team PRO
2
COM of the
LGMT (PhD.
1
in progress by E. Haramburu, jointly supervised with
MICROTURBO company).
Within the research strategy (Figure 2), a main part of this work is the interfacing
of the industrial computational tools of fibres orientation and mechanical response
of structures. The mathematical representation of the fibres orientation follows
Advani's method (Advani and Tucker, 87). It is integrated within the calculation
methods of the mechanical properties, based on homogenization techniques.
Figure 2. Research strategy
From a practical point of view, this interface allows to gather the results of a
numerical injection simulation in terms of fibre orientation data (components of the
Advani's tensor), one finite element after the other and through out the thickness of
the piece. An estimation of the homogenized mechanical properties is carried out
locally thanks to the Mori and Tanaka's method. The interface then builds the
numerical pattern in relation to a code by associating the calculated local properties
1 This work features interactions with two other PhD. in progress (M. Wesselmann and G.
Saint-Martin) supervised by CROMeP and LIEBHERR and TECHNOFAN firms.
296 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
with the finite elements and a chosen mesh (from a same CAD pattern for the two
analysis types).
The corresponding results obtained at the various stages of the interface program
execution are available for the design department engineer in order to check its
relevance. The quantitative validation of this approach known as "wholly numerical"
is underway to be achieved thanks to some tests on industrial structures.
2. Elastic properties estimation method
The heterogeneous nature of the injected short fibre composites is well adapted
to the application of micromechanical modelling from homogenization techniques.
Indeed, these methods consist in determining the elastic properties of an equivalent
homogeneous material according to the properties of the various components.
Moreover, they can be extended to the nonlinear behaviour and damage problems
(Collombet et al, 97), (Dunn and Ledbetter, 97), (Wang and Weng, 92).
The homogenisation is obtained on average over an elementary representative
volume (ERV) of the material provided that is chosen an ellipsoidal geometrical
representation of heterogeneities. The ERV is the volume of the material containing
all the heterogeneities (microscopic scale) that influences the mechanical response
(macroscopic scale). In a classical way, a first stage called "the representation stage"
requires to choose the various heterogeneities types and their geometrical
dimensions associated with their ellipsoidal representation. This choice often
induces a numerical fitting with experimental results on elementary specimens and
mastered conditions of injection.
The "localization" stage consists in defining average constitutive laws between
the micro and macro-scale (Hill, 63). Thanks to strain and stress concentration
tensors A and B as ratios between the average heterogeneity strain (or stress) and the
corresponding average in the composite, stiffness and compliance tensors C and S of
composite are given by:
where superscript i indicates quantities associated with the N heterogeneities of the
ERV, and superscript 0 denotes a matrix quantity. Symbol f represents the volume
fraction for matrix or heterogeneity phases.
Equation [ 1] gives dual generic expressions for stiffness and compliance tensors
in terms of strain and stress concentration tensor A and B. Then, the different
micromechanical approaches in the literature provide different ways to approximate
Aor B.
Process improvement 297
2.1. E shelby's model
Eshelby (Eshelby, 57 and 61) calculates the disturbance of the strain field in the
ERV because of the heterogeneity of the given elastic properties (principle of
equivalent inclusion). Eshelby obtains the strain-concentration tensor (in the
principal local directions of heterogeneity i) such as:
where symbol I represents the fourth-order unit tensor and E
i
denotes the Eshelby's
tensor in accordance to the shape of the ellipsoidal heterogeneity by its aspect ratio
r=l/d (with 1 and d, respectively the length and the diameter) and of the elastic
properties of the isotropic matrix by the Poisson's ratio (Mura, 82).
Moreover, if we consider an orientation of the heterogeneity i in the global
directions of the ERV, one obtains (Pettermann et al., 97):
where T(q, <j > ' ) is the transformation tensor for fourth-order tensors in terms of Euler
angles q
i
and qi which performs the rotation from the local system of heterogeneity i
R
LOC
to the global ERV system R
ERV
(Figure 3).
Figure 3. Local directions R
LO C
in the heterogeneity i in the global directions R
E RV
However, Eshelby's model represents the elementary situation of an isolated
heterogeneity. It does not consider the interactions between the ERV phases. From
the model given by Eshelby, Mori and Tanaka have determined a disturbance on
average in the macroscopic fields due to the each heterogeneity presence in the
ERV.
298 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
2.2. Mori & Tanaka's method
The aim of Mori & Tanaka's method (Mori and Tanaka, 73) is to take into
account the influence of the local interactions between the phases on the stress and
strain fields of the ERV. According to Benveniste formulation (Benveniste, 87), the
obtained strain-concentration tensor is as follows:
From [1] and [2] the ERV equivalent stiffness is given by:
3. Coupling Advani's tensor and Mori and Tanaka's method
A mathematical representation of fibres orientation distribution (FOD) in
injected composite material with a symmetric rank 2 tensor is proposed by Advani
(Advani and Tucker, 87). As much as this quantity is commonly used to provide
fibre orientation results from simulation or measurements, Advani's tensor does not
allow a direct estimation of the overall set of elastic properties.
The use of the Advani's tensor in an estimation of the elastic properties of an
equivalent homogeneous material has to be performed in accordance to the
geometrical meaning of the components ay. In particular, the components an, a
22
and
a
33
show the probability of presence of a fibres population in the primary global
basis associated with the given Advani's tensor. The off axis components (a
12
, a
13
and a
23
) are essential to the three-dimensional geometrical representation of FOD but
it is difficult to evaluate the physical reality of their contributions.
Thus, the eigendirections of the Advani's tensor corresponding to ERV vectors
basis represent always a fair situation in order to use FOD into Mori & Tanaka's
method. By means of the corresponding eigenvalues a
i
as probability of presence of
three heterogeneities, the fibres volume fraction f in the ERV is spread in the
eigendirections with a'.f. The relation [3] becomes:
In the above relation, we note that Eshelby's strain-concentration tensors A'
E
depends on the transformation tensor in terms of Euler angles which performs the
rotation from local system of each heterogeneity in each eigendirection to principal
basis of Advani's tensor.
Process improvement 299
The elastic properties thus calculated are expressed in the principal directions of the
Advani's tensor. Finally, the shift from the principal directions to the primary
directions of Advani's tensor is performed thanks to the transformation tensor built
with the normalised eigenvectors.
To sum up, the probability of presence of fibres in a given direction is
represented by the diagonal Advani's tensor. Its principal directions define the great
axis of the three heterogeneities for the corresponding fibres groups. They represent
the directions of the local axis of the heterogeneities whose respective fibre contents
are a weighting of the total fibre content by the eigenvalues of the Advani's tensor.
Mori and Tanaka's estimation of the stiffness matrix of the equivalent homogeneous
material is carried out in these axes. The last stage consists in coming back to the
primary basis.
4. Interfacing the simulation tools
Calculating the elastic properties from the orientation tensors is used to interface
the tools of the injection simulation through the orientation prediction and the
computer codes of structure.
4.1. Interfacing strategy
For the design of a part, the engineer has to fulfil the feasibility and mechanical
behaviour requirements. FOD is the bridge between results of the injection condition
simulation and a stress analysis, starting from determining the homogeneous
mechanical properties. This tool has to be usable by the design department. For that
the designer must have means of graphically representing the intermediate results
for a non stop analysis from the process to the structure design.
MTD (Mori-Tanaka-DOS) is the generic name of the program allowing the
processing of orientation measures coming from the analysis of MEB images or
from a simulation thanks to Moldflow® software for example.
In this way, the series of operations leading to a stress analysis starts with a CAD
model of the part (Figure 4). The part is then meshed and imported in Moldflow®
injection simulation software used in this study. According to the adjustments of the
specified injection parameters (pressure, temperature, gate(s) localization and so on),
the calculation of the orientation prediction is made. As output data, the orientation
results are given in the form of one or several Advani's tensors per finite element
(several Advani's tensors for the given finite element represent the FOD through the
thickness).
Starting from the orientation data, the calculation and the localization of the
distributions of homogeneous elastic properties are performed along the injected
parts. A first possibility is to calculate mechanical characteristics to the finite
300 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
elements defined for a Moldflow® simulation. The cell used for the injection model,
can be use for a stress analysis. Apart from the Moldflow® meshing, the designer
can juxtapose a mesh devoted to the stress analysis (with other types of finite
elements, thinness, and so on). It should be emphasized that this assignment of
properties is done by means of a proximity criterion. This criterion gets a sense only
if the two meshes (Moldflow® and stress analysis) have been created from the same
CAD model of the studied part and with some obvious conditions of common sense.
Figure 4. Interfacing strategy and operation sequence
4.2. MTD interface patterns
Interface MTD is a program written in FORTRAN 77 allowing a wide use under
MS-DOS and UNIX with various blocks of routines representing more than 10000
lines of code. The user interface allows the acquisition of input data via a command
file with a MTD specific syntax. The designer has some "user" information currently
operating at his disposal such as the data card reports or warnings and errors during
MTD execution. A graphic interface called XMTD can be the user's assistant for the
edition of the command files, the executions of calculations and the visualization of
the intermediate results provided by MTD.
5. Numerical results
Several illustrations of the various stages of the calculation sequence are
presented for the three industrial parts.
5.1. The orientation prediction
The fibres orientation data are obtained at the end of the filling simulation of the
part volume (performed by Moldflow®) with the injection parameters defined by the
moulder. The study is limited to the mere filling phase. The runners, the global cycle
of injection including the packing and cooling times have not been modelled. These
Process improvement 301
simplifications are justified because only the FOD are required. In this case, we
suppose that only the filling phase has an effect on the FOD (Figure 5).
Figure 5. Filling of industrial parts at 0.5 second (Moldflow® software)
5.2. Computation and assignment of elastic properties
The orientation tensors are the input data calculation, in each finite element
(ERV), of the elastic properties. They are used in a stress analysis via the MTD
interface. The visualization of the properties is not possible with the commercial
computer codes such as for example the codes used by the project partners
(Samcef®, Ansys®, I-deas® and Nastran®). Visualization options can be activated
in MTD interface for real noting the distributions of some Young's moduli of the
composite parts (Figure 6). Figure 6 shows for example with grey levels the
distribution of the Young's modulus in the direction of the paddle height of the
Microturbo stator blade.
Figure 6. Distribution of the mechanical characteristics (Young's moduli in GPa)
302 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
These computations have been done by giving the following values to the
characteristics of the matrix and the short fibres (GE Plastics Ultem®2300):
- Ultem®1000 matrix: E = 3.2 Gpa and v = 0.38
- Glass fibres E: E = 70 GPa, v = 0.20, r = 15 and f = 17.5%
The aspect ratio r equal to 15 has been obtained after a numerical fitting by MTD
thanks to simple standard traction specimens (Figure 6). This result recovers an
experimental characterisation of the length distribution of fibres carried out by M.
Wesselmann and G. Saint-Martin supervised by CROMeP, Liebherr Aerospace and
Technofan firms. In more detailed way, the injection and filling conditions impose a
single direction of the fibres along the great axis of the specimen. The experimental
value of the Young's modulus in this direction is of 9.8 GPa. Figure 6 shows a
strong sensitivity of the Young's modulus versus the aspect ratio. Indeed, a
corresponding value for r = 10 is about 9 GPa. In this situation, it is easy to find the
accurate aspect ratio value thanks to homogenization.
Figure 7. MTD distribution of the Young's modulus (in Pa) values after injection in
the main axis of the specimen
5.3 Stress analysis
The stiffness matrices calculated on each finite element of the Moldflow® mesh
can give birth to the following alternative. They can be used to export mechanical
characteristics on the same elements and finally to edit a data file for a computer
code containing the coordinates of the nodes, connections of the finite elements and
the elastic moduli of the composite (which implies, in our example, to re-use the
triangles of the Moldflow® model). The stiffness values can be assigned on
geometrical points thus making possible to associate elastic moduli with the finite
elements of another mesh type which would come to be superimposed instead of the
Moldflow® finite element model. In this case, MTD writes a data file for a
Process improvement 303
computer code containing only the characteristics of the materials assigned to each
finite element of the mesh chosen for the stress analysis.
Finally, the output data of MTD interface enables to start a stress analysis for any
model. The nodes, the finite elements and the properties of materials being defined,
it remains then to provide the modelling elements relating to the boundary
conditions. With confidential industrial specifications of the modelling stages, a
numerical simulation of the stator blade with quadratic tetrahedral finite elements is
performed; body valve and fan wheel as well (Figure 8).
Body valve with 20000 TFE Stator blade with 8000 TFE Fan wheel with 20000 TFE
(Liebherr Aerospace) (Microturbo) (Technofan)
Figure 8. Von Mises stress map for the three parts during operation by Samcej©
software after the backing of the Mold/low® orientation predictions (scale and units
are not provided)
7. Conclusion
In the field of short fibres composite structure analysis, the major problem is the
lack of information concerning the heterogeneity in the composite parts. The
heterogeneous nature depends on both the process and the design phase. It is an
impediment to the industrial solution as far as cost is concerned. The cost reduction
of composite parts depends on the development of an advanced numerical tool
capable to loop from the manufacturing conditions to the mechanical response of a
part. The MTD interface is actually used by the industrial partners with their own
codes of structure. This interface allows the designer to consider the influence of the
injection process on the distribution of the mechanical properties for a new industrial
design approach. On various scales, from the specimens to the industrial parts in
service conditions, the experimental validation campaign is progressing thanks to
industrial partners.
304 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
Acknowledgements
The authors would like to thank Claude Rossignol and Matthias Wesselmann (Liebherr
Aerospace), Olivier Darnis and Gilles Saint-Martin (Technofan) for their helpful technical
collaboration. This work was done with the financial support of the Midi-Pyrenees Regional
Council, the European Union and the French Agency of Technical Research (ANRT).
8. Bibliography
Advani S.G., Tucker III C.L., "The Use of Tensors to Describe and Predict Fiber Orientation
in Short Fiber Composites", J. of Rheology, vol.31, 1987, p. 751.
Benveniste Y., "A new approach to the application of Mori-Tanaka's theory in composite
materials", Mechanics Materials, vol. 6, 1987, p. 147-157.
Collornbet F., Bonnan S., Hereil P.L., "A mesomechanical modelling of porous aluminium
under dynamic loading: comparison experiment - calculation", International conference
on mechanical and physical behaviour of materials under dynamic loading, Eurodymat
97, Toledo (Spain), 22-26 September 1997, Journal de Physique IV, Colloque C3, Les
Editions de Physique, 1997, p. 643-648.
Dunn M.L., Ledbetter H., "Elastic-Plastic behavior of textured short-fiber composites", Acta
Metallurgica, Vol. 45, n°8, 1997, p. 3327-3340.
Eshelby J.D., "The determination of elastic field of an ellipsoidal inclusion and related
problems", Proceedings of the Royal Society, London, vol. A241, 1957, p. 376-396.
Eshelby J.D., "Elastic inclusions and inhomogeneities", Sneddon IN, Hill R. editors, Progress
in Solid Mechanics, vol.2, 1961, p. 89-140.
Haramburu E., "Etude des couplages entre la conception et la fabrication de pieces
composites semi-structurales injectees avec fibres courtes, en vue de 1'obtention de
proprietes mecaniques optimales", Rapport d'activites de l
erc
Annee de These,
LGMT/PRO
2
COM, 2001.
Hill R., "Elastic properties of reinforced solids: Some theoretical principles", J. Mech. Phys.
Solids, vol. 11, 1963, p. 357-372.
Mori T., Tanaka K., "Average stress in matrix and average elastic energy of materials with
misfitting inclusions", Acta Metallurgica, vol. 21, 1973, p. 571-574.
Mura T., "Micromechanics of defects in solids", Martinus Nijhoff Editor, The Hague, 1982.
Pettermann H.E., Bohm H.J., Rammerstorfer F.G., "Some direction-dependent properties of
matrix-inclusion type composites with given reinforcement orientation distributions",
Composites Part B : engineering, vol. 28B, 1997, p. 253-265.
Wang, Weng, "The influence of inclusion shape on the overall viscoelastic behavior of
composites", ASME, Vol. 59, 1992, p. 510-518.
Guidelines for a quality control procedure
to ensure sound strengthening and
rehabilitation of concrete structures using
FRP
J.L. Esteves, A.T. Marques
INE GI/D E ME GI/FE VP, R, do Barroco 174- 214, 4465 - 431 Leca do Balio,
Portugal
jesteves@fe.up.pt
marques@fe.up.pt
AB STRACT: In this paper, a discussion will be made regarding the procedures to be followed
for the quality control of the strengthening and rehabilitation of concrete structures using
carbon fibre/epoxy composites. B earing in mind the different relevant parameters, which may
consider short and long - term behaviour of the application of these materials, the procedure
will give information concerning: specifications/quality assurance; quality control of the re-
inforcement system; quality control of the adhesive; quality control of the surface; monitoring
The work presented follows research work carried out in Portugal, together with collected
and treated information from material suppliers.
KE YW O RDS: Composites, quality control, concrete structures, mechanical behaviour.
1. Introduction
The strengthening and rehabilitation techniques of concrete structures have been
moving, recently, for the use of CFRP - Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastic (epoxy
resin) either as a laminate in a strip shape or as semi-product (prepreg like) to be
cured in-situ. In the first case, the strips are bonded to the concrete structure, with or
without pre-stress. In the second situation, after the application of a resin rich adher-
ence coating to the concrete, the semi-product will be impregnated with an epoxy
resin promoting an exothermic reaction that will end up with the cure of all system.
306 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
Today, there are quite a lot of different solutions for the above purpose (wet lay-
up systems and systems based on prefabricated elements) corresponding to several
manufacturers and suppliers, based on different configurations, types of fibres, ad-
hesives, etc ..., and there is a need for an efficient Quality Assurance and Control to
avoid costly surprises and to produce a sound rehabilitation or strengthening of the
structure. An interesting approach can be seen in Machida (1997).
2. Quality Assurance and Specifications
It is essential to define clearly what are the requirements for the reinforcement
system. Hence, the project of the structure must be available and the actual condi-
tions of the concrete must be evaluated using non-destructive or very little intrusive
tests. Particular conditions, such as fire resistance, have to be considered.
As the reinforcement system has a polymeric matrix, there is a need to identify
clearly the environmental conditions, particularly temperature and temperature
fluctuations, as this may affect the short and, even more, the long-term behaviour of
the system. For the same reason, although in a small part, it is necessary to define
the type of loads in respect to the possible place where the reinforcement will be ap-
plied, as well as their frequency and the likelihood of having vibrations and their
possible magnitude. Moreover, the design concepts and safety must be based in the
EUROCODE 1 and EUROCODE 2, following the philosophy of limiting states.
In order to have Quality Assurance, it is necessary the integration of procedure to
verify the conformity at four levels, Juvandes (1999):
• Certification of reinforcing materials;
• Qualification of suppliers and applicators;
• Control of the application procedure: inspection of local conditions, inspec-
tion of surface preparation, inspection of primer and adhesive application, in-
spection of CFRP composite, inspections of the bonding;
• Inspection in service and maintenance
2. Quality control of the application procedure
2.1. Inspection of local conditions
Typically, one can do the following:
Detection and measurement of the recovering of the internal armatures
Esclerometric tests
a Ultra-sonic tests, by the indirect method to evaluate the depth of the cracks
Pull-off tests, to determine the tensile strength of the superficial layer of the
concrete
Process improvement 307
2.2. Quality control of CFRP system
Unless the materials are of proven quality and performance the following tests
according to standard test methods have to be made:
Tensile and bending tests
DMTA-Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis to evaluate the influence of
temperature in the modulus and to determine Tg
Fatigue and creep tests
Coefficient of thermal expansion
Nominal mass density
Fibre content
Moisture absorption and chemical stability
Some of the above tests must also be conducted after accelerated ageing.
In Table 1, it can be seen, to illustrate the importance of some parameters, the
variation of tensile strength, strain at rupture and tensile modulus as function of
ageing conditions for two particular systems of reinforcement, Bravo (1999).
The samples were subjected to 30 cycles of one day in the following conditions:
'Winter' 14 h at -5°C, 10 h at 15°C'Summer' l0h at 20°C, 14 h at 50°C.
Sample
Non-Aged
Aged
(Winter)
Aged
(Summer)
A
B
A
B
A
B
Tensile strength
(MPa)
331
1300
334
1 310
340
1310
Strain at rup-
ture %
1.1
0.8
1.2
0.9
1.5
0.9
Modulus
(Gpa)
26.7
152
24.7
151
24.6
150
Table 1 - Mechanical properties as function of ageing conditions for two
systems
(A - Replark CF-sheet, Mitsubishi Chemical corporation)
(B - INEGI CFRP-laminate strip 50x1.4)
308 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
3.3. Primer and adhesive
The adhesive is a key element in the reinforcing system. Hence the following
characteristics have to be known:
Glass transition temperature
a Shrinkage
Bond strength
a Shear strength
a Static modulus
Creep modulus
a Coefficient of thermal expansion
The results of some tests made by Gonsalves (1998) to characterize two adhe-
sives are presented in figure 1 and 2 in order to illustrate typical behaviours.
Figure 1. B ending modulus versus temperature for E potherm like adhesive
Figure 2. B ending modulus versus temperature for CE ME NT like adhesive
For the case of adhesives, the stress/strain curves must be obtained considering
equilibrium conditions in respect of temperature and relative humidity, Esteves (1991).
Process improvement 309
3.4. Bonding inspection
The bonding of the composite system to the concrete has to be inspected to de-
tect any problem. The method to be used must be able to detect voids, displacements
or delaminations. Hence, thermographic and ultrasound methods, together with 'tap
test type' method can be used.
The bond performance can be evaluated by means of direct pull-off tensile test-
ing of the CFRP/bonding agent/concrete substrate combination. Test specimens are
obtained by taking cores from the applicability test specimen. Tests are performed at
7 days and 14 days under the specified curing conditions.
4. Application
To guarantee a sound reinforcement, the following procedures may be followed.
4.1 Surface preparation
In order to have an adequate bonding, the surface should be roughened and made
laitance and contamination free. This must be cleaned by means of blasting (sand,
grit, water jet blasting) or grinding. The surface must be dry and free of any oil,
grease or foreign matter likely to impair bonding.
4.2 Anchorages and couplers
Bearing in mind that the mechanical properties of the reinforcement system may
be, significantly, affected by anchorages and couplers. Hence, unless they are placed
exactly according to the design specifications, there is a strong possibility of pre-
mature failure. They must be corrosion-proofed to avoid reduced durability. A thor-
ough inspection has to be made to these materials, and a specific control technique
on the anchoring work must be followed.
4.3 A pplication
The application of the CFRP reinforcement system should be performed by
qualified and experienced workers, in accordance with any special specifications
given by the manufacturers of adhesives and CFRP reinforcement, provided that
they are not at variance with these specifications unless backed up by adequate re-
search data.
310 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
Care must be taken to avoid excessive bending or impact during placement of
CFRP, as well as excessive temperatures, chemicals, welding sparks and over-
tightening.
During application, the working area must be clean and having the adequate am-
bient conditions to promote cure of the polymeric systems. If necessary, an external
source of heat must be used to get complete cure.
4.4 H andling and storage
Bending beyond the limits, shocks, dragging during transport; temperature, hu-
midity, dampness or direct sunlight during storage; welding sparks and chemicals
may affect the reinforcing system prior to start the work. Hence, CFRP must be han-
dled and stored carefully to prevent any damage caused by the referred factors.
Anchorages and couplers and any material used for this purpose must be care-
fully stored to have them clean and undamaged.
5. Monitoring
Composite materials are particularly prone to become smart materials and to make
smart structures. The laminate is made in such way that gives the possibility to incor-
porate fibre optical sensors and to perform remote monitoring. The application of this
technique has been described by Frazao (2000) and is illustrated in figure 3 and 4.
Figure 3. CFRP reinforced concrete plate containing FB G (Fiber B ragg Grat-
ings) sensors.
Process improvement 311
Figure 4. Test results of the strain and temperature evolution of the a) non-
reinforced concrete plate and b) reinforced concrete plate containing 3 FB G sen-
sors, Frazao (2000)
Traditionaly the monitoring of the CFRP reinforcement system can be made by
the use of electrical strain gauges illustrated in figure 5.
312 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
Figure 5. Monitoring of the CFRP reinforcement system applied on "Nossa
Senhora da Guia B ridge ", Ponte de Lima, Portugal.
5. Conclusions
A sound strengthening and rehabilitation of concrete structures can be obtained
providing that an adequate design methodology is followed, good surface prepara-
tion is done, application conditions are correctly executed and a quality control
methodology is applied to avoid catastrophic surprises.
A smart monitoring system can be used, in order to have a close eye to the evolu-
tion of the reinforcing system.
References
Juvandes, L., 'Reforco e reabilitacao de estruturas de betao usando materials composites
de CFRP', PhD Thesis, FEUP, 1999.
Bravo, S et al 'Avaliacao do comportamento a traccao, apos tratamento termico de duas
solu96es de reparacao', LNEC, Report 132/99, Lisboa, 1999.
Esteves, J L 'Estudo do comportamento de adesivos estruturais, Tese de Mestrado,
FEUP, 1991.
Frazao, O. et al. 'Optical fibre embedded in a composite laminate with applications to
sensing', BIANISOTROPICS 2000, Lisboa, Portugal, 27 - 29/9/2000.
Gon9alves, F. A., 'Etude de materiaux composites dans le cadre d'un projet de
renforcement de ponts en beton', Final Year Undergraduate Project, ENSAM/FEUP,
1998.
Machida, A. (ed.), 'Recommendation for design and construction of concrete structures
using continuous fibre reinforcing materials' Concrete Engineering Series 23, JSCE, 1997.
Process improvement 313
'Externally bonded FRP reinforcement for RC strutures', Fib Task Group 9.3 FRP (Fibre
Reinforced Polymer) reinforcement for concrete structures), CEB - FIB, Federation Interna-
tionale du Beton, July, 2001.
Normative references
LNEC E 226 - 'Betao. Ensaio de compressao', Lisboa, 1968
LNEC E 227 - 'Betao. Ensaio de flexao', Lisboa, 1968
LNEC E 397 - ' Betoes. Determinacao do modulo de elasticidade em
compressao', Lisboa, 1993
pr EN 1542 - 'Products and systems for the protection and repair of concrete
structures - Test methods - Measurement of bond strength by pull-off, November
1998
pr EN 1766 - 'Products and systems for the protection and repair of concrete
structures - Test methods - Reference concrete for testing', 1999
pr EN 13687-2 - 'Products and systems for the protection and repair of concrete
structures - Test methods - Determination of thermal compatibility - Part 2: Thun-
der-shower cycling (thermal shock)', 1999
pr EN 13687-3 - 'Products and systems for the protection and repair of concrete
structures - Test methods - Determination of thermal compatibility - Part 3: Ther-
mal cycling without de-icing salt impact', 1999
pr EN 13706-1 - Reinforced plastics composites - Specifications for pultruded
profiles: Designation
pr EN 13706-2 - Reinforced plastics composites - Specifications for pultruded
profiles: test methods and general requirements
ISO 527: Plastics - Determination of tensile properties, 1993
JSCE-E 131-1995 'Quality specifications for continuous fibre reinforcing mate-
rial'
JSCE-E 531-1995 'Test method for tensile properties of continuous fibre rein-
forcing material'
JSCE-E 532-1995 'Test method for flexural tensile properties of continuous fibre
reinforcing material'
JSCE-E 533-1995 'Test method for creep failure of continuous fibre reinforcing
material'
JSCE-E 534-1995 'Test method for long-term relaxation of continuous fibre re-
inforcing material'
JSCE-E 535-1995 'Test method for tensile fatigue of continuous fibre reinforc-
ing material'
JSCE-E 536-1995 'Test method for coefficient of thermal expansion of continu-
ous fibre reinforcing material'
JSCE-E 537-1995 'Test method for performance of anchorages and couplers in
pre-stressed concrete using continuous fibre reinforcing material'
314 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
JSCE-E 538-1995 'Test method for alkali resistance of continuous fibre rein-
forcing material'
JSCE-E 539-1995 'Test method for bond strength of continuous fibre reinforcing
material by pull-out testing'
JSCE-E 540-1995 'Test method for shear properties of continuous fibre rein-
forcing material'
Numerical simulation of reinforcements
forming: the missing link for the
improvement of composite parts virtual
prototyping
Patrick de Luca, Yanik BENOIT
E SI Software (E SI Group)
99, Rue des Solets, SILIC113
94538 Rungis Cedex
France
pdl@esi-group. com
ybe@esi-group. com
ABSTRACT: Composites draping simulation is introduced. There are basically two kinds of
method: geometric approach and mechanical approach. The possible results that can be
obtained using these methods are illustrated by an example. This type of simulation can be
used not only to optimize the fabrication process but also to improve the mechanical
performance calculations and more generally speaking the composite parts design. For
example, the influence of the preforming operation on resin injection for processes like resin
Transfer Molding (RTM) is demonstrated on a numerical example.
KEY WORDS: numerical simulation, composites, RTM, draping
316 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
1. Introduction
The numerical simulation is nowadays fully integrated in the design process of
industry for metallic parts. In spite of the progress made in the modelling, this level
of maturity has not been reached so far for composite parts. One of the identified
reason is that the strong effects of manufacturing on the mechanical performance
could not be taken into account.
One reports here the status of the simulation of the forming operations that was
developed the last ten years (section 2). These methods are useful to assist the
process engineer in the optimisation of the fabrication and even more importantly
provides information to subsequent analysis. As an example, the use of the draping
results to improve the injection in resin transfer molding process is reported in
section 3. This is presented as a first step toward the development of a full numerical
tool that will enable to perform mechanical performance analysis based on a
description of the composite part as it is built.
2. Reinforcement Forming Simulation
There are essentially two numerical methods available to simulate the forming
operations: the geometric method and the mechanical method. One describes each of
these methods.
The geometric method uses only geometrical information: the part geometry.
The numerical method used is known as the 'fisher-net algorithm' (Rudd et al.,
1997) . This method is very rapid, the simulation time being of the order of one
second. The results are made of the shear angle and possibly of the flat pattern.
Because only the geometry of the part is used in a simulation, the reinforcement
architecture is not taken into account, nor the process or the process variant used.
The common use of this method is to identify the areas with large shear and to
compare the results with the maximum shear angle that can sustain the fabrics ('the
locking angle'). That allows for a rough estimation of the part feasibility.
The second method is the mechanical approach and leads to the use of the finite
element method. Most of the examples reported as today are based on an explicit
time integration. This method is very popular for dynamic problems like car crash
simulations and was extended successfully to forming problems (Pickett, 1995).
This method can handle easily the various non linearities encountered in forming
simulations: large displacements, rotations and strains, non linear mechanical
behaviour and non linearities induced by extensive contact.
For unidirectional reinforcement or for woven fabrics, non linear elastic
behaviour is assumed. A special treatment is done regarding the modelling of the
yarns bending and shearing (Cartwright, 1999); this is dictated by the discrete nature
of the reinforcement, as opposed to a continuum medium. If the reinforcement is not
Process improvement 317
dry but pre-impregnated, a viscous modelling of the matrix is introduced. In this
case it is also necessary to use a mixed dry and viscous modelling of the sliding.
When relevant, thermal modelling is included in the analysis; the temperature
modifies the viscosity of the resin and the friction coefficients. Additional details
can be found in (Pickett et al., 1996). As can be guessed from this short description,
significant material characterization is necessary before conducting a simulation
(Clifford ef al., 2001).
Thanks to this accurate modelling, all the details of the process like blankholder
forces, tools and laminates temperatures, holding systems can be considered (de
Luca et al., 1998). Also, different materials give different results. This method is
clearly a tool to optimise a forming process.
One reports here an example where the geometric method fails and the
mechanical method reproduces successfully the reality. The part is a section of a
prototype helicopter blade. An unidirectional prepreg is draped by hand over a tool.
Regardless of the way to drape it, a wrinkle consistently appears at the same
constant location and a lack of adherence is noticed on a part of a radius. The figure
1 depicts a view of a ply after draping as computed by the finite element method. A
wrinkle is clearly visible on the right hand side. The figure 2 shows sections along
the length of the tool. One can see the tool sections (red lines) and the ply sections
(green lines). There is a zone with a lack of adherence that is shown by the
calculation that is visible exactly at the location where it happens in the reality.
figure I. Prototype blade H elicopter: Figure 2. Sections view. W rinkling
W rinkling. and lack of adherence.
The hand lay-up process is modelled using a static pressure with a value
comparable to the pressure that can be exerted by the hands of a worker. Other
examples have been reported elsewhere for a wide range of processes: matched
metal tools, diaphragm forming, rubber pad forming and roll forming.
318 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
To be exhaustive on this topic, one has to mention the development of
intermediate method that combine a geometric approach and a mechanical approach
through the minimization of the deformation energy (Long et al., 2001). This term
usually includes only a limited number of terms (for instance only shear energy).
This is useful to take into account the nature of the reinforcement but still the
process is not taken into account.
3. Use of forming results in RTM injection simulations
Briefly the RTM (Resin Transfer Molding) unfolds in two steps. In a first step, a
preform is placed in a mold which is closed. Then, resin is injected and flows
through the reinforcement. After curing, one obtains the composite part.
The works around the simulation of the RTM injection simulation started about
the same time as the development of the preforming simulation (Trochu et al., 1993)
and have reached now a good level of maturity. The critical material parameters that
drives the filling of the mold is the so-called permeability K that appears in the
Darcy's law which is used to model the flow through the reinforcement.
where P is the hydraulic pressure, n is the fluid viscosity, and V is the velocity field
To perform a simulation, an experimental measure of the reinforcement permeability
is necessary. Most of the time the permeability values used are the one of the
undeformed reinforcement. Though it is known that the deformation modifies
significantly the permeability, not only the numerical values but also the principal
directions of the permeability tensors as observed by (Louis et al., 2001). This
appeals for calculation of the permeability field prior the beginning of an injection
simulation. One reports thereafter an example of such an influence.
The geometry studied is a bath tube (figure 3). The filling time contour using a
constant permeability can be seen on figure 4. To study the effects of the draping, a
filling simulation is done using a permeability field based on a preliminary
geometric calculation of the fiber reorientation that occurs during the draping
(figures 5 and 6). The shearing angle reaches 52°. The permeability is computed
using the Kozeny-Carman model (Rudd et al., 1997). The results are shown on
figure 6: the shape of the flow front is different. From a practical point of view, it
means that the vents should be located at different points. Other examples dealing
with a bonnet geometry shows a variation of the filling time of 20% (de Luca et al.,
2002).
Process improvement 319
Figure 3. B ath tube geometry Figure 4. Filling time contour
Figure 5. Fiber reorientation
Figure 6. Shear angle
Figure 7. Filling time contour
320 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
4. Conclusion and perspectives
A state of the art of the numerical simulation of reinforcements of composite
parts was presented. These new types of numerical tools enable not only to optimize
the draping process but also make available the manufacturing information (fiber
reorientation) to further analysis. An example regarding the influence of draping on
RTM injection was reported.
The current research tackles the modelling of new types of reinforcement
architectures: multi-axial fabrics, knitted and braided reinforcements. To take fully
advantage of the draping results, it becomes necessary to develop appropriate
permeability models for all of these reinforcements both in undeformed and
deformed state.
Finally, this work in the RTM field is only the first step of the development of
comprehensive simulation tools for the design of a composite parts. The next steps
include using the draping information in mechanical analysis and in impact or
crashworthiness studies.
Acknowledgements
The author would like to thank GKN Westland for the results of the section 2.
5. Bibliography/References
Cartwright B.K., de Luca P., Wang J., Stellbrink K., Paton R., "Some Proposed Experimental
tests for use in Finite Element Simulation of Composites Forming", Proceedings of 12
th
International conference on composites materials, 5
th
-9
th
July 1999, Paris.
Clifford M.J., Long A.C., de Luca P., Proceedings of The Minerals, Metals & Materials
Society (TMS) 2001 Annual Meeting, 11-15 February 2001, New Orleans, USA
de Luca P., Pickett A.K., Lefebure P. , "Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Some
Press Forming Parameters of two Fibre reinforced Thermoplastics: APC2-AS4 and PEI-
CETEX", Composites part A, vol. 29A, 1998, p. 201-110..
de Luca P., Benoit Y., Trochon J., Morisot O., Pickett A.K., "Coupled Preforming/Injection
Simulation of Liquid Composites Molding Processes", Proceedings of the SAMPE 2002
Conference, May 12-16,2002 Long Beach, USA.
Long A.C., Souter B.J., Robitaflte F., "A fabrics mechanics Approach for Draping of Woven
and Non Crimp reinforcements ", Proceedings Of the American Society for Composites,
15th Technical Conference, College Station, September 25-27 2000 USA, Technomic
Publishing Co. Inc., paper 176.
Process improvement 321
Louis M., Huber U., Maier M., "Harzinjektionssimulation unter Beriicksichtung des
Einflusses der Drapierung aud die permeabilitat", Proceedings of the German SAMPE ,
2001.
Picket! A.K., Cunningham J.E., Johnson A.F., Lefebure P., de Luca P., Mallon P., Sunderkmd
P., O'Bradaigh C., Vodermayer A.M., Werner W, "Numerical techniques for the pre-
heating and Forming Simulation of Continuous Fibre Reinforced Thermoplastics",
proceedings of SAMPE E urope Conference and E xhibition , Basel, 28-30 may 1996.
Pickett A.K., Queckborner T., de Luca P., Haug E., "An explicit Finite Element Solution for
the Forming prediction of Continuous Fibre reinforced Thermoplastic Sheets",
Composites manufacturing , vol. 6 no. 3-4,1995, p. 237-244.
C. Rudd, A.C. Long, K. Kendall and C. Mangin, Liquid Composite Molding Technologies,
Woodhead Publishing Ltd., Cambridge, 1997.
Trochu F., Gauvin R. Gao D.M. "Numerical Analysis of the Resin transfer Molding Process
by the Finite Element Method", Advances in Polymer Technology, vol. 12 no. 4, 1993, p.
329-342.
*
Patrick de Luca is responsible at E SI Software of the development of the
Composites Unified Solution. H e worked the last ten years in the simulation of
composites forming. H e holds a PhD. In Applied Mathematics from B ordeaux
University in 1989.
Y anik Benoit was a main developer of the LCMFLO T software for RTM injection
simulation the last five years. H e develops now the Composites Unified Solution at
E SI Software. H e graduated at E cole Polytechnique de Montreal, Applied Sciences
Master, 1996.
This page intentionally left blank
Monitoring of Resin Flow and Cure Using
Electrical Time Domain Reflectometry
Kei Urabe — Tomonaga Okabe — Hiroshi Tsuda
Smart Structure Research Center
National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology
Tsukuba AIST Central 2, Tsukuba, 305-8568, Japan
urabe-k@aist.go.jp
AB STRACT: This paper presents the potentiality of using responses to electromagnetic signal
from a transmission line constructed inside a structure or material, as a new tool for in-situ
cure monitoring in the manufacturing process of resin composites. E xperimental
investigations on the time domain response to a sharp step input signal from a model
transmission line, where epoxy resin fills the gap between a pair of metal conductors of a
microstrip line were carried out. The results demonstrated that the time domain response can
successfully provide clear information on resin flow, poor impregnation and discontinuity of
the cure stage, including information on the position along the line. Next, we propose the use
of carbon fiber for conductive elements constructing the transmission line so as to use
material reinforcements (i.e., carbon fiber) as sensing probes. The results demonstrated the
possibility of carbon fiber as transmission line elements.
KE Y W O RDS: cure monitoring, time domain reflectometry, electromagnetic wave, transmission
line, epoxy resin, carbon fiber
324 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
1. Introduction
The quality of resin composites strongly depends on the conditions of the
manufacturing process. Hence, it is important to monitor the manufacturing process
of the resin composites and to properly control the manufacturing tool according to
the monitored signal (Ciriscioli et al., 1991, Kenny 1994). As sensing methods for
the manufacturing process, dielectric monitoring (Mijovic et al, 1993, Shepard et
al., 1995, Yamaguchi et al., 1999), piezoelectric devices (Ohshima et al., 2001),
optical fibers (Chen et al., 1999, Osaka et al., 2001) and ultrasonic monitoring
(Chen et al., 1999) have been investigated. Among these, dielectric monitoring has
been widely investigated and used as an in-situ monitoring method in the
manufacturing process. In the manufacture of large structures or the resin transfer
molding process, it becomes important to monitor distribution of the properties,
discontinuities and/or resin flow. However, in the general dielectric monitoring
method, a signal with a relatively low frequency (<1 MHz), of which the wavelength
is much longer than the size of the sensor or of the material to be monitored, is used.
Hence, the obtained information is point data, or data integrated over the whole area
of the sensor (Shwab et al., 1996, Motogi et al., 1999).
In contrast, when a transmission line of electromagnetic wave is constructed
inside the material or structure, an electromagnetic signal with a high frequency
(>100 MHz) propagates as a wave with a wavelength comparable to the typical size
of materials or structures. The propagating signal is affected by electrical properties
of the material between the conductors of the line. The signal is then expected to
provide information on the properties of the material or structure, including their
distribution or discontinuity (Banks et al., 1996). Therefore, we have recently
proposed a new cure monitoring technique with a high-frequency electromagnetic
wave transmission line, and have carried out some experimental and theoretical
studies on the frequency characteristics of reflectance using model transmission
lines filled with epoxy resin (Urabe et al., 2000). The results suggested the potential
of the technique as a tool for in-situ monitoring of curing and other properties,
including implicitly information on local distributions or discontinuities.
The study presented in this paper seeks to obtain more explicit and clear
information on discontinuity or distribution in the "transmission line method". We
therefore investigated on the use of the time domain response to a step input signal
from an electromagnetic wave transmission line, which is generally called "Time
Domain Reflectometry (TDR)" (Freeman 1996). We present and discuss the
experimental results of flow and cure monitoring of epoxy resin in a model
transmission line, constructed with metal, using TDR. We also present experimental
results when the transmission lines were constructed with carbon fiber cloth and
carbon fiber strands, which are typical material elements of advanced composites,
expecting to avoid a deterioration of material property and an increase in
manufacturing cost caused by embedding of sensors.
Process improvement 325
2. Experimental setup and theoretical background
The experimental setup, for the experiments using a model transmission line
constructed with metal, is shown in Figure 1. A microstrip line was constructed
with a straight brass line, 2 mm in diameter, and the bottom plate (35 x 25 cm) of an
aluminum box. The distance between the line conductor (the brass line) and the
ground conductor (the bottom plate) was set at 5 mm. Each end of the line was
connected to the inner conductor of the coaxial receptacle screwed on each side of
the aluminum box. The receptacle on the input side was connected to a digitizing
oscilloscope with time domain plug-in (Agilent Technologies Model 54750 with
Model 54754), through a coaxial cable with a characteristic impedance of 50
W. A 50 W broad-band termination was connected to the receptacle on the terminal
side.
As for the experiments of using carbon fiber as conductive elements, a PAN type
carbon cloth (Toray Industries, Inc., Torayca® Type 615IB, where carbon fiber
strand type T300B-1000 is woven in a density of 17.5 strands/25mm in two
directions perpendicular to each other.) was used as the ground conductor, and a
carbon strand pulled out from that type of cloth was used as the line conductor.
Experiments using a copper wire of diameter 0.1 mm as the line conductor were also
carried out. The carbon cloth, 8 cm in width and about 35 cm in length, was placed
on the bottom of an acrylic frame. The flange of a coaxial receptacle was glued to
the center of one end of the cloth using conductive epoxy. The center conductor of
the receptacle was connected with one end of the carbon strand, also using
conductive epoxy. The distance between the line conductor and the ground
Figure 1. E xperimental setup of a model transmission line constructed with metal
326 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
conductor was set at 2.5 mm. The receptacle was connected to the digitizing
oscilloscope above mentioned. Spacers made of Teflon plates and silicone rubber
sheets were set at each end of the line, to maintain the gap between the pair of
conductors and to prevent resin from flowing out. The terminal was short-circuited
by connecting the line conductor to the carbon cloth with a conductive adhesive tape
at the terminal.
The oscilloscope generated a sharp step voltage of 200 mV with 30 ps rise time,
and voltage change with time at a fixed point inside the oscilloscope was measured.
The measured time domain data were shown on the display of the oscilloscope, and
recorded by a computer. The full scale of the time axis, consisting of 1024 points,
was set at 10 ns, which means that time resolution was about 10 ps.
When there are discontinuities in the characteristic impedance of the
transmission line, a reflection of the voltage signal occurs at each of the boundaries
based on the boundary condition of the electromagnetic field. The reflectance of the
voltage at the boundary of line 1 with characteristic impedance Z\ and line 2 with
characteristic impedance Z
2
, Rn, is expressed as (Freeman 1996),
When the change in the voltage signal as a function of time (i.e., the "time
domain response) is monitored at a fixed point inside the oscilloscope, the reflected
voltage is added to the measured voltage after a time delay corresponding to the
travelling time for the signal transmitting from the fixed point to the boundary and
back (Freeman 1996). If there are other boundaries, the reflected signals at each of
the boundaries are added one after another with time delay corresponding to the
distance to the boundary.
Because reflectance at a boundary depends on the values of the characteristic
impedance, Z, of the transmission lines of both sides of the boundary as indicated in
Equation [1], the time domain response shows a stepwise rise or drop at the
corresponding time depending on the change in characteristic impedance at the
boundary. Z is inversely proportional to the square root of the relative permittivity,
£, of the material between the pair of conductors of the line (Sucher et al, 1963).
Thus, the time domain response to a step voltage input signal provides information
on the discontinuity of dielectric properties of the materials between the pair of
conductors, such as resin flow or variation in cure stage, including information on
the position along the line. In practice, there is a transmission loss which originates
in the dielectric loss factor of the material between the conductors of the line and
ohmic loss of the conductors. Such loss gives rise to exponential relaxation of the
stepwise rise or drop in the time domain response (Freeman 1996).
Bisphenol-A type epoxy resin (Epikote®828, Yuka-Shell Epoxy, Inc.), mixed
with an equivalent amount of diethylenetriamine as curing agent was used as the
sample. It was put in and around the line and cured slowly at room temperature
Process improvement 327
without controlling the resin temperature. Teflon plates (1.0 mm thickness) were
used as barriers for the experiments of monitoring resin flow, existence of air and
variation in cure stage.
3. Results and discussion
Figure 2 shows time domain responses to a step input signal at various cure
stages of the resin that filled the whole line. In the response before the line was
filled with resin (denoted as "E " in the figure), the rise at point "a" is caused by
reflection at the input, and the drop at point "b" is caused by reflection at the
terminal. The impedance of the line, about 150 W., is higher than that of the
receptacle, cable or termination, which is 50 W. Therefore, voltage rose at the input
and dropped at the terminal, as can be expected from Equation [1]. When the line
was filled with resin before cure, the response caused by reflection at the input
became low and time between the rise and the drop became long, because the
dielectric permittivity of the resin is higher than that of air. That is, the high
permittivity results in the reduction of impedance of the line, and the velocity of the
electromagnetic wave being transmitted along the line decreased as an inversely
proportional function of the real part of the square root of the complex permittivity
(Sucher et al., 1963). As curing of the resin progressed, the time between the rise
and the drop gradually decreased, and the response level gradually became high.
Taking the level at 4 ns as an index, change in the level with time is plotted
in Figure 3 together with the change in resin temperature. The peak increase
of the response level occurred before
the peak temperature. This is probably
because the peak temperature corresponded
to almost the end of the main bridging
reaction of the epoxy. Similar results
Figure 2. Time domain response, to
a step signal, from the microstrip
line filled with resin at various cure
stages.
E : empty (no sample),
1: 8 min after mixing,
2: 68 min after (before cure),
3: 138 min after (near the peak
temperature),
4: 258 min after (after cure)
Figure 3. Change in amplitude of the
response at 4 ns with time, during a
curing process of the resin, for the same
sample as Figure 2
328 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
had been obtained for
frequency characteristics
(Urabe et al., 2000), and
the time domain response
monitors the curing state
in a similar way. The
overshoot of the response
at the input is caused by
air between the receptacle
and resin end. The time
constant of voltage
reduction after this
overshoot decreased as
curing progressed. These
changes with the progress
of curing are caused by decreases in
both the permittivity and the loss
factor of the resin with the progress of
curing (Urabe et al., 2000).
Figure 4 shows the results when
the line was gradually filled with
resin from the terminal side of the
line. The drop in the response
corresponds to the resin front.
Therefore, the time between the rise
and the drop in the response, which is
indicated as "Air" for the case of "5
cm filled" in the figure, corresponds
to the time required for a round trip
from input to the resin front, and the
length can be evaluated using the
velocity of light.
Figure 4. Time domain response from the microstrip
line gradually filled with resin from the terminal side
Figure 5 shows the response when
there was air in the resin, a model of
poor impregnation of resin. Because
the characteristic impedance of the
line became higher at the air part, it
was detected as a local peak at the
corresponding position of the
response. A 1 cm long air part was clearly detected. The peak was sharper after
cure than before cure, because of the decrease of the loss factor as curing
progressed. When there were two air parts (Figure 5 (b)), they were separately
detected at corresponding positions on the time axis.
Figure 5. Time domain response from
the microstrip line filled with resin
having air part(s)
Process improvement 329
Figure 6 shows the response
when there was a variation in the cure
stage. When there was a variation in
the cure stage, it was clearly detected,
as can be seen in the solid line of the
figure where the drop indicated with
arrow corresponds to the boundary.
The variation in the cure stage is
clearly detected, including
information on the position of the
boundary. After all the resin had
come to the end of cure reaction, the
drop disappeared showing uniform
property of the resin.
Figure 6. Time domain response from the
microstrip line filled with resin having a
variation in cure stage
results
(a) Line conductor: CF strandxl (Line length=27cm)
All the
presented above were
obtained using the model
transmission line
constructed with metal.
Next, we show results
when carbon fiber was
used as conductive
elements. Figure 7 shows
time domain responses for
two different conditions
of line conductor, a
carbon fiber strand and a
copper wire of 0.1 mm
diameter, of the microstrip
line gradually filled with
resin from the terminal
side. Carbon cloth was
used as ground conductor
in both of the cases.
When a copper wire was
used as the line conductor
(Figure 7 (b)), a similar
response as in Figure 4
was obtained. This means
that the carbon cloth
works as a ground
conductor of the
microstrip line in the same
way as a metal plate. In contrast, when a carbon fiber strand was used as the line
(b) Line conductor: 0.1 mm(f copper (Line
Figure 7. Time domain response from the microstrip
line, where carbon cloth was used as ground
conductor, gradually filled with resin from the
terminal side
330 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
conductor (Figure 7 (a)), the response showed an exponential increase after the rise
at the input. This change in response can be attributed to the higher electrical
resistance of the carbon fiber strand compared to the copper wire. Although there
was such a difference in the response, the resin flow front was clearly detected even
when a carbon fiber strand was used as the line conductor of the .microstrip line.
However, to obtain a clearer response, it is desirable to use a thin metal wire as the
line conductor. Progress of cure, an existence of an air part in the resin and a
variation in cure stage could also be monitored when a carbon fiber was used as the
conductive element of a transmission line, although the responses were less clear
than those obtained when the line conductor was metal.
4. Conclusion
To develop a new monitoring tool of resin flow and cure in the manufacturing
process of composites, the use of time domain response to a step input signal from
an electromagnetic wave transmission line filled with resin was investigated for a
model transmission line. Resin flow, progress of cure, existence of air and variation
in cure stage were successfully detected together with explicit and direct information
on the position along the line. We also proposed and experimentally investigated
the use of carbon fiber as conductive elements, and found that a carbon cloth worked
the same way as metal for the ground conductor. When a carbon fiber strand was
used as the line conductor, the response was somewhat affected by the higher
electric resistance of the carbon fiber.
Further investigations are necessary into the situations in which the material
property changes gradually and has no clear boundaries, the effects of bends and
changes in the separation of the conductors of the line, and the use of other types of
transmission lines, such as parallel-wire, parallel plates or coplanar. Quantitative
analysis of the relationships between the response and material properties between
the conductors is also important to extract more useful and detailed information.
The methodology proposed in the present paper is also applicable to health
monitoring utilizing electric conductivity (Schulte 2001), and can give information
on the position of damage.
References
Banks W. M, Dumolin F., Hayward D., Pethrick R. A and Li Z. C., "Non-destructive
examination of composite joint structures: a correlation of water absorption and high-
frequency dielectric propagation", Journal of Physics D., Vol.29, 1996, p.233-239.
Chen J. Y., Hoa S. V., Jen C. K and Wang H., "Fiber-optic and ultrasonic measurements for
in-siru cure monitoring of graphite/epoxy composites," Journal of Composite Materials,
Vol.33, 1999, p. 1860-1881.
Process improvement 331
Ciriscioli P. R and Springer G. S., "An expert system for autoclave curing of composites",
Journal of Composite Materials, Vol.25, 1991, p. 1542-1587.
Freeman J. C., "Fundamentals of Micro-wave Transmisison lines," New York, John Wiley &
Sons, 1996.
Kenny J. M., "Application of modeling to the control and optimization of composites
processing", Composite Structures, Vol.27, 1994, p. 129-139.
Mijovic J., Kenney J. M., Maffezzoli A., Trivisano A., Bellucci F and Nicolais L., "The
principles of dielectric measurements for in situ monitoring of composite processing",
Composites Science and Technology, Vol.49, 1993, p.77-90.
Motogi S., Itoh T and Fukuda T., "Multi-functional sensor properties and 2-dim flow
detection for RTM", Proceedings of the 6th Japan International SAMPE Symposium,
1999, p. 1033-1036
Ohshima N., Aoki K., Motogi S and Fukuda T., "Cure monitoring of fiber reinforced plastics
by piezoelectric ceramics", Materials Science Research International, Vol.SPT-2, 2001,
p.89-94.
Osaka K., Kosaka T., Asano Y and Fukuda T., "Off-axis strain monitoring of FRP laminates
in autoclave molding", Materials Science Research International, Vol.SPT-2, 2001,
p.105-109.
Schulte K., "Electrical properties of polymer composites", Composites Science and
Technology, Vol.61,2001, p.799.
Shepard D. D., Day D. R and Craven K. J., "Application of dielectric analysis for cure
monitoring and control in the polyester SMC/BMC molding industry", Journal of
Reinforced Plastics and Composites, Vol.14, 1995, p.297-308.
Shwab S. D., Levy R. L and Glover G.G., "Sensor system for monitoring impregnation and
cure during resin transfer molding", Polymer Composites, Vol.17,1996, p.312-316.
Sucher M., Fox J., H andbook of microwave measurements, New York, Polytechnic Press,
1963.
Urabe K., Takahashi J., Tsuda H and Kemmochi K., "Cure monitoring of matrix resin with
high-frequency electromagnetic wave transmission line", Journal of Reinforced Plastics
and Composites, Vol.19, 2000, p. 1235-1250.
Yamaguchi Y., Yoshida M., Jinno M., Sakai S., Osaka K and Fukuda T., "Autoclave cure
monitoring of CFRP laminates by embedded sensors comparing with cure prediction by
kinetics", Proceedings of the 6th Japan International SAMPE Symposium, 1999, p. 1037-
1040.
This page intentionally left blank
Effects of orientation errors on stiffness
properties of composite laminates
A. Vincenti, P. Vannucci, G. Verchery, F. Belaid
LRMA-ISAT
49, rue Mademoiselle B ourgeois
58027Nevers
France
Angela.Vincentijsat@u-bourgogne.fr
Paolo. Vannucci@u-bourgogne.fr
Georges.Vercheryjsat@u-bowgogne.fr
AB STRACT: In this paper, we present a study on the effects of layer orientation defects on the
property of quasi-homogeneity for composite laminates: we suggest a measure of the
deviation from quasi-homogeneity, introducing the concept of degree of quasi-homogeneity.
W e then present the results of a wide numerical analysis in the case of orientation errors
randomly distributed on the stacking sequence.
W e developed the theoretical and numerical calculations thanks to the polar method of
representation of fourth order tensors introduced by Verchery.
KEY WORDS: defects; thermo-mechanical properties; laminates; quasi-homogeneity;
uncoupling; stiffness properties.
334 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
1. Introduction
The general equations of the Classical Laminated Plate Theory (CLPT),
describing the thermo-mechanical behaviour of a composite laminate, are (Jones,
1975):
where N and M are the tensors of in-plane forces and bending moments, e
0
the
tensor of in-plane strains in the middle plane, % the tensor of curvatures, T
O
the
difference of temperature of the middle plane with respect to a non-strain condition,
Dt the difference of temperature between the upper and lower face and h the
thickness of the plate. A and D are the tensors describing the in- and out-of-plane
rigidity behaviours of the plate, while B represents the coupling between these two
behaviours. U, V and W have the same meaning as A, B and D, with respect to the
efforts produced by thermal strains.
A composite laminate is said to be quasi-homogeneous when it is uncoupled and
it has the same in-plane and bending behaviour. Using the symbols of the CLPT, we
can express the property of quasi-homogeneity of a composite laminated plate for its
elastic behaviour:
Only the exact matching of stacking sequences to the theoretical solutions
assures the desired property for the laminate. Nevertheless, in the practice some
defects may affect the production of a composite laminate, so that the real laminate
has different characteristics than the designed one.
In this paper we deal with orientation defects, which are common laminate
imperfections, and we investigate how they affect the property of quasi-
homogeneity of a laminate. A study already exists on the effect of orientation errors
on uncoupling of composite laminates (Belaid et al, 2001; Vannucci, 2002).
We consider the most general case of laminates composed by identical plies. We
propose a measure of the deviation from quasi-homogeneity by introducing the
concept of degree of quasi-homogeneity, and we develop a wide numerical analysis
in the case of randomly distributed orientation errors in the stacking sequence. We
study also the influence of characteristic parameters (kind of material, number of
Process improvement 335
plies, etc.) on the deviation from the designed property. We propose an empirical
function to describe the dependence of the degree of quasi-homogeneity from these
parameters.
We developed the study and the numerical analysis using the polar method of
proposed by Verchery (Verchery, 1979), and successfully used by him and co-
workers in different researches (Verchery et al., 1979 to 2002).
2. The degree of quasi-homogeneity
Let L be any one of the preceding tensors. In our study we used the following
quantity L, which is an invariant for L and has the same properties as the norm of a
tensor (Kandil et al., 1988). We will refer to it as the norm of the tensor L:
In Eq. [3], T and R are the so-called polar components of a second rank tensor,
while TO , T], R
0
and R
1
are those of a fourth rank tensor.
The condition for elastic quasi-homogeneity is to have B and C equal to zero,
that is equivalent to have their norms B and C equal to zero. On the contrary, when
B and C are non-zero, we can estimate the deviation from quasi-homogeneity if we
measure the pair of values (B , Q. In fact, B and C have the same properties as the
norm and when we compare these quantities for two different laminates, we can say
which one is more uncoupled and which one has more similar in-and out-of-plane
behaviours.
Nevertheless, B and C are not homogeneous quantities: we can not directly
compare their values and say that the deviation from quasi-homogeneity for a
laminate depends more on its uncoupling than on the difference between the in-
plane and bending behaviours, or viceversa.
Hence we decided to use the pair (b, in place of (B , C), where b and l are the
ratios:
b
max
and C
max
are the maximum values of the norms B and C for a given
number of plies and for a given material of the elementary ply.
336 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
Quantities b and l are non-dimensional, so that we can compare pairs of values
(b, l) for laminates with different numbers of layers and composed by different
materials, b and l are also homogeneous and we can compare their values for a
single laminate to establish the prevailing influence of uncoupling or of the
difference between in- and out-of-plane behaviours on the deviation from quasi-
homogeneity. Moreover, band l are normalized quantities and their value belong to
the range [0, 1]:
Hence, we can classify laminates on a scale of quasi-homogeneity with the
variation of b and l.
If we consider the pair (b ,g) as the representation of a vector in a plane, we can
use the norm and the orientation tgq of this vector as a degree of quasi-
homogeneity:
Analogous considerations can be made for Kand Z, (Vincenti et al., 2002).
The stacking sequences, for a given number of layers and kind of material, that
give B
max
or C
max
have been theoretically determined (Vannucci, 2002, Vincenti et
al., 2001 and 2002), together with formulas for their computation. Equations giving
the degree of quasi-homogeneity in the case of only one layer affected by an
orientation error have also been found, and the reader is addressed to the references
above. Here, we consider the more realistic case when a random error affects the
orientation of each layer of a laminate. In this case, an analytical formula giving the
degree of quasi-homogeneity cannot be found. So, we made a wide numerical
investigation in order to study the variation of the degree of quasi-homogeneity with
the orientation defects and to assess the influence of the different parameters:
number of plies of the laminate, material of the elementary layer, orientations of the
layers, magnitude of the errors. The results of this analysis are presented in the
following section.
Process improvement 337
3. Numerical analysis
We made each calculation considering a vector E of angular defects: its generic
component e
k
represents the error on the orientation of the k-th ply of the laminate.
All the components of E are statistically independent. The error e
k
is normally
distributed around the theoretical angle for each ply. We introduce the characteristic
angle Y in place of the standard deviation a
£
to describe the distribution: each e
k
belongs to range [-Y, Y] with a probability of 95%. Hence it is 0
E
=1.96Y.
As E is a random error vector, we calculated each value for b and l as a mean on
a population of n
p
tests: we chose n
p
= 10000 to have a good stability of results.
We made tests on quasi-homogeneous sequences belonging to the set of quasi-
trivial solutions found by Vannucci and Verchery (2001). To have the most general
results, we chose both non-symmetrical and symmetrical sequences. We considered
the case of laminates with two theoretical orientation angles, 0° and oc, the number
of plies for each angle is generally not the same.
We describe the influence of the variation of the parameters on this
phenomenon: orientation angle a, characteristic error angle Y, number of layers n,
ratio P=R0/R1 for the elementary layer; p is the only parameter needed to describe
the material properties (Vannucci, 2002).
3.1 Influence of the characteristic angle Y
We studied the influence of the characteristic angle Y in the case of various
quasi-homogeneous stacking sequences, chosen in the set of quasi-trivial solutions,
with different number n of plies and composed by elementary materials with
different characteristic ratios p. We made tests with various values of the orientation
angle q too.
We found that the variation of is linear with Y, and the slope of the curve
decreases with n. In Fig. 1 we illustrate the variation of and tgq with Y in the case
of 8- and 20-ply laminates with a = 30° and p - 0.01.
3.2 Influence of the orientation angle a
We studied the influence of the orientation angle a in the case of laminates with
different number n of layers and for elementary materials with different p. We fixed
Y = 5°, while the variation of a is between 0° and 90°.
We found that and tgq are completely independent of a. For this reason, we
made all successive tests with a fixed value for the orientation angle and we chose a
non-standard orientation, a - 30°.
338 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
Figure 1. Variation of andtg(0) with Y(a= 30°, p = 0.01).
3.3 Influence of the number of layers n
We studied the influence of the number of layers n in the case of theoretical
quasi-homogeneous laminates composed by materials with different p. We fixed
Y = 5° and a = 30°.
In Fig. 2 we show the results for and tgq in the case of laminates with
p = 0.01. We found that the dependence of is described by two different curves
for even or odd n. We remark that on logarithmic axes b , l and are linear with n,
both for even n and for odd n.
Figure 2. Variation of ln( ) and ln(tg(l) with ln(n) (Y= 5°; p = 0.001, a= 30°).
Process improvement 339
3.4 Influence of the characteristic ratio p of the elementary material
We studied the influence of the material characteristic ratio p = R
0
/R
1
for
laminates with different number of layers, n. We fixed Y= 5° and a = 30°.
In Fig. 3 we show the results for and tgq We notice that on logarithmic axes
the curve representing has a step variation towards zero, the upper value of the
step being about double than the lower value. Hence, the influence of orientation
errors on the deviation from quasi-homogeneity is much more important for
laminates composed by materials with p > 1. It is maximum when p tends to
infinity, which is the case of plies reinforced by balanced fabrics, that have R
1
=0.
Figure 4. Variation of ln( and ln(tg q) with ln(p) (Y= 5°, a =30°).
4. Overall description of the results
As the degree of quasi-homogeneity is completely independent on the theoretical
orientation angles of the stacking sequence, we suggest to represent the variation of
£ with p and n by the function f(p,n) for a given value of Y :
Curves in Fig. 1 show that and tgq have a linear dependence from Y . Hence,
we can represent the variation of with all the three parameters Y, p, n by the
empiric function:
340 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
We determined numerically the coefficients ai, of Eq. [7] for the representation
of . In Table 1 we show their values in both the cases of even n and odd n. Fig. 4
shows the empirical function in the case of even n and Y = 5°.
even n
odd n
a1
-0.38
-0.34
a
2
-0.06
-0.07
a
3
-0.49
-0.50
a
4
0.85
0.78
a
5
-0.10
-0.11
Table 1. Coefficients a, of the empiric function ln f(n,p).
Figure 5. The function f(n,p) (Y= 5° even n).
5. Conclusion
In this paper we describe the influence of orientation errors on composite
laminates designed to be quasi-homogeneous. First, we introduce the concept of
degree of quasi-homogeneity; then, we show the results of a wide numerical analysis
in the case of orientation errors randomly distributed over all the layers of a
laminates. We notice that the theoretical stacking sequence is not a relevant
parameter for the deviation from quasi-homogeneity. On the contrary, others
parameters affect the deviation from quasi-homogeneity. In fact, there is a linear
dependence on the amplitude of orientation errors, described by the characteristic
Process improvement 341
angle Y . The dependence on the number of layers n is still linear in a logarithmic
scale. In a logarithmic scale there is a step variation of the degree of quasi-
homogeneity with p. materials with higher values of p, such as plies reinforced by
balanced fabrics, are more sensible to orientation errors. Finally, we propose a
synthetic description of the results by mean of an empiric function, which describes
the dependence of the degree of quasi-homogeneity upon all the parameters Y ,p,n.
6. References
Belaid F., Vannucci P., Verchery G., "Numerical investigation of the influence of orientation
defects on bending-tension coupling of laminates", Proceedings of ICCM 13, Beijing,
June 2001, paper 1406.
Jones R. M., Mechanics of Composite Materials, USA, Taylor & Francis, 1975.
Kandil N., Verchery G.,"New methods of design for stacking sequences of laminates",
Proceedings of CADCO MP 88, C. A. Brebbia, W. P. De Wilde and W. R. Blain eds.,
Computational Mechanics Publications and Springer Verlag, Southampton, 1988, p. 243-
257.
Vannucci P., Verchery G., "A special class of uncoupled and quasi-homogeneous laminates",
Composites Sciences and Technology, vol. 61,2001, p. 1465-1473.
Vannucci P., Verchery G., "Stiffness design of laminates using the polar method",
International Journal of Solids and Structures, vol. 38,2001, p. 9281-9294.
Vannucci P., "On bending-tension coupling of laminates", Journal of E lasticity, 2002 (to
appear).
Verchery G., "Les invariants des tenseurs d'ordre quatre du type de I'&asticite", Proceedings
ofE uromech Collegium 115, Villard-de Lans, 1979, Paris, CNRS Editions 1982, p. 93-
104 (in French).
Verchery G., "Designing with anisotropy. Part 1: Methods and general results for laminates",
Proceedings of ICCM 12, Paris, 1999, paper 734.
Vincenti A., Vannucci P., Verchery G., "Anisotropy and symmetry for elastic properties of
laminates reinforced by balanced fabrics", Composites Part A, vol. 32, 2001, p. 1525-
1532.
Vincenti A., Vannucci P., Verchery G., Belaid F., "Effetti degli errori di orientatzione sulla
quasi-omogeneita dei laminati in composito", Proceedings of AIME TA XV(15
th
Congress
of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics), Taormina, Italy, 2001 (in Italian).
Vincenti A., Vannucci P., Verchery G., "Influence of orientation errors on quasi-homogeneity
of composite laminates", Composite Science and Technology, 2002 (submitted).
This page intentionally left blank
Mechanical properties of pultruded GFRPs
made of knitted fabrics
Hiroshi Fukuda* — Hirokatsu Wakabayashi**
Koshiro Hayashi*** — Gen Ohshima***
* Department of Materials Science and Technology
Tokyo University of Science
2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba 278-8510, Japan.
fukuda@rs. noda. tus. ac.jp
** Former Graduate Student at Tokyo University of Science
Present address: TO STE M Co Ltd.
*** Asahi Glass Matex Co. Ltd.
1-2-27 Miyashita, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-1112, Japan.
AB STRACT: Pultrusion is a promising fabrication method of FRPs for civil engineering use. To
construct large-scale structure like a bridge, lateral strength and modulus are also requested
in addition to the longitudinal properties. To this end, knitted fabrics are expected as
reinforcements for pultrusion. H owever, data of knit-fabric pultruded composites are very few
because this combination is relatively new. This paper reports test data of the knit-fabric
pultruded plate. The superiority of the knitted fabric to conventional woven cloth is
demonstrated. E ffects of matrix resins are also discussed.
KE Y W O RDS: knit fabric, pultruded plate, tensile properties, direction dependency, unsaturated
polyester resin, vinylester resin
344 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
1. Introduction
Fiber reinforced plastics (FRP) are nowadays used in various engineering fields.
Among them, the field of civil engineering is one of the most promising areas to
apply FRPs because of their corrosion resistance and long term durability (Liao et
al. 98), possibility of constructing large-scale structures by joining same-size
elements, their light weight, and so on.
Pultrusion is an attractive fabrication process where endless products of uniform
and arbitrary cross sectional shape can be made with uniform quality (Roux et al.
98). Therefore, this pultruded material is suitable for architectures of civil
engineering and there are not a few examples of bridges made of this material.
In the pultrusion process, glass fibers are mainly oriented to the axial direction,
which leads highly anisotropic products. Due to high anisotropy, the lateral
properties of pultruded materials are relatively inferior and to increase the lateral
properties, a combination of glass mat and glass roving is commonly used. Glass
roving cloth is also tried as a constitutive material for pultrusion although the roving
cloth is not necessarily appropriate as will be described later.
Recently, another raw material, knitted fabric (DeWalt et al. 94) have been
developed and this material is expected as a promising candidate for pultrusion. The
configuration of the knitted fabric is schematically shown in Fig.l(a) whereas
Fig.l(b) is a typical roving cloth. The advantage of the knitted fabric is fully
discussed by DeWalt et al.
In the present paper, tensile properties of pultruded plates where knitted fabric is
used as reinforcements are examined. As a reference, unidirectionally reinforced
plates as well as plates made of roving cloth are tested and the superiority of the
knit-fabric pultruded material will be demonstrated. As for matrix materials, both
unsaturated polyester resin and vinylester resin are examined.
2. Experiment
2.1. Materials
Reinforcements used here are unidirectional glass roving (denoted by "U"), 0/90
crossply of knit fabric ("C"), quasi-isotropic layout of knit fabric ("Q"), and plain
woven roving cloth ("RC"). The quasi-isotropic plates were fabricated by stacking
0/90 layer and ±45 layer in turn. As for the matrix resin, both unsaturated
polyester ("UP") and vinylester ("VE") are employed. Using these raw materials,
Process improvement 345
total 8 types of pultruded plates of the width of 200mm and the thickness of 2.5-
3mm were fabricated by Asahi Glass Matex Co. Ltd. The details of these plates are
listed in Table 1. Each orientation rate was measured by burning out the resin and
weighing glass fibers of each direction. Unfortunately, the "Q" plates with UP resin
were not quasi-isotropic, that is, the orientation rate in the 0 and 90 digree direction
was quite small; this is probably due to some mistake during fabrication.
(a) knitted fabric (b) roving cloth
Figure 1. Knitted fabric and roving cloth
Table 1. Details of pultruded panels
thickness
resin stacking sequence
VE unidirectional (U)
crossply (C)
roving cloth (RC)
quasi-isotropic (Q)
UP unidirectional (U)
crossply (C)
roving cloth (RC)
quasi-isotropic (Q)
0 roving olny
(0, 90)
5
(plain woven #600)
8
(± 45/0, 90)
3
/(± 45)
0 roving olny
(0, 90)
5
(plain woven #600)
g
(± 45/0, 90)
3
/(± 45)
t(mm)
2.5
2.5
3.2
32
2.5
3.2
3.2
32
f(/°)
60.7
61.7
58.8
58.8
58.8
orientation rate
0(%)
100
51.3
50.0
26.6
100
52.1
50.0
17.7
± 45 (%)
0
0
0
47.9
0
0
0
63.6
90 (%)
0
48.7
50.0
25.5
0
47.9
50.0
18.7
2.2. Tensile test
From the above 8 types of plates, tensile test coupons were cut in accordance
with JIS K 7054-1995. To examine the effect of anisotropy, test coupons were made
in the 0, 45, and 90 degree directions from the machine direction. The specimen
346 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
size was 10mm in width and 200mm in length. A pair of GFRP tabs was glued on
both sides of both ends of each specimen and actual gage length of the specimen
was 100mm.
Figure 2. Young's modulus (matrix : VE )
A pair of two-axis strain gages (gage length = 2mm) was glued on both surfaces
at the center of each specimen. Tensile tests were conducted using an Instron-type
testing machine at the crosshead speed of Imm/min. Applied load and strains were
saved in a personal computer using a data logging system at an interval of 1 s.
3. Results and discussion
3.1. Y oung's modulus
Figure 2 summarizes Young's modulus of each material at each direction where
vinylester resin is used as matrix material. Unidirectional composites (U) have
strong anisotropy whereas Young's modulus of quasi-isotropic composites (Q) is
almost the same in three directions tested. As far as Young's modulus is concerned,
the crossply composites (C) and the roving cloth composites (RC) exhibited similar
values. These results are all reasonable and therefore, of little interest. Data of
unsaturated polyester resin showed similar tendency, although they are a little bit
inferior to VE resin composites.
Process improvement 347
3.2. Strength
Figure 3 summarizes the strength of (a) VE-matrix composites and (b) UP-
matrix composites. The overall tendency is the same as Young's modulus.
Figure 3. Tensile strength
Figure 4. Comparison of tensile strength between
crossply (C) and roving cloth (RC) composites
348 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
Among data of Fig.3, data of knit fabric crossply composites and roving cloth
composites are picked up in Fig.4. These should be essentially the same because the
fiber directions are 0 and 90 degrees and the amount of fibers is also the same.
However, we can clearly see that there exists big difference between crossply and
roving cloth reinforced composites. That is, the transverse (90 degrees direction)
strength of the roving cloth composites is very low comparing to the strength of
longitudinal direction nevertheless the fiber content is the same in both directions.
This may be understood as follows: During the pultrusion process, fairly large
tensile load is applied to the longitudinal roving and fibers of this direction tend to
become straight. On the other hand, fibers in the transverse (width) direction suffer
from no tensile load and the waviness of these fibers is more severe. If exaggeration
is allowed, transverse fibers of the roving cloth has little role of reinforcement.
In the case of knit fabric, the longitudinal and transverse fiber bundles are
essentially straight; they are merely knitted by thin polyester threads. Thus the
tensile strength in the width direction remains so so, although some amount of
decrease compared with the strength in the longitudinal direction is recognized. One
reason of this slight decrease of the strength is attributed to a little bitfewer fiber
contents in the transverse direction (see Table 1, crossply). Another reason might be
the faint waving of the transverse rovings during the pultrusion process. Figure 5 is
its evidence, which were taken after evaporating the matrix resin in a Muffle furnace
at 625C, 10 hours. Anyway, the characteristics that the transverse mechanical
property remains for knit fabric pultruded composites are very important for large-
scale structures where the relatively large transverse strength is required.
Figure 5. Surface view after evaporating
3.3. Shearing modulus
In some practical cases, high shearing modulus or strength becomes important.
For example, if these pultruded elements are connected with a bolt, large shearing
stress takes place around the hole and the joint may collapse by "shear out" if the
Process improvement 349
shearing strength is small. The quasi-isotropic plate is designed for this purpose.
Figure 6 depicts the shearing modulus, G, of each type where G was calculated from
the tensile test of 45 degree coupons applying the following equation (Carlsson and
Pipes 87):
Figure 6. Shearing modulus of each type of
pultruded composites
where
and
From Fig.6, it is clear that the shearing modulus increases by inserting ± 45
degree layers, although it is too primitive to describe. Again the superiority of
vinylester resin to unsaturated polyester resin is demonstrated, although we must be
aware that the fiber volume fraction of each test panel is a little different each other.
350 Repairing Structures using Composite Wraps
4. Conclusions
During a series of experiments, data of knit-fabric pultruded composites were
accumulated. Woven roving may not be suitable as a constitutive material for
pultrusion because the transverse properties are pretty inferior. On the other hand,
knitted fabric is a promising candidate where the decrease of the mechanical
properties in the transverse direction is not so serious. Mechanical properties of
vinylester matrix composites were found to be superior to those of unsaturated
polyester composites.
Acknowledgements
The authors thank Mr. Hiroshi Igarashi, Dr. Masaaki Itabashi and Dr. Atsushi
Wada for their assistance in experiments and preparing manuscripts.
References
Carlsson L. A. and Pipes R. B., "E xperimental Characterization of Advanced Composite
Materials" Prentice-Hall, 1987.
DeWalt P. L. and Reichard R. P., "Just How Good are Knitted Fabrics," J. Reinforced
Plastics and Composites, vol.13, 1994, p.908-917.
Liao K., Schultheisz C. R., Hunson D. L. and L. Brinson C., "Long-term Durability of Fiber-
Reinforced Polymer-Matrix Composite Materials for Infrastructure Applications: A
Review," J. Advanced Materials (SAMPE ), vol.30, No.4, 1998, p.3-40.
Roux J. A., Vaughan J. G. and Shanku R., "Comparison of Measurements and Modeling for
Pultrusion of a Fiberglass/Epoxy 1-Beam," J. Reinforced Plastics and Composites, vol.17,
1998, p. 1557-1578.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful