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MIMIC+ Software Reference

Guide
2009 by Landmark Graphics Corporation
Release 5000.0.0 First Quarter 2009
2009 Landmark Graphics Corporation
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Landmark MIMIC+ Software User Guide
Release 5000.0.0 Contents v
Contents
Overview .......................................................................................................... 1
MIMIC+ Functionality ............................................................................... 1
Features ........................................................................................................ 2
Key Words .......................................................................................................... 4
Coordinate System and Units .......................................................................... 5
Coordinate System ...................................................................................... 5
Units .............................................................................................................. 6
2D Definition ................................................................................................. 7
File Names and File Types ................................................................................ 8
File Types ...................................................................................................... 8
File-Naming Conventions ............................................................................ 11
Menu Overview .................................................................................................. 13
Main Menu ..................................................................................................... 13
Menu Commands .................................................................................... 14
Setup Menu Commands ......................................................................... 14
Workflow Overview ........................................................................................... 15
Starting MIMIC+ Software ............................................................ 19
Batch Mode ........................................................................................................ 21
Interactive Mode ................................................................................................ 23
Interactive Startup Command ................................................................ 23
Building Contour Maps ....................................................................... 25
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Setting Layer Parameters ................................................................................. 26
Layer Setup Menu ........................................................................................ 27
Menu Commands .................................................................................... 28
Creating and Gridding Layers .......................................................................... 30
Layer Command Menu ................................................................................. 30
Creating Layers by Combining Geometric Shapes .................................. 31
Forms Shape Command Menu ................................................................... 34
Menu Commands ................................................................................. 34
Relationship Choice Menu .......................................................................... 37
Building the Top Layer, French Model Using Forms ................................ 39
Gridding Layers ............................................................................................ 42
Gridding 2D Layers ................................................................................. 42
Gridding 3D Layers ................................................................................. 42
Sierra Gridding Control Menu Commands ....................................... 45
Prespecified Layer Option Menu ................................................................ 46
Menu Commands. ................................................................................... 47
Editing Layers .................................................................................................... 49
Layer Correction Command Menu ............................................................. 50
Menu Commands .................................................................................... 51
Changing Layer File Header Information ................................................... 52
3D Layer Header Correction Menu ............................................................ 52
Menu Commands ................................................................................... 53
3D Map Editing Commands ......................................................................... 54
Map Edit Command Menu ........................................................................... 55
Menu Commands ................................................................................... 55
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Release 5000.0.0 Contents vii
3D Graphics Point Edit Menu ...................................................................... 57
Menu Commands .................................................................................... 57
3D Graphics Fault Edit Menus .................................................................... 59
Menu Commands .................................................................................... 59
Fault Segment Menu Commands .......................................................... 61
Editing Layers .............................................................................................. 62
2D Layer Editor Menu .................................................................................. 70
2D Map Editing Commands ................................................................... 71
Menu Commands .................................................................................... 71
Interactively Editing Layers ........................................................................ 71
Types of Patches for 3D Editing ............................................................ 72
Editing Layers .............................................................................................. 74
Grid Edit Patch Definition Choices Menu .................................................. 75
Menu Commands. ................................................................................... 76
Grid Edit Contour Data Definition Menu .................................................... 77
Menu Commands .................................................................................... 77
Choice B Menu Commands ................................................................... 79
Choice C Menu Commands ................................................................... 79
Grid Operation Command Menu ................................................................. 80
Menu Commands ................................................................................... 81
Smoothing Layers ........................................................................................ 82
Layer Smoothing Choice Menu .................................................................. 86
Menu Commands .................................................................................... 87
Multiple Grid Operation Command Menu .................................................. 89
Menu Commands ................................................................................... 90
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viii Contents Release 5000.0.0
Interpolating Layers ..................................................................................... 92
Building 3D or 2D Models ................................................................. 93
Modeling Concepts ...................................................................................... 95
Layer Pinchout Conventions ...................................................................... 96
Model Building Overview ............................................................................ 98
Layer Position vs. Order of Input .......................................................... 99
Specifying Layer Parameters ........................................................................... 101
Layer Entry Menu ......................................................................................... 104
Menu Commands .................................................................................... 104
Velocity Options Menu Commands ...................................................... 107
Vertical Velocity Gradient Menu Commands ....................................... 107
Density Options Menu Commands ....................................................... 108
Building a Two-Layer Model ............................................................................. 109
Editing 3D or 2D Models ................................................................................... 111
Model Correction Command Menu ............................................................. 112
Menu Commands.. .................................................................................. 113
Changing Model File Header Information .................................................. 115
Model Header Correction Menu .................................................................. 115
Menu Commands .................................................................................... 116
Changing Physical Properties in a Model File Header ........................ 117
Physical Property Menu ............................................................................. 118
Menu Commands. ................................................................................... 119
Vertical Velocity Gradient Menu Commands ....................................... 120
Velocity Option Commands ................................................................... 120
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Density Options Commands .................................................................. 120
Editing Structural Models ............................................................................ 121
Structural Modification Menu ...................................................................... 121
Menu Commands ................................................................................... 123
Modeling Faults ............................................................................................ 124
Generating 2D Models from 3D Models ..................................................... 126
Line End Points Definition Menu ................................................................ 126
Menu Commands .................................................................................... 128
Building 2D Geologic Models ........................................................................... 129
Starting the 2D Model Builder ..................................................................... 132
2D Model Initialization Menu ....................................................................... 133
Menu Commands .................................................................................... 134
2D Model Editor Menu ............................................................................ 136
Color Display Menu Commands ............................................................ 137
Editing Two-Dimensional Geologic Models .................................................... 138
2D Model Editor Graphics Commands ................................................ 140
Editing 2D Layers ......................................................................................... 141
Adding Time or Depth Layers to 2D Models .............................................. 148
2D Layer Input Menu ................................................................................... 150
Menu Commands ................................................................................... 151
Entering Velocities in 2D Models ................................................................ 153
Fitting 2D Data Points to a Surface ............................................................ 156
Storing Time or Depth Layers in 2D Models .............................................. 157
2D Layer Entry Menu Commands ......................................................... 158
Velocity Options ..................................................................................... 159
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Velocity Gradient Options ...................................................................... 159
Density Options ...................................................................................... 159
Deleting Layers From 2D Models ............................................................... 160
Replicating a Layer in a 2D Model ............................................................. 161
Changing 2D Model File Header Information ............................................ 164
Model Header Correction Menu .................................................................. 165
Commands Menu .................................................................................... 166
Output from MIMIC+ Software ...................................................... 169
Color-Fill Contour Maps .................................................................................... 170
Contour Map Menu (Color-Fill) ................................................................... 172
Menu Commands: ................................................................................... 172
Display Type Menu Commands ............................................................. 175
General Display Menu Commands ........................................................ 178
Title Menu Commands ........................................................................... 180
Wellbore Parameter Choices Commands ............................................ 180
Post Data Menu Commands .................................................................. 181
Post and Annotation Menu Commands ................................................ 181
Wells Read and Display Parameters Menu .......................................... 182
Line Contour Maps ............................................................................................ 183
Contour Map Menu (Line) ............................................................................ 184
Menu Commands .................................................................................... 185
Display Type Menu ................................................................................ 187
Contour Definition Menu ............................................................................. 189
Menu Commands .................................................................................... 190
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Line Display Menu .................................................................................. 190
Post Data Menu ...................................................................................... 192
Post and Annotation Menu Commands ................................................ 192
Horizon Menu .......................................................................................... 194
Wells Read and Display Parameters Menu Commands ...................... 194
Cross Sections .................................................................................................. 196
Cross Section Menu ..................................................................................... 198
Menu Commands. ................................................................................... 198
Selection Menu Commands ................................................................... 201
Display Parameter Choices Menu ........................................................ 201
Title Display Menu Commands .............................................................. 204
3D Perspective Plots ......................................................................................... 205
Perspective Plot Menu ................................................................................. 206
Menu Commands .................................................................................... 207
Surface Display for 3D Perspective Plots .................................................. 210
Surface Display Menu (for 3D files) commands .................................. 211
Mask Type Selection Menu .................................................................... 212
Contour Definition Menu ............................................................................. 213
Contour Definition Menu ........................................................................ 214
Surface Display Menu (for 2D files) ...................................................... 214
Title Block .......................................................................................................... 216
Title Block Menu ..................................................................................... 216
Reports ............................................................................................................... 217
Layer Reports Menu ..................................................................................... 217
Report Menu (for Layers) ....................................................................... 219
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Model Report Menu ...................................................................................... 221
Menu Commands .................................................................................... 223
Disk File Output ................................................................................................. 228
Landmark MIMIC+ Software Reference Guide
Release 5000.0.0 Overview 1
Overview
Digital geologic models have many important applications in
exploration, including prospect evaluation, seismic raytracing, gravity
and potential field modeling, field data acquisition, and reservoir
calculations. Most importantly, models allow you to visualize and
better understand three-dimensional spatial relationships that may
otherwise be difficult to comprehend. The MIMIC
+
program is a
powerful tool for easy and efficient building of digital models of
complex, three-dimensional geologic structures. MIMIC+ software
helps you to augment the numerical capabilities of the computer with
your own expertise.
MIMIC+ Functionality
MIMIC+ functions can be separated into three categories:
Creating and editing contour maps
Compiling depth, velocity, time, density, or gradient layers into 2D
or 3D models
Examining and verifying maps and models using color graphics
displays
Maps can be constructed from irregularly sampled data, from
independently contoured and gridded data, and from standard
geometric shapes. Two-dimensional interfaces can also be easily
defined from cross sections. Following initial model construction, the
horizon shapes can be modified by either point or grid editing. Using
this interactive approach, morphology conforming to your expectations
can be quickly achieved.
Three-dimensional geologic models are constructed as a set of seismic
reflectors, faults, and other structural interfaces with their associated
velocities and other physical properties. Velocities may vary both
vertically and laterally, and program defaults assist you in defining
physical properties. Horizon depth can be shifted upon entry into the
model to honor a well control point. Also, any interface can be used
more than once to model, for instance, a layer with constant isopach.
Automatic handling of pinchouts allows you to combine two or more
MIMIC+ Software Reference Guide Landmark
2 Overview Release 5000.0.0
layers to easily model reverse faults, recumbent folds, and necking on
the sides of salt domes. Pinchout characteristics can be assigned to each
layer to ease the model building task. Existing models can be modified
by adding, deleting or replacing horizons, as well as by changing
material properties for any layer. Finally, layers and models can be
constructed in terms of two-way travel time and then converted to depth
by vertical time shift. Conversely, depth models can be converted to
two-way time.
Two-dimensional models are easily constructed and edited through the
use of interactive graphics menus. Layer creation occurs in three ways:
by creating your own layers on the screen using the cursor, by gridding
digitized points files, or by entering a pregridded MIMIC+ layer.
Additionally, two-dimensional models can be created by taking a cross
section of a 3D model.
Throughout MIMIC+ software, graphic display options are available
for viewing structures as contour maps, isopach maps, cross sections,
or three-dimensional perspectives. The ability to produce high quality
hard copies for presentation, analysis, and verification of the structure
are thus explicitly provided for your use. Construction of a three-
dimensional geologic model is a major task. MIMIC+ software has
been written to be a helpful assistant to you so that the job is greatly
simplified. Intermediate results are saved along the way so that the
entire process need not be completed at one time. MIMIC+ software
can markedly improve the accuracy of geologic model construction
while reducing analysis cost through increased productivity.
Features
Contour Mapping
Acceptance of interpreted horizon data from SeisWorks software
via the SeisWorks import tool.
Acceptance of OpenWorks grids via the OpenWorks import
tool.
Acceptance of digitized maps from our QUIKDIG+ program
Acceptance of digital data via the ASCII Import Tool
Fault recognition
Posting and annotation of digitized points, wells, wellbores and
cultural data
Interactive map editing
Interactive grid editing
Landmark MIMIC+ Software Reference Guide
Release 5000.0.0 Overview 3
Geologic Modeling
Interactive model building and modification
On-screen construction of 2D models
2D models defined in 3D space
Cross section editing for 2D layers
Acceptance of digitized cross sections from our QUIKDIG+
program
Acceptance of digital data via the ASCII Import Tool
Laterally varying or constant model properties include:
P-wave velocity
S-wave velocity
Velocity Gradient
Density
Constant velocity with vertical velocity gradients
Preparation of models for QUIK+ raytracing program
Vertical velocity gradients for time models
Color Graphics
Color-fill contour maps
Line mode contour maps
Cross sections
Three-dimensional perspective plots
Scaled hardcopy plots
Ability to dynamically submit hardcopy plots
Dual Head support
Color tool
Other Features
Online help
Dynamic memory allocation
ASCII Formatted layers or models
Report generation
ASCII data Import Tool
OpenWorks data import/export tool
SeisWorks data import tool
SigmaView data import/export tool
Connection to our OpenVision visualization application,
including editing
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4 Overview Release 5000.0.0
Key Words
The terms layer, model, and contour map appear in menus, prompts,
and help files throughout this user manual and the MIMIC+
program. This section defines these terms and the associated term
digital map.
Contour map. A contour map is a representation of some quantity (Z),
in terms of lines of equal Z value (contour lines). Z can be depth,
reflection time, velocity, or any quantity that can be represented as a
function of a coordinate system. A contour map may be drawn by hand
or derived by numerical contouring methods from a digital map.
Digital map. A digital map is a numerical representation of a map,
specifically a contour map, on a uniformly sampled X,Y grid. Digital
maps may be multivalued (several Z values defined for an X,Y) or
incomplete (no Z values defined for an X,Y). In Landmark software,
the term map can mean either an analog planar representation or a
numerical representation.
Layer. A layer is a digital map that is single-valued and continuous to
all edges of a rectangular area. The term layer is used for stratigraphic
or structural interface maps in either depth or time, or for laterally
varying internal velocity, density, vertical gradient fields, or general
Model. An ordered set of depth or time layers with associated geologic
properties, i.e., velocity, density, V
s
/V
p
ratio (the ratio of S-wave
velocity to P-wave velocity), and the P-wave and S-wave quality
factors, Q
a
and Q
b
, respectively. The lateral variation of P-wave
velocity, S-wave velocity, density, and vertical gradients can be
represented as a continuous, single-valued digital map.
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Release 5000.0.0 Overview 5
Coordinate System and Units
MIMIC+ software provides a coordinate system whose only
requirement is that the system be rectangular and that the edges of the
rectangle be aligned with the axes of the coordinate system. By
convention, the vertical axis (on the screen) is north-south and the
horizontal axis is east-west. The origin of coordinates (0,0) may be at
any map corner or may be outside the map boundaries. Depth can be
defined as either positive or negative downwards. Units are specified in
feet, meters, kilofeet or kilometers, and axis values may increase in
either direction. Time units may be specified in seconds or
milliseconds.
Coordinate System
MIMIC
+
software uses a generalized coordinate system such that:
The east-west direction is horizontal on the screen.
The north-south direction is vertical.
For 3D maps specify the lower left and upper right corners. For 2D
models, models can be defined in distance or in 3D space by
specifying starting and ending coordinates of the 2D model. There
are no restrictions on the map origin location or direction of
increasing values.
The Z-axis can be defined as positive or negative downwards. Z
may represent depth, time, or velocity.
In depth, the Z-axis extends down from the reference plane at
Z=0.
In time, the time axis also extends down, and can be defined as
positive or negative.
Velocity and density are always positive.
Gradients and general layers can have positive or negative
values.
All map views of models or interfaces are in this standard orientation;
the northwest corner is in the upper left.
The reference plane is defined as Z=0. All models are bounded on the
top by the zero depth/time reference plane.
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Coordinate System and Units
Units
Map coordinate units, the N-S and E-W axes, are specified in
kilometers, kilofeet, meters or feet. The Z-axis is specified in
kilometers, kilofeet, meters, or feet for depth, in milliseconds or
seconds for time, and in kilometers per second, kilofeet per second,
meters per second, or feet per second for velocity.
Distance


Two-way time:

Velocity:


Density
English - kilofeet (kft), feet (ft)
Metric - kilometers (km), meters (m)

Seconds (sec), milliseconds (msec)

English - kilofeet per second (kft/sec), feet per second (ft/sec)
Metric - kilometers per second (km/sec), meters per second (m/sec)

Grams per cubic centimeter (gm/cm
3
)
Map View Cross Section View
(looking north)
Z
Positive or
negative
Z axis
East
Take off angle
Units
North
West
South
East
Azimuth measured
clockwise from North
upper
right
lower
left
Easting axis
East-West
Map View
of Area
of Interest
N
o
r
t
h
-
S
o
u
t
h

N
o
r
t
h
i
n
g

a
x
i
s
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Release 5000.0.0 Overview 7
Density units are grams per cubic centimeter (gm/cm
3
). Density is
specified as a constant, a laterally varying file, or laterally varying
value according to Gardners density law.
Map coordinates and Z-axis can be defined in different unit systems.
For example, a layer with map units defined in meters can have Z units
defined in feet. However, once you define map units and Z-axis units
for one layer, you must define the units of all layers and velocity maps
within that model in the same manner. Once the coordinate system is
defined, all prompts and plots are in the defined coordinates.
2D Definition
2D files can be defined by one of two methods. The first method is by
distance. You define the length of the model between the two end
points. The origin of the 2D file is 0 at the left end of the model. The
2D file is always considered to be horizontal and has no reference into
any 3D space. The second method is to define the 2D file in 3D space
by entering the starting and ending coordinates (N-S, E-W).
Orientation of the 2D file is based on the defined coordinates. 2D files
defined in 3D space can be displayed in the OpenVision visualization
tool if the tool is active. 2D files defined in distance cannot be
displayed in OpenVision software.
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8 Overview Release 5000.0.0
File Names and File Types
During a MIMIC+ modeling sequence, you can generate as output or
require as input many different types of data files. Descriptions of these
file types are described in this section as are Landmark's file-naming
conventions.
File Types
Color Spectrum Files (.spc, .clm, .rgb)
This formatted input file contains color cell definitions for the color
spectrum to use in MIMIC+ displays. An example of a spectrum file
name is Rainbow42.spc..spc files are a 42 color spectrum. SeisWorks
spectrums (.clm) and ProMAX spectrums (.rgb) can also be read in to
define the applications colormap. Both the SeisWorks and
ProMAX spectrums are a 64 color spectrum.
Data Size Files (.DSZ)
This is a formatted file that defines the startup memory needed by the
program. This file can be generated from the Data Size Menu.
Depth Layer Files (.DEP, .DPF)
Depth layer files have a .DEP suffix and are binary files. A .DPF suffix
represents a formatted depth layer. These files contain a uniformly
gridded depth surface, created by migration, used for model updates.
An example of a depth map file name is REEF02.DEP.
Digitized Points Files (.DIG, .DG2, .DV3, .DV2)
Points files have a .DIG suffix (3D) or a .DG2 suffix (2D) and are
formatted files. These files contain the X, Y, Z data necessary as input
for gridding a property (velocity, density, or gradient) map or depth
layer along with X, Y fault data associated with the layer. The
.DV3/.DV2 velocity points files, which may be created from SIVA+,
share the same format as the .DIG/.DG2 files, but contain velocity data
points exclusively. An example of a digitized points file name is
NORTH_SEA01.DIG.
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Release 5000.0.0 Overview 9
General Layer Files (.NFI, .NFF)
General layer files have a .NFI suffix and are binary files. A .NFF
suffix represents a formatted general layer. These files contain a
uniformly gridded surface. There is no unit definition for the Z
variable. The file can only be created in grid operations or in layer
definition. An example of a general map file name is
GENERAL01.NFI.
Grid Edit Patch Files (.PCP)
This file is a formatted file which contains a subset of a layer as
required for Grid Edit. See page 71.
Log Files (.LOG)
A log file contains the menus and prompts presented by MIMIC+
software, and your responses to these menus and prompts. This file
type is helpful for use as input to a later MIMIC+ session or for
documenting a particular path. Note that unlike the previous file types,
the LOG file can be overwritten. To keep a particular LOG file, rename
it before creating a different one. An example log file is MIMIC.LOG.
Model Files (.MOD, .MDF)
Binary depth or time model files have a .MOD suffix while model files
with a .MDF suffix are ASCII formatted files. These files contain
model information, such as velocities, densities, times/depths, and
faults, for an ordered set of layers, plus useful header information. An
example of a model file name is FRENCH01.MOD.
Prespecified Layer Files
These files contain contour map data that have already been processed
through a surface fitting routine. To be read by the MIMIC+
program, this data must be stored as a formatted (alphanumeric) file.
MIMIC+ software will reformat the data to be MIMIC+
compatible.
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10 Overview Release 5000.0.0
Property Layer Files (.VEL, .VLF, .DEN, .DEF, .VKS, .VKF)
Velocity layer files with a .VEL suffix are binary files and velocity files
with a .VLF suffix are ASCII formatted files. These files contain
gridded velocity information for a single geologic interval. These files
are used to specify laterally variable velocities. An example of a
velocity layer file name is HISPEED01.VEL. Density layer files with
.DEN suffix are binary files and density files with .DEF suffix are
ASCII formatted files. Vertical velocity gradient files with a .VKS
suffix are binary files and files with .VKF suffix are ASCII formatted
vertical velocity files. Variable density and gradient files contain
gridded property information for a single geologic interval.
Report Files (.REP)
You have the option of writing header information from layer or model
files along with subsets of depth values into a formatted file. This is
useful documentation of the results of model or layer construction. See
Reports for a complete description of reports.
Report Window Files (.RPT)
Any information that is displayed to the MIMIC+ Report Window can
be saved to a formatted file. Information about models, maps, layers
and raypath files can be displayed in the report window. For example,
the name of a report file containing information on the
FRENCH01.MOD model file may be FRENCH_MODEL.RPT
Time Layer Files (.TIM, .TMF)
MIMIC+ time layer files with a .TIM suffix are binary files, time
files with a .TMF suffix are ASCII formatted files. You can create a
time patch from a .TIM file using the Header Correction (HC) option in
the Layer Edit portion of RAYMAP+ software.
Wellbore Files (.WBR)
Wellbore files are an ASCII file denoted with the suffix .WBR or
.WBF. All data is in user defined units. They can be displayed in cross
sections, P3, contour maps, and OpenVision software. A wellbore
file can be read in for multiple wells for overposting on a display. An
example of a wellbore file is WELLBORE01.WBR.
Landmark MIMIC+ Software Reference Guide
Release 5000.0.0 Overview 11
Wells Files (.DAT)
Wells files have a .DAT suffix. A wells file can be read in for
overposting on a display. An example of a wells file is WELLS01.DAT.
File-Naming Conventions
As you perform modeling and mapping activities in MIMIC+
software, many different file types are created. To avoid confusion and
increase efficiency, MIMIC+ software controls the names of files it
creates through standardized file extensions and versioning. When you
need a particular type of file, the program can quickly locate all those
available. This becomes significant when you want to read in a data
file. MIMIC+ software understands the type of file your activity
demands. The program presents a list of all the files matching that task,
for instance, velocity data. It does this by searching for all files having a
particular suffix.
In addition to the suffix supplied by the program, files created in
MIMIC+ software need a user-defined prefix. For example, after you
build a new depth layer, the following question appears:
What depth layer (.DEP) should be written?
At the same time the prompt line tells you to enter the file name prefix.
Use a meaningful prefix, such as an abbreviation of the prospect or
horizon name. MIMIC+ software automatically appends a sequential
version number, between 01 and 99, and the suffix DEP, which
identifies a depth file. Whatever prefix you choose to help keep track of
your modeling effort, it becomes part of the file-naming system used in
MIMIC+ software and other Landmark applications. This system
ensures that MIMIC+ software and the other programs can
distinguish among the types of data in files.
.
File Type Name*
Binary or
Formatted
3D digitized points PREFIXnn.DIG formatted
2D digitized points PREFIXnn.DG2 formatted
3D digitized velocity points PREFIXnn.DV3 formatted
2D digitized velocity points PREFIXnn.DV2 formatted
Prespecified layer user specified formatted
MIMIC+ Software Reference Guide Landmark
12 Overview Release 5000.0.0
Depth layer PREFIXnn.DEP binary
Depth layer PREFIXnn.DPF formatted
Velocity layer PREFIXnn.VEL binary
Velocity layer PREFIXnn.VLF formatted
Time layer PREFIXnn.TIM binary
Time layer PREFIXnn.TMF formatted
Density layer PREFIXnn.DEN binary
Density layer PREFIXnn.DEF formatted
Gradient layer PREFIXnn.VKS binary
Gradient layer PREFIXnn.VKF formatted
Grid edit patch points PREFIXnn.PCP formatted
Model PREFIXnn.MOD binary
Model PREFIXnn.MDF formatted
General layer PREFIXnn.NFI binary
General layer PREFIXnn.NFF formatted
Data size PREFIXnn.DSZ formatted
Color spectrum PREFIXnn.spc formatted
Report PREFIXnn.REP formatted
Report Window PREFIXnn.RPT formatted
Log MIMIC.LOG formatted
Wellbore PREFIXnn.WBR formatted
Wells PREFIXnn.DAT formatted
Key:PREFIX = User-defined prefix
nn = Program-defined version number (01-99)
DIG = Program-defined file extension
File Type Name*
Binary or
Formatted
Landmark MIMIC+ Software Reference Guide
Release 5000.0.0 Overview 13
Menu Overview
The majority of your interaction with MIMIC+ software occurs with
the MIMIC
+
Menu Window. The first menu is the MIMIC
+
Main
Menu. This is also the menu that you return to after completing major
subtasks of the model building process.
Main Menu
Commands allow you to create layers, modify those layers, insert
layers in a model, make model corrections, and build and edit 2D
models. In addition, four display and output commands are available
allowing you to create contour maps, cross sections, 3D perspective
plots, and reports on a model or layer. Finally, there is a command to
reset the sizes of the internal data storage in MIMIC+ software; this
command provides you with flexibility in customizing computer
memory for your particular needs.
MIMIC+ Software Reference Guide Landmark
14 Overview Release 5000.0.0
Menu Commands
Setup Menu Commands
L Layer entry. Use this L command to access the Layer Setup Menu to define
your map (depth, time, or velocity).
LC Layer correction. Select the LC command to access the Layer Correction
Command Menu in order to modify layers, including interactive editing of
contour maps.
M Model entry. Use M to construct 3D time or depth models from maps created
in layer entry or layer correction.
MC Model creation and correction. Use MC if you want to modify existing time
or depth models or build new models from existing layers.
M2 2D editor/model builder. Select M2 for construction and interactive editing
of 2D models, including layer definition.
CM Contour map. Select CM to make a plot of a layer (or layer in a model) using
a color-fill or line contour map. See Line Contour Maps.
CS Cross section. By selecting CS, you can display a vertical cross section view
of a model or layer. See Menu Commands..
P3 3D perspective plot. Use the P3 command to view a three-dimensional view
of a model or layer. See Surface Display for 3D Perspective Plots.
RP Report on a model or layer file. Selecting RP lists information on a model or
layer, and allows writing of formatted model files. See Reports.
SU Setup definitions. Selecting SU brings up the Setup Menu. The
available options are as follows:
DS Data sizes. The DS command allows you to access a menu containing the
storage allocation parameters for MIMIC+ software. You can change the
amount of space allocated for model and layer sizes, fault sizes and data points
for the gridder. The IO command allows you to write out a data size file that
can be used to configure memory at startup time or read a data size menu to
setup desired memory parameters.
LS Layer selection for model is. Toggle between
Alphameric and Graphics to define how you want to select layers for
the model. The default is Alphameric.
CL Color-spectrum-line thickness selection is. Select CL to define how
you wish to select colors, spectrums, or line thicknesses. The default is
Graphics. If toggled to Alphanumeric, you will be asked to select a
color by number instead of a color palette.
RV Restore all global parameters to original values. Select RV to reset
all persistent variables that were set to desired values to their original
values.
Landmark MIMIC+ Software Reference Guide
Release 5000.0.0 Overview 15
Workflow Overview
All MIMIC+ software functions are accessed from the Main Menu.
The display functions: Contour Map, Cross Section, 3D Perspective
Plot, and Report

are available here and also from all other major menus.
Five of these activities are available only through the MIMIC
+
Main
Menu. The display functions are accessible through the MIMIC
+
Main
Menu and also from the menus for each of the first four activities.
MIMIC+ MAIN MENU
LAYER ENTRY
Creation of time, depth or property

layers by combining geometric

shapes
Surface fitting of 2D and 3D layers
Reformatting of non-Sierra files

DISPLAY FUNCTIONS






LAYER CORRECTION
Interactive map editing
Interactive grid editing
Correction of layer file header info.
Grid Operations
Extraction of layers from models
Surface interpolation
DISPLAY FUNCTIONS
Contour maps
Cross sections
3D perspective plots
Layer and model reports
Report
DISPLAY FUNCTIONS
MODEL CREATION AND CORRECTION






Structural modification
Correction of model file header information
Conversion of two-way travel time models to
depth models by vertical shift
Conversion of depth models to two-way
travel time models
Surface interpolation, Static Shift
Generation of 2D model from 3D model
Insertion of layers into 2D or 3D models
Assignment of material properties for layers
User-defined pinchout characteristics








2D EDITOR/MODEL BUILDER
Interactive creation of 2D models
Interactive editing of 2D layers in time,
, density, gradient, or velocity
Correction of model file header information
Insertion of time or depth layers in a 2D
DISPLAY FUNCTIONS
DISPLAY FUNCTIONS
depth
model
.
MIMIC+ Software Reference Guide Landmark
16 Overview Release 5000.0.0
2D
MIMIC+ MAIN MENU
MC Model correction
MODEL CORRECTION
COMMAND MENU
Write output model file
STRUCTURAL
MODIFICATION MENU
LINE END POINTS
DEFINITION MENU
Select input time/depth
model file name:
HC SM TD
DT,SS,SI
MIMIC+ MAIN MENU
M Model entry
LAYER ENTRY MENU
Write output model file
Physical
Properties
specification
MODEL HEADER
CORRECTION MENU
WR
Viewing options
Report
Viewing options
Report
MIMIC+ MAIN MENU
M2 2D editor/model builder

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Release 5000.0.0 Overview 17
FO
LAYER COMMAND MENU
FORMS SHAPE
COMMAND MENU
Select 2D or 3D digitized
data points file name:
Select input 2D digitized
data points file name:
GR/GF L2
Select 2D or 3D
data points file name:
Write output layer file
MIMIC+ MAIN MENU
LC Layer correction
LAYER CORRECTION
COMMAND MENU
GE HC OP EM LE
LAYER HEADER
CORRECTION MENU
MAP EDIT MENU
CONTOUR MAP MENU
GRID OPERATIONS
COMMAND MENU
Select input layer
file name:
Select input TIME OR
DEPTH MODE Lfile name:
SI
Write output layer file
Viewing options
Report
External Mapping
Program Layer File
Contour Map or
Cross Section
Digitized data points file
No Map
MIMIC+ MAIN MENU
L Layer entry
Viewing options
Report
PS
MIMIC+ MAIN MENU
M Model entry
MIMIC+ Software Reference Guide Landmark
18 Overview Release 5000.0.0
Complete geologic model
ready for raytracing in QUIK+
or stratigraphic interpolation
in QUIKWELL+
MIMIC+ MAIN MENU
M2 2D editor/model builder
2D MODEL EDITOR MENU
GRAPHICS
WINDOW MENU
2D LAYER
INPUT MENU
LAYER ENTRY
MENU
MODEL HEADER
CORRECTION MENU
ED
DE
AD LR HC
CS only
Write output model file
Viewing options
Report
Landmark MIMIC+ Software Reference Guide
Release 5000.0.0 Starting MIMIC+ Software 19
Starting MIMIC+ Software
The command used to start MIMIC+ software may vary slightly,
depending on your computer environment and the manner of
installation. Typically, MIMIC+ software can be started in interactive
mode by simply typing
MIMIC
Please see your system administrator or the Sierra Release Notes for
more information.
If the Sierra Application Launcher (SAL) is actively can select the
MIMIC+ application icon for startup. To activate SAL, type
SAL
For more information on the Sierra Application Launcher, please see
the Sierra Products Utilities Guide.
Regardless of which operating system you use, when running
interactively (without the batch command), MIMIC+ software
creates two windows: the MIMIC
+
Graphics Window and the MIMIC
+

Menu Window. These two windows allow you to interact with
MIMIC+ software to execute commands, set parameters, and direct
program flow. You can arrange your screen work space so that both
windows are always viewable.
There are three basic ways to alter the behavior of MIMIC+ software

at start up:
Add arguments on the command line (the line that is entered to
start up MIMIC+ software) to allow you to run the program in
non-interactive mode or control when and how much space
MIMIC+ software allocates.
As an alternative to the previous method, the .wconfig file can be
used to control the behavior and size of memory. Also the default
units (feet, meters, kilofeet, kilometers) can be set, and the default
company name, which is used to label hardcopy plots, can be
defined with the .wconfig file.
Use an application resource default file to set Motif features, such
as font, window color, and the size of windows.
MIMIC+ Software Reference Guide Landmark
20 Starting MIMIC+ Software Release 5000.0.0
The use of these three methods, other than batch mode, is discussed
more completely the Sierra Products Configuration Manual. Please
also refer to the Sierra Products Utilities Guide for information on
the Sierra Application Launcher (SAL) and easy ways to customize the
start up behavior of MIMIC+ software.
Landmark MIMIC+ Software Reference Guide
Release 5000.0.0 Starting MIMIC+ Software 21
Batch Mode
MIMIC+ software can be run non-interactively, taking all of its input
from a file; this mode is referred to as batch. Batch mode is typically
used when there are repetitive compute-intensive tasks to be
accomplished. It is more typically used in the QUIK
+
raytracing codes
than in MIMIC+ software. In batch mode, MIMIC+ software does
not create any interactive windows; in fact, it does not even access any
of the Motif graphical user interface. It can be run on a simple text
terminal or in a text terminal emulator, such as an xterm.
Batch mode can be started using a command line of
MIMIC -batch batch_file_name
Batch_file_name, the parameter after -batch, is the name of the file
containing the commands to be executed by MIMIC+ software. In
batch mode, the command interpreter in MIMIC+ software interprets
any batch file line that begins with an exclamation point as a comment.
Any other line is considered to be one or several commands.
The commands needed for a batch run are the same as those used for
keyboard command and parameter entry. When running interactively,
parameters for many menus can be directly entered using the text field
boxes. When running in batch mode, these parameters must be entered
at the keyboard command line, using the commands associated with the
parameters. The command to be used is the one- or two-letter
mnemonic on the left of the parameter field on the menu.
The sample command file in shows the commands that must be in a
command file to set parameters in the Layer Setup Menu to create a
depth map of an area that spans an E-W range from 10.2 to 22.5
kilometers, and a N-S range from -68.4 to -40 kilometers. Comments
are indicated by lines starting with the exclamation mark (!); and, for
this example, the commands are in boldface.
MIMIC+ Software Reference Guide Landmark
22 Starting MIMIC+ Software Release 5000.0.0
The following is a file containing commands needed for setting
parameters in the Layer Setup Menu in a batch run.
This command file could be used in a batch mode execution of
MIMIC+ software or as the file used with the Read Log File...
command, which is described later in this section. Also, these
commands could be typed in at the keyboard command line.
The Log All command, which is described later in this section, can be
used to create a command file, which, when run in batch mode, will
perform the same operations as was performed interactively. This file
can be edited with any standard text editor to change the operations that
MIMIC+ software will perform, if desired.
Note that a batch command file must include the command to stop
execution of the run. Therefore, at the end of each batch command file
the command
ST Y
should be inserted to properly stop the execution of MIMIC+
software.
! create a map in current working area
!
! first, execute the L command from the MIMIC+ main menu
! to get to the Layer Setup Menu
!
L
!
! now use the commands in the Layer Setup Menu
! to define the parameters of the Layer
!
! set lateral units to kilometers
MU KM
! set the layer boundaries
CD -40 10.2 -68.4 22.5
! proceed to the Layer Command Menu
OK
...
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Release 5000.0.0 Starting MIMIC+ Software 23
Interactive Mode
The interactive mode consists of using a keyboard and window to
interact with MIMIC+ software. It is different from the batch mode
in that commands are entered on the MIMIC+ software menu
command line, through the selection of command buttons on a
MIMIC+ text or graphic window, or on the system command line.
Regardless of which operating system you use, when running
interactively, MIMIC+ software creates two windows:
MIMIC+ Menu Window
MIMIC
+
Graphics Window
These two windows allow you to interact with MIMIC+ software to
execute commands, set parameters, and direct program flow. You can
arrange your screen work space so that both windows are always
viewable.
Interactive Startup Command
To start MIMIC+ software in an interactive mode:
1. Type MIMIC in the command line.
2. Press Return.
To start MIMIC+ software in an interactive mode from SAL:
1. Type sal to initiate the Sierra Applications Launcher.
2. Select MIMIC+ icon.
MIMIC+ Software Reference Guide Landmark
24 Starting MIMIC+ Software Release 5000.0.0
Landmark MIMIC+ Software Reference Guide
Release 5000.0.0 Building Contour Maps 25
Building Contour Maps
Digital geologic models have many important applications in
exploration, including prospect evaluation, seismic raytracing, gravity
and potential field modeling, field data acquisition, and reservoir
calculations. Most importantly, models allow you to visualize and
better understand 3D spatial relationships that may otherwise be
difficult to comprehend. The MIMIC+ program is a powerful tool for
easy and efficient building of digital models of complex, 3D geologic
structures. MIMIC+ software helps you to augment the numerical
capabilities of the computer with your own expertise. Acceptance of
interpreted horizon data from SeisWorks via the SeisWorks import tool.
MIMIC+ software allows:
Acceptance of OpenWorks grids via the OpenWorks import
tool.
Acceptance of digitized maps from our QUIKDIG+ program
Acceptance of digital data via the ASCII Import Tool
Fault recognition
Posting and annotation of digitized points, wells, wellbores and
cultural data
Interactive map editing
Interactive grid editing
MIMIC+ Software Reference Guide Landmark
26 Building Contour Maps Release 5000.0.0
Setting Layer Parameters
A MIMIC+ 3D layer is a digital contour map that is continuous to all
sides of a rectangular area. A MIMIC+ 2D layer is a digital curve
that is continuous between specified starting and ending coordinates.
Because MIMIC+ software can define a variety of maps, map values
are referred to as Z-values. Before layer creation begins, the layer
parameters must be defined.
Layer parameters are reset by reading in a layer or model file. For
example, if you use any of the display options, such as Contour Map or
Report, the layer parameters are set to those of the most recent layer or
model read in for those commands. Thus, to ensure that new layers
have the same parameters as an existing layer, read the existing layer
using a display option and then accept the parameters shown on the
Layer Setup Menu by entering APPLY.
It is recommended that you create 2D layers and models using the
2D Editor/Model Builder.
After you select the Layer Entry (L) command from the MIMIC+ Main
Menu, the Layer Setup Menu is displayed.
Landmark MIMIC+ Software Reference Guide
Release 5000.0.0 Building Contour Maps 27
Layer Setup Menu
Select input 3D digitized
data point file name
SIERRA GRIDDING CONTROL MENU
LE
MX

SM
FS
SD
DP
RV
Number of levels for gridding
Maximum number of iterations to
determine solution at each level
Relative smoothing for each level
Fault smoothing
Smoothing distance away from faults
Display detailed surface parameters
Reset parameters to calculated defaults
MIMIC+ MAIN MENU
L Layer entry
LAYER SETUP MENU
DM
MR
MU
MT
ZU
ZD
Dimensionality
Map resolution (number of grid nodes)
Map units
Map type
DEPTH units
DEPTH direction is POSITIVE downwards
LAYER COMMAND MENU
FO
GF
L2
PS
Geometric forms
Surface gridding (points and faults)
Grid a layer with 2D symmetry
Pre-specified layer
PRESPECIFIED 3D
LAYER OPTION MENU
SK
SF

LO
FO
RO
Skip 0 lines of header
Scale factor
- Z data is assumed to be in KF
Location of (0.0,0.0) corner is NW
Read format
Read order
PRISM SHAPE COMMAND MENU
FL
PL
HS
CO
EL
Flat layer
Sloping plane
Hemisphere
Right cone
Half an ellipsoid
FORMS SHAPE COMMAND MENU
FL
PL
HS
CO
EL
PY
PR
FI

P3
RS
Flat layer
Sloping plane
Hemisphere
Right cone
Half an ellipsoid
Pyramid with N-sided base
Truncate a shape with an N-sided prism
Shape commands are in a file (first call)
or at the end of that file (second call)
3-dimensional perspective plot of
current layer
Restore previous shape
RELATIONSHIP CHOICE MENU
Add current shape to existing form
Replace existing shape with current shape
Discard current shape
A
R
D
Select input 2D
data point file name
APPLY
FL
PL
HS
CO
EL
PY
FO
GF
L2
PS
PR
Display Functions
CD Map coordinates
RP RePort on data points file
GF(2D)
SA Select Area of interest
GS Grid spacing
CC Convert coordinates is
CC Close/clean all faults
CM Contour map of current layer
MIMIC+ Software Reference Guide Landmark
28 Building Contour Maps Release 5000.0.0
Menu Commands
DM Dimensionality. Use the DM command to change from 3D to 2D or
from 2D to 3D.
SA Select area of interest. Use SA to extract parameter information for a
layer from SeisWorks software (if available), a digitized points file (the
minimum and maximum spatial coordinates are determined), or another
layer or model file.
CD Map coordinates. For 3D layers, enter data for the lower left corner (N-
S, E-W) and upper right corner (N-S, E-W). For 2D layers, enter the
starting and ending coordinates if 2D model defined in 3D space; other-
wise enter the distance or length of the 2D model. When defining a 2D
layer, first select the MR command, and set the map resolution for N-S
equal to 5 or toggle the DM command to 2D.
DS Distance. This command is only available of the layer is 2D. User
defines the length or distance of the 2D layer.
MR Map resolution (number of grid nodes). Use the MR text fields to
change the number of grid nodes; enter the number of grid points for N-
S and E-W. DN-S and DE-W are calculated based upon the resolution
numbers you set. When defining a 2D layer, set the resolution for N-S
equal to 5 or toggle the DM command to 2D.
GS Grid spacing. Use GS to set the grid spacing for the layer. The number
of rows and columns is determined from the entry.
CC Convert coordinates. Use CC for spatial unit conversion of grid spac-
ing and map coordinates. This command toggles On or Off. If On and
you change the units of measure, from meters to feet for example, the
spatial units are converted accordingly. If Off, spatial coordinates and
grid spacing are not changed.
MU Map units. Select the MU command to change the units for the map
coordinates. Choices are kilometers, kilofeet, meters or feet.
MT Map type. Use the MT command to change the layer type to either time,
depth, velocity, density, gradient or a general type.
ZU Depth/Time/Velocity units. To change the units for the Z-axis, use the
ZU command. Measurement choices are:
For depth:kilofeet, feet, kilometers, or meters
For time:seconds and milliseconds
For velocity: kilometers per second, kilofeet per second, meters per sec-
ond, and feet per second
For density:grams/cubic centimeter
For gradient (time defined), general:none
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Release 5000.0.0 Building Contour Maps 29
After you have set all layer parameters at the Layer Setup Menu, select
APPLY to display the Layer Command Menu.
ZD Z-axis direction. Use this command to change the Z-axis from positive
to negative downwards. Velocity, density, gradient and general must
always be positive downwards.
RP Report on data points file. You select a data points file and a statistical
report on the file will be presented.
APPLY Go to Layer Command Menu. Select APPLY to accept the current
parameters and display the Layer Command Menu. The
commands at this menu are discussed in the following sections of this
chapter.
CANCEL Return to previous menu. Selecting CANCEL returns you to the
MIMIC+ Command Menu without creating a layer.
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30 Building Contour Maps Release 5000.0.0
Creating and Gridding Layers
From the Layer Command Menu you can perform the following:
Create layers by combining geometric shapes using the FO
command.
Grid 3D digitized points files using the GF and hidden GR
commands.
Grid 2D digitized points files using the GF command.
Use an output file from a non-Landmark mapping program to
create a layer using the PS command.
Layer Command Menu
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Release 5000.0.0 Building Contour Maps 31
Creating Layers by Combining Geometric Shapes
To create layers by combining geometric shapes, select the Geometric
Forms Command (FO) from the Layer Command Menu. Select Yes to
create shapes on a previously existing layer. After you respond, the
Forms Shape Command Menu is shown. Use the following steps to
create a new shape.
To create a layer:
1. Choose a shape command.
2. Provide the input.
3. Define the relationship of the shape to the developing layer.
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32 Building Contour Maps Release 5000.0.0
Geometric shapes defined using the forms command: a) flat surface;
b) sloping plane; c) hemisphere; d) right cone; e) half an ellipsoid; f) pyramid with 5-
sided base; g) 4-sided prism truncating hemisphere (dome).
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Release 5000.0.0 Building Contour Maps 33
One semi-major axis and one semi-minor axis define the extent of the shape in the
XY plane. A second semi-minor axis defines a length in the Z direction. A rotation
angle is specified between the first ellipsoid axis entered and the N-S axis.
0,0
5 kf
10 kf
E-W
N-S
10 kf
5 kf
0,0
-5 kf
10 kf
E-W
N-S
5 kf
3 kf
3 kf
4.3 kf
-35
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34 Building Contour Maps Release 5000.0.0
Forms Shape Command Menu
In MIMIC+ software you can combine geometric shapes to form
new layers or add geometric shapes to existing layers to model complex
structures. For example, you can add a dipping plane to an existing
layer to simulate tilting when deposition occurred, or you can add an
ellipsoid to build the core of an anticline. A single layer can be
composed of one or a combination of shapes. Time, depth or velocity
layers can be created is a flow chart for the Forms command.
Besides the seven shape commands in the Forms Shape Command
Menu, you can perform other activities: read commands from a
command file (execute mode), write a forms layer to disk, view the
current form in 3D perspective, or restore the previous form.
Menu Commands
FL Flat layer. To create a flat layer, enter the distance above or below the
reference plane.
PL Sloping plane. To create a sloping plane, input the N-S, E-W, and Z
coordinates of three non-colinear points through which the plane
passes.
HS Hemisphere. This is not the radius of the hemisphere, but the radius of
the circular projection as seen in map view. To keep the layer single-val-
ued, the height must be less than or equal to the circular radius.To create
a hemisphere, you will be prompted to enter the following:
(1) D or B to define the hemisphere as a dome or basin.
(2) Height from the reference plane to the apex of the hemisphere.
(3) Horizontal distance along the reference plane from the center of the
hemisphere, to its intersection with the plane.
(4) N-S, E-W coordinates of the center of the circular projection of the
hemisphere.
CO Right cone. To create a right cone, you will be prompted to enter the
following:
(1) Direction of the cone point, up or down.
(2) Height of the cone.
(3) Radius of the base.
(4) N-S, E-W coordinates of the center of the base.
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Release 5000.0.0 Building Contour Maps 35
EL Half an ellipsoid. To create an ellipsoid, you will be prompted to enter
the following:
(1) Orientation: mound (projecting up) or trench (projecting down).
(2) Length of the semi-major and two semi-minor axes.
Assume that the semi-major axis and the first semi-minor axis lie in the
XY plane and that the second semi-minor axis defines a length in the Z
direction (depth or time).
(3) Angle between the first ellipsoid axis and the N-S axis (in degrees).
(4) N-S, E-W coordinates of the center.
PY Pyramid with an N-sided base. To create an N-sided base, you will be
prompted to enter the following:
(1) N-S, E-W, and Z coordinates of the apex of the pyramid.
(2) Number of sides of the pyramid.
(3) N-S, E-W coordinates, in order, of the vertices of the pyramid base.
PR Truncate a shape with an N-sided prism. To truncate the shape, you
will be prompted to enter the following:
(1) Number of sides of the prism (N).
(2) N-S, E-W coordinates, in order, of the vertices of the prism base on
the reference plane (2 N numbers).
(3) Shape command (FL, PL, HS, CO or EL) for the geometric shape
to be truncated.
(4) Required inputs for the shape requested in step 3.
The PR command is extremely important since it allows pieces of the
other shapes to be put into the layer.
FI Shape commands are in a file (first call) or end of that file (second
call). Select this command and when prompted by the File Selection
Window, click on the name of the file containing forms commands.
Commands in this file are used to read and continue Forms processing.
Your terminal will be tied up during this time.
The last command in the file must be either FO or APPLY. In the first
case, program flow returns to the Forms Shape Command Menu for fur-
ther processing. The second case, described next, involves writing the
new layer file to disk.
CM Contour map of current layer. Select CM to make a plot of the current
layer using a color-fill or line contour map. See Color-Fill Contour
Maps and Line Contour Maps.
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P3 3-dimensional perspective plot of current layer. At any time
during layer creation, you can select this command to generate a plot and
view the current layer. Rotation of viewing angles to 90,0 gives you
access to contour map plots. See 3D Perspective Plots for more infor-
mation.
RS Restore previous shape. If the most recent form you added is incorrect,
use the RS command to recover the previous form. RS cannot always
recover a replaced form.
APPLY Write forms layer to disk. The current layer is saved in a disk file.
When prompted, enter the output layer file name prefix and some identi-
fying information (maximum of 80 characters). An
appropriate suffix (.DEP, .TIM, or .VEL) will be added to the
prefix to create a file name.
CANCEL Return to layer command level. Select CANCEL to redisplay the
Layer Command Menu.
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Relationship Choice Menu
After creating a geometric form, it is necessary that you define the
relationship of that form to the developing layer. Three alternatives
exist on the Relationship Choice Menu for defining the relationship
between a form and the layer:
adding the form to the existing layer,
replacing the previous layers non-zero values with the current
form
discarding the form without altering the existing layer morphology
You can construct a single layer using a combination of geometric
forms. As forms are combined, two factors affect the resulting layer:
the vertical distance of the form from the reference plane, and the
decision to add to or replace the current form. The currently active form
can also be discarded without altering the existing layer morphology.
The simplest way to show the difference between the add and replace
options is by the following example:
1. Use the Geometric Forms (FO) command on the Layer Command
Menu to modify existing time, depth, or velocity layers created
through gridding or through your own mapping program. For
example, you can introduce the effect of regional dip by adding a
sloping plane to the current structure.
2. MIMIC+ software adds or replaces forms only over the region
of non-zero Z-values of the form itself. For example, a dome
modifies a layer only over the area of its circular projection.
3. The Replace (R) command replaces any or all of the existing layer
shapes with the current form in the region of nonzero Z-values.
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Adding versus replacing shapes when building a layer
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Building the Top Layer, French Model Using Forms
The Forms option can be used to build the top layer of the French
Model. Flat planes, prisms, a sloping plane, and hemispheres are
combined using both the Add and Replace options.
1. Select the Layer Entry (L) command from the MIMIC+ Main
Menu.
2. At the MR command in the Layer Setup Menu, enter 81 for both
the N-S and E-W map resolution.
3. At the CD command set the lower-left coordinates to 8.212, 0.0
and the upper-right coordinates to 0.0, 8.212. Also, check that map
units (MU) is set to kilofeet, map type (MT) is set to depth, depth
units (ZU) is set to kilofeet, and depth direction (ZD) is set to
negative downwards.
4. Then select APPLY to display the Layer Command Menu.
5. Initialize the geometric forms option. Select the FO command on
the Layer Command Menu. Build a flat layer by entering the FL
command from the Forms Shape Command Menu. When
prompted for a vertical shift, enter a depth of -1.412 kft. When the
Relationship Choice Menu appears, select R for replace. On the
Forms Shape Command Menu use the P3 command to generate a
3D plot. When the Perspective Plot Menu appears, select APPLY.
Select CANCEL at this 3D plot menu and return to the Forms
Shape Command Menu.
6. Build a fault plane rising from the flat layer. Return to the Forms
Shape Command Menu and select the PR command. When
prompted for the number of points defining the prism base, enter 4.
Enter the corner coordinates in a clockwise direction for the base
of the four-sided prism.
7. To give the evolving fault plane some definition, fill the prism with
a sloping plane. Note that the back side of the fault plane cannot be
vertical since every surface must be single-valued in depth, time,
or velocity at all points. When the Prism Shape Command Menu is
displayed, select the PL command, and list the coordinates for a
sloping plane. Set the vertical shift of the filled prism to Z = 0.0.
Replace the filled prism onto the existing flat plane by entering R
from the Relationship Choice Menu. Use the P3 and APPLY
commands to view the result.
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8. Define the upthrown side of the fault. Create a three-sided prism
by selecting the PR command from the Forms Shape Command
Menu, and enter the coordinates. Fill the prism with a flat plane by
selecting the FL command from the Prism Shape Command
Menu, and enter a vertical shift of Z = -0.757 kft. Select R at the
Relationship Choice Menu to replace the prism onto the current
layer. Use the P3 and APPLY commands to plot the result.
CANCEL and return to the Forms Shape Command Menu.
9. Add two hemispherical domes to your existing layer. Select the HS
command from the Forms Shape Command Menu, and define the
hemisphere as a dome by entering D. Enter a height of 0.566 and a
radius of 1.720. Build the domes at the reference elevation, by
entering a vertical shift of Z = 0.0. Add the domes to the
developing layer by selecting A from the Relationship Choice
Menu. After adding both domes, save the new layer by selecting
the APPLY command from the Forms Shape Command Menu.
View your completed layer by using the P3 and APPLY
commands.
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Construction of the top layer of the French Model
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42 Building Contour Maps Release 5000.0.0
Gridding Layers
Gridding 2D Layers
The GF command on the Layer Command Menu allows you to create
2D layers. A smooth curve is fit through the digitized points to create a
regularly sampled layer.
The curve fitting algorithm used in MIMIC+ software is the
weighted average slope algorithm. The curve obtained with this method
does not overshoot or undershoot input data point values, since the
algorithm requires that all curve maxima and minima be at input data
locations. The algorithm maintains continuity of the fit and continuity
of slope at all points. The resulting curve is much smoother than one
produced by linear interpolation and will not ring (overshoot) like
curves produced by cubic spline. A fault point in the input data will
cause GF to create a discontinuity in the curve at the fault. Toggle
Dimensionality (DM) to 2-D and click APPLY on the Layer Setup
Menu.
To create a 2D layer from a 2D digitized points file:
1. Select the GF command from the Layer Command Menu.
2. Select a 2D digitized points file name. Gridding then proceeds
uninterrupted until completed.
3. Enter an output file name followed by a line of text describing the
file.
Gridding 3D Layers
The Sierra Gridding Method is one of two gridding algorithms
available for gridding 3D points files to create 3D layers. Use L2 to
create 3D layers with 2D (cylindrical) symmetry. In the 3D case,
visualize the defining cross-section as a perfect dip cross section.
MIMIC+ software prompts you to specify whether the defining
curve runs east-west or north-south. Only layers with symmetry
parallel to an axis can be defined. This algorithm has been hidden
because it is not appropriate for a vast majority of input data points
files, but may be useful in certain specific cases.
The second algorithm available for gridding 3D points files is the
Akima algorithm, which can only be accessed by entering GR. This
algorithm has been hidden because it is not appropriate for a vast
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majority of input data points files, but may be useful in certain specific
cases.
The Sierra gridder handles complex geologic surfaces, surfaces that
contain faults, or surfaces derived from a grid of seismic lines. A fault
is defined here as the trace of a fault on the horizon in map view. Faults
are treated by the Sierra gridder as a discontinuity in the surface.
The Sierra gridder fits irregularly sampled data points to a smooth,
regularly sampled surface defined at a rectangular grid of nodes. The
gridder is based on an inverse interpolation method. The essential
feature of this gridder is that the input surface values can be expressed
as linear combinations of the Z-values at nearby grid nodes. This is
accomplished by using a linear equation that relates an input Z-value to
36 surrounding grid nodes of unknown Z-value. The 36 points must be
adjacent with no intervening faults. Where faults do intervene in a
given set of points, points on opposite sides of faults are not used.
Finally, the Z-values at the grid nodes are determined by inverting the
system of linear equations formed by all of the input digitized points.
The Sierra gridder first defines a very coarse map, then maps with finer
and finer grids until the desired output is reached. These coarse-to-fine
steps are referred to as levels. At each level, the gridder does a number
of iterations to converge to an adequate fit. Relative smoothing occurs
at each level to control the degree to which input data points are used in
the gridding process. The full power of this surface fit technique
requires that you carefully set the parameters that control the above
mentioned features.
Suggestions for Digitizing with the GF Command
To optimize the results obtained from using the Sierra gridder, you
should take care when digitizing the map. If you plan to use the Sierra
gridder, the following suggestions on digitizing should prove helpful.
Digitize densely where the surface changes rapidly. Remember
to increase the point coverage both along and perpendicular to
contour lines. Try to avoid over sampling along contour lines and
under sampling between contour intervals.
Digitize steep slopes along dip lines. When dealing with steep
slopes, digitize adjacent contours with points that are downslope
from one another. This will force contour lines to run along strike.
A structure with little relief can be sparsely digitized; however,
you must take care to completely sample the surface.
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Digitize end points of faults beyond the boundary. Faults that
intersect the map boundary should have end points that lie outside
the boundary. If faults do not have end points that lie outside the
boundary, the Sierra gridding algorithm smooths the surface
around the end of the fault with undesirable results. Other control
points outside the map are unnecessary, but can be used for
positive control of the map surface.
Do not include points inside normal faults. In any area
completely bounded by faults, a single point creates a flat plane;
two or three points create a dipping plane; more than three points
create a complex surface. If no points are used, the gridding
routine defines the fault surface as smooth and as connecting
continuously to the surrounding regions. Use the Map Editor to
remove points from posted maps.
You can input the properly digitized map to the Sierra gridder by using
the GF command. A File Selection window will allow you to select the
input digitized points file. The Sierra Gridding Control Menu is then
displayed. In the Sierra Gridding Control Menu you can reset gridding
parameters to control the accuracy and level of detail of the resulting
digital map.
A contour map of a layer with faults gridded with the Sierra gridder
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Sierra Gridding Control Menu Commands
LE Number of levels for gridding. Enter the number of levels to be grid-
ded. It is recommended that you not reduce the default
number, but in some cases you may find it necessary to increase the
number of levels.
MX Maximum number of iterations to determine solution at each level.
To control the actual gridding at each level use MX. You are prompted to
enter the maximum number of iterations to be
performed at each level. Levels with an MX value greater than zero are
gridded. For levels with an MX value of zero, the grid at this level is
obtained by interpolation from the coarse grid of the previous level.
SM Relative smoothing for each level. Enter a relative smoothing value for
each level given an MX value greater than zero. SM
controls the quality of the surface fit for each level that is gridded. The
recommended value range is between 1 and 10. In general, the larger the
smoothing parameter, the smoother the map. Changes to the default
value depend on data coverage and the roughness of the model.
FS Fault smoothing. The FS command switches fault smoothing between
ON and OFF. The default is OFF. Use fault smoothing to reduce the
sharpness of discontinuities in the gridded surface along faults. This may
be important in raytracing.
SD Smoothing distance away from faults. If FS is ON, the current DN-S
and DE-W values are displayed and you are prompted to enter the dis-
tance to smooth around faults. If FS is OFF, it can be switched on by
entering a non-zero value for SD.
DP Display detailed surface fit control parameters. Selecting DP
displays a list of values for the surface fit control parameters. The param-
eters listed are: the number of levels to be gridded; the number of levels
to be surface fit; the DN-S, DE-W, number of grid nodes in the N-S
direction, number of grid nodes in the E-W direction, maximum iteration
and relative smoothing values for each level; map units, and final grid
dimensions.
RV Reset parameters to calculated defaults. This command resets param-
eters to the original default values. Any parameter changes made using
the above commands will be reset to program defaults.
CC Close/Clean all faults. This command toggles Off or Clean only. Toggle
to Clean only to remove any points that lie inside a closed fault polygon.
The points will be discarded and not used for
gridding.
APPLY Grid with current parameters. Select APPLY to execute the
gridding of your irregularly sampled points file. Information will be dis-
played as the gridding proceeds. When complete, you will be prompted
to enter a file prefix and identifying information.
CANCEL Select CANCEL to return to the Layer Command Menu.
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Prespecified Layer Option Menu
The MIMIC+ program accepts maps that have been gridded using
other mapping programs. MIMIC+ software reads files with either
2D or 3D data and reformats them to be compatible with MIMIC+
software. The input data points are assumed to lie on grid nodes. Files
created outside of MIMIC+ software are called prespecified files.
Prespecified files are read and reformatted to make them compatible
with MIMIC+ software. The reformatting routine is flexible enough
to meet the requirements of most environments. Only the Z-values are
necessary. Header or descriptive information is unnecessary, but if
included, should be skipped by using the SK command.
The output format of a MIMIC+ report file with nominal editing is
compatible with the input format of a prespecified file. Thus, formatted
report files can be read or written in the MIMIC+ program and easily
transported between computer systems.
Select the PS command from the Layer Command Menu. Either the 2D
or 3D Prespecified Layer Option Menu appears, depending on the
number of grid nodes selected in the N-S direction from the Layer
Setup Menu. For 2D files you should set NS to 5 or set the DM
command to 2D. Each menu has the same commands, except the 2D
menu does not include a read order (RO) command as defined later.
After setting your parameters, select APPLY. The File Selection
window appears. Only directory files with a .PRE suffix will be listed
for use, by default.
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Menu Commands.
For a 2D layer, grid resolution N-S = 5, and for a 3D layer, grid
resolution N-S is greater than 5. Grid dimensions must be equivalent
for all layers in a model.
Prespecified 2D files need only values along a single curve (total
number of grid points in the E-W direction). Prespecified 3D files need
a complete grid for the total number of grid nodes in the N-S direction
times the number of grid nodes in the E-W direction.
SK Skip header lines. This option allows you to select the number of header
lines to be skipped.
SF Scale factor. At the SF command, you can change the sign or units of
your input data. For example, to change positive depth to negative depth,
multiply by -1; or to convert feet to kilofeet, multiply by 0.001.
LO Location of (origin) corner. This command specifies in which corner of
the defined map to place the first Z-value in the input data file. The
default is the northwest (NW) corner. Choices are: NW, SW, NE, SE.
Select LO and when prompted enter your change.This command needs
to be used only where the Z-units in the prespecified file differ from the
layer setup definitions
MIMIC+ software stores the grid matrix from left to right and top to
bottom. If the external grid has not been stored as above, you can define
the origin of its grid and MIMIC+ software will automatically store the
grid with respect to MIMIC+ conventions.
FO Read format. This command specifies the FORTRAN format of the
input data. All ANSI standard FORTRAN FORMAT types are allowed
including free format (*), which is the default. The input format of your
prespecified file must be entered in parentheses, for example, (8F10.0),
except for free format.
RO Read order. (For 3D maps only.) This command works as a toggle and
specifies whether the Z-values following the first Z-value define the grid
nodes to the east or to the west of the first grid node (E-W changes faster
than N-S), or to the north or south of the first grid node (N-S changes
faster than E-W).
APPLY Read prespecified file. Select APPLY to read your prespecified file with
the current defaults. A File Selection Window prompts for the name of
the prespecified layer file to be used and for an output file prefix.
CANCEL Select CANCEL to return to Layer Command Menu.
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A prespecified 3D layer file with 2 fault traces appended and no header lines
. . . . . . . .
-1.000 -1.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
0.000 0.000
-1.000 -1.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
0.000 0.000
-1.000 -1.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 -4.000 0.000 0.000
0.000 0.000
-1.000 -1.000 -4.120 -4.225 -4.290 -4.313 -4.290 -4.225
-4.120 0.000
-1.000 -1.000 -4.404 -4.524 -4.599 -4.625 -4.599 -4.524
-4.404 -4.247
-1.000 -1.000 -4.678 -4.817 -4.907 -4.938 -4.907 -4.817
-4.678 -4.499
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
-1.000 -1.000 -4.678 -4.817 -4.907 -4.938 -4.907 -4.817
-4.678 -4.499
-1.000 -1.000 -4.404 -4.524 -4.599 -4.625 -4.599 -4.524
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Editing Layers
The maps or layers you have created may require changes to ensure that
they are correct. In Layer Correction, file header information can be
modified, and layers can be edited interactively. A layer can be
smoothed, extracted from a model, resampled to allow for changes in
DN-S and DE-W, and defined as an arithmetic operation between two
or more layers.
After selecting the LC command from the MIMIC+ Command Menu,
the Layer Correction Command Menu appears.
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Layer Correction Command Menu
LC Layer correction
MIMIC+ MAIN MENU
LAYER CORRECTION
COMMAND MENU
HC
EM
GE
OP
SI
Header correction
Edit map
Grid edit
Grid Operations
Surface interpolation
GRID OPERATION COMMAND MENU
AD
SU
ML
Add value to grid
Subtract value from grid
Multiply grid by value
LAYER HEADER
CORRECTION MENU
Rescale layer data to new units
Map coordinates
Map coordinate units
Map type
DEPTH units
DEPTH direction is POSITIVE
downwards
RS
CD
MU
MT
ZU
ZD


CONTOUR MAP MENU
Select input layer file name
MAP EDIT MENU
HC
EM
ED, GE
OP
Select input layer file name
Specify new N-S, E-W
grid resolution
Enter output file name prefix
SI
Display Functions
DV Divide grid by value
SL Smooth layer
RP Replace specifed grid value with
desired value
RG Replace grid greater or equal to
specified value with desired value
RL Replace grid less or equal to specified
value with desired value
MG Multiple grid operations
CM Contour map (current layer only)
WR Write out layer
PW Power of grid value
IV Inverse of grid

MG
ED Graphical edit
GF Surface gridding
LA Add 2 or more layers
LS Subtract 2 layers
LD Divide 2 layers
LM Multiply 2 layers
MULTIPLE GRID OPERATIONS
COMMAND MENU
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Menu Commands
ED Graphical edit. Select the ED command to begin an editing session.
After you select a .DIG file in the File Selection box, the Contour Map
Menu is displayed. From this menu you can change the contour map
type, the hardcopy scaling factor, the depth range, and the contour inter-
val or contour definitions for line contour maps. You can also specify
an area of interest.
After you select APPLY from the Contour Map Menu, a contour map
and menu are displayed on the MIMIC+ Graphics Window.
GE Grid edit. Select GE to interactively edit grid values using a pointer-
activated graphics menu beneath your digital contour map of the layer.
See Interactively Editing Layers.
HC Header correction. Use the HC command to modify the header infor-
mation of a layer file. The layer header information that you can change
using this command includes the map coordinates, map units, Z-units,
direction of the Z-axis and map type. You can write the changes to a
new layer file, leaving the old version unchanged. However, if the old
layer can be discarded, you can save the modified layer under the old
file name to save disk space. An option is available to rescale data to a
new unit system. See Changing Layer File Header Information.
GF Surface gridding (points and faults). Select the GF command to sur-
face-fit your edited map. You can use this command to regrid your
edited map as well as using the GRID command on the graphics menu
beneath the map. This gridding technique is recommended for files con-
taining fault traces, because discontinuous surfaces are considered by
this gridding algorithm. See Gridding 3D Layers for a detailed
description of gridding using the GF command.
OP Grid Operations. Select the OP command to display the Grid Opera-
tions Command Menu. From this menu you can perform arithmetic
operations on a layer grid or grid-to-grid operations.
SI Surface interpolation. Select the SI command to resample a layer to
allow for a larger or smaller DN-S and DE-W. See Interpolating Lay-
ers.
CM Contour map. Use the CM command to view your layer as a contour
map; the map can have either color-fill or line contours. See Color-Fill
Contour Maps and Line Contour Maps.
CS Cross section. To view your layer cut by a vertical plane select the CS
command. See Cross Sections.
P3 3-dimensional perspective plot. Select the P3 command to view your
layer in three dimensions. See 3D Perspective Plots.
RP Report on a layer file. Use the RP command to view the file header
information for your layer. RP also lets you write this information to
disk. See Reports.
APPLY Select APPLY to write current data to disk.
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Changing Layer File Header Information
Layer header correction allows you to change identifying information
for layer files. If specified, unit conversion is made to all data in the file.
3D Layer Header Correction Menu
Select the Header Correction (HC) command from the Layer
Correction Command Menu, and when the File Selection Menu
appears select the layer file name. The Layer Header Correction Menu
appears.

CANCEL Select CANCEL when you are finished editing layers and wish to
return to the MIMIC+ Main menu.
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Menu Commands
RS Rescale layer data to new units. RS is a toggle command. Switching
the command to YES causes layer data to be rescaled when you use the
MU or ZU commands to change units. For example, if the depth at a
grid node were 1000 ft., and you used the ZU command to change feet
to meters, the new value at the node would be rescaled to 304.8 meters.
If the RS command is set to NO, the layer data is not rescaled when
units are changed. For example, if the depth at a grid node were 1000
ft., and you used the ZU command to change feet to meters, the new
value at the node would be 1000 meters. Only the value is relabeled.
CD Map coordinates. Enter the lower-left corner (N-S, E-W) and upper-
right corner (N-S, E-W) for 3D layers and the starting and ending cor-
ners for 2D layers.
DF 2D Definition. This command is only used for 2D files and toggles
how the 2D file is defined, distance or in 3D space.
DS Distance of 2D file. This command is only used for 2D files and
defines the distance or length of the 2D file.
MU Map coordinate units. Select the MU command to change the lateral
units for the map coordinates. The Units Definition Choice Menu offers
four measurement types: kilometers, kilofeet, meters, or feet.
MT Map type. Use the MT command to access the Layer Type Menu and
change the layer type to either time, depth, velocity, density, gradient, or
general.
ZU Depth/Time/Property units. Select ZU to change the units for the Z-
axis. Choices are kilofeet, feet, kilometers, and meters for depth; sec-
onds and milliseconds for time; and kilometers per second, kilofeet per
second, meters per second and feet per second for velocity.
ZD Depth/Time direction. You can use the ZD command to change the Z-
axis to either positive or negative downwards.
APPLY Select APPLY to write a new layer file after resetting parameters.
When prompted, enter a new file prefix and description line (limited to
80 characters). The correct suffix (.DEP, .VEL, or other) will be auto-
matically appended to the prefix to form the full file name.
CANCEL Select CANCEL to return to the previous menu without any
corrections being made to the layer header.
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54 Editing Layers Release 5000.0.0
3D Map Editing Commands
Map Edit allows you to alter the control point information used in
defining maps and to regrid the points to form new maps. Two map
editing modes are available: Point Edit and Fault Edit. Using Point Edit
you can add, delete, and move control points. Fault Edit allows you to
delete, add, extend, redefine, and split faults. Point and fault editing are
interactive and use graphics window menus and contour map displays
on the MIMIC
+
Graphics Window. Either a color-fill or line contour
map can be used as the background for editing.
To edit maps, select the Edit Map (EM) command in the Layer
Correction Menu. A File Selection window allows you to select the file
name of your map. MIMIC+ then checks the header of the map file
for the name of the associated digitized data points file and if it cannot
find it provides another File Selection window to allow you to specify
the data points file to use in the edit map process. The Map Edit Menu
is displayed on the screen. This menu is also available after the editing
session is completed, allowing you to edit, grid, smooth and view the
resulting map before saving the results as layer and data points files.
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Map Edit Command Menu
Menu Commands
ED Graphical Edit. Select the ED command to begin an editing
session.
The Contour Map Menu is displayed. From this menu you can
change the contour map type, the hardcopy scaling factor, the depth
range, and the contour interval or contour definitions for line contour
maps. You can also specify an area of interest. Continued on next page
Select input layer file name
LAYER CORRECTION
COMMAND MENU
LAYER SMOOTHING
CHOICE MENU
AV

FP
Moving average smooth
(user-defined window)
Five point center weighted smooth
CONTOUR DEFINITION MENU
(line contour only)
CI

AC
IC
BC
IB
GB
GP
AD
Contour interval value
- number of contours
Annotate every nth contour
Initial annotated contour
Bold every nth contour
Initial bold contour
Gradient blanking
Gradient parameter
Annotation distance
APPLY
MAP EDIT COMMAND MENU
ED
ED
GF
SM
WR
CM
CS
P3 3-dimensional perspective plot

Graphical edit
Surface gridding (points and faults)
Smooth current layer
Write current data to disk
Contour map of current layer
Cross section of current layer
CONTOUR MAP MENU
DM
ZM
RN
HS
CI
CG
Display mode
Zoom
Time/depth/velocity range
Hardcopy scaling factor
Contour interval
Current graphics device
R
E
T
U
R
N
SM
CI
RW Rectangular Window (honors faults)

MIMIC+ Graphics Window

of current layer


RP Report of current layer
ED Graphical Edit
MD Median average smoothing
(user-defined window)
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ED
(continued)
After you select APPLY from the Contour Map Menu, a contour map
and menu are displayed on the MIMIC+ Graphics Window. See 3D
Graphics Point Edit Menu and 3D Graphics Fault Edit Menus for
details of how to use the point and fault edit menus.
GF Surface Gridding (points and faults). Select the GF command to sur-
face-fit your edited map. You can use this command to regrid your
edited map as well as using the GRID command on the graphics menu
beneath the map. This gridding technique is recommended for files
containing fault traces, because discontinuous surfaces are considered
by this gridding algorithm. See Gridding 3D Layers for a detailed
description of gridding using the GF command.
GR Surface Gridding (points). Select the hidden GR command to surface-
fit your edited map with the Akima gridder. You can use this command to
regrid your edited map instead of using the GRID command on the
graphics window menu. This command is available only through key-
board entry. The Sierra gridder is recommended for the surface fit.
SM Smooth current layer. After selecting SM, you can smooth any layer
with one of the four options available: moving average with rectangular
window, five-point center-weighted smooth, rectangular window that
honors faults, or median average rectangular window. See Smoothing
Layers on page -82 for information on these options.
WR Write current data to disk. When you use the WR command, both a file
of control points and a layer file are written. When prompted, enter the
output digitized points file and the output layer file prefixes and identifi-
cation lines.
CM Contour map. Use the CM command to view your layer as a contour
map; the map can have either color-fill or line contours. See Color-Fill
Contour Maps and Line Contour Maps.
CS Cross section. To view your layer cut by a vertical plane select the CS
command. See Cross Sections.
P3 3-dimensional perspective plot. Select the P3 command to view your
layer in three dimensions. See 3D Perspective Plots.
RP Report on a layer file. Use the RP command to view the file header
information for your layer. RP also lets you write this information to disk.
See Reports.
CANCEL Select CANCEL to return to the Layer Corrections Command Menu. If
you have not already written the changed layer, you will be asked if you
wish to save it.
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3D Graphics Point Edit Menu
To enter the graphical editor, select the ED command from the Layer
Correction Command Menu or the Map Edit Menu Once the Contour
Map Menu appears, make any desired changes to the display
parameters and then select APPLY. When the map first displays, the
editor will be in Point Mode. In this mode, the graphical editor is
referred to as the Point Editor.
Using the Point Edit Menu, you can add, delete, and move control
points, and then grid the edited points to create a new layer. During
editing you can easily reverse your steps if you make an error. You can
also enlarge an area of the map to make editing easier.
The Point Edit Menu has fourteen command boxes which operate like
push buttons. When a command box is activated its border becomes
highlighted. A message area is located directly above the menu
commands. The messages instruct you to perform some action or
provide information about the edit procedure just performed. As you
edit, crosses, circles, or squares representing points are shown in white
on line contour maps and in black on color-fill contour maps.
Menu Commands
.
ADD_PT Add control points. To add points, select ADD_PT. You will be
prompted for the Z-value of the points to add. Accept the default or
change the Z-value. To add new control points, point to a
position on the map and click. Added control points are shown as black
or white crosses (+). As you work, the message area above the graphics
menu displays the N-S, E-W location of your added points. After you
add points at one depth, you can change the depth value assigned to
subsequently added points by reactivating the ADD_PT command. You
can then give a new Z-value and continue adding points. Alternatively,
you can use the VALUE command to define a Z-value location where
you want to add points.
DELETE Delete points. Use the DELETE command to remove points. Activate
the command and then move your pointer to the desired control point,
and click. The nearest control point to the pointer is deleted, and its
deletion is indicated by a white or black square centered over the
removed point.
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MOVE Move points. To move a point(s), use the MOVE command, then select
the desired point. The point is shown as a black or white circle. A black
square forms around it. Move your pointer to the data point's new posi-
tion and click. The new point position is shown as a white or black cross
(+).
INQUIRE Inquire. Select INQUIRE to move to another menu which allows you
to select the type of inquire method as Point or Grid.
DATA_SEL Data select. Select DATA_SEL to activate a subset of data. You define
the subset of data by specifying the active patches and the range of the
current attribute.
UNDO Undo your last action. To cancel your last action, activate the UNDO
command. The UNDO command reverses the effect of the ADD,
DELETE and MOVE commands. When you UNDO an added,
deleted, or moved point, a white or black circle surrounds it.
After gridding, you can erase the current layer and restore the previous
layer by using the UNDO command. You must use the UNDO com-
mand immediately after gridding or the operation cannot be undone.
MODE Change edit modes. There are two modes: point edit and fault edit. The
current mode is displayed under the map. Point edit is the default mode.
Activate the MODE command to switch from one mode to the other.
Upon selecting fault mode, a different set of graphics menus will
appear. See 3D Graphics Fault Edit Menus.
REDRAW Redisplay the current layer and all active edits. Select the
REDRAW command to get a clean display on which to continue edit-
ing or confirm prior actions. Note that the use of the UNDO command
after activating the REDRAW command does not reverse the effect of
the commands which were active prior to selecting REDRAW. Zoom
parameters are not changed. When you activate the REDRAW com-
mand, the Contour Map Menu is displayed to allow plotting options to
be changed. To return to the map, select APPLY.
ZOOM Get an enlarged view of any portion of the map. Activate the ZOOM
command to enlarge a section of the map. Select two diagonal points to
define a rectangular area where you want the zoom area; the Contour
Map Menu appears. Make a selection and/or select APPLY. You can
use the zoom function several times to further enlarge an area. To return
to the original map, click on the ZOOM command twice in succession.
GRID Surface fit your edited map. Use the GRID command to perform a
surface fit over the entire map area The fit uses the Sierra gridding algo-
rithm.
CLEAN_FLT Clean fault. This command allows you to select a closed fault and all
digitized points within the fault will be deleted.
AREAL_DEL Areal delete. This command allows you to select a closed
polygon area and delete all points within the closed polygon.
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3D Graphics Fault Edit Menus
The fault edit function uses two graphics menus. With them you can
add, delete, and extend faults. You can also redefine a fault segment and
split a fault into two smaller faults by deleting a fault segment.
To begin editing faults, select the ED command from the Layer
Correction Command Menu or the Map Edit Menu. Once the Contour
Map Menu appears, make any desired changes to the display
parameters and then select APPLY. When the map first displays, the
editor will be in Point Mode. Select MODE to change from the point
edit default to fault edit mode. In this mode, the graphical editor is
referred to as the Fault Editor.
Menu Commands
OV OpenVision. This command is available only if OpenVision software
is active. A dynamic set of buttons is added to the OpenVision work
area. From these commands, you can interactively edit the point data in
3D space. Select Quit to return to the MIMIC+ Graphics window.
RETURN Return to the Map Edit Menu. To terminate editing in the MIMIC+
Graphics Window, select RETURN. MIMIC+ software goes back to
the Map Edit Menu.
EDIT Edit an existing fault. Select the EDIT command. The Fault Seg-
ment Menu replaces the current one.
DELETE Delete a fault. To delete a fault, use the DELETE command, and
select a point on the fault.
NEW Add a new fault. Select the NEW command, and select a sequence
of points to define the fault. To terminate the definition of a new
fault, reselect the NEW command or activate any other command.
EXTEND Extend a fault. Select the EXTEND command. You are prompted to
choose the end of a fault to extend. Select the end point of the fault,
and click at new points to define the extension. You can extend a fault
at either end. Fault extension is terminated when you select another
command.
CLOSE Close. Selecting CLOSE will close the selected fault by
connecting the two endpoints of the fault that is currently being
added or extended.
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UNDO Cancel your most recent edit. Use the UNDO command to make
multiple corrections in succession for the last function (DELETE,
NEW, or EXTEND) activated; select UNDO once for each correc-
tion. Note that UNDO is only effective before you select another
command.
MODE Change modes. There are two modes, point edit and fault edit. The
default is the point edit mode. Select this command to change modes.
You can see the current mode displayed under the map.
REDRAW Redisplay the current layer and all active edits. Select the
REDRAW command to get a clean display on which to
continue editing or confirm prior actions. When you activate the
REDRAW command, the Contour Map Menu is displayed to allow
you to change plotting options. Continue by selecting APPLY. The
UNDO command is ineffective on changes made before the
REDRAW command has been activated.
ZOOM Get an enlarged view of any portion of the map. Select the
ZOOM command to enlarge a section of the map. Select two diago-
nal points to define a rectangular area where you want the zoom area;
the Contour Map Menu reappears. Make a selection and/or select
APPLY. You can use the zoom function several times to further
enlarge an area. To return to the original map, click on the ZOOM
command twice in succession.
GRID Surface fit your edited map. Use the GRID command to
perform a surface fit over the entire map area The fit uses the Sierra
gridding algorithm.
POINTS Points. This command toggles the display of the digitized points on
and off.
DIG_FILE Digitized File. You can select an output file to add faults to the cur-
rent display.
OV OpenVision. This command is available only if OpenVision soft-
ware is active. Select OV to view the OpenVision display. From
the commands, you can interactively edit the fault data in 3D space.
Select Quit to return to the MIMIC+ Graphics window.
RETURN Terminate editing. Selecting RETURN redisplays the Map Edit
Menu.
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Fault Segment Menu Commands
SELECT Select a segment to edit. The first step in editing a segment of a fault is
to activate the SELECT command. Then use your pointer to click at
two points, defining the active fault segment. These points appear as
asterisks, and the segment changes color. Next you can either redefine
or delete the selected segment by activating the REDEFINE or
DELETE commands, respectively. Deletion of an interior segment of a
fault results in two smaller faults separated by a space that was previ-
ously filled with the selected segment.
Redefinition and deletion are not finalized until you select the
UPDATE command. The UNDO command restores the pre-edited fault
segment. If the RETURN command is used before selecting UPDATE,
MIMIC+ ignores the edit.
DELETE Delete a selected fault segment. First activate the DELETE command,
and then activate the UPDATE command. The affected segment
changes color.
REDEFINE Redefine a fault segment. Select the REDEFINE command, and use
your pointer to enter a new sequence of points to define the new fault
position. The new fault segment can be redefined by starting at either
end of the segment. After entering the last point, activate the UPDATE
command to save the edit.
Moving a fault trace with the REDEFINE command could result in the
improper transfer of contour control points from the down dropped
block to the up thrown block, or the reverse. To prevent this,
MIMIC+ software automatically deletes all surface control points
that lie between the new and the old positions of the fault trace. If you
do not wish to delete these points, use the following sequence of com-
mands: DELETE, UPDATE and RETURN. Then fill in the missing
fault segment using the NEW or EXTEND command.
UPDATE Save all edits. Use the UPDATE command after you are finished with
each function.
UNDO Cancel your last edit. After selecting the UNDO command, you can
make multiple corrections in succession for the last function (SELECT,
REDEFINE, or DELETE). Select each command to make the correc-
tion. Note that UNDO has no effect after you select the UPDATE com-
mand.
REDRAW Redisplay the current layer and all active edits. Use the REDRAW
command to get a clean display on which to continue editing or confirm
prior actions. When you activate the REDRAW command, the Contour
Map Menu is displayed to allow you to change plotting options. Con-
tinue by selecting APPLY.
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Editing Layers
Map Edit allows you to edit control point and fault data interactively
and to regrid this data to form new layers. Map editing uses a contour
map and a graphics menu beneath the display. With Map Edit you can
add, delete, and move points, extend or delete faults, create new faults,
or edit segments of faults. See 3D Graphics Point Edit Menu and 3D
Graphics Fault Edit Menus for complete descriptions of the menu
commands for point and fault edits.
This section demonstrates a map editing session that uses many of the
commands from Point and Fault Edit. In the following sequence, you
will see how to change some contours, extend one fault, and move a
segment from another fault. The new layer will be regridded twice,
once after altering the contours and a second time after altering the two
faults. The final layer will be written to a disk file.
How to edit a map:
1. Choose the ED command from the Layer Correction Command
Menu or the Map Edit Menu.
2. From the File Selection window, choose the file name of the layer
to be edited. When you select the name of the layer file, the layer
file header is checked for the name of the associated digitized
points file. The points file is opened at the same time as the layer
file. If the points file cannot be found, you will be prompted for its
name by another File Selection Window.
3. The Contour Map Menu appears. Select the Display Mode
command to change to line contour. Then use APPLY to display
the map. Below the map display, the Point Edit Menu appears.
ZOOM Get an enlarged view of any portion of the map. Activate the ZOOM
command to enlarge a section of the map. Click at two diagonal points
to define a rectangular area where you want the zoom area; the Contour
Map Menu appears. Make a selection and/or select APPLY. You can
use the zoom function several times to further enlarge an area. To return
to the original map, click on the ZOOM command twice in rapid suc-
cession.
HELP Brings up the a Help window on the current topic.
RETURN Return to the Fault Edit Menu. Use this command to return to the
Fault Edit Menu.
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When in Point Mode, there will be a histogram associated with the data
points that is set by the DATA_SEL option. If you change to Fault
Mode and do a REDRAW, the display will show the normal color bar
scale.
Line contour map
4. Choose a particular section of the map to enlarge to make the
editing task easier. Select ZOOM. When you activate this
command, you are prompted for two diagonal points to define the
zoom rectangle. After you click at two points, the Contour Map
Menu reappears allowing you to change display parameters. Select
APPLY to display the enlarged section.
Notice that all the upcoming changes have been sketched in. The
changes appear in black over the initial map to clearly show the
direction you are heading in this editing session. Portions of two
contours will be changed, one fault will be extended, and a segment
on a second fault will be redefined.
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An enlarged section of the map following execution of the ZOOM command.
Changes to be made are sketched in.
5. Select the ADD_PT command. A Z-value must be specified for
the points to be added. In this example, you are choosing a Z-value
of 6000 and then adding the appropriate points. You again activate
the ADD_PT command, and specify a new Z-value of 6100. New
points are added at this level.
ADD is activated and the pointer is used to position new points
MOVE
FAULT
SEGMENT
CHANGE
CONTOURS
EXTEND
FAULT
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6. Once you have added the new points, use the REDRAW
command. The Contour Map Menu will appear. Select APPLY to
redisplay the map. Note that the zoom function is still in effect. Be
aware also that after a redraw, the UNDO command will not work
to remove added points. Using the REDRAW command produces
a fresh contour map and is helpful for continuing with and
verifying earlier edits.
7. Select the GRID command to initiate a surface fit that
encompasses the entire map region. Alternately, you can select the
RETURN command, display the Map Edit Menu, and select the
GF command (surface gridding for points and faults). This
sequence causes the entire map to be regridded. When gridding is
complete, the Contour Map Menu will reappear. Select APPLY to
display the newly gridded map section. Note that the zoom
window is retained.
If you want to view the entire map, click the ZOOM command
twice in succession.
The GRID command is selected; new section is shown
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8. Two faults will be altered. Select the MODE command to change
edit mode from point to fault. A new graphics menu, the Fault Edit
Menu, appears.
A new graphics menu appears when MODE is used to change to fault edit.
9. To extend a fault, simply use the EXTEND command and choose
the end of the fault to be extended. Add new points to extend the
fault.
Points are added to extend an existing fault.
10. A portion of another fault needs to be changed. Select the EDIT
command and a new graphics menu, the Fault Segment Menu,
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appears. The first fault edit menu dealt with changes to entire
faults; this submenu deals with edits to segments of faults.
11. Activate the SELECT command. Choose two points on the fault
to delineate the segment you wish to edit.
After you select EDIT, a new menu appears for editing fault segments. The SELECT
command specifies the fault segment to be edited.
12. Now that you have specified the fault segment, you have two basic
choices, to delete or redefine the segment. If you were to delete the
segment, you would select the DELETE command. You would
then have two smaller faults created from the original.
In our illustration you are redefining the segment. Choose the
REDEFINE command. Position new points to alter the segment.
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13. Use the UPDATE command to accept a deleted or redefined
segment.
14. With the faults altered as desired, you should now grid the map
section. First activate the RETURN command to return to the
primary fault edit menu. Then choose the GRID command. When
gridding is completed, execute the Contour Map Menu.
Following the final edits, the section is regridded and displayed.
Although in this example the GRID command is activated twice,
the first grid could have been omitted.
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15. Use the RETURN command to return to the Map Edit Menu.
Select the CANCEL command from this menu; a prompt asks if
you want to save the new layer. Respond YES and a prompt asks
for both a new digitized points file prefix and a new layer file
prefix. Enter the prefixes at the command line.
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2D Layer Editor Menu
Select input layer file name
LAYER CORRECTION
COMMAND MENU
Graphical Edit ED
2D LAYER EDITOR MENU
ED
GE
CR
EC
RP
CS
CL
WR
Edit from cross section display
Grid edit from cross section display
Create a new 2D layer
Edit from contour map display
Report
Cross section of current layer
Colors of cross section display

Write layer to disk
CONTOUR MAP MENU
DM
ZM
RN
HS
CI
CG
Display mode
Zoom
Time/depth/velocity range
Hardcopy scaling factor
Contour interval
Current graphics device
EC


CONTOUR DEFINITION MENU
(line contour only)
CI

AC
IC
BC
IB
GB
GP
AD
Contour interval value
- number of contours
Annotate every nth contour
Initial annotated contour
Bold every nth contour
Initial bold contour
Gradient blanking
Gradient parameter
Annotation distance


2D LAYER INITIALIZATION MENU
Map coordinates
(Only if 2D Layer defined
in 3D space)
Map resolution (E-W)
Map units
Layer Input mode
Layer Type
Z Units
Z is POSITIVE downwards
Maximum Z
Layer ID line
CD
MR
MU
LI
ZU
ZD
MX
ID
2D Definition DF
Map coordinates
(Only if 2D Layer is defined
in distance)
DS
LT
CR
APPLY
ED,GE
POINT EDIT MENU
CI
Use the pointer to select option or edit/add points.
FIT_DATA | ADD_POINTS | DEL_POINTS | INQUIRE | ZOOM
ADD_FAULTS | HELP | RETURN
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2D Map Editing Commands
Map Edit allows you to alter the control point information used in
defining 2D layers You can alter the data points, add or delete faults,
edit only the grid, or create a new 2D layer.
Menu Commands
Interactively Editing Layers
Interactive editing using the Grid Edit (GE) option is performed by
altering grid node values rather than by editing digitized control points
(as in the Map Edit option). Grid Edit (GE) allows you to modify any
3D MIMIC+ map, whether created by gridding, by using the
Geometric Forms (FO) command, by reading a prespecified map, or by
extracting a map from a model. Through a combination of text and map
graphics menus, you can complete a grid editing sequence in seven
steps.
ED Edit from cross section display. Select the ED command to begin an edit-
ing session. Points and faults can be added or deleted. The surface created
uses all the points and faults to form the new surface. See Adding Time or
Depth Layers to 2D Models for information on how to add layers.
GE Grid edit from cross section display. Select GE to do a localized fit over
the 2D layer. Only data points used to modify the surface and current grid
points generate the surface. See Editing 2D Layers for a complete discus-
sion of editing 2D layers.
CR Create a new 2D layer. Select CR create a surface from a set of input data
points and faults. An initialization menu is presented to you to define input
type and layer parameters. The command that are not available are model
oriented. See Adding Time or Depth Layers to 2D Models for informa-
tion on how to add layers.
EC Edit from contour map display. Select EC to edit a 2D layer from the con-
tour map. The 2D data points and faults are displayed as a horizontal set of
points across the middle of the contour map display. Faults are displayed as
a solid line. See 3D Graphics Point Edit Menu and 3D Graphics Fault Edit
Menus for edit options available.
RP Report. Select RP to provide a layer report.
CS Cross section display. Select CS to display the current surface as a cross
section map.
CL Colors for cross Section display. Select CL to alter the colors for the edit.
Background color, highlight color, color of cursor pick, spectrum color, and
line thickness.
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For 2D layers, Grid Edit (GE) uses the same functionality as M2s edit
function. See Editing 2D Layers for a complete discussion of editing
2D layers.
Grid Edit (GE) modifies portions of maps called patches. A patch is
defined as the grid points inside a closed polygonal boundary; the
boundary may be specified interactively using your pointer. If desired,
the grid points may be discarded and new grid points developed by
interactively specifying new contour values in the point edit mode.
After surface fit of the new contour points, the new patch grid points
can be placed in the old map.
Types of Patches for 3D Editing
Two types of grid-edit patches can be defined for interactive editing of
surfaces:
Merging Ring Patch. The patch with a merging ring incorporates
a ring of grid points from the old grid into the surface fit of the new
patch. This type patch always blends smoothly into the original
map, and continuity of surface normals is maintained
Non-Merging Ring Patch. When creating a patch without a
merging ring, you must define new contour points outside the
patch boundary to constrain the surface at the patch edges. This
type of patch can be used to independently define smooth areas of
a map that may meet at sharp offsets such as faults.
If a patch intersects the edge of a map, points outside the map boundary
must be entered to control the surface fit at the map edge.
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a) A layer modified using a grid edit patch with a merging ring.
b) An enlargement of the patch area.
You can also extract the patch grid and boundary points into a file. The
extracted patch can then be inserted into any map with the same units
and grid spacing, with vertical and/or horizontal shifts if desired. You
can use this insertion process to model faults of any desired offset or to
add similar features to several maps. You can also create a flat layer
using Geometric Forms, and then insert the extracted patch using Grid
Edit functions to create a new map. The new map will show the isolated
structure from the grid patch surrounded by a region of constant depth.
If the map and patch have exactly the same rectangular size, the new
map may be used to create a model that shows, in effect, a zoom on the
original model.
a.
b.
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Editing Layers
To edit a grid, perform the following steps:
1. Select Grid Edit (GE) from the Layer Correction Command
Menu, and select your layer file name when prompted. Plot a
contour map by executing the Contour Map Menu after you
choose either a color-fill or line contour map.
2. Define a grid-edit patch or add one to the current layer by selecting
one of the first two options on the Grid Edit Patch Definition
Choices Menu, as described below. The grid editing flow varies
according to your choice of patch type.
3. Using the pointer, add points to your map to define the vertices of
a polygon, called a patch boundary, enclosing your area of interest.
When finished, select Return. The Contour Map Menu is
redisplayed. Use Apply to display the Grid Edit Contour Data
Definition Menu.
4. Select an option from the Grid Edit Contour Data Definition Menu
to define new Z-values within your grid-edit patch.
5. You can use the output patch file at a later time to begin another
grid editing sequence. To use this patch, you must exit Grid Edit
and begin again by reading in a predefined grid-edit patch from a
file.
6. Choose a command from the Grid Edit Flow Choice B Menu.
7. Select an option from the Grid Edit Flow Choice C Menu to
determine the disposition of your newly created patch.
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Grid Edit Patch Definition Choices Menu
Select input layer file name:
Change
default
RI, NR
APPLY
LAYER CORRECTION
COMMAND MENU
Grid edit GE
CONTOUR MAP MENU
APPLY
CONTOUR MAP MENU
DM
NU
TI
ZM
HS
RN
CI
PD
CG
Display mode (color fill)
Layer number to be plotted
Title
Zoom
Hardcopy scaling factor
Time/depth/velocity range
Contour interval
Post data
Current graphics device is
GRID EDIT PATCH DEFINITION CHOICES
RI
NR
PB
PA
RW
Define smoothly merging patch (uses a ring)
Define patch with no merging ring
Read patch boundary points from a file
Read patch from a file
Redraw current map
APPLY
DM, NU, TI, ZM,
HS, RN, CI, PD
RW
GRID EDIT CONTOUR DATA DEFINITION MENU
INQUIRE
APPLY
DELETE
Use pointer to select option or edit/add points.
GRAPHICS MENU
ADD UNDO
OV OpenVision grid is
CANCEL
CLOSE
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Menu Commands.
OV OpenVision grid edit is... This command toggles between On and
Off. If On, OpenVision software is activated and when this
command is selected a menu to set grid edit parameters appears.
When parameters are set and you click on APPLY, OpenVision
software displays the active layer. The edit cursor is active and you
can select a grid node to move in the Z direction. Drag and drop MB1
to move a grid node to a new position. The
following grid edit tools are available:
UPDATE saves all edits and returns to the previous menu.
QUIT ignores all edits and returns to the previous menu.
UNDO restores the original grid node(s) value.
ENTER Z allows you to enter an exact Z value to move the selected
grid node.
GRID_PT_ONLY/GRID_PTS+ is a toggle that allows you to
change a single grid node or the selected grid node and its closest
neighbors.
RI Define smoothly merging patch (uses a ring). Displays a map and
menu on the MIMIC+ Graphics Window.
NR Define patch with no merging ring. Displays a map and menu on
the MIMIC+ Graphics Window.
PB Read patch boundary points from a file. This file has the
format of a digitized points file and contains the polygon
corner points.
PA Read patch from a file. This is a special format patch file
containing both the patch boundary points and either the patch grid
points or patch contour points. This file is created by extracting a
patch or defining new contours for a patch.
RW Redraw current map. Returns you to the Contour Map Menu and
then the Grid Edit Patch Definition Choices Menu.
CANCEL Select CANCEL to return to the Layer Correction Command Menu
(map may be saved).
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Grid Edit Contour Data Definition Menu
Menu Commands
CP Interactively define contour data points. You are first prompted to enter
a new Z-value for the current contour. To change the Z-value, select the
ADD command again. Add new contour points to your grid-edit patch
using your pointer. When you are finished, select GRID. The Grid Edit
Flow Choice B Menu is displayed.
Enter
Z values
GRID EDITCONTOUR DATA DEFINITION MENU
CP
RC
EP
RW
PB
Interactively define contour data points
Read contour data points from a file
Extract gridded patch
Redraw patch
Redefine patch boundary
CP
GRID EDIT FLOW CHOICE B
GR
CP
PB
Grid the patch (points)
Redefine contour points
GR
WP
GRID EDIT FLOW CHOICE C
Enter output layer file prefix
APPLY
CONTOUR MAP MENU
WM
WP
PB
RW
CP
DS
Write out map to disk
Write out patch to disk
Redefine patch boundary
Redraw current map
Redefine contour points
Discard current patch
RETURN
RW
INQUIRE DELETE
Use pointer to select option or edit/add points.
GRAPHICS MENU
UNDO
GF Surface gridding (points and faults)
Redefine patch boundary
ADD
REDRAW POST_GRID GRID
NEW _PATCH REDEFINE
HELP CANCEL APPLY
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RC Read contour data points from a file. Select a file. The Grid Edit Flow
Choice B Menu is displayed.
EP Extract gridded patch. You can output a file containing boundary points
and contour points. Give the file name and some identifying information.
The program asks if you wish to define another patch. If YES, flow goes
to the Grid Edit Patch Definition Choices Menu. If NO, program flow
goes to the Grid Edit Contour Data Definition Menu.
RW Redraw patch. This command allows you to change the contour interval
of the plot. The Contour Map Menu is redisplayed and you reenter the
Grid Edit Contour Data Definition Menu.
PB Redefine patch boundary. The flow returns to the Grid Edit Patch Defi-
nition Choices Menu.
CANCEL Select CANCEL to return to the Layer Correction Command Menu (map
may be saved). Before ending the grid edit flow, you are asked if you
wish to save the current map. If YES, enter a file prefix and identifying
information. If NO, the flow returns to the Layer Correction Command
Menu.
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Release 5000.0.0 Editing Layers 79
Choice B Menu Commands
Choice C Menu Commands
GF Surface gridding (points and faults). Select the GF command to sur-
face-fit your edited map. You can use this command to regrid your edited
map instead of using the GRID command on the graphics menu beneath
the map. This gridding technique is recommended for files containing
fault traces, because discontinuous surfaces are considered by this grid-
ding algorithm. See Gridding 3D Layers for a detailed description of
gridding using the GF command. Flow proceeds to Grid Edit Flow
Choice C Menu.
GR Grid the patch (points). When you select the hidden GR command, a
surface fit is performed using the gridding algorithm involving the Akima
Gridding Method. New patch grid values are computed. The new grid is
automatically inserted in the layer and a new layer map is plotted. Exe-
cute your grid at the Contour Map Menu. Flow proceeds to Grid Edit
Flow Choice C Menu. This command in only available through keyboard
entry.
CP Redefine contour points. You are returned to the Grid Edit Flow Choice
A Menu.
PB Redefine patch boundary. You are returned to the Grid Edit Patch Defi-
nition Choices Menu.
CANCEL Select CANCEL to return to the Layer Correction Command Menu (map
may be saved).
WM Write out map to disk. A MIMIC+ layer file is output that can be
inserted into a model. Enter a file name prefix along with some informa-
tion describing the file. You have now completed a Grid Edit sequence.
WP Write out patch to disk. You have the option to save the patch boundary
points and either the patch contour points or the patch grid points.
Patch contour points and boundary points can be written separately as
digitized points files or together as a patch file (for extracted patches,
contour points = grid values). The patch points are written to a file and
can be read by reentering Grid Edit and selecting the PB command (read
patch boundary points from a file) from the Grid Edit Patch Definition
Choices Menu. If patch points and contour points are written to a file,
you should select the predefined patch file option from the Grid Edit
Patch Definition Choices Menu when you reenter Grid Edit.
PB Redefine patch boundary. The current patch in the current layer is saved
and the flow returns to the Grid Edit Patch Definition Choices Menu. In
this way, multiple passes through Grid Edit can be accomplished in one
interactive session.
RW Redraw current map. Execute the Contour Map Menu. After the layer
is plotted, the Grid Edit Flow Choice C Menu is redisplayed.
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Grid Operation Command Menu
Grid operations can be performed on layer files using the Grid
Operations (OP) option on the Layer Correction Command Menu. A
layer can be adjusted by adding or subtracting a constant value. The file
can be multiplied or divided by a constant value. Smoothing can be
performed on the specified file as well as substitutions. Multiple grid to
grid operations can be performed using the Grid Operation Command
Menu.
CP Redefine contour points. You are returned to the Grid Edit Flow Choice
A Menu.
DS Discard current patch. The grid or contour points for the patch you
were working with are now lost. The original layer grid values are
restored within the patch boundary. The Grid Edit Flow Choice C Menu
is redisplayed.
CANCEL Select CANCEL to return to the Layer Correction Command Menu. You
can end the Grid Edit sequence, save your current map, and then return to
the Layer Correction Command Menu level.
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Menu Commands
AD Add value to grid. You are queried for a value. This value is then added
to each grid node.
SU Subtract value from grid. You are queried for a value. This value is then
subtracted from each grid node.
ML Multiply value to grid. You are queried for a value. Each grid node is
multiplied by the specified value.
DV Divide value to grid. You are queried for a value. Each grid node is
divided by the specified value.
SL Smooth layer. Four types of smoothing are available. Refer to Smooth-
ing Layers for details on the smoothing options available.
PW Power of grid value. You are queried for a power. Each grid node uses
the power function. For example if you enter .5, the square root of the
grid will be computed.
IV Inverse of grid. Each grid node will be replaced by its inverse, (i.e. 1/z).
RP Replace specified grid value with desired value. You are asked for the
value to be replaced. Then you are queried for the new value. All grid val-
ues that are equal to the specified value will be replaced by the new value.
RG Replace a value if greater than or equal to a specified value with desired
value. You are asked for the value to be replaced. All grid values equal to
or greater than the specified value will be replaced by the new value.
RL Replace a value if less than or equal to a specified value with desired
value. You are asked for the value to be replaced. All grid values equal to
or less than specified value will be replaced by the new value.
CP Closed polygon is. Toggle CP On to define or read in a closed
polygon and perform grid operation only within or outside the closed
polygon.
MG Multiple grid operation. You select the type of operation and then are
queried for another file. The file must have the same attributes and Z-
value units for LA and LS. For all operations, the grid must be the same
size and spatial definition. Refer to Multiple Grid Operation Com-
mand Menu details on multiple grid operations.
APPLY Upon completion of desired grid operations, select APPLY to apply all
operations to the current grid and return to the Edit menu.
CANCEL Select CANCEL to return to the previous menu without applying any of
the grid operations. The original grid prior to grid operations will be
restored.
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Smoothing Layers
Layer smoothing can be desirable when noisy data have been
contoured. There are four methods for smoothing a layer:
the moving average
the five-point filter,
a rectangular window smoother that honors faults
the median average
In general, the five-point filter has less of a smoothing effect than the
moving average filter; the five-point filter uses fewer points to calculate
a smoothed value.
The Sierra gridding algorithm also contains simple parameters that you
can adjust to control the smoothness of the gridded surface.
Layer smoothing is desirable when:
Anomalous results are obtained from surface fit, such as
inconsistent posted data
Data has high spatial frequency noise
Smoothing is needed across faults
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T
Moving Average Smooth
To calculate a smoothed value at Point A(A8), the average of the values
at grid points A
1
, through A
15
would be taken
Y
X
A11
A6
A1
A12
A7
A2
A13
A8
A3
A14
A9
A4
A15
A10
A5
A
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Five-point center weighted smooth
The smoothed value calculated for Point A or Point B would represent
the weighted average of all grid points defining the smoothing operator.
The new value at Point A is
where X is the weight value assigned to Point A.
Y
X
A4
A3
A
A1
A2
B
A
i
XA +
X 4 +
-------------------
i 1 =
4

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Release 5000.0.0 Editing Layers 85
Rectangular Window Smooth
Median-average smooth
A
1
A
21
A
22
A
23
A
24
A
25
A
2
A
3
A
4
A
5
A
6
A
7
A
8
A
9
A
10
A
11
A
12
A
13
A
14
A
15
A
16
A
17
A
18
A
19
A
20
Y
X
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Layer Smoothing Choice Menu
To smooth a MIMIC+ map, select the SL command from the Grid
Operation Command Menu. The Layer Smoothing Choice Menu
appears.
GRID OPERATION
COMMAND MENU
Smooth a Layer SL
LAYER SMOOTHING CHOICE MENU
AV
FP
Moving average smooth (user-defined window)
Five point center weighted smooth
Enter
smoothing
parameters
Enter output layer file prefix
Select input layer file name
Rectangular Window (honor faults) RW
MD Median-average smoothing (user-defined window)
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Menu Commands
AV Moving average smooth. To define a rectangular window or smoothing
interval, enter the interval size for the N-S and E-W directions. The inter-
val sizes are in units of grid points. The smoothing interval determines
how many grid points are averaged to produce a new, smoothed value. For
example, if you choose a smoothing interval of (1, 1), the mean value of
all points within one grid point in the N-S and E-W directions (total of 9
points) represents the smoothed value. More smoothing occurs as the
window size increases.
FP Five point center weighted smooth. Define the center weight for the
smoothing operator. The smoothed value is calculated by taking the
weighted average of the five-points defining the smoothing operator,
where only the center point is actually weighted. Less smoothing occurs
as the weighting value increases. A weight of 1 results in a simple five-
point average.
RW Rectangular-window smoothing (honors faults). To use the rectangu-
lar-window smoothing method, select RW. Use this methods for patches
or layers with faults.
This method calculates new values to replace the current grid node values
based on a weighted average of points within a 3X3 window.
This smoothing method differs from the AV smoothing method in the way
the weight is applied to the grid nodes. The RW smoothing method auto-
matically determines if faults cut through the window and applies a
weight of zero to any point on the opposite side of the fault from the grid
node to be replaced. The RW smoother also weights points at the corners
of the window at a level lower than closer grid nodes. See Figure for an
example of the rectangular window smoothing method.
To calculate the smoothed value of point A, MIMIC+ software takes
the average of the values at grid nodes A1 through A5 and A7. Note that
only the values of the grid nodes residing on the same side of the fault as
point A are used in this calculation.
MD Median-average smoothing (user-defined window). To use this
method, select MD and enter the number of grid points in the
N-S(X) and E-W (Y) directions to define the interval size
(rectangular window).
The smoothing interval determines how many grid points are used in cal-
culating the median value. For example, if you enter a smoothing interval
of 2,2, the median value of all points within one grid point in the N-S and
E-W directions (total of 25 points) represents the smoothed value.
More smoothing occurs as the window size increases. To calculate a
smoothed value at point A8, the average of the values at grid points A1
through A15 would be taken.
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Median is the ordered set (N) of values for a window where the median is
the middle value if N is odd and the mean of the two middle values if N is
even. The new value at point A is:
CANCEL Select CANCEL to return to the Layer Correction Command Menu.
A
new
A
N 1 +
2
-------------
=
if
A
new
A
N
2
--- -
A
N
2
--- - 1 +
+
2
--------------------------- = if
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Multiple Grid Operation Command Menu
Multiple layers can be added, subtracted, divided or multiplied using
the Multiple Grid operation (MG) option on the Grid Operation
Command Menu..
Enter output layer file prefix
Select input layer file name
Add
another
layer?
no
yes
MULTIPLE GRID OPERATION
Add 2 or more Layers
Select another input layer file name
LA
Subtract 2 Layers LS
Divide 2 Layers LD
Multiply 2 Layers LM
LM
LD
LS
LA
only
COMMAND MENU
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90 Editing Layers Release 5000.0.0
Menu Commands
LA Add 2 or more layers. You are asked to enter the layer files to add
together. Upon conclusion of adding the layers, you can save the new
layer.
LS Subtract 2 layers. You can create an isopach, isochron, or iso-velocity
file.
LD Divide 2 layers. You can create a ratio file by dividing one layer file by
another.
LM Multiply 2 layers. You can create a file by multiplying one layer file by
another.
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Method of adding dip to a flat layer using LA function in layer correction
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Interpolating Layers
The SI command allows you to interpolate to a finer or coarser spatial
sampling.
This surface interpolation is a simple quadratic fit, rather than the
sophisticated fit used in the gridding routines. Interpolation cannot
improve the resolution of a map. The objective is to allow rapid
resampling of simple layers when a change in N-S or E-W is forced
by a layer in the model that is more complex than initially anticipated.
In particular, models set up for planning of field work will become
more detailed as seismic data become available. This interpolation is
the same as that of contour map interpolation, so that you can preview
the appearance of an interpolated layer by using the interpolate
command when in color mode.
Select input layer file name
Enter new
N-S, E-W
grid
resolution
values?
values?
Enter output layer file prefix
LAYER CORRECTION
COMMAND MENU
Surface Interpolation
SI
Are
these the
desired
values?
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Building 3D or 2D Models
Using the Model Entry (M) command, you can construct 3D or 2D
digital geologic models in either the time or depth domain. Layers
created in Layer Entry or Layer Correction along with the material
properties for each layer are used as input into a model. Also, you can
use a lateral velocity, density or gradient map created in Layer Entry or
Layer Correction to define the physical properties for a layer as an
alternative to defining a constant property relationship.
Use Model Creation and Correction (MC) to build new models, as well
as to modify existing models. Advantages to this method of model
building include the ability to delete layers interactively, and to view
results of model building without having to write a model file.
Before you begin, remember some key points about model building:
The same layer can be entered more than once.
The order in which a layer is inserted, the position number
assigned to it in the model, and its associated properties, all may
affect the characteristics of the layer in the model if pinchouts
occur.
A P-wave velocity associated with the material above the interface
must be entered for each layer. Other physical properties may be
defaulted using commonly accepted formulae or may be explicitly
defined.
The anticipated number of laterally varying velocity maps and
laterally varying property maps (density and gradient) should be
set in the Data Sizes Menu prior to entering model building to
allocate adequate memory.
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94 Building 3D or 2D Models Release 5000.0.0
P-wave Velocity
HALF SPACE MENU
VP
Enter no. layers for the model
Select input TIME OR DEPTH LAYER file name
Enter position, velocity of layer
APPLY
Enter output model file prefix
MIMIC+ MAIN MENU
M Model entry
LAYER ENTRY MENU
Z-Value of the layer
S-wave velocity/P-wave velocity
Vertical velocity Gradient
S-wave Velocity
Truncation characteristic
Layer ID line
Store layer in model
ZV
SP
VG
VS
TR
ID
APPLY
APPLY
Poissons Ratio PR
DEnsity DE
P-wave, S-wave quality factors QQ
Velocity of P-wave VP
S-wave Velocity/P-wave velocity
S-wave Velocity
SP
VS
DEnsity DE
P-wave Quality factor QP
S-wave Quality factor QS
Write out new model to disk APPLY
Input layer IL
Layer number NU
AA Add attribute file
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Modeling Concepts
To build MIMIC+ models that faithfully represent the subsurface
geology of your prospect, it is important to understand some basic
modeling concepts. You must know the meaning of a layer and a model
in the MIMIC+

sense and how layer position and order of insertion
differ.
A layer in a model is composed of a digital interface map (depth or
time) with associated physical properties of the material above that
interface.
Each layer has a numbered position in the model (Layer 1, Layer
2, etc.), but layers do not have to be inserted in numeric order. That
is, Layer 3 can be inserted before or after Layer 2.
Each layer must extend to the limits of the model, and all maps in a
model must have the same grid dimensions, map resolution, map
coordinates and units, Z-axis definition, and Z-axis units.
Layers may not pierce one another. Thus, Layer 2 is always below
Layer 1 and above Layer 3.
Layers may be characterized by zero acoustic impedance contrast.
That is, the velocity and density above and below the interface may
be the same over all or part of the interface.
Velocity and vertical velocity gradient may vary laterally and/or
vertically in any layer.
The QUIK+ raytracing programs work with lateral velocity variation,
but assume the variation is smooth. There is little checking in
MIMIC+ software

to determine whether the velocity structure is
appropriate for raytracing. As a rule of thumb, the velocity structure
should have a radius of curvature equal to 15 or more grid intervals (15
E-W). Abrupt velocity changes should be modeled with separate
layers.
Layers must be single-valued in depth or time.
Density for each layer may be assigned either a constant value, a
lateral varying file or a variable value computed from Gardner's
velocity-density law:
density =.23 x (velocity)
.25
where density is in gm/cm
3
and velocity is in ft/sec.
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Layer Pinchout Conventions
Layers may not pierce one another in MIMIC+

models. To handle
these situations, certain rules have been set. The handling of a layer in
your model is dependent on the order in which you insert the layer, the
position of that layer in the model, and the pinchout property (hard or
soft) associated with that layer. The following graphic illustrates the
automatic pinchout conventions, giving consideration to layer position,
order of insertion, and hard or soft designation.
Automatic pinchout or truncation occurs whenever layers would
intersect in your model. The following truncation conventions have
been established to ease the task of model building:
First In RuleA new layer entering the model is deformed to
pinch out against layers already in the model.
The First In rule can be overridden by changing the pinchout
property of the layer.
Soft Layers truncate (deform) against hard layers.
truncate against soft layers already in the model.
Hard Layers truncate against hard layers already in the model.
truncate soft layers already in the model.
The zero depth reference plane is always the zeroth layer in a
model and a hard layer.
The areas beyond pinchouts, where two or more layers have
exactly the same depth or time but are still continuous to the limits
of the model, are referred to as having zero thickness.
Designating layers as hard or soft makes model building more general
and flexible, particularly in modeling faults. For example, fault layers
only need to be entered once to affect several layers.
All layers are initially treated as soft, unless you specifically change
them. For 3D models, this is done through either the Layer Entry
Menu in Model Building, or the Header Correction or Structural
Modification commands in Model Correction (see Changing Model
File Header Information and Editing Structural Models). For 2D
models, changes are made from the Layer Entry Menu or the Header
Correction Menu in the 2D Model Builder.
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The combination of layer conventions permits the straightforward
construction of any complex geologic structure, including recumbent
folds, overthrusts, and necking on the sides of salt domes.
or 1h, 2h, 3h; 1s, 2h, 3h; 1s, 2h, 3s; 1h, 2h, 3s.
Another way to build models is by mixing the order the layers are entered and specifying them as
hard or soft. A reverse fault is built below in both manners.
1) Top-down order
2) Mixed order
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Model Building Overview
To build a model:
1. Select the M command to begin a model building sequence. The
program prompts for the number of layers the model will contain.
Enter the total number of stratigraphic and structural layers
planned for your model.
2. Select the file name of the first time or depth layer to be inserted.
From the header of the first layer entered, MIMIC+ software
determines if a time or depth model is being built. All further program
prompts ask you for a file name of the same type. MIMIC+ software
also checks the map resolution, map coordinates, and units to ensure all
layers in the model are compatible.
3. Execute the Layer Entry Menu to store the layer in your
developing model.
4. Repeat Steps 2 through 3 until all layers have been inserted in your
model.
5. The model is now complete except for properties of the material
below all layers (the half-space). The Half Space Menu allows you
to define the P-wave velocity and specify any other desired
physical properties. Execution of the Half Space Menu writes the
model to disk using a file prefix and identifier provided by you.
You can modify the model at a later date using Model Correction, and
you can display it at any time.
If your output model is in the time domain, you must convert it to the
depth domain before running Sierras QUIK+ raytracing software.
Within Model Correction you can execute a vertical depth conversion
using the Time to Depth Model Conversion (TD) command. Note that
Sierras RAYMAP+ map migration program calculates an inverse
raytracing time-to-depth conversion that yields more accurate results
than the vertical depth conversion calculated in the MIMIC+
program. MIMIC+ software makes no correction for lateral
migration.
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Layer Position vs. Order of Input
In general, an input layer will pinchout against layers already in the
model unless the truncation characteristics defined dictate otherwise.
To build the salt dome model as shown above, enter the layers in the
order designated below.
0
8,000/s
10,000/s
15,000/s
10,000/s
13,000/s
Z
1 2 4 5 6 7
Distance (k)
3
0
-1
-2
-3
-4
-5
Depth
(kf)
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Dashed lines show layer boundaries as input during model building.
The pinchout conventions automatically deform these layer segments
into zero thickness layers with no impedance contrast.
0 1 2 4 5 6 7 3
0
-1
-2
-3
-4
-5
Distance (k)
Depth
(kf)
8,000/s
15,000/s
10,000/s
10,000/s
13,000/s
Legend
Layer with an acoustic impedance contrast.
Portions of a layer with zero thickness.
Portions of layer with zero acoustic impedance contrast.
Z
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Specifying Layer Parameters
There are five parameters that define the size and possible complexity
of your model. The first four are map parameters:
N-S map resolution,
E-W map resolution
lower-left corner coordinates
upper-right corner coordinates.
number of maps or layers in the model
Spatial resolution, model complexity and computer processing time are
affected by the dimensions of the model parameters.
The prospect you are modeling is defined in MIMIC+ software

as a
volume consisting of a set of maps, each of which is a regularly spaced
grid. The size of the rectangle or model is determined by the
coordinates specified for the lower-left and upper-right corners (map
coordinates).
The map resolution values represent the number of grid nodes in the
north and east directions, respectively. These values must be the same
for every layer in your model. Values depend on the size of the area
modeled and the spatial resolution required for modeling. As spatial
resolution requirements increase, the map resolution values must
increase to maintain the same rectangular area. Increasing the grid
resolution increases the processing time for gridding and raytracing.
Your choice of values for N-S and E-W resolution must be balanced
with the spatial sample intervals in those directions.
The size of each grid element is referred to as N-S and E-W in the
north and east directions, respectively. Specification of the map size
(lower-left and upper-right coordinates) and the number of grid nodes
determine N-S and E-W:
N-S =north-south extent of map/(number of N-S nodes -1)
E-W =east-west extent of map/(number of E-W nodes -1)
Your choice of map resolution and map coordinates are important both
in model construction and raytracing. In a digital environment, the
MIMIC+ Software Reference Guide Landmark
102 Building 3D or 2D Models Release 5000.0.0
concepts of curves and surfaces must be replaced by concepts of
sequences and grids.
Using interpolation methods, MIMIC+ software

is able to estimate
the value of the surface between grid points, but the choice of grid
resolution is critical in determining how well that interpolation
represents the desired surface. For example, one type of surface feature
that requires fine sampling is an abrupt corner, such as found at the top
and bottom of a normal fault. A second type is a pinchout between two
layers.
The resolution of thin beds by QUIK+ raytracing algorithms depends
on the size of N-S and E-W. You may need to decrease these values
to properly resolve a thin bed. Generally, N-S or E-W should not be
more than 40 times larger than the thinnest bed to be resolved.
Each layer must have the same map resolution, map coordinates and
units, Z direction, and Z units.
In choosing the map resolution and map coordinates remember that:
Oversampling is expensive in terms of CPU time.
Undersampling causes spatial aliasing and results in undesirable
model roughness.
The number of layers in your model determines model complexity, and
thus the expense and turn-around time of raytracing. The maximum
number of layers allowed is dependent on current dimensions, and the
Data Sizes (DS) command must be used to change the number once
MIMIC+ software has been started.
To build 2D layers, the map resolution for the N-S direction must equal
five or set to a dimensionality of 2D. MIMIC+ software

does not
allow map resolution to be less than five. 2D models can be defined in
terms of distance or in 3D space by defining the starting and ending
coordinates of the model.
Landmark MIMIC+ Software Reference Guide
Release 5000.0.0 Building 3D or 2D Models 103
Before you add a layer to a MIMIC+ geologic model, you must
specify various parameters. From the Layer Entry Menu you can
specify the Z-value of the layer, the P-wave velocity, the position of the
layer in the model, the truncation characteristic, and select additional
physical properties to change.
East-West
N
o
r
t
h
-
S
o
u
t
h
0
5
1
MIMIC+ Software Reference Guide Landmark
104 Building 3D or 2D Models Release 5000.0.0
Layer Entry Menu
Menu Commands
ZV Z-value of the layer. Use ZV to change the depth or travel time. Specify
the N-S and E-W coordinates of a control point and a
Z-value for this control point. MIMIC+ software then vertically low-
ers or raises the entire layer in the model to honor the Z-value at this
point.
IL Input layer. The current file name is displayed in the menu. Use the IL
command to access the File Selection window and choose the layer that
is to be entered into the model.
NU Layer number. Enter the layer number that designates the position of
the layer.
Landmark MIMIC+ Software Reference Guide
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VP P-wave velocity. Use VP to specify the P-wave velocity in the
following Velocity Options menu that appears.
VG Vertical velocity gradient. Use VG to enter a constant gradient
or variable gradient layer using the Vertical Velocity Gradient menu.
Whether a constant or a variable reference depth is used, the vertical
velocity gradient must still be non-zero for velocity to vary vertically.
VS S-wave velocity. Use VS to enter a new value for the S-wave velocity
above the layer. The current value is displayed in the menu. The SP and
PR values will be automatically changed.
SP Change default S-to-P velocity ratio or Poisson's ratio. Use the SP
command to set one of these ratios to a new value. Enter an S-to-P veloc-
ity ratio of 0.001 for a water layer. The unspecified parameter is adjusted
automatically using
where = Poisson's ratio.
The default value for S-to-P velocity ratio is 0.577; the default value for
Poisson's ratio is 0.25.
PR Poissons ratio. Use PR to enter a new value for Poissons ratio. The
current value is displayed in the menu.
DE Density. Use DE to specify the density in the Density Options menu.
QQ P-wave quality factor. Enter the P-wave quality factor for the
current layer in the text field. The default value is computed using the
following formula:
where SP = S-to-P velocity ratio.
S-wave quality factor
a
. Enter the S-wave quality factor for the
current layer in the text field. The default value is computed using the
following formula:
Q
S
= [10 (V
S
)
2
] + 6.28
where velocity units are in kilometers/second, or
Q
S
= (0.929 (V
s
)
2
) + 628
where velocity units are in kilofeet/second.
Density () is in gm/cm
3
, and where velocity is constant,
V
S
= (constant velocity) (S-to-P velocity ratio), or
where velocity varies,
V
S
= (average velocity) (S-to-P velocity ratio).
V
p
V
S
------
2 1 ( )
1 2
--------------------
1 2
=
Q
P
Q
S
0.75
1
SP
-------
2
=
MIMIC+ Software Reference Guide Landmark
106 Building 3D or 2D Models Release 5000.0.0
QQ
(continued)
Values for P-wave and S-wave quality factors are used in the calculations
in QUIK+ raytracing programs and later in SLIPR+. This calculation
adds attenuation to the synthetic seismogram
AA Add attribute file. Select AA to add migrated attributes files to the
model. Attribute information is based on the migrated depths that are
generated from RAYMAP+. Files can be binary or ascii. Migrated attri-
butes are attached to a specified layer.
TR Truncation characteristic. To change the truncation (pinchout) charac-
teristic, select the TR command to toggle between soft and hard. See
Layer Pinchout Conventions for a description of pinchout conventions.
ID Layer ID line. To change the identifier, enter the new identification line.
It is strongly recommended that a useful description of the layer (forma-
tion name, etc.) be given.
APPLY Store layer in model. When all values are set, select APPLY to store the
layer in the model. The default values for all options relate to the current
layer's properties.
CANCEL Select CANCEL to return to the MIMIC+ Main Menu without
saving the current model.
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Release 5000.0.0 Building 3D or 2D Models 107
Velocity Options Menu Commands
Vertical Velocity Gradient Menu Commands
CO Constant. Enter a constant value to define velocity.
LF Lateral varying velocity file. A user is prompted to select a velocity
map file from a File Selection window. A CANCEL will return you to
the Velocity Option menu.
VG Vertical velocity gradient. This value is used to
determine how velocity will vary vertically. The allowable range for the
vertical velocity gradient
is -10/sec to 10/sec. The formula used is:
V(X,Y,Z) = V(X,Y) + (Z - Z
0
(X,Y)) x (vertical velocity gradient)
where V(X,Y) is the reference velocity (defined by the input interval velocity,
either as a constant value or as a velocity map),
Z is the depth,
Z
0
(X,Y) is the reference depth.
The reference depth can be one of the following:
The model surface (Z
0
= 0.0),
An arbitrary reference depth (appropriate for the velocity gradient
information), or
Another layer above the current layer.
If the layer immediately above the current layer is specified as the refer-
ence depth, the velocity at the top of the interval will be the input veloc-
ity specified for the current layer, regardless of the relief of the current
layer or the relief of the reference horizon above.
VF Vertical velocity gradient file. Use VF to enter a variable velocity gra-
dient file.
RD Reference depth. If a reference depth is specified, velocity varies verti-
cally based on the difference in depth between points in the interval and
the reference plane.
VR Variable reference depth. Use VR to specify a layer as a variable refer-
ence depth. When prompted, enter a layer number. Velocity will vary
vertically based on difference in depth between points in the current
interval and the reference layer.
APPLY Execute with current defaults. After you specify the parameters for the
vertical velocity gradient, select APPLY to return to the Layer Entry
Menu.
MIMIC+ Software Reference Guide Landmark
108 Building 3D or 2D Models Release 5000.0.0
Density Options Menu Commands
CO Constant. Enter a constant value to define density.
LV Lateral varying density file. A user is prompted to select a density file.
A CANCEL will return you to the Density Option menu.
GD Gardner density law. Use GD to have the density computed from the P-
wave velocity using Gardners velocity/density relationship:
where density is in gm/cm
3
and velocity is in ft/sec.
density 0.23 velocity ( )
0.25
=
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Release 5000.0.0 Building 3D or 2D Models 109
Building a Two-Layer Model
The following graphics show a model building sequence for a two-layer
model. This example shows the first two layers of the prebasin model.
The model building sequence is completed using Model Correction.
Enter the Aqua layer (a sloping plane) in position 2, with a P-wave
velocity of 12.0 kft/sec and a truncation characteristic specified as soft.
The Fault layer is added in position 1 with a P-wave velocity of 12.0
kft/sec.
MIMIC+ Software Reference Guide Landmark
110 Building 3D or 2D Models Release 5000.0.0
The resulting two-layer model with a half-space velocity defined as
14.0 kft/sec.
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Release 5000.0.0 Editing 3D or 2D Models 111
Editing 3D or 2D Models
Using the Model Correction command (MC), you can change model
file header information, modify existing models, generate new models
from existing layer files, generate new models from existing models,
and convert time models to depth models and depth models to time
models.
The Model Correction Command Menu allows you to access six model
modification commands. You can access these commands in any
sequence and as many times as you wish without writing intermediate
results to a file. Also, you can view the model at any time during
modification.
When you select the MC command on the MIMIC+ Command
Menu, the File Selection Window is displayed. If you select an existing
file name, the Model Correction Command Menu appears with the
commands described below.
To build a new model, select NEW when the File Selection Window
appears. A new File Selection Window appears, prompting you to enter
the name of the first depth or time layer to be used in the model. After
the first layer has been selected the Layer Entry Menu appears; set the
parameters for your layer and select APPLY to store the first layer in
the new model. Additional layers can then be added using the
Structural Modification commands (see the SM command below).
MIMIC+ Software Reference Guide Landmark
112 Editing 3D or 2D Models Release 5000.0.0
Model Correction Command Menu
LINE END POINTS DEFINITION MENU
KE
CU
KEyboard entry from terminal
CUrsor entry from a contour map
Enter output model file prefix
MC Model Correction
MIMIC+ MAIN MENU
HC
SM
TD
DT
MF
2D
SS
Header Correction
Structural Modification
Time to Depth model conversion
Depth to Time model conversion
Multiply Models depth grids by a factor
Static Shift for entire model
MODEL CORRECTION COMMAND MENU
AD
DE
EX
TR
CM
CS
P3
DI
ADd a layer
DElete a layer
EXchange a layer
TRuncation characteristic
Contour Map of current model
Cross Section of current model
3D perspective plot of current model
DIsplay tabular information

STRUCTURAL MODIFICATION MENU
Enter input DEPTH or
TIME MODEL file name
PHYSICAL PROPERTY MENU
VP
VG
VS
SP
DE
QP
QS
TR
ID
P-wave Velocity
Vertical velocity Gradient
S-wave Velocity
S-wave velocity/P-wave velocity
Poisson's Ratio
DEnsity
P-wave Quality factor
S-wave Quality factor
TRuncation characteristic
Layer ID line


PP
AD, EX
2D
WR
DISPLAY FUNCTIONS
PR
MODEL HEADER CORRECTION MENU
PP
RS
CD
MU
ZU
ZD
Physical Properties
ReScale model data to new units
Map Coordinates
Map coordinate Units
DEPTH units
DEPTH direction is negative downwards
HC SM
LAYER ENTRY MENU
SI
NEW = New Model
Surface Interpolation for entire model
Generation of 2D model from 3D model

Enter factor
SS, MF
TR Truncation
ET Extract a layer
AM Add/Modify attribute file
LS Layer selection for model is
LT Line-Trace definition
DT
DH
LS
Display tabular information
Display header information
Layer selection for model i
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Release 5000.0.0 Editing 3D or 2D Models 113
Menu Commands..
SM Structural modification. Layers can be added, deleted or exchanged in a
model through use of SM. See Editing Structural Models. MIMIC+
pinchout conventions are used throughout. Entry of physical parameters
is the same as that for model building. When completed, you will return
to the Model Correction Command Menu where you can write your new
model to disk.
HC Header correction. You can modify the header of model files by select-
ing HC. When completed, you will return to the Model
Correction Command Menu where you can write your model to disk. See
Changing Model File Header Information.
TD Time-to-depth model conversion. Models constructed from maps of
two-way travel time can be converted to depth by vertical shift using the
TD command. The P-wave velocity of each layer, whether constant or lat-
erally varying, is taken into account. This type of time-to-depth conver-
sion is not a substitute for proper map migration. If more than gentle
structure exists in the time model, it is recommended that you use RAY-
MAP+ map migration software to generate a depth model
DT Depth-to-time conversion. Select DT to convert a depth model to a two-
way travel time model using vertical shift.
ET Extract a layer. The ET command writes a specified layer from a model
to a file without altering the model. First, select the model file name. The
program tells you how many layers are in the model and asks for the layer
number. Enter the number and a new output layer file prefix. Layers
within models may not be equivalent to layers outside of models if pin-
chout occurred during model building or model correction. Entry of a
negative layer number indicates that the selected property for that layer
will be extracted.
If the model has at least one variable property file, a menu with the fol-
lowing options appears:
VE Velocity. VE allows you to select any variable velocity files stored in the
model.
DE Density. DE allows you to select any variable density files stored in the
model.
GR Gradient. GR allows you to select any variable vertical velocity gradient
files stored in the model.
SV Shear wave velocity. SV allows you to select a lateral varying s-velocity
layer.
SS Static shift for entire model. The entire model can be shifted in time or
depth. The shifted layer grid values will truncate to the zero reference
plane
MIMIC+ Software Reference Guide Landmark
114 Editing 3D or 2D Models Release 5000.0.0
MF Multiply models depth grids by a factor. The models layer values can
be multiplied by a specified factor.
2D Generation of 2D model from 3D model. Use 2D to extract a 2D model
from a 3D model. See Generating 2D Models from 3D Models for a
detailed description of this command.
SI Surface interpolation for entire model. You can increase or decrease
the resolution of the model. Select SI and enter new values for the number
of grid points in the N-S and E-W directions. The newly gridded layers in
the model are derived by interpolating between the original grid points.
This surface interpolation is a simple quadratic fit, rather than the sophis-
ticated fit used in the Akima and Sierra gridding routines. Interpolation
cannot improve the resolution of a map. The objective is to allow rapid
resampling of simple layers when a change in DN-S or DE-W is forced
by a layer in the model that is more complex than initially anticipated. In
particular, models set up for planning of field work will become more
detailed as seismic data become available. This interpolation is the same
as that of contour map interpolation, so that you may preview the appear-
ance of interpolated layers by using the interpolate command at the Con-
tour Map Menu when in color mode
TR Truncation. Select TR to extract a subset of a model by entering diago-
nal corners or using a graphical means to define an area. All grid nodes
within the rectangle will generate a model with the same grid spacing as
the parent model.
CM Contour map. Use the CM command to view your layer as a contour
map; the map can have either color-fill or line contours. See Color-Fill
Contour Maps and Line Contour Maps.
CS Cross section. To view your layer cut by a vertical plane select the CS
command. See Cross Sections.
P3 3-dimensional perspective plot. Select the P3 command to view your
layer in three dimensions. See 3D Perspective Plots.
RP Report on a layer file. Use the RP command to view the file header
information for your layer. RP also lets you write this information to disk.
See Reports.
APPLY Write model to a file. Select APPLY to save the changes made in your
model and write it to a disk file. You are prompted for a new file prefix
and a one-line model descriptor, which becomes the default title in model
plots.
CANCEL Select CANCEL to return to the MIMIC+ Main Menu.
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Changing Model File Header Information
Header correction allows you to change information for models
including the physical properties, coordinate definition and Z-axis
definition. If requested, unit conversion is made to all data in the file.
Model Header Correction Menu
To make changes to model file headers, select the Header Correction
(HC) command from the Model Correction Command Menu. A
summary of the current information for the file is displayed above the
Model Header Correction Menu.
MODEL CORRECTION
COMMAND MENU
HC Header correction
MODEL HEADER CORRECTION MENU
PHYSICAL PROPERTY MENU
APPLY
Enter
layer
#
Enter output model file prefix
MODEL CORRECTION
COMMAND MENU
WR WRite new model to disk
PP
RS
DS
MU
ZU
ZD
Physical Properties
ReScale model data to new units
DiStance (2D only)
Map coordinate Units
DEPTH Units
DEPTH Direction is NEGATIVE downwards
VP
VG
VS
SP
PR
DE
QP
QS
TR
ID
P-wave Velocity
Vertical velocity Gradient
S-wave Velocity
S-wave velocity/P-wave velocity
Poisson's Ratio
DEnsity
P-wave Quality factor
S-wave Quality factor
TRuncation characteristic
Layer ID line
PP
MIMIC+ COMMAND MENU
DF DeFinition of 2D model (2D only)
CD Map Coordinates
AM Add/Modify attribute file
LT Line-Trace definition
DT
DH
LS
Display tabular information
Display header information
Layer selection for model is
MIMIC+ Software Reference Guide Landmark
116 Editing 3D or 2D Models Release 5000.0.0
Menu Commands
PP Physical properties. Select PP to display a table of layers and their phys-
ical properties. You may then select a layer number, All or the half-
space and then the Physical Properties Menu is displayed. The following
physical properties can be changed for any layer: P-wave and S-wave
velocities, S-wave to P-wave velocity ratio, vertical velocity gradient,
Poisson's ratio, density, P-wave and S-wave quality factors, truncation
characteristic and layer identification line. See Changing Physical Prop-
erties in a Model File Header for a complete description of the Physical
Property Menu.
RS Rescale model data to new units. The RS command is a toggle. Setting
the switch to YES causes model data to be rescaled when you use the MU
or ZU commands to change units. For example, if the depth at a grid node
were 1000 ft, and you used the ZU command to change feet to meters, the
new value at the node would be rescaled and would become 304.8 meters.
If RS is set to NO, the layer data is not rescaled when units are changed.
For example, if the depth at a grid node were 1000 ft, and you used the
ZU command to change feet to meters, the new value at the node would
be 1000 meters. The units are relabeled only.
DF 2D Definition. This option is available for 2D models. It allows you to
define the model in distance or in 3D space.
DS Distance. This option is available for 2D models if DF is Defined in Dis-
tance. You define the length or distance of the 2D model.
CD Map coordinates. Use the input boxes at the CD command to enter new
map coordinates: lower left corner (N-S, E-W); and upper right corner
(N-S, E-W). Not available for 2D Models if DF is Defined in 3D space.
LT Line-Trace definition. Select LT to define a survey geometry for the
current model. You must enter three map coordinates plus the line and
trace number associated with each coordinate. Coordinates must not be
collinear. You can also get survey geometry from SeisWorks software.
MU Map coordinate units. Use the MU command to change the units for the
map coordinates. Choose kilometers, kilofeet, meters, or feet at the Unit
Definition Choice Menu.
ZU Depth/Time units. Select ZU to change the units for the Z-axis. The
Unit Definition Choice Menu presents four types of measurements.
Choose from kilofeet, feet, kilometers, or meters for depth models and
seconds or milliseconds for time models. The velocity units of a time or
depth model are updated when the Z-axis units are changed so that these
units agree.
ZD Depth/Time direction. Use the ZD toggle to set the Z-axis for the model
to either positive or negative downwards. Default is negative downwards.
DT Display tabular information. Select DT to generate a report of velocity,
truncation characteristics, attribute information, and header information
for each layer in the model.
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Release 5000.0.0 Editing 3D or 2D Models 117
Changing Physical Properties in a Model File Header
Physical properties can be changed in the header information for each
layer of a model. You can change the P-wave and S-wave velocities, the
vertical velocity gradient, Poissons ratio, the density, the P-wave and
S-wave attenuations, the truncation characteristic, and the layer name.
To change a layer's physical properties, select the PP command from
the Model Header Correction Menu.
A table of physical properties for your model is displayed, and you are
asked to enter a layer number to alter, ALL (for all layers), or half-
space. If you enter a layer number or half-space, you can change the
following properties: P-wave velocity, S-wave velocity, S-wave to P-
wave velocity ratio, Poissons ratio, density, P-wave quality factor, S-
wave quality factor, truncation characteristics, and layer identification
line. If you enter ALL, you can change the following properties: S-
wave to P-wave velocity ratio, Poissons ratio, density, P-wave and S-
wave quality factors, truncation characteristic, and layer identification
line. If you enter a layer number you can also change the vertical
velocity gradient.
If you change any of the following properties, P-wave velocity, S-wave
velocity, S-to-P ratio, Poisson's ratio, density, P-wave quality factor, or
S-wave quality factor, all other dependent values are automatically
changed.
DH Display header information. Select DH to generate a report that pro-
vides header information for all layers in the active model.
DV Display interval velocity. Select DV to generate a report.
LS Layer selection for model is. Toggle between Alphanumeric and Graph-
ics to define how you want to select layers for the model. The default is
Alphanumeric.
If toggled to Graphics, a cross section of the model is displayed with a
menu of graphics selections that allow you to change the cross section
perspective before selecting the desired layer. Once the layer is selected,
the active layer is highlighted. If you select another layer, the previous
layer is no longer highlighted but the new one is. Once a current layer is
selected, click APPLY to accept and return to the Model Header Correc-
tion Menu.
APPLY Corrections complete. After resetting parameters, select APPLY. When
the Model Correction Command Menu reappears, select the WR com-
mand to write your model to disk.
CANCEL Select CANCEL to make no changes at this menu. The Model Correc-
tion Command Menu appears.
MIMIC+ Software Reference Guide Landmark
118 Editing 3D or 2D Models Release 5000.0.0
The commands and their functions in the Physical Property menu are
exactly the same as those in the Layer Entry menu. Details of the
conventions and formulae used in computing default values for
physical properties are discussed in the section titled 2D Layer Entry
Menu Commands.
Physical Property Menu
Landmark MIMIC+ Software Reference Guide
Release 5000.0.0 Editing 3D or 2D Models 119
Menu Commands.
VP P-wave velocity. Use VP to change the P-wave velocity in the Velocity
Options menu. The current value (or file name) is displayed in the param-
eter field.
VG Vertical velocity gradient. Use VG to change the constant gradient or
variable gradient layer using the Vertical Velocity Gradient menu.
VS S-wave velocity. The current value is displayed in the parameter text
field; enter a new value in the field.
SP S-wave velocity/P-wave velocity. Use SP to change the S-to-P wave
ratio. The current ratio is displayed in the parameter text field. If the S-to-
P ratio is changed, Poissons ratio is adjusted
automatically.
PR Poissons ratio. Use PR to change Poissons ratio. The current ratio is
displayed in the parameter text field. If Poissons ratio is changed, the S-
to-P wave velocity ratio is automatically changed.
DE Density. Select DE to change the density in the Density Options menu.
The current density is displayed in the parameter field.
QP P-wave quality factor. Use QP to change the P-wave quality factor.
Enter a new value in the text field. The current factor is shown on the
menu.
QS S-wave quality factor. Use QS to change the S-wave quality factor. Enter
a new value in the text field. The current factor is shown on the menu.
AM Add/Modify attribute file. Select AM for header correction of the model
for a specified layer. You can add or delete attribute
information for the layer or change attribute names or units.
TR Truncation characteristic. To change the pinchout characteristic, use the
TR toggle.You can switch between hard or soft. The
current value is displayed on the menu.
ID Layer ID line. Enter a new descriptor (limited to 80 characters).
APPLY Use current defaults. After all physical property defaults are set, select
APPLY to update the model and return to the layer/properties table where
you may select another layer number or enter CANCEL to return to the
Model Header Correction Menu.
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120 Editing 3D or 2D Models Release 5000.0.0
Vertical Velocity Gradient Menu Commands
Whether a constant or a variable reference depth is used, the vertical
velocity gradient must still be non-zero for velocity to vary vertically
Velocity Option Commands
Density Options Commands
VG Vertical velocity gradient. This value is used to
determine how velocity will vary vertically. The allowable range for
the vertical velocity gradient is 10/sec to 10/sec.
VF Vertical velocity gradient file. Use VF to enter a
variable velocity gradient file.
RD Reference depth. If a reference depth is specified, velocity varies ver-
tically based on the difference in depth between points in the interval
and the reference plane.
VR Variable reference depth. Use VR to specify a layer as a variable ref-
erence depth. When prompted, enter a layer number. Velocity will vary
vertically based on difference in depth between points in the current
interval and the reference layer.
APPLY Execute with current defaults. After you specify the parameters for
the vertical velocity gradient, select APPLY to return to the Physical
Property Menu.
CO Constant. Enter a new constant value.
LF Lateral varying velocity file. You are prompted to select a new velocity
map file from a File Selection window. A CANCEL will return you to
the Velocity Options menu.
CO Constant. Select CO to enter a constant density value.
LV Lateral varying density file. Select LV to enter a varying density file.
You can select a file or CANCEL to return to the Density Options
Menu.
GD Gardner density law. Select GD to compute density based on Gard-
ners velocity/density relationship.
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Release 5000.0.0 Editing 3D or 2D Models 121
Editing Structural Models
Within Model Correction you can add, delete or substitute layers in
existing models using the Structural Modification (SM) command. You
can also use the Structural Modification Menu to build a new model.
After you enter the first layer of a new model, the Structural
Modification Menu appears, which you can use to complete the model.
This is the recommended method of building 3D models in MIMIC
software since it allows you to view the evolving model and to change

header values while you build the model.
From this menu you can also
change layer pinchout characteristics and display map views of the
current model or table of layer information.
Structural Modification Menu
Select the SM command from the Model Correction Menu to begin
structural modification. The Structural Modification Menu appears.
MIMIC+ Software Reference Guide Landmark
122 Editing 3D or 2D Models Release 5000.0.0

Select input DEPTH or
TIME MODEL file name
MODEL CORRECTION
COMMAND MENU
SM Structural Modification
CANCEL
Enter layer #
If Physical Properties
have been selected,
enter values
Enter output model file prefix
MODEL CORRECTION
COMMAND MENU
WR Write new model to disk
MIMIC+ COMMAND MENU
AD
DE
EX
TR
CM
CS
P3
DI
ADd a layer
DElete a layer
EXchange a layer
TRuncation characteristic
Contour Map of current model
Cross Section of current model
3-dimensional Perspective plot of current model
DIsplay tabular information
STRUCTURAL MODIFICATION MENU
Enter layer #,
filename,
and velocity
DE,
TR
AD,
EX
LAYER ENTRY MENU
Z-Value of the layer
S-wave Velocity/P-wave velocity
Vertical velocity Gradient
S-wave Velocity
Truncation characteristic
Layer ID line
ZV
SP
VG
VS
TR
ID
Poissons Ratio PR
DEnsity DE
P-wave Quality factor QP
S-wave Quality factor QS
P-wave Velocity VP
Input Layer IL
Layer NUmber NU
LS Layer selection for model is
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Menu Commands
AD Add a layer. To add a layer to an existing model, select the AD com-
mand. Position the new layer within the existing model by specifying the
number of the layer that will be above the new layer. If the new layer will
be the first layer (layer 1), enter 0. To find the current layer numbers, use
the DI command discussed later. Enter the layer file name and set the
layer properties as desired in the Layer Entry Menu. Select APPLY to
store the layer in the model. To add additional layers to the model, repeat
the above steps.
From the Layer Entry Menu you can change the Z-value of the layer,
select additional physical properties, change the P-wave velocity, and
change the input layer. You can also change the number of the layer
above the new layer, the truncation characteristic, and the layer ID line.
See Specifying Layer Parameters for a complete description of the
Layer Entry Menu.
DE Delete a layer. To delete a layer from a model, select the DE command
and enter the number of the layer to be deleted. For a display of the cur-
rent layer numbers, use the DI command discussed below.
EX Exchange a layer. To exchange a layer in a model, select the EX com-
mand and enter the number of the layer to be replaced. Select the file
name of the layer to be inserted from the File Selection Window. Define
the properties as desired in the Layer Entry Menu, and select APPLY to
store the new layer in the model.
TR Truncation characteristic. When you select TR, a list of the currently
defined truncation (pinchout) properties is displayed. To change the prop-
erty, enter the layer number. See Layer Pinchout Conventions for a full
discussion of pinchout conventions.
LS Layer selection for model is. Toggle between Alphanumeric and Graph-
ics to define how you want to select layers for the model.
If toggled to Graphics, a cross section of the model is displayed with a
menu of graphics selections that allow you to change the cross section
perspective before selecting the desired layer. Once the layer is selected,
the active layer is highlighted. If you select another layer, the previous
layer is no longer highlighted but the new one is. Once a current layer is
selected, click APPLY to accept and return to the Model Header Correc-
tion Menu.
CM Contour map. Use the CM command to view your layer as a contour
map; the map can have either color-fill or line contours. See Color-Fill
Contour Maps and Line Contour Maps.
CS Cross section. To view your layer cut by a vertical plane select the CS
command. See Cross Sections.
P3 3-dimensional perspective plot. Select the P3 command to view your
layer in three dimensions. See 3D Perspective Plots.
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Modeling Faults
The following graphics show a normal fault model using Model
Correction.
Aqua and Fault, as entered into the model using Model Entry described
in Building a Two-Layer Model.
DI Display tabular information. Select DI to display a table of information
for all layers in the model. The following information is displayed for
each layer: layer number, layer identifier, P-wave velocity, vertical veloc-
ity gradient, vertical shift, and truncation characteristic.
CANCEL Select CANCEL to return to the Model Correction Menu.
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Building the Footwall of the Fault
The Green layer is added beneath the Fault layer with a P-wave velocity
of 8.0 kft/sec.
Completing the Footwall of the Fault
The Brown layer is added beneath the Green layer, with a P-wave
velocity of 10.0 kft/sec.
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Building the Hanging Wall of the Fault
The Green layer (with a P-wave velocity of 8.0 kft/sec) is added again,
but this time beneath the reference plane (layer number 0). The layer is
shifted at coordinates = 0.0,0.0 to a depth of -4.496 kft.
Completing the Hanging Wall
The Brown layer is added again, beneath the Green layer with a P-wave
velocity of 10.0 kft/sec. The layer is shifted to a depth of -5.475 kft.
The model is now complete.
Generating 2D Models from 3D Models
The 2D command allows you to generate a 2D model corresponding to
any straight, vertical cross section of a 3D model. You can use this 2D
model in conjunction with the 3D model to evaluate some of the errors
introduced into a seismic interpretation due to 2D assumptions.
Line End Points Definition Menu
1. To produce a 2D model from 3D data, select the 2D command
from the Model Correction Command Menu. The Line End Points
Definition Menu appears.
2. Enter the number of grid points for your 2D model.
Generally, a 2D model generated from a 3D model will not have the
same grid increment as the original 3D model.
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3. When you return to the Model Correction Command Menu, use
the WR command to write your model to disk.
Select input DEPTH or
TIME MODEL file name:
MODEL CORRECTION COMMAND MENU
2D Generation of 2D model from 3D model
APPLY
Enter output model file prefix
MIMIC+ MAIN MENU
CONTOUR MAP MENU
DM
NU
TI
ZM
HS
RN
CI
PD
CG
Display Mode
Layer NUmber to be plotted
TItle
ZooM
Hardcopy Scaling factor
Time/depth/velocity range
Contour Interval
Post Data
Current Graphics device is
KE
CU
KEyboard entry from terminal
CUrsor entry from a contour map
LINE END POINTS DEFINITION MENU
Enter
2 endpoint
coordinates
CU
KE
Enter
2 endpoints
using cursor
Enter
number of
E-W grid
points for
2D model
MODEL CORRECTION COMMAND MENU
WR WRite new model to disk
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Menu Commands
KE Keyboard entry from terminal. When prompted, enter the
N-S and E-W coordinates for the two endpoints.
CU Pointer entry from a contour map. When CU is selected, the Contour
Map Menu appears on your screen. Select APPLY to display a map of
one of your model layers. See Color-Fill Contour Maps for a detailed
discussion of contour map options.
Using your pointer, select the end points by positioning the pointer at the
desired locations and click. The line drawn between the two selections is
the trace of the cross section.
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Building 2D Geologic Models
The 2D editor and model builder (M2) combines two functions
necessary for geologic model building: (1) creating new models and (2)
modifying existing models. The various functions of the modeler are
accessed through command menus and menus at the Graphics Window.
Select the M2 command to access the 2D Editor/Model Builder. Within
the 2D Editor/Model Builder command level, there are several
functions available for either building new models or editing existing
ones. Some of the more prominent features are highlighted below.
Depth and time layers can be input in three forms: by pointer entry,
as digitized points files, or as gridded layer files.
Velocity can be input in four forms: by pointer entry, as a digitized
points file, as a variable velocity file, or as a constant.
Layers can be added, deleted, or replicated using graphics display
menus.
Interactive editing is available for time and depth layers and for
laterally varying velocity. The active layer is always color-coded,
and the associated boundary appears at the bottom of this active
interval.
Zoom capability is available.
Pinchout (hard/soft) layer characteristics can be defined.
Faults can be added or deleted.
All edits for a specific layer are saved until the 2D Model Editor is
exited or another layer is activated.
All edited points, the original surface, and the new gridded surface
are displayed while editing.
Layer physical properties can be modified at any stage of model
building or editing.
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130 Building 2D Geologic Models Release 5000.0.0
Workflow
MIMIC+ MAIN MENU
M2 2D editor/model builder
Select input DEPTH or
TIME MODEL file name:
2D MODEL EDITOR MENU
ED
AD
DE
LR
HC
DI

CS
CL
WR
Edit layer
Add layer
Delete layer
Layer replication
Header correction
Display tabular information
of model
Cross section
Colors of display
Write model to disk
NEW = new model
2D MODEL INITIALIZATION MENU
Map coordinates
(Only if 2D Model defined
in 3D space)
Map resolution (E-W)
Map units
Layer input mode
Velocity input mode
Model type
DEPTH units
DEPTH is NEGATIVE downwards
Maximum DEPTH
Model ID line
(See Figure 8-13.)
(See Figure 8-7.)
GRAPHICS
WINDOW MENU
ED
AD
(See Figure 8-20.)
DE
See
next
page.
LR
HC
CL
GRAPHICS
WINDOW MENU
GRAPHICS
WINDOW MENU
CD


MR
MU
LI
VI
MT
ZU
ZD
MX
ID
2D Definition DF
Map coordinates
(Only if 2D Model is defined
in distance)
DS
GS Grid spacing
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Menu profile for the 2D editor/model builder

PHYSICAL PROPERTY MENU
2D MODEL EDITOR
COLOR DISPLAY MENU
BG
CP
SP
LT
Background color for active layer
Color of cursor pick
Spectrum color for model display
Line thickness for layer display
2D MODEL EDITOR MENU
ED
AD
DE
LR
HC
DI

CS
CL
WR
Edit layer
Add layer
Delete layer
Layer replication
Header correction
Display tabular information
of model
Cross section
Colors of display
Write model to disk
LR
HC
CL
(See Figure 8-25.)
GRAPHICS
WINDOW MENU
GRAPHICS
WINDOW MENU
MODEL HEADER CORRECTION MENU
PP
RS
DS
MU
ZU
ZD
Physical properties
Rescale model data to new units
Distance (2D only)
Map coordinate units
DEPTH units
DEPTH direction is NEGATIVE downwards
DF Definition of 2D model (2D only)
CD Map coordinates
LT Line-Trace definition
DT
DH
LS
Display tabular information
Display header information
Layer selection for model is
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Starting the 2D Model Builder
When you create a new model, you need to define several parameters.
Select input DEPTH or
TIME MODEL file name
MIMIC+ MAIN MENU
M2 2D editor/model builder
NEW = new model
2D MODEL EDITOR MENU
ED
AD
DE
LR
HC
DI

CS
CL
WR
Edit layer
Add layer
Delete layer
Layer replication
Header correction
Display tabular information
of model
Cross section
Colors of display
Write model to disk
UNIT DEFINITION CHOICE MENU
KM
KF
M
F
Kilometers (kilometers/second)
Kilofeet (kilofeet/second)
Meters (meters/second)
Feet (feet/second)
2D LAYER INPUT MENU
CE
DF
MF
MI
Cursor entry
Digitized files
MIMIC 2D layer file
Mixed input (combination of the above)
2D VELOCITY INPUT MENU
CV
CE
DF
VV
MI
Constant velocity
Cursor entry
2D Digitized files
Variable velocity layer file
Mixed input (combination of the above)


file name
MU
ZU
LI
VI
Enter output model file prefix
2D MODEL INITIALIZATION MENU
Map coordinates
(Only if 2D Model defined
in 3D space)
Map resolution (E-W)
Map units
Layer input mode
Velocity input mode
Model type
DEPTH units
DEPTH is NEGATIVE downwards
Maximum DEPTH
Model ID line
CD
MR
MU
LI
VI
MT
ZU
ZD
MX
ID
2D Definition DF
Map coordinates
(Only if 2D Model is defined
in distance)
DS
SV Save cursor entry points
into data file
SV Save cursor entry points
into data file
GS Grid spacing
APPLY
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2D Model Initialization Menu
When you select the M2 command, the program prompts for a depth or
time model file name. If you are creating a new model, choose NEW at
the File Selection Window. The 2D Model Initialization Menu appears.
If a model or layer has been previously read by the program, the
defaults for these commands are taken from the parameters read from
these files. Thus, if you are creating a new model with the same units
and dimensions as an existing model, read the existing model into
Cross Section (CS) and CANCEL before choosing the M2 command
again. This automatically sets the parameters for your new model to
those of the old model.
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Menu Commands
DF 2D Definition. Use DF to toggle model definition from distance to 3D
space.
DS Distance. This command is available only if DF is set to distance. You
then define the length of the 2D model.
CD Map coordinates. CD is available only if 2D definition is set to 3D
space. Use CD to define the horizontal size of your 2D model. Enter the
coordinates to define the starting and ending position of the 2D model.
MR Map resolution. Use MR to change the number of grid nodes in the hor-
izontal direction. Horizontal sampling determines vertical resolution in
raytracing.
The representation of layer geometry is dependent upon the grid node
spacing; features smaller than the grid spacing cannot be accurately
defined. Setting the grid size to a value smaller than actually required for
your problem (increasing map resolution) may result in wasted CPU
resources during raytrace modeling. The maximum number of nodes that
can be used is the value defined by the MXY parameter in the DS com-
mand. If you use the DS command to change this setting to a larger value,
also set MXX to 5 to save space, since this is all that is required for 2D
modeling.
GS Grid spacing. Use GS to set the grid spacing for the model. The number
of rows and columns is determined from the entry.
MU Map units. Use the MU command to change the units for the map coor-
dinates. Choices are kilometers, kilofeet, meters, or feet. The velocity
units of a time model are updated when the map coordinate units are
changed so that these units agree.
LI Layer input mode. After you select the LI command, the 2D Layer
Input Menu appears. The following choices are available for entry of lay-
ers: pointer entry, digitized files (QUIKDIG+), MIMIC+ 2D layer
files, or mixed input (any combination of the above). The default is to use
your pointer. 2D layer files must first be gridded using the L2 command
on the Layer Command Menu (see Gridding 2D Layers) before they can
be read into the 2D Model Builder.
VI Velocity input mode. After you select the VI command, the 2D Velocity
Input Menu appears. The following five choices for entering velocity are
available from this menu: entering a constant velocity, pointer entry,
reading in 2D digitized files (QUIKDIG+), reading in a variable velocity
layer file, and mixed input (any combination of the above). The default is
constant velocity.
MT Model type. Select MT to change the model type by toggling to either
depth or time.
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ZU Depth/Time units. Select ZU to change the units for the Z-axis. A
choice menu presents these options: kilofeet, feet, kilometers, or meters
for depth models and seconds or milliseconds for time models. The
velocity units of a depth model are updated when the Z-axis units are
changed so that these units agree. Z units can be specified differently than
map units.
ZD Depth/Time direction. Use the ZD command to toggle the Z-axis direc-
tion to either positive or negative downwards. Default is
positive.
MX Maximum depth/time. Select MX to change the maximum depth or
time for your model. Enter the new value in the text field. The default is -
10 kilofeet or kilometers for depth models. The default for time models is
5 seconds. The maximum depth or time determines axis values; and
therefore, the vertical exaggeration of the model display.
You must enter the value in the units defined for the Z-axis. For example,
if Z is defined as negative and in meters, and you enter -10000, the 2D
display is plotted from the zero reference plane to a depth of 10000
meters with the Z-axis in negative meters.
You cannot add or edit layers below this maximum value. If you deter-
mine that the maximum value is inadequate, save the current model by
choosing the WR command from the 2D Model Editor Menu. To com-
plete your model, reselect the M2 command from the MIMIC+ Main
Menu, choose the file name of your model, and then select the AD com-
mand. Use the Vertical Limit (VL) command on the 2D Layer Input
Menu to change the maximum depth or time. See Adding Time or
Depth Layers to 2D Models.
ID Model ID line. Use ID to change the model identifier. Enter the new
identification line. This ID line is used as a title for all plots unless it is
changed in the display menus. The default model ID line is "2D
MODEL/EDITOR."
APPLY Go to 2D model editor. After you select APPLY, the 2D Model Editor
Menu appears, and you can begin construction of your model. See Edit-
ing 2D Layers.
CANCEL Select CANCEL to return to the MIMIC+ Main Menu without
saving any changes at the current menu.
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2D Model Editor Menu
The 2D Editor allows you to add, delete, replicate, and interactively
edit layers. You can modify file header information, and write your
model to a file. Several display functions are available, such as,
displaying model information, viewing your model as a cross section,
and changing the display colors.
After you select the 2D Editor/Model Builder command (M2), the file
selection menu appears. Choose a file name to display the 2D Model
Editor Menu.
ED Edit layer. Editing is performed using a graphics menu. Choose ED to
modify the current grid by specifying new control points. See Editing 2D
Layers for a complete discussion of editing 2D layers.
AD Add layer. Select the AD command to add a layer to your model. By add-
ing layers you can create new models or modify an existing one. See
Adding Time or Depth Layers to 2D Models for information on how to
add layers.
DE Delete layer. Select the DE command to delete a layer from your model.
In the 2D model editor, layers are deleted interactively using a cross sec-
tion of your model and a graphics menu. See Deleting Layers From 2D
Models for instructions on how to delete layers from your 2D model.
LR Layer replication. Select LR to duplicate a layer in your model. You can
duplicate any layer in a model as another layer in the same model. See
Replicating a Layer in a 2D Model for instructions on how to replicate a
layer.
HC Header correction. The HC command allows you to change identifying
information and associated physical properties in a model file header. You
also have the option of converting the data in your file to a new unit sys-
tem. See Changing 2D Model File Header Information.
DI Display tabular information of model. Use the DI command to display
a table of information about all layers in the model. The following infor-
mation is displayed: layer number, layer ID, P-wave velocity, vertical
velocity gradient, vertical shift, and truncation characteristic.
CS Cross section. Select CS to display your 2D model color-coded by layer
number or velocity.
The vertical exaggeration used in plotting 2D models in the M2 command
level is set to maximize the model size in the screen display. However,
when the CS option is selected, the vertical exaggeration is set to 1,
unless it has been reset from the Cross Section Menu. Thus, your model
may look different when displayed using the CS command than it does
when displayed in the 2D Model Editor.
CL Colors of display. Select the CL command to display the 2D Model Edi-
tor Color Display Menu.
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Color Display Menu Commands
Cross Section Display of a 2D Model
WR Write out model. Select the WR command to save your new or edited
2D model in a MIMIC+ model file. Enter the model file prefix and
identifying character string.
CANCEL Select CANCEL to return to the MIMIC+ Main Menu.
BG Background color for active layer. Use BG to access a choice menu
to change the color of the selected layer interface to blue, magenta, or
green. The default color is blue.
CP Color of cursor pick. Use CP to access a choice menu to change the
color of the cursor picks displayed on your map. When you select a
point on the map an X appears at that position. The color choices are:
yellow, white, or red. The default color is yellow.
SP Spectrum color for model display. To change the range of color for
layer boundaries, select the SP command to access a choice menu. The
color range can be mixed (several colors) or unitary (one color).
Choices for unitary are blue, magenta, or green. The default is mixed.
LT Line thickness for layer display. Use LT to change the heaviness of
the lines denoting layer boundaries. Toggle choices are normal or
heavy. The default is normal.
APPLY Color selection complete. When you finish changing the colors for
your display, select APPLY to return to the 2D Model Editor Menu.
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Editing Two-Dimensional Geologic Models
Addition, edit, deletion, or replication of a layer within the M2
command level is implemented through menus in the MIMIC+
Graphics Window. When you select the AD, ED, DE or LR command,
one of three menus is displayed under the map. Two of these menus
have only one or two commands, while the other menu has ten
commands. Above the menu is a prompt message area.
The components of the 2D Modeler Screen Display
Each menu's commands function like push buttons. To activate a
command, position the pointer on the button with the desired command
name and click. When the command is selected, its border becomes
highlighted.
When you select the ED or AD commands on an existing 2D model,
you will have only the ZOOM and RETURN commands available and
you will be prompted to select the active layer to modify. Remember
that in MIMIC+ software, a layer is defined as the boundary and the
volume of material above it, to the next layer. When you select the
Graphic window menu options
Secondary
display
Primary
display
Graphics
options
menu
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active layer, MIMIC+ software will highlight it for you. If you have
selected the incorrect layer, simply reselect a different layer before
selecting the RETURN command. If more than one layer can be
interpreted as being selected as the active layer (because of pinchout),
you will be prompted to enter the layer number to activate.
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2D Model Editor Graphics Commands
FIT_DATA Fit the points to a curve. To incorporate newly added points into a
layer, you must fit the points to a curve. When the FIT-DATA
command is selected, the currently active digitized data points are
fit to a smooth curve and then sampled at a constant grid interval
(see Gridding 2D Layers). Next, the layer is drawn by connecting
straight line segments between each grid node. If you have selected
a coarse grid sampling relative to the complexity of the desired
layer, you may find that these straight line segments do not pass
through all of your input data. If you find the difference is unac-
ceptable, return to the MIMIC+ Command Menu, select the MC
command, and use the SI command on the Model Correction
Command Menu to increase the number of grid nodes for your
model.
ADD_POINTS Add Points. This is a toggle to switch from adding faults to adding
points that will define the 2D surface.
DEL_POINTS Delete Points. This is a toggle to switch from deleting faults to
deleting the surface points. Selecting this command allows you to
delete individual points from the currently active set of digitized
data points. Point to a location on the map where you want the edit
to begin and click. You are prompted to choose an edit direction.
Point and click at a position where you want to end the deletions.
Select DEL_POINT, move your pointer to the data point(s) you
want removed, and click. A box will form around the selected
point(s)
INQUIRE Obtain exact pointer location. Select the INQUIRE command.
Move your pointer to the position you want located and click. The
message area displays the location in model units. Select the
INQUIRE command a second time to deactivate the command.
ZOOM To enlarge the viewing area of interest, select the ZOOM com-
mand. Then use your pointer to choose the location for two diago-
nal corners of a rectangle to define the new viewing area. The
corners must be within the current display. To return to the original
display, click the ZOOM command rapidly twice. Minimum zoom
size is two grid intervals, as set by the MR command. See Starting
the 2D Model Builder.
POST Post. You can select a digitized points file to post on the current
layer. Future enhancements will allow wells and logs to be plotted
on 2D model.
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Editing 2D Layers
All editing of gridded data makes use of menus at the MIMIC
+

Graphics Window. The Edit Layer (ED) command allows you to
modify the current grid by specifying a new set of data points. You can
add points, delete points, inquire about point values at selected pointer
locations, zoom on the display for an enlarged view of the data, and
toggle the display for editing either the depth/time data or a layer's
velocity data. Once these raw input values are defined, they can be
inserted into the model after fitting a smooth curve through the edit
point.
EDIT_VELOC Edit velocity information. P-wave velocity data, if available, is
plotted within a small secondary velocity display on the screen
beneath the primary display. Velocity information can be edited
using the pointer, but it must be in the primary display. To move
the velocity data to the primary display, select the EDIT_VELOC
command. The secondary display disappears, and the time or depth
display is then replaced with the velocity data for the active inter-
val (see Figure ). After the EDIT_VELOC command is selected,
it is replaced by either an EDIT_DEPTH or EDIT_TIME com-
mand, depending on your model type. To recall the time or depth
data to the primary display, activate the respective command.
ADD_FAULTS Add fault points. Selecting this command, toggles you into a
fault mode and all points entered by you will be defined as fault
points. To return to point mode, select ADD_POINTS.
DEL_FAULTS Eliminate fault points. Selecting this command allows you to
delete fault points from the currently active set of digitized data
points. Point to a location on the map where you want the edit to
begin and click. You are prompted to choose an edit direction.
Point and click at a position where you want to end the deletions.
The nearest fault to the cursor pick will be deleted.
SMOOTH Smooth. This command allows you to smooth the 2D surface.
You can select from four different smoothing options.
HELP Help. This command lets you display the help for all the current
2D graphics commands.
RETURN Redisplay the 2D Model Editor Menu. The RETURN and
ZOOM commands appear as the only commands when you are
adding or editing horizons. See Adding Time or Depth Layers to
2D Models. You must first select the interval of interest and then
select the RETURN command to display the full menu for adding
or editing horizons.
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Workflow
2D MODEL EDITOR MENU
ED Edit layer
RETURN
yes/
no
Keep
new
surface?
Enter
points
no - Original layer will replace the new gridded layer.
yes - The new gridded layer will replace original layer.
Select input DEPTH or
TIME MODEL file name:
GRAPHICS MENU
GRAPHICS MENU
RETURN

Use the pointer to select the active layer.
ZOOM
RETURN
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When you select the ED command, a plot of the current model is
displayed. Fiducial marks, represented by crosses (+), are also plotted
for reference.
1. Select the active layer. Define the layer interface to be edited by
placing your pointer in the area above the interface with your
pointer. If there is a pinchout and two or more layers have the same
depth, you will be prompted for the desired interface as a layer
number. The selected layer is highlighted. To change the active
layer, reposition the pointer and click on the new layer. Then select
RETURN. The display changes. Now in addition to the primary
display, there is a secondary display beneath it. ZOOM can be
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144 Editing Two-Dimensional Geologic Models Release 5000.0.0
easily used to select and view an interval when the layers are
positioned closely together.
2. Add/Delete points. The pointer is used to add or delete points.
Upon first entering the 2D editor, you are automatically ready to
add data. That is, if you click somewhere on the model, a control
point is added at the location of the pointer and is denoted by an X.
Several grid points on the active interface may be affected by the
addition of new points. The affected grid points are highlighted
when points are added.
The direction in which you initially enter points (i.e., right-to-left
or left-to-right), determines the entry direction for that edit session.
Changing the direction of the pointer selections causes points to be
deleted. For example, if points are first entered from right-to-left,
right-to-left is the add direction. To delete a point, move the
cursor back to the left of the bad point. You may then continue in
the original direction. This feature provides a back up and erase
capability.
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To add fault points to edit section, just select ADD_FAULTS. Once
toggled on, all points added are treated as fault points.
After all editing has been done, you will want to fit the new points.
The fit will encompass all the edit points. However, there may be
occasions when you have defined editing on distinct segments of a
layer. In this case you would not want the fit done to all edit points
at once but to the segments individually. To accomplish this, enter
the last control point of a segment twice by positioning the pointer
at the data point and clicking rapidly twice. Defining other
segments on a layer can be done in the same manner. When a fit is
done, each segment is fit separately from other edit points.
When you edit more than one segment, it is recommended you use
the DELETE command on the menu rather than deleting by
reversing pointer direction.
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3. Fit a smooth curve to the data points. When you select the
FIT_DATA command, a curve fit is done creating a new layer
from the original grid and the new input control points. All the
points from the original curve are used except those that are
redefined by the addition of new points. When this option is
selected, the new fitted curve is shown as a line through the control
points.
You may keep the new layer, or discard the fitted curve and return
to the original layer. If the fitted curve is saved, the new layer is
incorporated into the model, and the display shows the change. If
the new fit is rejected, the original layer is displayed with the raw
control points. You can then continue to add or delete control
points, as described above. Edit direction and edit segments are
reset; thus, you cannot delete control points by reversing the
previous edit direction.
If the velocity definition is modified, acceptance of a fit stores the
new information as variable velocity. If the number of layers with
lateral velocity variation exceeds that allowed by the program
dimensions, a message appears in the message area. If this occurs,
you must increase the program dimensions.
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4. Store the new layer in the model. When you are satisfied with the
new fitted surface, update your model. After the surface fit is
complete, entering YES to the program prompt stores the layer in
the model, and the updated model is displayed. A NO response
redisplays the model with the raw edit points. If a variable velocity
file has been read, you will be prompted for a density selection
(constant density or laterally variable density). If you enter YES,
the density is stored as a laterally variable density. Density, either
for the default value when the velocity is constant or when it is
laterally varying, is computed from Gardner's density law.
Using the 2D editor, time, depth, or velocity maps can be modified.
Activating the EDIT_VELOC command brings the velocity data
from the secondary display to the primary display Also, to enlarge
a portion of the model, use the ZOOM command. Coordinates at
any point can be determined by activating the INQUIRE
command, placing the pointer at a data point, and then clicking to
select it. To delete individual points interactively, select the
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DELETE command. To exit from the edit mode, select the
RETURN command.
Note that the zone between the active layer boundary and the next
shallower layer boundary is now highlighted. Also, fiducial marks,
denoted by crosses (+), are displayed. The velocity profile for the
active layer is shown in the secondary display, below the model
cross section.
An added point is denoted by an X. Also, note that the grid nodes
(+) for the active layer are displayed at the same time on the active
layer boundary.When you are satisfied with the new layer, use the
FIT_DATA command to fit a smooth curve to the edit points. Press
the RETURN key to enter the default YES to update the model.
Note that the existing layer pinchout convention is in effect.
Adding Time or Depth Layers to 2D Models
You can add layers to existing 2D models or create new 2D models. In
either case, four layer input methods are available:
pointer entry
digitized point files
previously gridded MIMIC+ 2D layers
mixed input (any combination of 1 through 3)
To create new models, select a layer input method using the Layer Input
Model (LI) command from the 2D Model Initialization Menu.
When adding layers to an existing model, first select the interval that
will contain the new layer by using the pointer. Once selected, the
active interval is highlighted; the new layer will be added into this
active interval. To change the active interval, position your pointer and
select another interval before activating the RETURN command.
Activating the RETURN command displays the 2D Layer Input Menu.
Select the desired method of input by entering the corresponding
command.
Before entering raw data points into a model, they must be interpolated
to the grid points of the model. To grid points, select the FIT_DATA
command. The raw data points are sampled at a constant interval and
all necessary interpolations are done. The fitted curve is displayed on
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the screen and the program asks if this new curve is to be saved. If YES,
the 2D Velocity Input Menu appears. After you enter the P-wave
velocity, the Layer Entry Menu is displayed. Select APPLY from the
Layer Entry Menu and the new curve is inserted in the model. The
updated model with the new layer incorporated is displayed. To return
to the 2D Model Editor Menu, select the RETURN command. If you
do not want to save the new curve, answer NO. The original model is
redisplayed with the raw control points, and you can continue to add or
edit data points.
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2D Layer Input Menu
2D LAYER INPUT MENU
CE
DF
MF
VL
Cursor entry
Digitized files
MIMIC 2D layer file
Vertical limit
2D MODEL EDITOR MENU
AD Add layer
no yes
Select input DEPTH or
TIME MODEL file name:
CE, DF, MF
Enter
points
GRAPHICS WINDOW MENU
Use the cursor to select the active layer.
RETURN
2D VELOCITY INPUT MENU
Enter
P-wave
velocity:
CV
CE
DF
VV
Constant velocity
Cursor entry
2D digitized files
Variable velocity layer file
Keep
new
surface?
APPLY
GRAPHICS MENU
SV Save cursor entry points
to a data file
SV Save cursor entry points
to a data file
LAYER ENTRY MENU
Z-Value of the layer
S-wave Velocity/P-wave velocity
Vertical velocity gradient
S-wave velocity
Truncation characteristic
Layer ID line
ZV
SP
VG
VS
TR
ID
Poissons Ratio PR
Density DE
P-wave, S-wave quality factors QQ
P-wave velocity VP
Input layer IL
Layer number NU
yes (velocity layer)
RETURN
AM Add/Modify attribute file
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Menu Commands
CE Cursor entry. Add data points to define a new layer. When you select this
command, both a cross section of your model and the graphics menu
described in2D Model Editor Menu are displayed. Enter at least one
point to define a new layer. A single point defines a horizontal layer. Two
points define a dipping plane.
SV Save cursor entry points to data file. Cursor entry data points will be
saved in a disk file when the new fitted layer is retained.
DF Digitized files. After you select a file name, the program plots the digi-
tized points on a cross section of your model. The graphics menu
described in 2D Model Editor Menu is available for adding or deleting
points before gridding. Grid the data by selecting the FIT_DATA com-
mand, and store the layer in the model by using APPLY at the Layer
Entry Menu.
Multiple 2D files from QUIKDIG+ can also be used. The sets are read in
sequence and a new file will not be asked for until the last set is read. If
the set of digitized points is unsuitable for a layer, you can discard the
layer and continue with the next set of digitized points. Since the digitized
points are read in sequence, digitize each layer in the same order that lay-
ers are to be entered into your model. Also, you should be careful to fol-
low pinchout conventions. For example, it is simpler to build a model
where several layers truncate against an unconformity if it is added to the
model first, followed by the individual truncated horizons.
MF MIMIC+ 2D layer files. These can be created one of two ways as
input for the 2D model builder: (1) use the L2 command within Layer
Entry (see Gridding 2D Layers), and (2) use the 2D command on the
Model Correction Command Menu. See Generating 2D Models from
3D Models. After you enter the file name, a plot of the model with the
new layer is displayed. Through use of the graphics menu, you can edit
the new layer before storing it in your model. After editing the layer, grid
the layer using the FIT_DATA command, and enter the velocity above
the layer. To store the layer in your model, select APPLY from the Layer
Entry Menu.
VL Vertical limit. This command is only available on the 2D Layer Input
Menu that appears when the AD command is used. The VL command
allows you to change the maximum depth or time for your model. See the
MX command discussed in Starting the 2D Model Builder.
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A layer has been added to the model by pointer entry of points.
Each point is denoted by an X. Note that points have been added
outside the model boundary to ensure a smooth fit up to the model
boundary.
The new model with the new layer added is shown above.
Note the effect of the layer pinchout conventions. The input layer was
inserted into the third interval in the model, below layer 2, with a hard
truncation characteristic. The layer below this interval (layer 3 in the
original model, layer 4 in the modified model), had a soft truncation
characteristic and was hence deformed in preference to the inserted
hard layer.
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Entering Velocities in 2D Models
After a time or depth layer has been developed, MIMIC+ software
prompts you to enter velocity information associated with that layer.
Four methods of entering velocity information are available.
Specifying a value for constant velocity,
Defining velocity using a cross section and pointer
Reading in 2D digitized files
Reading in a variable velocity layer file
You must specify one of these methods from the 2D Velocity Input
Menu.
The steps for creating lateral velocity variation are the same as for
creating time or depth layers. Just as time or depth layers are added to a
model, velocity variation is added by interactively entering raw data
points, or by editing and gridding digitized points files. To do this,
menus at the MIMIC
+
Graphics Window are used.
If the input velocity varies across the model, you are asked if the
density should also be allowed to vary in the layer. A YES response
results in a density variation that scales with the P-wave velocity
according to Gardner's density law. The layer density can be set to a
constant value with a NO response. To change density, access the
Physical Properties Menu using the Header Correction (HC) command
in the 2D Model Editor Menu.
After selecting the ED command from the 2D Model Editor Menu and
selecting the layer of interest, move the velocity information to the
primary display by activating the EDIT_VELOC command. The
velocity information will appear in the primary display. If any velocity
is already specified, the range will be about that velocity. To return your
depth or time model to the primary display, activate the EDIT_DEPTH
or EDIT_TIME command, respectively.
See the QUIK+ Reference Guide for guidelines on lateral velocity
variation for use in raytracing. The travel times computed in QUIK+
assume that the interval velocities vary smoothly across the layer. If
your model has abrupt velocity discontinuities or rapidly oscillating
velocities, Sierra's raytracing software produces more accurate results
if additional layers are used to divide the heterogeneous velocity field
into regions of more uniform properties.
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Using the EDIT_VELOC command
The velocity profile for the currently active model layer can be moved
to the primary display by using the EDIT_VELOC command.
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The interval velocity profile for Layer 4 is plotted as the primary display
Changing the velocity profile
The velocity profile is modified interactively by using the pointer just
as for time or depth layers. When the editing is finished, the new points
are fit to a smooth curve and the model is updated with the new velocity
information.
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The secondary display
The model is redisplayed by selecting the EDIT_DEPTH command.
The newly edited velocity profile is shown as the secondary display.
Fitting 2D Data Points to a Surface
To complete the definition of a layer, whether creating a new layer or
editing an existing one, you must fit a curve to the input data points.
The curve fit of 2D data uses an algorithm that ensures continuity in fit
value and slope at all points along the curve. To fit your 2D data points
to a curve, select the FIT_DATA command on the graphics menu.
The curve fitting algorithm used in MIMIC+ software is the
weighted average slope algorithm. The curve obtained with this method
does not overshoot or undershoot input data point values, since the
algorithm requires that all curve maxima and minima be at input data
locations. The algorithm maintains continuity of the fit and continuity
of slope at all points. The resulting curve is much smoother than one
produced by linear interpolation and will not ring (overshoot) like
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curves produced by cubic spline. Some notes to remember when fitting
data:
The fit to one point is a straight, horizontal line.
The fit to two points is a straight line.
Beyond the range of control points, the curve is extended linearly.
Control points may be defined outside the model boundaries to
control the curve fit at the model edges.
At the ends of edit segments, the original grid points are used in
the fit. This method produces a curve that smoothly joins the
original layer.
Storing Time or Depth Layers in 2D Models
When you add a new or modified layer to a MIMIC+ geologic
model, you must specify the physical properties of the rock between the
depth (or time) layer just specified and the next shallower layer. Do this
by setting defaults and selecting APPLY from the Layer Entry Menu.
The commands and their functions in the Layer Entry menu for 2D
models are exactly the same as those in the Layer Entry menu for 3D
models.
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2D Layer Entry Menu Commands
ZV Z-value of the layer. Use ZV to change the depth or travel time. Specify
the N-S and E-W coordinates of a control point or distance along the
model and a Z-value for this control point. MIMIC+ software then ver-
tically lowers or raises the entire layer in the model to honor the Z-value
at this point.
IL Input layer. The current file name is displayed in the menu. Use the IL
command to access the File Selection Window and choose the layer that
is to be entered into the model.
NU Layer number. Enter the layer number that designates the position of the
layer.
VP P-wave Velocity. Use VP to define the P-wave velocity in the Velocity
Options Menu.
VG Vertical velocity gradient. Use VG to change the constant gradient or
variable gradient layer using the Vertical Velocity Gradient menu.
Whether a constant or a variable reference depth is used, the vertical
velocity gradient must still be non-zero for velocity to vary vertically.
VS S-wave velocity. The current value is displayed in the parameter text
field; enter a new value in the field.
SP S-wave velocity/P-wave velocity. Use SP to change the S-to-P wave
ratio. The current ratio is displayed in the parameter text field. If the S-to-
P ratio is changed, Poissons ratio is adjusted automatically.
PR Poissons ratio. Use PR to change Poissons ratio. The current ratio is
displayed in the parameter text field. If Poissons ratio is changed, the S-
to-P wave velocity ratio is automatically changed.
DE Density. Select DE to change the density in the Density Options menu.
The current density is displayed in the parameter field.
QQ P-wave, S-wave quality factors. Use QQ to change the P-wave and/or S-
wave quality factor. Enter a new value in the text field. The current factor
is shown on the menu.
AM Add/Modify attribute file. Select AM for header correction of the model
for a specified layer. You can add or delete attribute
information for the layer or change attribute names or units.
TR Truncation characteristic. To change the pinchout characteristic, use the
TR toggle.You can switch between hard or soft. The current value is dis-
played on the menu. For a discussion on pinchout conventions, see Layer
Pinchout Conventions.
ID Layer ID line. Enter a new descriptor (limited to 80 characters).
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Velocity Options
Velocity Gradient Options
Density Options
APPLY Use current defaults. After all physical property defaults are set, select
APPLY to update the model and return to the layer/properties table where
you may select another layer number or select CANCEL to return to the
Model Header Correction Menu.
CANCEL Make no changes at this menu. Select CANCEL to return to the previ-
ous menu without making changes.
CO Constant. Enter a new constant value.
LF Lateral varying velocity file. You are prompted to select a new velocity
map file from a File Selection window. A CANCEL will return you to
the Velocity Options menu.
VG Vertical velocity gradient. This value is used to determine how veloc-
ity will vary vertically. The allowable range for the vertical velocity
gradient is -10/sec to 10/sec.
VF Vertical velocity Gradient. Use VF to enter a variable velocity gradi-
ent file.
RD Reference depth. If a reference depth is specified, velocity varies ver-
tically based on the difference in depth between points in the interval
and the reference plane.
VR Variable reference depth. Use VR to specify a layer as a variable ref-
erence depth. When prompted, enter a layer number. Velocity will vary
vertically based on difference in depth between points in the current
interval and the reference layer.
APPLY Execute with current defaults. After you specify the parameters for
the vertical velocity gradient, select APPLY to return to the Layer
Entry Menu.
CO Constant. Select CO to enter a constant density value.
LV Lateral varying density file. Select LV to enter a varying density file.
You can select a file or CANCEL to return to the Density Options
Menu.
GD Gardner density law. Select GD to compute density based on Gard-
ners velocity/density relationship.
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Deleting Layers From 2D Models
From within the 2D Editor/Model Builder, layers can be easily deleted
from models. Layers are deleted interactively, using your pointer and a
plot of your model.
When you select the DE command from the 2D Model Editor Menu, a
plot of the model appears on the screen. Choose the layer to be deleted
by placing your pointer in the interval above the layer and click. The
layer is removed. To restore the layer, select the UNDO command.
When you have finished deleting layers, use the RETURN command
to return to the 2D Model Editor Menu.
By MIMIC
+
convention, physical properties of the interval above a
layer are associated with the layer. Thus, deleting a layer also deletes
the overlying interval velocity data; the velocity becomes that of the
next layer down.
Select a layer to delete by placing your pointer in the area above the interface and
click. To restore the layer, use the UNDO command.
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The updated model after Layer 5 has been deleted
Replicating a Layer in a 2D Model
Any layer in a model can be reproduced as another layer in a model.
Existing layers can be replicated at any depth and any number of times.
After you select the LR command from the 2D Model Editor Menu, a
plot of the model is displayed.
1. Choose the layer to be copied by pointing at it. The selected layer
is highlighted. To change a selection, move the pointer and choose
a different layer. Select RETURN.
2. You are prompted to define a new position. Using your pointer,
define the vertical position of the new layer. Once defined, the
layer is shown inserted in the model. The layer passes through the
defined position. Velocity information is required. You are
prompted to decide if the velocity will be a constant or if a variable
velocity file should be read in.
3. If you are satisfied with the new layer, select the RETURN
command. You now have the option to save the new layer and
update the model. The Layer Entry Menu is displayed and new
parameters can be specified for the replicated layer. When
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selecting the position of the layer using your pointer, it need not be
exact, since an exact depth can be specified from the Layer Entry
Menu. If you are unsatisfied with the new layer, return to the 2D
Model Editor Menu by selecting the RETURN command.
The same layer can be used as the template for several new layers
by positioning the pointer at different depths. A copy of the original
active layer appears at each selected vertical position. For each new
layer added to a model, velocity information is required.
Pinched-out layers are replicated in their pinched-out form;
therefore, they may need editing after replication.
Once defined, the active layer appears in the model display. Note
that pinchout conventions are in effect.
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Workflow
Enter
P-wave
velocity
Select new depth for layer replication or return.
2D MODEL EDITOR MENU
LR Layer replication
GRAPHICS WINDOW MENU
Use the pointer to select the active layer.
RETURN
Position pointer for replicated layer.
RETURN
Select input DEPTH or
TIME MODEL file name
APPLY
GRAPHICS WINDOW MENU
GRAPHICS WINDOW MENU
RETURN
LAYER ENTRY MENU
Z-Value of the layer
S-wave Velocity/P-wave velocity
Vertical velocity Gradient
S-wave Velocity
Truncation characteristic
Layer ID line
ZV
SP
VG
VS
TR
ID
Poissons Ratio PR
DEnsity DE
P-wave, S-wave quality factors QQ
P-wave Velocity VP
Input layer IL
Layer number NU
AM Add/Modify attribute file
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Choose the layer to be copied by placing your pointer above the interface. The
selected layer is highlighted.
Using the pointer again, define the vertical position of the new layer.
Changing 2D Model File Header Information
Header correction allows you to change identifying information for 2D
models. If specified, unit conversion is made to all data in the file.
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Model Header Correction Menu
To make changes to model file headers, select the HC command from
the 2D Model Editor Menu.
PHYSICAL PROPERTY MENU
VERTICAL VELOCITY
GRADIENT MENU
VG
RD
VR
Vertical velocity gradient
Reference depth
Variable reference depth
VP
VG
VS
SP
PR
DE
QP
QS
TR
ID
P-wave velocity
Vertical velocity gradient
S-wave velocity
S-wave velocity/P-wave velocity
Poisson's ratio
Density
P-wave quality factor
S-wave quality factor
Truncation characteristic
Layer ID line
VG
VF Varying velocity file
CO Constant density
VF Varying density File
GD Gardners density law
DENSITY OPTION MENU
DE
Select input DEPTH or
TIME MODEL file name
2D MODEL
EDITOR MENU
HC Header correction
APPLY
Enter
layer
#
PP
MODEL HEADER CORRECTION MENU
PP
RS
DS
MU
ZU
ZD
Physical properties
Rescale model data to new units
Distance (2D only)
Map coordinate units
DEPTH units
DEPTH direction is NEGATIVE downwards
DF Definition of 2D model (2D only)
CD Map coordinates
LT Line-Trace definition
DT
DH
LS
Display tabular information
Display header information
Layer selection for model is
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Commands Menu
PP Physical properties. Select PP to display the Physical Property Menu.
From this menu you can change the following physical properties for any
layer: P-wave and S-wave velocities, S-wave to P-wave velocity ratio,
vertical velocity gradient, Poisson's ratio, density, P-wave and S-wave
quality factors, truncation characteristic, and the layer identification line.
For a complete description of the commands on the Physical Properties
Menu see Changing Physical Properties in a Model File Header.
If the physical properties for all layers are being changed, the following
properties can be changed: S-wave to P-wave velocity ratio, Poisson's
ratio, density, P-wave and S-wave quality factors, truncation characteris-
tic and layer identification line. The edits will be applied to all layers in
the model.
For the half-space, the following physical properties can be changed: P-
wave and S-wave velocities, S-wave to P-wave velocity ratio, Poisson's
ratio, density, and P-wave and S-wave quality factors.
RS Rescale model data to new units. Use RS to toggle between the option
of rescaling the model data to new units or retaining the current measure-
ment system. Switching to YES causes model data to be rescaled when
you use the MU or ZU commands to change units. For example, if the
depth at a grid node were 1000 ft., and you used the ZU command to
change feet to meters, the new value at the node would be rescaled and
would become 304.8 meters. If RS is set to NO, the layer data is not
rescaled when units are changed. For example, if the depth at a grid node
were 1000 ft., and you used the ZU command to change feet to meters,
the new value at the node would be 1000 meters. Only the value is rela-
beled.
DF 2D Definition. This command toggles the definition of the 2D model
from distance to 3D space.
DS Distance. This command is available only if the 2D model is defined in
distance. You enter the length of the model.
CD Map coordinates. This command is available only if the model is defined
in 3D space. At the CD command, enter new starting and ending coordi-
nates of the model.
LT Line-Trace definition. Select LT to define a survey geometry for the cur-
rent model. You must enter three map coordinates plus the line and trace
number associated with each coordinate. Coordinates must not be col-
linear. You can also get survey geometry from SeisWorks software.
MU Map coordinate units. Use the MU command to access the Unit Defini-
tion Choice Menu to change the units for the map coordinates. Choices
are kilometers, kilofeet, meters, or feet. The velocity units of a time
model are updated when the map coordinate units are changed so that
these units agree.
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ZU Depth/Time units. The units for the Z-axis can be changed using the ZU
command. You will access the Unit Definition Choice Menu where your
options include: kilofeet, feet, kilometers, or meters for depth models and
seconds or milliseconds for time models. The velocity units of a depth
model are updated when the Z-axis units are changed so that these units
agree.
ZD Depth/Time direction. The Z-axis for the model can be changed by
using the ZD command to toggle between positive or negative down-
wards.
DT Display tabular information. Select DT to generate a report of velocity,
truncation characteristics, attribute information, and header information
for each layer in the model.
DH Display header information. Select DH to generate a report that pro-
vides header information for all layers in the active model.
LS Layer selection for model is. Toggle between Alphanumeric and Graph-
ics to define how you want to select layers for the model. The default is
Alphanumeric.
If toggled to Graphics, a cross section of the model is displayed with a
menu of graphics selections that allow you to change the cross section
perspective before selecting the desired layer. Once the layer is selected,
the active layer is highlighted. If you select another layer, the previous
layer is no longer highlighted but the new one is. Once a current layer is
selected, click APPLY to accept and return to the Model Header Correc-
tion Menu.
APPLY Corrections complete. Write a new model file, after resetting parame-
ters, by selecting APPLY. When the 2D Model Editor Menu appears,
select the WR command to write out your file.
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Output from MIMIC+ Software
Any MIMIC+ map, layer, or any layer of a model can be displayed as a
contour map. Map views can be presented as either line or color-fill
contour maps. Within a model, isopach (or isochron) maps can be
formed between any two layers or between a layer and a flat plane at
any depth (or time). Also, zero thickness checks can be made above
and/or below the desired layer to black out areas of the surface
controlled by pinchout. A zoom feature is available for enlarging areas
of interest.
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Color-Fill Contour Maps
A color-fill contour map is one in which map values are represented by
a color square at each grid point. The color-fill contour map is the
default when you first enter the Contour Map section of the program.
To reach the Contour Map Menu , select Contour Map (CM) at the
MIMIC+ Main Menu and select an input layer or model file in the File
Selection window.
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Flow chart for color-fill contour mapping
ZOOM MENU
HR
VR
CZ
RV
Horizontal (E-W) range
Vertical (N-S) range
Cursor-activated zoom
Restore original values
APPLY
Select input LAYER
or MODEL file name:
MIMIC+ MAIN MENU
CM Contour map
DISPLAY TYPE MENU
SM
AB
BE
BO
IS
Standard map
Zero thickness check above only
Zero thickness check below only
Zero thickness check both above and below
Standard Isopach/layer differences
CONTOUR MAP MENU
DM
NU
DT
TI
ZM
HS
RN
CI
DP
PD
IN
CG
Display mode (color fill)
Layer number to be plotted
Display type
Title
Zoom
Hardcopy scaling factor
Time/depth/velocity range
Contour interval
Display parameters
Post data
Interpolate layer
Current graphics device
HORIZON MENU
LA
HP
NH
Another layer
Horizontal plane
No horizon, reenter display type
POST DATA MENU
PD
PW
Post digitized points (NO/YES)
Post wells (NO/YES)
IS, AB, BE, BO
DT
ZM
DP
PD
GENERAL DISPLAY MENU
SP
OR
BL
LP
SB
PS
AS
SS
LS
PR
WD
Color spectrum
Plot origin
Draw contour boundary lines
Label position relative to symbol
Sidebar title
Primary title annotation size
Axis title annotation size
Symbol size
Label size
Property (Models only)
Wellbore display
HT
VT
IQ
HB

RV Restore original values
Hardcopy title Block ON/OFF
Inquire (E-W,N-S)
Vertical axis title
Horizontal axis title
WELLS READ AND DISPLAY
QD
FO
SK
PE
QUIKDIG+ format
Format of file
Skip headers
Post elevation
POST AND ANNOTATION MENU
SY
PA
PO
NO
Post data points - symbols only
Post and annotate all data points
Post and annotate data points -
Do not post data points
no overposting allowed
PARAMETERS MENU
PW Post wellname
AS Annotation size
SS Symbol size
RP Report after reading wells file (NO/YES)
PW
PD
PC Post cultural data (NO/YES)
Select file name
PC

PI
PO
PC
Plot inside closed polygon
Plot outside closed polygon
Plot only closed polygon
OV OpenVision display
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172 Output from MIMIC+ Software Release 5000.0.0
Contour Map Menu (Color-Fill)
Menu Commands:
DM Display mode. Select the DM command to change the contour map
type to either line or color-fill. Color fill is the default.
NU Layer number to be plotted. At the NU command, enter the layer
number you want to plot. If you have a lateral property map for a layer
in your model, you can generate a plot of the specified property (veloc-
ity, density, or gradient) by entering the negative of the associated layer
number. For example, use -2 to plot the specified property associated
with the second layer.
DT Display type. After you select the DT command, the Display Type
Menu appears. You can choose from among five contour map types:
standard map, zero thickness above, zero thickness below, zero thick-
ness both above and below, and standard isopach/layer differences.
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TI Title. Use the TI command to change the title of the layer you want to
plot; title length is limited to 50 characters.
ZM Zoom. To enlarge any area of interest on a map, select the ZM com-
mand. The Zoom Menu appears allowing you to select a zoom area by
pointer or to directly enter horizontal and vertical ranges. Should you
change your mind about the area, you can restore the original range
values. The ranges specified must be within the dimensions of the
default ranges, which are displayed on the menu. After selecting ZM,
the parameter setting indicates YES, meaning that your map display is
in the zoom mode.
To generate a hardcopy map that is larger than the physical size of your
plotter, use the ZM command to divide the map into smaller sections.
HS Hardcopy scaling factor. To alter the output scale of your map on a
hardcopy device, input a new map scale at the HS selection box. A
scaling factor of 1:24,000 is entered as 24000. If the output is too large
to be produced on your plotter, use the ZM command to segment your
plot.
Note: A hardcopy scale of 1:24000 means 1 hardcopy unit (i.e. cm,
inch) will represent 24000 of the same units (i.e. cm or inch) on the
map. Thus a scale of 1 inch = 10000 feet, set the hardcopy scale to
120000.
RN Depth/Time/Property range. Select RN to alter the minimum and
maximum map values to be displayed whether the input is depth, time,
a property, or a mixed mode file created from Multiple Grid Opera-
tions. This allows the available color spectrum or the number of color
contours to be concentrated on a particular range.
CI Contour interval. Select CI to define new interval values for your
map. The number of contours depends on the contour interval. If more
than 42 contours are required, the colors will repeat. The command
line prompts you to enter a contour interval.
DP Display parameters. After your selection of the DP command, the
General Display Menu Commands appears.
PD Post data. After you select the PD command, the Post Data Menu is
displayed. You can post symbols only, post and annotate all data, post
and annotate with no overposting, or choose not to post data. Posted
symbols designate the position of digitized points and annotations des-
ignate the Z-value of that point. Wells can also be posted with just a
symbol, elevation, or well name. Cultural information may also be
posted. If selected, you enter the name of the cultural reference file.
The default will indicate whether this command has been invoked.
IN Interpolate layer. Select the IN command to smoothing interpolation
to the current data. After you select IN, you are prompted to enter an
interpolation factor.
CG Current graphics device. Use the CG command to toggle between
the RAYMAP+ Graphics Window and a hardcopy printer.
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APPLY Select APPLY to generate a map. The map is generated using the cur-
rent defaults.
CANCEL Select CANCEL to return to the pervious RAYMAP+ menu without
creating a new plot.
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Display Type Menu Commands
SM Standard map. Use SM to generate standard contour maps of depth,
time, or velocity. After you select this command, you are returned to
the previous menu.
AB Zero thickness check above only. The most common use of this
command (and of the BE and BO commands below) is to map pin-
chouts between layers in a model. Select the AB command to check
for zero thickness above the primary layer (as defined by the NU
command) relative to a designated auxiliary horizon. The resulting
contour map is blackened in areas of zero thickness. For a definition
of zero thickness, see the Glossary.
For a layer from a model file, the auxiliary horizon can be either
another layer from the model or a horizontal plane of designated
depth or time. Upon selecting this choice, you are moved to the Hori-
zon Menu to specify the auxiliary layer or horizontal plane.
For a map from a layer file, the auxiliary horizon must be a horizon-
tal plane of designated depth or time.
BE Zero thickness check below only. This BE option generates a pin-
chout map where a check for zero thickness is made below the pri-
mary layer relative to a designated auxiliary horizon. The resulting
contour map is blackened in areas of zero thickness.
For a layer from a model file, the auxiliary horizon can be either
another layer from the model or a horizontal plane of designated
depth or time. Upon selecting this choice, you are moved to the
Horizon Menu to specify the auxiliary layer or horizontal plane.
For a map from a layer file, the auxiliary horizon must be a horizon-
tal plane of designated depth or time.
BO Zero thickness check both above and below. Selecting BO gener-
ates a pinchout map where a check is made for zero thickness above
and below the primary layer relative to the designated auxiliary hori-
zons. The resulting contour map is blackened in areas of zero thick-
ness.
For a layer from a model file, the auxiliary horizons can be either
other layers from the model or horizontal planes of designated depth
or time. Upon selecting this choice, you are moved to the Horizon
Menu to specify the auxiliary layers or horizontal planes - first
above, then below the current layer.
For a map from a layer file, the auxiliary horizons must be horizontal
planes of designated depth or time.
IS Standard isopach/layer differences. Select the IS command to gen-
erate isopach or isochron contour maps for depth or time layers
within a model, or to generate difference maps between individual
maps in layer files. Continued on next page
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IS
(cont.)
For an isopach or isochron contour map, a primary layer is chosen
from a model and an auxiliary horizon is specified. The horizon can
be either another layer from the model or a horizontal plane of desig-
nated depth or time. The isopach/isochron values are determined by
the difference between the two layers and are always positive.
Alternatively, a single layer from a layer file in depth, time, or veloc-
ity can be used rather than a layer from a model. In this case, differ-
ences are calculated between the primary layer and an auxiliary layer
in depth, time, or velocity. The values associated with the resultant
difference map may be positive or negative.
Upon selecting this choice, you are moved to the Horizon Menu to
specify the auxiliary layer or horizontal plane.
PI Plot Inside closed polygon. Select PI to plot only the contours
within the boundary of a user-specified closed polygon file (QUIK-
DIG defined DPC, DIG or DV3) or an ASCII points file with no
headers where boundary locations are stored northing, easting.
PO Plot Outside closed polygon. Select PO to plot only the contours
outside the boundary of a user-specified closed polygon file (QUIK-
DIG defined DPC, DIG or DV3) or an ASCII points file with no
headers where boundary locations are stored northing, easting.
P Plot only Closed polygon. Select PC to plot only the boundary of a
user-specified closed polygon file (QUIKDIG defined DPC, DIG or
DV3) or an ASCII points file with no headers where boundary loca-
tions are stored northing, easting.
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Isopach depth map between two faulted layers in the Basin Model
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General Display Menu Commands
SP Color spectrum Select SP to change the color spectrum. Depending
on whether CL is toggled to Graphics or Alphanumeric, you see a
Color Spectrum on the Graphics window or the Spectrum Choice
Menu, which contains the following choices: normal or reverse spec-
trum with low, medium, or high contrast. The default is low normal
contrast.
OR Plot origin OR is used as a toggle to specify the upper left (NW)
corner or the lower left (SW) corner as the plot origin. The default is
the upper left (NW) corner. This change will plot a mirror image
(top-to-bottom) of your map.
BL Draw contour boundary lines BL command is used as a toggle to
specify whether boundary lines are to be displayed in black between
the color-fill areas. The default is NO, contour boundary lines will
not be drawn. This option, though increasing plot time, produces a
better image for presentation quality graphics.
LP Label position relative to symbol. Select LP to specify the position
of the annotation with regard to the posted data. The Label Position
Relative To Symbol Menu appears giving you these choices: below,
above, left or right. The default is BELOW. This command is used in
conjunction with the PD command below.
TI Axes titles. When you select TI, the Title Display Menu appears.
PS Primary title annotation size. Select PS to change the size of the
primary title annotation, which appears at the bottom of the plot. The
current size appears as the default.
AS Axis title annotation size. You can change the size of the vertical
and horizontal axes titles at the AS command. The current size in the
input box is the default.
SS Symbol size. Select SS to change the symbol size.
LS Label size. Select LS to change the label size.
IQ Inquire. Keyboard entry of spatial location returns the value of the
grid.
HB Hardcopy title block. This command toggles between YES and NO.
If YES and a hardcopy plot is generated, the Title Block Menu is pre-
sented to you. If NO, a title block does not appear with the plot.
PR Property. Used to select the active property for a model, this com-
mand is visible for models only. When a property is selected, any lat-
eral defined property in the model can be displayed by entering a
negative number when choosing the layer number to be plotted (NU).
WD Wellbore Display. When you select WD, the following Wellbore
Parameter Choices menu appears.
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RV Restore original values. Select RV to restore the original default
values of the above parameters.
APPLY Select APPLY to execute the new parameter settings and return to
the Contour Map Menu
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Title Menu Commands
Wellbore Parameter Choices Commands
HT Horizontal axis title. Change the title of the horizontal axis at the
HT command. The current title is shown as the default.
VT Vertical axis title. Change the title of the vertical axis at the VT
command. The current title is shown as the default.
SB SideBar title. Enter the title of the sidebar on the right side of the
plot at the SB command. The current title is shown as the default.
PF Plot Filename. Select PF to plot the filename of the active file for
informational purposes. The position of the filename text will vary
from display to display.
RD Read wellbore file. Use RD to select a wellbore file for overposting
on the current display.
PS Plot well symbol. This toggle allows you to select whether or not to
display the well
symbol above the wellbore
SC Well symbol color. Use SC to select a desired color from a palette of
colors.
SS Well symbol size. Select SS to change the symbol size.
PW Post well name. This toggle allows you to select whether or not to
annotate the well name.
PB Plot wellbore. This option allows you to select whether or not to plot
the wellbore.
BC Wellbore color. Select BC to plot the bore as a
single color or a range of colors based on the velocity range.
BD Wellbore border. Select BD to plot a black border around the well-
bore, if so desired.
TH Wellbore thickness. Select TH to change the thickness of the well-
bore plot. Select one of the three thicknesses shown on the MIMIC+
Graphics screen by clicking on it.
RP Wellbore report. Select RP to display a report for the wellbore file.
The information displayed includes the well name, northing, easting,
depth, and velocity along the wellbore.
IN Interpolation number between locations.This option is utilized
when wellbore color is color coded by velocity. Between each well-
bore location, there will be the interpolated values. For example, if 1
is used, only wellbore locations will be utilized in color coding. If 5
is specified, there will be 4 interpolated values (depth, velocity)
between each wellbore location.
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Post Data Menu Commands
Post and Annotation Menu Commands
APPLY Select APPLY to accept the parameter settings and return to the Dis-
play Parameter Choices menu.
CANCEL Select CANCEL to return to the Display Parameter Choices menu.
Wellbores will not be plotted.
PD Post digitized data points. This command toggles between Yes and
No to specify whether a digitized points file will be posted. You will
be requested to select a data points file if there is not one associated
with the current surface. When toggle to Yes and the APPLY com-
mand is selected the Post and Annotation Menu appears.
PW Post wells. This command toggles between Yes and No. If toggled
to Yes and the APPLY command is selected, you will be prompted to
select a well data file and then presented with the Wells Read and
Display Parameters Menu.
PC Post cultural data. This command toggles between Yes and No. You
enter an ASCII cultural file.
APPLY APPLY. Depending on the state of the PD, PW, or PC toggles you
will be presented with a File Selection Window and an annotation
menu. If all three posting toggles are set to YES then you will first be
presented by the File Selection Menu for the well data file, then the
Wells Read and Display Parameters Menu. After you select APPLY
or CANCEL from this menu, you will be presented with the File
Selection Menu for the digitized points data file and the Post and
Annotation menu. After you select APPLY or CANCEL from this
menu, you will finally be presented with the File Selection Menu for
the cultural data file.
CANCEL Select CANCEL to return to the Contour Map menu. No data points
or wells will be posted.
SY Post data points - symbols only. Post only a symbol (+) at each
location.
PA Post and annotate all data points. Post a symbol and Z-value at
each location.
PO Post and annotate data points - no overposting allowed. Post a
symbol at each location but annotate the Z-value only when there is
no overlap with other Z-values.
CANCEL Do not post data points. Ignore posting of digitized data points file.
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Wells Read and Display Parameters Menu
QD QUIKDIG+ format. If toggled to Yes, the file will be read in as a file
in QUIKDIG+ format. The file will have 4 header records, defining
the data file, followed by the data. Order of the data would be north-
ing, easting, and elevation. If your QUIKDIG+ file has been edited
and well names have been inserted, toggle this option to No, set skip
headers to 4, and retain free format setting.
FO Format of file. If QD is No, enter the format of the data in the file.
Default is "*" which is a FORTRAN free format read. At least one
blank should separate each field (northing, easting, elevation, and
well name) and the well name should be enclosed in single quotation
marks. A well name may contain a maximum of 20 characters.
SK Skip headers. If QD is No, the parameter will indicate how many
records to skip in the file before reading the data. Zero is the default.
PE Post elevation. This command is a toggle. If Yes, the elevation will
be posted above the well symbol.
PW Post wellname. This command is a toggle. If Yes, the well name will
be posted below the well symbol.
AS Annotation size. Enter the size for well text annotation. Default is
.07.
SS Symbol size. Enter the size for well symbol. Default is .07.
RP Report after reading wells file. This command is a toggle. If Yes, a
report will be generated. At each well location, the surface value will
be generated. If a model is active, for each layer, the layer (grid)
value will be displayed at each well location as well as the velocity
value.
APPLY Select APPLY to set all parameters and return to contour map menu
where you can display the contour map with well information posted.
CANCEL Select CANCEL to not post wells and return to contour map menu.
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Line Contour Maps
Any layer file or layer in a model can be displayed as a contour map.
Map views can be presented as either line or color-fill contour maps.
Several types of maps can be generated using either option. Standard
contour maps of depth, time, or velocity can be created using any layer
file or any layer in a model. Within a model, isopach (or isochron) maps
can be formed between any two layers or between a layer and a flat
plane at any depth (or time). Also, zero thickness checks can be made
above and/or below the desired layer to black out areas of the surface
controlled by pinchout. A zoom feature is available for enlarging areas
of interest.
Line contour maps are composed of contour lines each representing a
contour value. Contour values are defined by the specified contour
interval and the minimum contour value determined from the minimum
grid value. The number of lines on a map are determined by the
minimum contour value, the contour interval, and the maximum grid
value. Use the CM command at the MIMIC+ Main Menu to access the
Contour Map Menu.
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Contour Map Menu (Line)
ZOOM MENU
HR
VR
CZ
RV
Horizontal (E-W) range
Vertical (N-S) range
Cursor-activated zoom
Restore original values
APPLY
CONTOUR DEFINITION MENU
CI
AC
IC
BC
IB
GB
GP
AD
Contour interval value
Annotate every Nth contour
Initial annotated contour
Bold every Nth contour
Initial bold contour
Gradient blanking
Gradient parameter
Annotation distance
LINE DISPLAY MENU
NL
BL
HA
LT
LP

OR
TI
PS
AS
SS
LS
PR
WD
Normal lines color
Bold lines color
Hachures
Line thickness
Label position of data relative
to symbol
Plot origin
Axes titles
Primary title annotation size
Axis title annotation size
Symbol size
IQ Inquire (E-W,N-S)
Property (Models only)
Wellbore display
CONTOUR MAP MENU
DM Display mode (color fill)
Select input LAYER
or MODEL file name
MIMIC+ MAIN MENU
CM Contour map
(3D)
DISPLAY TYPE MENU
SM
AB
BE
BO
IS
Standard map
Zero thickness check above only
Zero thickness check below only
Zero thickness check both above and below
Standard isopach
CONTOUR MAP MENU
DM
NU
DT
TI
ZM
HS
RN
CI
DP
PD
CG
Display mode (line contour)
Layer number to be plotted
Display type
Title
Zoom
Hardcopy scaling factor
Time/depth/velocity range
Contour interval
Display parameters
Post data
Current graphics device
HORIZON MENU
LA
HP
NH
Another layer
Horizontal plane
No horizon, re-enter display type
POST DATA MENU
PD

Post digitized points (NO/YES)


IS, AB, BE, BO
DT
ZM
CI
DP
PD
Label size
HB Hardcopy title block ON/OFF
RV Restore original values
CH Chloropleth map
POST AND
SY
PA
PO
Post data points -
Post and annotate
Post and annotate data
WELLS READ AND DISPLAY
QD
FO
SK
PE
QUIKDIG+ format
Format of file
Skip headers
Post elevation
PARAMETERS MENU
PW Post wellname
AS Annotation size
SS Symbol size
RP Report after reading wells file
symbols only
all data points
points - no overposting
ANNOTATION MENU
PW
PD

PW
PC
Post wells (NO/YES)
Post cultural data (NO/YES)
Select file name
PC

OV OpenVision display
PI
PO
PC
Plot inside closed polygon
Plot outside closed polygon
Plot only closed polygon
CC Color code data points to
active range of contour
map
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Menu Commands
DM Display mode. If the display mode is set at the color-fill default, select
the DM command to switch the contour map type to line.
NU Layer number to be plotted. Enter the layer number you want to plot
at the NU command. If you have a lateral property map for a layer in
your model, you can generate a plot of the specified property (velocity,
density, or gradient) by entering the negative of the associated layer
number. For example, use -2 to plot the specified property associated
with the second layer.
DT Display type. After you select the DT command, the Display Type
Menu appears. You can choose from among five types: standard map,
zero thickness above, zero thickness below, zero thickness above and
below, and standard isopach/layer differences and chloropleth display
for models where time or depth line contours are superimposed on a
color filled property map.
TI Title. At the TI input box, you can change the title of the layer you
want to plot; title length is limited to 50 characters. The current title is
shown.
ZM Zoom. To enlarge any area of interest on a map, select the ZM com-
mand. The Zoom Menu appears allowing you to select a zoom area by
pointer entry or to directly enter horizontal and vertical ranges. Should
you change your mind about the area, you can restore the original
range values. The ranges specified must be within the dimensions of
the default ranges, which are displayed on the menu. After selecting
ZM, the parameter setting indicates YES, meaning that your map dis-
play is in the zoom mode.
If you wish to generate a hardcopy map that is larger than the physical
size of your plotter, use the ZM command to divide the map into
smaller sections.
HS Hardcopy scaling factor. To alter the output scale of your map on a
hardcopy device, input a new map scale at the HS selection box. A
scaling factor of 1:24,000 is entered as 24000. If the output is too large
to be produced on your plotter, use the ZM command to segment your
plot.
Note: A hardcopy scale of 1:24000 means 1 hardcopy unit (i.e. cm,
inch) will represent 24000 of the same units (i.e. cm or inch) on the
map. Thus a scale of 1 inch = 10000 feet, set the hardcopy scale to
120000.
RN Depth/Time/Property range. By selecting the RN command, the
minimum and maximum map values can be changed whether the input
is depth, time, a property, or a mixed mode file created from Multiple
Grid Operations. This allows the available color spectrum or the num-
ber of color contours to be concentrated on a particular range.
CI Contour interval. After you select the CI command, the Contour
Definition Menu appears.
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DP Display parameters. Select DP to change display parameters. The
Line Display Menu appears.
PD Post data. After you select the PD command the Post Data Menu
appears. From this menu you can specify what data point and well
information to display on your map.
OV OpenVision display. This command is available only if
OpenVision software is active. When you select OV, the OpenVi-
sion Line Contour Options Menu appears.
CG Current graphics device. Use the CG command to toggle between
the MIMIC+ Graphics Window and a hardcopy printer.
APPLY Select APPLY to generate a map. The map is generated using the
current defaults.
CANCEL Select CANCEL to return to the previous MIMIC+ menu.
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Display Type Menu
SM Standard map. Use SM to generate standard contour maps of depth,
time, or velocity. After you select this command, you are returned to
the previous menu.
AB Zero thickness check above only. The most common use of this
command (and of the BE and BO commands below) is to map pin-
chouts between layers in a model. Select the AB command to check
for zero thickness above the primary layer (as defined by the NU
command) relative to a designated auxiliary horizon. The resulting
contour map is blackened in areas of zero thickness. For a definition
of zero thickness, see the Glossary.
For a layer from a model file, the auxiliary horizon can be either
another layer from the model or a horizontal plane of designated
depth or time. Upon selecting this choice, you are moved to the Hori-
zon Menu to specify the auxiliary layer or horizontal plane.
For a map from a layer file, the auxiliary horizon must be a horizon-
tal plane of designated depth or time.
BE Zero thickness check below only. This BE option generates a pin-
chout map where a check for zero thickness is made below the pri-
mary layer relative to a designated auxiliary horizon. The resulting
contour map is blackened in areas of zero thickness.
For a layer from a model file, the auxiliary horizon can be either
another layer from the model or a horizontal plane of designated
depth or time. Upon selecting this choice, you are moved to the Hori-
zon Menu to specify the auxiliary layer or horizontal plane.
For a map from a layer file, the auxiliary horizon must be a horizon-
tal plane of designated depth or time.
BO Zero thickness check both above and below. Selecting BO gener-
ates a pinchout map where a check is made for zero thickness above
and below the primary layer relative to the designated auxiliary hori-
zons. The resulting contour map is blackened in areas of zero thick-
ness.
For a layer from a model file, the auxiliary horizons can be either
other layers from the model or horizontal planes of designated depth
or time. Upon selecting this choice, you are moved to the Horizon
Menu to specify the auxiliary layers or horizontal planes - first
above, then below the current layer.
For a map from a layer file, the auxiliary horizons must be horizontal
planes of designated depth or time.
IS Standard isopach/layer differences. Select the IS command to gen-
erate isopach or isochron contour maps for depth or time layers
within a model, or to generate difference maps between individual
maps in layer files. Continued on next page
MIMIC+ Software Reference Guide Landmark
188 Output from MIMIC+ Software Release 5000.0.0
IS
(cont.)
For an isopach or isochron contour map, a primary layer is chosen
from a model and an auxiliary horizon is specified. The horizon can
be either another layer from the model or a horizontal plane of desig-
nated depth or time. The isopach/isochron values are determined by
the difference between the two layers and are always positive.
Alternatively, a single layer from a layer file in depth, time, or veloc-
ity can be used rather than a layer from a model. In this case, differ-
ences are calculated between the primary layer and an auxiliary layer
in depth, time, or velocity. The values associated with the resultant
difference map may be positive or negative.
Upon selecting this choice, you are moved to the Horizon Menu to
specify the auxiliary layer or horizontal plane.
CH Chloropleth map. Use the CH command to generate a chloropleth
map where depth or time values are shown as line contours and the
associated laterally varying active property is displayed as a color
filled contour map underlay. This map display is available only for
model files. The active property may be selected in the Line Display
Menu.
PI Plot Inside closed polygon. Select PI to plot only the contours
within the boundary of a user-specified closed polygon file (QUIK-
DIG defined DPC, DIG or DV3) or an ASCII points file with no
headers where boundary locations are stored northing, easting.
PO Plot Outside closed polygon. Select PO to plot only the contours
outside the boundary of a user-specified closed polygon file (QUIK-
DIG defined DPC, DIG or DV3) or an ASCII points file with no
headers where boundary locations are stored northing, easting.
PC Plot only Closed polygon. Select PC to plot only the boundary of a
user-specified closed polygon file (QUIKDIG defined DPC, DIG or
DV3) or an ASCII points file with no headers where boundary loca-
tions are stored northing, easting.
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Contour Definition Menu
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Menu Commands
Line Display Menu
CI Contour interval value. Using the input box at CI, you can change
the interval value. The number of contours is changed by the pro-
gram and is determined by the contour range. Decreasing the contour
interval increases the number of contour values, and increasing the
contour interval decreases the number of contour values. The maxi-
mum number of contours is 500.
AC Annotate every Nth contour. At the AC command enter a number
designating the lines that are to be annotated. Enter a value of 0 to
indicate no annotation.
IC Initial annotated contour. Enter the value for the initial contour to
be annotated. A default value is shown in the input box at IC.
BC Bold every Nth contour. At the BC command, enter a number des-
ignating the lines that are to be bold. Enter a value of 0 to indicate no
bolding.
IB Initial bold contour. Enter the value for the initial bold contour. A
default value is shown. Every nth line will be bold (as set by the BC
command) after the initial bold line.
GB Gradient blanking. When the map surface becomes very steep (has
a high gradient), contour lines are very close together. To suppress
the display of contour lines in high gradient zones, select GB to
switch from NO to YES. Use the GP command below to control the
amount of gradient blanking. When the GB command is used, only
bold contours are displayed in high gradient zones.
GP Gradient parameter. At the GP command, define the surface gradi-
ent in terms of contour lines per inch or per centimeter. The degree of
blanking will differ when different output scales are used. The gradi-
ent threshold parameter is the maximum number of contour lines per
inch (or centimeter) allowed before gradient blanking occurs. If the
gradient blanking option is not chosen, changing the gradient thresh-
old parameter does not affect the display.
AD Annotation distance. Enter the desired minimum distance between
contour labels in inches or centimeters at the AD command.
APPLY Use current defaults. Selecting APPLY returns you to the Contour
Map Menu.
NL Normal lines color. Select NL to change the color of normal lines.
Depending on whether CL on the Setup Menu is toggled to Graphics
or Alphanumeric, a color palette will be displayed for color selection
or you will be queried for color number.
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BL Bold lines color. Select BL to change the color of bold lines.
Depending on whether CL on the Setup Menu is toggled to Graphics
or Alphanumeric, a color palette will be displayed for color selection
or you will be queried for color number.
HA Hachures. Select HA to access the Hachures Menu. The direction of
hachure marks for closed highs and lows can be changed to point up
slope or down slope. You can also specify that no hachure marks
appear on your plot. The default is no hachure marks.
LT Line thickness. Select LT to change the thickness of lines. Depend-
ing on whether CL on the Setup Menu is toggled to Graphics or
Alphanumeric, you can select a line thickness graphically on the
Graphics window using your cursor or the Line Thickness Choices
Menu will appear. The options for line thickness are light, medium,
or dark. The default line thickness is light.
LP Label position relative to symbol. Use this LP command to change
the label position. It can be specified to be below, above, to the left or
right of the posted data. The default position is below the symbol.
This command is used in conjunction with the Post Data command
on the Contour Map Menu. See the PD command, below.
OR Plot origin. Select OR to switch the plot origin from the NW corner
to the SW corner. This change plots a mirror image (top-to-bottom)
of your map.
TI Axes titles. At the TI command you can change the horizontal and
the vertical axes titles.
PS Primary title annotation size. At the PS command, enter the plot
size of the primary title. The current size is displayed.
AS Axis title annotation size. Use the AS command to change the plot
size of the horizontal and vertical axis annotation. The current size is
displayed.
SS Symbol size. Select SS to change the symbol size of digitized data
points displayed with the PD command.
LS Label size. Select LS to change the label size of digitized data points
displayed with the PD command.
IQ Inquire. Keyboard entry of spatial location returns the value of the
grid.
HB Hardcopy title block. This command toggles between YES and NO.
If YES and a hardcopy plot is generated, the Title Block Menu
appears. (See Title Block Menu). If NO, there will be not be any
title block with the plot.
WD Wellbore display. When you select WD, the Wellbore Parameter
Choices menu appears (see Wellbore Parameter Choices Com-
mands).
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Post Data Menu
Post and Annotation Menu Commands
PR Property. This PR command is used to select the active property for
a model. This command is visible for models only. When a property
is selected, any lateral defined property in the model can be dis-
played by entering a negative number when choosing the layer num-
ber to be plotted (NU)
APPLY Use current defaults. Select APPLY to execute new parameter set-
tings and return to the Contour Map Menu.
RV Restore original values. This RV command is used to restore the
original default values of the above parameters.
PD Post digitized data points. This command toggles between YES
and NO to specify whether a digitized points file will be posted. If
toggle to YES and APPLY is selected, you will be requested to select
a data points file if there is not one associated with the current sur-
face. The Post and Annotation Menu then appears..
PW Post wells. This command toggles between YES and NO. If toggled
to YES and APPLY is selected, you will be prompted to select a well
data file. The Wells Read and Display Parameters Menu appears.
PC Post cultural data. This command toggles between YES and NO.
You enter an ASCII cultural file. See Appendix H for description of
the files contents and format
APPLY Depending on the state of the PD, PW, or PC toggles, when you
select APPLY, you will be presented with a File Selection Window
and an annotation menu. If all three posting toggles are set to YES
then you will first be presented by the File Selection Menu for the
well data file, then the Wells Read and Display Parameters Menu.
After you select APPLY or CANCEL from this menu, you will be
presented with the File Selection Menu for the digitized points data
file and the Post and Annotation menu. After you select APPLY or
CANCEL from this menu, you will finally be presented with the File
Selection Menu for the cultural data file.
CANCEL Select CANCEL to return to the Contour Map menu. No data points
or wells will be posted.
SY Post data points - symbols only. Post only a symbol (+) at each
location.
PA Post and annotate all data points. Post a symbol and Z-value at
each location.
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PO Post and annotate data points - no
overposting allowed. Post a symbol at each location but annotate the
Z-value only when there is no overlap with other Z-values.
CC Color code data points to active range of contour map. Select CC
to color code the posted data points based on the current contour
range of the contour map. This option is available for OpenVision
and Line Contour only. Options only apply to digitized points files.
CANCEL Do not post data points. Ignore posting of digitized data points file.
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Horizon Menu
Wells Read and Display Parameters Menu Commands
LA Another layer. You are prompted for the layer number of the auxil-
iary horizon.
HP Horizontal plane. You are prompted for the depth to time of the hor-
izontal plane.
NH No horizon. Return to the Display Type menu to respecify the dis-
play type.
QD QUIKDIG+ format. If toggled to YES, the file will be read in as a
file in QUIKDIG+ format. The file will have 4 header records, defin-
ing the data file, followed by the data. Order of the data would be
northing, easting, and elevation. If your QUIKDIG+ file had been
edited and well names have been inserted, toggle this option to NO,
set skip headers to 4, and retain free format setting.
FO Format of file. If QD is NO, enter the format of the data in the file.
Default is "*" which is a FORTRAN free format read. At least one
blank should separate each field (northing, easting, elevation, and
well name) and the well name should be enclosed in single
quotation marks. A well name may contain a maximum of 20 charac-
ters.
SK Skip headers. If QD is NO, the parameter will indicate how many
records to skip in the file before reading the data. Zero is the default.
PE Post elevation. This command is a toggle. If YES, the elevation will
be posted above the well symbol.
PW Post wellname. This command is a toggle. If YES, the well name
will be posted below the well symbol.
AS Annotation size. Enter the size for the well text annotation. Default
is .07.
SS Symbol size. Enter the size for the well
symbol. Default is .07.
RP Report after reading wells file. This
command is a toggle. If YES, a report will be generated. At each well
location, the surface value will be generated. If a model is active, for
each layer, the layer (grid) value will be displayed at each well loca-
tion as well as the velocity value.
APPLY Select APPLY to set all parameters and return to the Contour Map
Menu where you can
display the contour map with well
information posted.
CANCEL Select CANCEL to not post wells and return to the Contour Map
Menu.
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Example of a layer with faults displayed using the line contour map option
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Cross Sections
Using the Cross Section (CS) command on the MIMIC+ Main Menu,
you can display any 2D model or any straight vertical cross section
through a 3D model or layer. If the OpenVision display is available,
all 3D models and 2D models defined in 3D space can be displayed in
the visualization tool. The default section from a 3D model or layer is
cut from the northwest corner to the southeast corner of a map. In a
cross section of a layer, depth, time, or velocity is shown as a function
of distance along the section line. In cross sections of models, the
layers may be color-coded by velocity or density.
For a variable velocity property display for time models, an algorithm
computes the velocities that have a gradient and reference a layer or a
datum that is nonzero.
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Flow chart for cross section generation
SPECTRUM CHOICE MENU
LN
MN
HN
XN
LR
MR
HR
XR
NF
Low normal contrast
Medium normal contrast
High normal contrast
Mixed normal contrast
Low reverse contrast
Medium reverse contrast
High reverse contrast
Mixed reverse contrast
No color fill
MIMIC+ MAIN MENU
CS Cross section
ZOOM MENU
HR
VR
CZ
RV
Horizontal (E-W) range
Vertical (Z) range
Cursor-activated zoom
Restore original values
Specify
end
points
CONTOUR MAP MENU
APPLY Plot
Select input LAYER or
MODEL file name
CROSS SECTION MENU
New end points from keyboard
New end points from map view
Title
Section resolution (no of pts)
Zoom
Vertical scale factor
Hardcopy scale
Display parameters
Interpolation
Current graphics device
KE
MV
TI
SR
ZM
VS
HS
DP
IN
CG
MV
ZM
DISPLAY PARAMETER CHOICES
SP
RD
RH
PS
AS
HB
WD
Spectra
Reverse direction of vertical axis

Primary title size
Axis title size
Hardcopy title block ON/OFF
Wellbore display
Restore original values
DP
SP
DO Color code by velocity
COLOR CODE CHOICE
CV
CL
VV
VD
Color code by velocity
Color code by layer
Variable color code by P velocity
Variable color code by density
DO
Models Only

Reverse direction of horizontal axis
RV
OpenVision display OV
APPLY
VG
Variable color code by gradient
Hardcopy
Mode


SO Stepper Option is
SELECTION MENU
SD Select new definition of end points
SD
Get SeisWorks c-s endpoints
SO Stepper option
VS Variable color code by S velocity
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Cross Section Menu
Menu Commands.
SD Select new Definition of end points. If you select this command, the
Selection Menu appears.
TI Title. Enter the desired title for display.
SR Section Resolution. Enter the desired section resolution. The lower the
resolution, the coarser the display.
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ZM Zoom. To enlarge any area of interest, select the ZM command. The
Zoom Menu appears allowing you to select a zoom area by cursor
entry or to directly enter the horizontal and vertical ranges. After
selecting zoom, the parameter setting indicates YES, meaning your
cross section is in zoom mode.
VS Vertical scale factor. To change the vertical scale, enter the desired
factor. The default vertical exaggeration is one unless the map is too
small and the it is reset to fit the graphics window. The scale factor is
saved from plot to plot unless the horizontal or vertical lengths are less
than 0.5 inches. The new plot will be maximized for terminal display.
HS Hardcopy scaling factor. To alter the output scale of your map on a
hardcopy device, input a new map scale at the HS selection box. A
scaling factor of 1:24,000 is entered as 24000. If the output is too large
to be produced on your plotter, use the ZM command to segment your
plot. A hardcopy scale of 1:24000 means 1 hardcopy unit, such as cen-
timeter or inch, will represent 24000 of the same units on the map.
Thus a scale of 1 inch = 10000 feet, set the hardcopy scale to 120000
DP Display parameters. Select the DP command, the Display Parame-
ter Choices Menu.
IN Interpolation. Select the IN command to switch between bilinear and
smooth interpolation modes. The raytracing programs (QUIKRAY+,
QUIKSHOT+, QUIKVSP+ and QUIKCDP+) use algorithms that
incorporate slight model smoothing before calculating the exact point
where rays intersect layers. This improves stability in the calculation of
ray bending (refraction) and amplitudes. The smooth interpolation
option shows you the model as seen by the raytracing algorithm.
SO Stepper option is. Toggle SO On to step through to the next or previ-
ous cross section based on increment, or if the model has a line-trace
definition, the next or previous line or trace. The following graphics
buttons on the display allow you to make a selection:
NEXT- Computes the next cross section line based on the specified
increment. MB2 emulates this command.
PREV- Computes the previous cross section line based on the speci-
fied increment. MB3 emulates this command.
INCREMENT- Allows you to set the orthogonal distance beween
cross section lines.
ORTHOGONAL- Computes the cross section line perpendicular to
the current cross section line.
C-S MENU- Allows you to bring up the cross section menu and make
any changes to the display parameters.
ZOOM- Allows you to graphically select an area using MB1-Drag.
CANCEL- Exits the cross section display.
OV OpenVision display. This command is available only if
OpenVision is active. When you click on OV, the OpenVision Cross
Section Menu appears. .
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CG Current graphics device. Use the CG command to toggle between
the MIMIC+ Graphics Window and a hardcopy printer..
APPLY Select APPLY to plot a cross section after setting all defaults. If the
display is variable color code by velocity or density, you will be able to
set the minimum and maximum value, the contour interval, or reset to
original values using the Variable Property Contour Definition Menu.
CANCEL Select CANCEL to return to the previous MIMIC+ menu.
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Selection Menu Commands
Display Parameter Choices Menu
KE New end points from keyboard. To enter end points using the com-
mand prompt, select the KE command, and when prompted, enter the
coordinates for the two end points. If the ZOOM command was used
prior to using the KE command, the ranges are reset to those of the
original map.
MV New endpoints from map view. To select end points from a map
view, use the MV command. The Contour Map Menu appears.
Choose a color-fill or a line contour map. Select APPLY. After the
contour map of your model or layer is displayed, you are prompted to
specify the first point. Move your pointer to the first location and
click to select it. After specifying the second point, you are prompted
to confirm the desired orientation.
If you say No, you must repeat the process. Your first selection will
remain as a white line. Upon responding Yes, the Cross Section
Menu returns. Select APPLY and a new map view is displayed. If the
ZOOM command was used prior to entering the MV command, the
ranges are reset to those of the original map.
Get SeisWorks c-s endpoints. If SeisWorks software is running
and this option is selected, you have 30 seconds to select a cross sec-
tion.
Because SeisWorks software uses a rectanglular area to return end-
points, you may get a set of diagonal corners from the SeisWorks
map, depending on the box size. We recommend using a long, nar-
row rectangular box, or if possible overlay the box, so that it looks
like a line. This will usually provide the return of the correct cross
section line.
SP Spectra. Select the SP command to change the color spectrum.
Depending on whether CL on the Setup Menu is toggled to Graphics
or Alphanumeric, you will be presented with a Color Spectrum palette
on the Graphics window or the Spectrum Choice Menu. This menu
gives you the following choices: Low, medium, or high normal con-
trast; mixed normal contrast; low, medium, or high reverse contrast;
mixed reverse contrast; or no color fill.
The default color spectrum for velocity is low contrast, and the default
for layer is mixed contrast. If you toggle the color-fill option to NO,
inter-layer areas are not color filled .The mixed color spectra for CS
and P3 (3D perspective plots) use the same color coding for each layer.
RD Reverse direction of vertical axis. Use the RD command to switch
the current vertical axis direction. This command default is displayed
as NO. When set to YES, the direction of the vertical axis is reversed.
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RH Reverse direction of horizontal axis. Use the RH command to switch
the current horizontal axis direction. This command default is dis-
played as NO. When set to YES, the direction of the horizontal axis is
reversed.
TI Axis Titles. When you select this command, the Title Display Menu
appears..
PS Primary title size. Enter the size of the primary title at the PS input
box. The current size is shown as the default.
AS Axis title size. Enter the size of the horizontal and
vertical axes titles at the AS command. The current size is shown as the
default.
DO Display option. For models, the DO command allows you to select the
type of cross section to be displayed from the Color Code Choices
menu. Color coding can be based on velocity, layer number, a variable
velocity, density, or gradient range with a specified contour interval.
If layer velocity is defined by a lateral velocity map (CV), the velocity
noted on the color bar is the average of the minimum and maximum
velocity in the map, and the number is labeled as VAR. If vertical
velocity gradients are nonzero, the color bar is annotated with the gra-
dient value. The DO command is only available on this menu when
you are plotting a model file.
HB Hardcopy title block. This command toggles between YES and NO. If
YES and a hardcopy plot is generated, the Title Block Menu appears. If
NO, there will be not be any title block with the plot.
WD Wellbore Display. When you select WD, the Wellbore Parameter
Choices menu appears.
RV Select the RV command to return the parameter
values to the original settings.
APPLY Select APPLY to accept the new parameter settings and return to the
Cross Section Menu.
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Stepper Option Menu
NEXT Computes the next cross section line based on the specified incre-
ment. MB2 emulates this command.
PREV Computes the previous cross section line based on the specified
increment. MB3
emulates this command.
INCREMENT Allows you to set the orthogonal distance between cross section
lines.
PROPERTY Allows you to select another property from the model file.
NORTH-SOUTH Lets you select a point with a north-south orientation from that
point.
EAST-WEST Lets you select a point with an east-west orientation from that point.
ORTHOGONAL Computes the cross section line perpendicular to the current cross
section line.
C-S MENU Allows you to bring up the cross section menu and make any
changes to the display parameters.
ZOOM Allows you to graphically select an area using MB1-Drag.
REPORT Allows you to select a layer number from the model and generate a
report for the specified layer.
HELP Provides help for the Stepper Option Menu.
CANCEL Exits the cross section display.
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Title Display Menu Commands
A cross section (a) color-coded by velocity, and (b) color-coded by layer number.
HT Horizontal axis title. Select HT to change the title of the horizontal
axis. The current title is shown as the default.
VT Vertical axis title. Select VT to change the title of the vertical axis.
The current title is shown as the default.
SB SideBar title. Select SB to enter the title of the sidebar on the right
side of the plot. The current title is shown as the default.
PF Plot Filename. Select PF to plot the filename of the active file for
informational purposes. The position of the filename text will vary
from display to display.
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3D Perspective Plots
Models or layers can be displayed as a 3D perspective plot or a 3D
visualization plot using OpenVision software. If OpenVision
software is active, all 3D displays will be plotted in the OpenVision
graphics area.
Both 2D and 3D models can be viewed using the P3 option.
3D models and layers can be viewed as a set of elevation lines along
parallel planes, the default, or as a perspective with contour lines. To
change from parallel to contour lines, select the Surface Display (SD)
command from the Perspective Plot Menu, then at the Surface Display
Menu select the Display Type (DT) command and toggle to contour. If
this command does not appear, your file is probably 2D.
A 2D depth model display using the P3 option
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Perspective Plot Menu
WD
HB
PERSPECTIVE PLOT MENU
Viewing angles (T,P)
Vertical scale factor
Overall scale factor
Surface sampling
Plot position (H,V)
Title
Plot boundaries
Color parameters
Surface display
Current graphics device
VA
VS
OS
SS
PP
TI
PB
CP
SD
CG
MIMIC+ MAIN MENU
P3 3D perspective plot
COLOR SELECTION MENU
Surface outline color
Surface color
North arrow color
P3 axis color
Background (hardcopy only)
SO
SC
NC
PC
BG
SD
(3D)
SD
2D SURFACE DISPLAY MENU
IM
RD
LT
ZT
Impedance Mask
Reverse display of z axis
Line thickness
Z title
Wellbore display
Select input LAYER or
MODEL file name:
APPLY
CI
CP
MASK TYPE
SELECTION MENU
HM
CM
NM
Hidden line mask
Color mask
No mask
MT
DT
MT
CI
IM
RD
LT
ZT
WD
Display type
Mask type
Contour interval
Impedance mask
Reverse display of z axis
Line thickness
Z title
Wellbore display
(contour only)
(parallel only)
3D SURFACE DISPLAY MENU
CONTOUR DEFINITION MENU
CI

GB
GP
Change interval value
- number of contours
Gradient blanking
Gradient parameter
Hardcopy title block ON/OFF
(2D)
HB Hardcopy title block ON/OFF
OpenVision display OV
PF Plot filename
LS Line-trace survey is
PF Plot filename
SL
LC
Current selected layer is
And selected layers color is
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Menu Commands
VA Viewing angles (T, P) To change the viewing angle of your plot,
enter the values for theta and phi (T, P) at the VA input boxes. Theta
is the vertical reference angle (-90<theta<90). If theta is positive, the
viewing angle is above the horizontal. If theta is negative, the view-
ing angle is below the horizontal. Phi is the horizontal reference
angle (-180<phi<180). Positive phi rotates the model clockwise, and
negative phi rotates the model counterclockwise. Zero phi gives a
view looking due north. A viewing angle of 90, 0 (looking straight
down) changes the display to a contour ma
VS Vertical scale factor The program default vertical scale is unity (a
factor of 1), which gives a correct one-to-one scale for any depth map
or model even if the units differ in vertical and horizontal directions.
To increase or decrease the vertical relief, enter a new value at the VS
input box. Automatic display clipping occurs when the display size
exceeds the plot window.
OS Overall scale factor Use the OS command to increase or decrease
the size of a plot, enter an overall scale factor. The default is set at
one-to-one. This option is like a software zoom, where the zoom is
centered on the origin of rotation. Automatic display clipping occurs
when the display exceeds the plot window.
SS Surface sampling At the SS command enter how you wish to sam-
ple grid lines. A value of 1 means that MIMIC+ uses every grid point
in both N-S and E-W directions. A value of 2 plots every other grid
point. The larger the number, the fewer lines plotted, the greater the
plotting speed, and the lower the resolution of the plot.
PP Plot position (H, V) To change the horizontal and vertical position
of the center of rotation, use the PP command. Enter the new coordi-
nates for the horizontal and vertical point of rotation in inches (or
centimeters). The default center coordinates are 5.0, 5.5 inches (12.7,
13.97 centimeters). Use this option together with the OS command
to enlarge the view of a section of a model or layer. To move the plot
to the left, decrease the horizontal coordinate; to move the plot down,
decrease the vertical coordinate.
TI Title Enter a title for your plot (limited to 50 characters). The default
title is from the model or layer descriptor.
PB Plot boundaries. To plot selected layers from a model, select the PB
command. The program prompts you to enter the number of layers to
plot, then to identify the layer numbers. The default for a model is to
plot all layers. If a layer file has been entered, this option is ignored
since only one layer is present.
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CP Color parameters Select the CP command to display the Color
Selection Menu. From this menu you can change the colors of: the
surface outline, surface color, north arrow, P3 axis and background
color (hardcopy).
You change colors by entering color numbers or selecting a color
from a color palette depending on whether you have toggled CL on
the Setup Menu to Graphics or Alphanumeric. The commands at the
bottom of the menu permit you to define the color of an individual
layer.
SD Surface display. To change the surface display, select the SD com-
mand. One of two Surface Display Menus is displayed, one for 3D
maps and another for 2D maps. See Surface Display for 3D Per-
spective Plots for detailed information on both Surface Display
Menus.
OV OpenVision display. This command is available only if OpenVi-
sion software is active. When you select OV, the OpenVision
Perspective Plot Menu appears.
CG Current graphics device. Use the CG command to toggle between
the MIMIC+ Graphics Window and a hardcopy printer.
APPLY Select APPLY to produce a 3D perspective plot after setting all
defaults.
CANCEL Select CANCEL to return to the previous MIMIC+ menu.
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Definition of viewing angles (Theta, Phi) for 3D perspective plots
1) Theta ( ), vertical view angle -90 < < + 90, = 0 is horizontal.

2) Phi ( ), horizontal view angle -180 < < + 180, = 0 is south
looking north.

3) To view in contour map form, set = 90 and = 0.

4) The only allowed view for 2D data is a cross section,
where = = 0.
E-W
N-S
+
-
Notes:
+
MIMIC+ Software Reference Guide Landmark
210 Output from MIMIC+ Software Release 5000.0.0
A model displayed as a 3D perspective with parallel lines. It has no masking, and
angles of: Theta = 10, Phi = 140
A layer displayed as a 3D perspective with contour lines
Surface Display for 3D Perspective Plots
3D surfaces can be displayed in 3D Perspective as a set of elevation
lines on parallel planes or as a perspective view of contour lines.
To change the surface display parameters for either 2D or 3D layers or
models, select the SD command from the Perspective Plot Menu.
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Surface Display Menu (for 3D files) commands
:
DT Display type. This command switches you between two display types:
contour or parallel. Using the contour option displays contour lines
superimposed on the surface background. The parallel option displays
lines connecting the grid nodes on the surface background.
MT Mask type. Select the MT command to reach the Mask Type
Selection Menu. Regardless of whether your model has contour or par-
allel lines, you can control your model's background with one of these
choices: hidden line, color, no mask.
CI Contour interval. After you select the CI command the Contour Defi-
nition Menu appears. These parameters only apply when a plot of con-
tour lines is displayed.
IM Impedance masking selected. The IM command is a switch. You turn
on masking, by switching to YES. This suppresses display of any sur-
face or portion of a surface that in raytracing does not cause ray bend-
ing or ray reflection. This can occur when there is no acoustic
impedance contrast across the boundary or when the boundary has
pinched out above or below. The default is NO.
LT Line thickness. Use the LT command to change the thickness of lines.
Depending on whether CL on the Setup Menu is toggled to Graphics
or Alphanumeric, you can select a line thickness graphically on the
Graphics window using your cursor or the Line Thickness Choices
Menu will appear. The options for line thickness are light, medium, or
dark. The default line thickness is light.
ZT Z title. Enter the title of the vertical axis at the ZT command There is a
maximum of 6 characters.
HB Hardcopy title block. This command toggles between YES and NO.
If YES and a hardcopy plot is generated, the Title Block Menu will be
presented to you. If NO, there will not be any title block with the plot.
WD Wellbore Display. When you select WD, the Wellbore Parameter
Choices menu appears.
LS Line-trace survey is. Toggle On or Off for plotting the survey geome-
try outline. If On, you can set up for minimum annotation of the geom-
etry.
RD Reverse display of z axis. The RD command is a toggle. Select the
RD command to reverse the direction of the z axis. When set to YES,
the direction of the z axis is reversed.
PF Plot filename. Select PF to plot the filename of the active file for
informational purposes. The position of the filename text will vary
from display to display.
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212 Output from MIMIC+ Software Release 5000.0.0
Mask Type Selection Menu
APPLY Select APPLY to accept the current parameters and return to the Per-
spective Plot Menu.
HM Hidden line mask. Two processes create this type of plot: color ele-
vation or contour lines are drawn with black fill between them, and
the foreground erases (masks or hides) any overlapped background.
Masking may slow the plotting speed.
CM Color mask. Black contour or elevation lines are drawn on a colored
surface where the foreground masks the background.
NM No mask. Color contour or elevation lines are drawn on black, and
foreground does not mask background. This creates a transparent
surface where background can be seen through overlapping fore-
ground. Plotting is much faster without masking.
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Contour Definition Menu
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214 Output from MIMIC+ Software Release 5000.0.0
Contour Definition Menu
Surface Display Menu (for 2D files)
CI Change interval value. Use CI to change the interval value. The
number of contour values represented by lines on a map is deter-
mined by the minimum contour value, the contour interval, and the
maximum contour value. Decreasing the contour interval increases
the number of contour values, and increasing the contour interval
decreases the number of contour values.
GB Gradient blanking. The GB command is a toggle. Default is set at
NO. When the map surface becomes very steep (has a high gradient),
contour lines come very close together. To suppress the display of
contour lines in high gradient zones, select the GB command. Use
the GP command to control the amount of gradient blanking. When
the GB command is used, only bold contour lines are displayed in
high gradient zones.
GP Gradient parameter. The surface gradient is defined in terms of
contour lines per inch or centimeter. The degree of blanking differs
when different output scales are used. The gradient threshold param-
eter is the maximum number of contour lines per inch (or centimeter)
allowed before gradient blanking occurs. If the gradient blanking
option is not chosen, changing the gradient threshold parameter does
not affect the display. Enter the desired gradient parameter value in
the text field.
APPLY Accept current parameters. Selecting APPLY returns you to the
Surface Display Menu.
IM Impedance masking selected. The IM command is a switch. You turn
on masking, by switching to YES. This suppresses display of any
surface or portion of a surface that in raytracing does not cause ray
bending or ray reflection. This can occur when there is no acoustic
impedance contrast across the boundary or when the boundary has
pinched out above or below. The default is NO.
LT Line thickness. Use the LT command to change the thickness of
lines. Depending on whether CL on the Setup Menu is toggled to
Graphics or Alphanumeric, you can select a line thickness graphi-
cally on the Graphics window using your cursor or the Line Thick-
ness Choices Menu will appear. The options for line thickness are
light, medium, or dark. The default line thickness is light.
ZT Z title. Enter the title of the vertical axis at the ZT command. There
is a maximum of 6 characters allowed.
HB Hardcopy title block. This command toggles between YES and NO.
If YES and a hardcopy plot is generated, the Title Block Menu will
be presented to you. If NO, there will not be any title block with the
plot.
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WD Wellbore display. When you select WD, the Wellbore Parameter
Choices menu appears (see Wellbore Parameter Choices Com-
mands).
RD Reverse display of z axis. Use this RD command to reverse the
direction of the Z axis. This command is a YES/NO switch. When set
to YES, the direction of the Z axis is reversed.
PF Plot filename. Select PF to plot the filename of the active file for
informational purposes. The position of the filename text will vary
from display to display.
APPLY Accept current parameters. Selecting APPLY returns you to the
Perspective Plot Menu.
MIMIC+ Software Reference Guide Landmark
216 Output from MIMIC+ Software Release 5000.0.0
Title Block
When a

graphics display is plotted on a hardcopy device, a title block is
also created if there is available space on the hardcopy plot. This title
block contains a main title, a secondary title, graphics attributes,
program name, file name, date created, and your company name. After
a hardcopy plot is created, the Title Block Menu appears, if the
hardcopy title block option was toggled ON.
Title Block Menu
CN Company name. Select CN to change the company name. A maxi-
mum of 30 characters is allowed.
MT Main title. The main title will be the same as the plot title, unless
changed.
LS Lines of secondary titles. Several lines are available for secondary
titles. This number varies, but a prompt appears that gives you the
exact number allowed. A hyphen (-) will terminate entry. If you wish
to continue, enter an asterisk (*) to reinitialize entry.
LT List lines of secondary titles. List the currently defined text in the
secondary titles.
CANCEL Return - ignore title block. If you select CANCEL, no title block
will appear on your hardcopy.
APPLY Select APPLY to create the title block using the current settings.
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Reports
Using the Report (RP) command on the MIMIC+ Main Menu, you can
display information about layers or models. When you select the file
name, a report is displayed on the screen. Information for reports is
taken from the file of the layer or model being reported on. Reports,
including data points, are in alphanumeric format and can be written to
disk for archival purposes or for making hard copies. Data points added
to reports are alphanumeric and are in fixed field, 80 character records
that can be transported to different host computers. All reports are in
user-defined coordinate systems. The data in formatted layer or model
files are in MIMIC+ internal units.
Layer Reports Menu
Select RP to display a file selection window is displayed. The default
file for file selection is *.MOD (for model files). To select a layer file,
change the filter to *.DEP, *.TIM, or *.VEL. The following
information is displayed:
File name
Layer description
How created, e.g., FORMS
Date and time created
Length in N-S direction
Length in E-W direction
Minimum and maximum Z-values
Number of grid units in the N-S and E-W directions
Grid unit spacing (N-S and E-W)
Map units (feet, kilofeet, meters, or kilometers)
SW and NE coordinates for maps or the starting and ending
coordinates for 2D Layer type (depth, time, or velocity)
Type and units for Z-axis
Number of faults
MIMIC+ Software Reference Guide Landmark
218 Output from MIMIC+ Software Release 5000.0.0
After the model report is displayed, the Report Menu appears.
Layer file name is FALT1.LAY
Descriptor is LAY W 2 FLTS
Created from: GRIDDED FROM FAULT.DAT
Created on: 23-AUG-1985 10:38
Lengths: N-S,E-W direction 10.000 10.000
Minimum,maximum of Z 39.717 116.678
NX(N-S),NY(E-W) 50 50
DX(N-S),DY(E-W) 0.204 0.204
Map coordinates are KILOFEET
Lower left map coordinates (N-S,E-W) = 10.000 0.000
Upper right map coordinates (N-S,E-W) = 0.000 10.000
Layer type is DEPTH
DEPTH Units are FEET
Number of faults = 2
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Report Menu (for Layers)
WR Write report to a disk file. A report file can be written to disk for
archival purposes or for hard copy. You can specify that layer points be
added to the report. A subset of the points can be specified. If you do
not decimate the data, the entire layer file is written to disk. Data
points are written as alphanumeric, fixed field, 80 character records.
WF Write formatted layer file to disk. Select the WF command to write
a formatted layer file to disk. The data in a formatted file is stored as
alphanumeric, fixed field, 80 byte records enabling you to transfer the
file to different host computers. Data is stored in MIMIC+ internal
units.
WG Write out layer grid as a digitized points file. Select WG to write
out a digitized points file in Sierra format. Data is in user coordinates
and order of data is northing, easting, z.
CANCEL Select CANCEL to return to the previous menu.
Line
No.
1 *( 10) *MIMIC+ LAYER FILE
2 MIMIC+ depth layer
3 GRIDDED FROM D3LAY.DIG
4 REVISION+2.2
5 3780.0002 330.0000 3798.0000 350.0000 2 4 0 0
6 101 101 1 10 1 325940832
7 0.18000 0.20000 1.96073 -1.96073 -1.36383
8 -0.1818307E+01 -0.1814546E+01 -0.1810778E+01 -0.1807037E+01 -0.1803268E
9 -0.1799424E+01 -0.1795509E+01 -0.1791520E+01 -0.1787403E+01 -
0.1783107E
10 -0.1778628E+01 -0.1773954E+01 -0.1769049E+01 -0.1763881E+01 -
0.1758459E
. . . . . .
. . . . . .
. . . . . .
2131 21
2132 8 16 28 40 49 56 67 75 83 90 104 110 121 128 153 185 218 231
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220 Output from MIMIC+ Software Release 5000.0.0
A formatted layer file, where:
Line No. Description
1 Positive file identifier (80 characters)
2 Layer file descriptor (80 characters)
3 Generation descriptor (80 characters)
4 Program Revision Number (Internal) (80 characters)
5 Map coordinates: lower left (X,Y), upper right (X, Y); Z axis def-
inition: 1 = negative down, 2 = positive down; Z unit definition:
1 = kilometers, 2 = kilofeet, 3 = meters, 4 = feet; if velocity: 1 =
kilometers/second, 2 = kilofeet/second, 3 = meters/second, 4 =
feet/second; if time ignored; for time layers, time unit definition:
1 = seconds, 2 = milliseconds; (2F10.0,10x,2F10.5, 3I5)
6 Number of grids in N-S direction; Number of grid points in E-W
direction; Unused variable; Layer type: 10 = depth, 12 = time, 14
= velocity; Map units definition: 1 = kilometers, 2 = kilofeet, 3 =
meters, 4 = feet; Internal Date stamp; (5I5, I12)
7 Distance between grid points in N-S direction; Distance between
grid points in E-W direction; Absolute maximum of
depth/time/velocity; Minimum Z value of layer; Maximum Z
value of layer; (5F10.5)
8 Data Points: Number of grids in N-S direction * Number of grids
in E-W direction. N-S grid points increase faster than E-W (col-
umn 5E16.7)
FAULT TRACES
2131 Number of Faults
(I5)
2132 Pointers to fault traces. Number signifies the position of the last
set of data points
(18I4)
2134 Fault points (N-S, E-W pairs)
(4E15.7)
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Model Report Menu
Select the RP command from the MIMIC+ Main Menu and the model
file name file using the File Selection Window. An example of a model
report is shown in Figure . The following information is displayed:
File name
Model descriptor
Date and time created
Length in N-S direction
Length in E-W direction
Number of layers
Minimum and maximum Z-values for model
Number of grid units in the N-S and E-W directions
Grid unit spacing (DN-S and DE-W)
Map units (feet, kilofeet, meters, or kilometers)
Southwest and northeast coordinates for 3D models, and the
starting and ending coordinates for 2D layers defined in 3D space;
otherwise the distance or length of 2D layer.
Model type (depth or time)
Type and units for Z-axis
Number of faults, if any (for all layers in the model)
MIMIC+ Software Reference Guide Landmark
222 Output from MIMIC+ Software Release 5000.0.0
A model report
After the model report is displayed, the Report Menu appears.

Model File name: BASIN.MOD
Descriptor is BASIN MODEL
Created on: 25-JAN-1985 16:57
Lengths: N-S, E-W direction 19.998 19.998
Number of layers 5
Minimum,maximum of Z -9.000 0.000
NX(N-S),NY(E-W) 100 100
DX(N-S),DY(E-W) 0.202 0.202
Map coordinates are KILOFEET
Lower left map coordinates (N-S,E-W) = 19.998 0.000
Upper right map coordinates (N-S,E-W) = 0.000 19.998
Model type is DEPTH
DEPTH Units are KILOFEET
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Menu Commands
WR Write report to a disk file. A report file can be written to disk for
archival purposes or for hard copy. The file that is sent to disk also
includes a table of physical properties, layer header information, and
variable velocity header information where applicable. An example of
a model report display is shown in Figure . You can specify that layer
points be added to the report. A subset of the points can be specified. If
you do not decimate the data, the entire model file is written to disk.
Data points are written in alphanumeric, fixed field, 80 character
records.
DI Display table of physical properties. Select the DI command to dis-
play a table of physical properties for your model. Physical properties
are listed by layer number, and include the half-space.
WF Write formatted model file to disk. Select the WF command to write
a formatted model file to disk. The data in a formatted file is stored as
alphanumeric, fixed field, 80 byte records enabling you to transfer the
file to different host computers. Data is stored in MIMIC+ internal
units.
CANCEL Select CANCEL to return to the previous MIMIC+ menu.
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224 Output from MIMIC+ Software Release 5000.0.0
******** PHYSICAL PROPERTIES & DEPTHS *********
NO. VP VS VG S/P RHO Q-VP Q-VS ZMIN ZMAX CDEP
1 8.000 4.619 0.000 0.577 2.100 107 47 -2.632 0.000 0.000
2 7.000 4.041 0.000 0.577 2.000 82 36 -3.532 0.000 0.000
3 VARIES VARIES 0.000 0.532 VARIES 174 77 -5.974 -1.243 0.700
4 12.000 6.928 0.000 0.577 2.400 254 113 -7.580 -3.473 0.725
5 15.000 8.660 0.000 0.577 2.500 406 180 -9.000 -7.000 0.000
HS 18.000 10.392 0.577 2.600 601 267
*** Variable Velocity Maximum & Minimum ***
Associated layer number Vmin Vmax
3 9.328 11.063
*** Variable Density Maximum & Minimum ***
Associated layer number Dmin Dmax
3 2.133 2.339
KEY: NO. = Layer Number
VP = P-wave velocity
VS = S-wave velocity
VG = Vertical velocity gradient
S/P = Ratio of VS to VP
Rho = Density in gm/cm
3
Q-VP = P-wave seismic quality factor
Q-VS = S-wave seismic quality factor
ZMIN = Minimum depth, time or velocity
ZMAX= Maximum depth, time or velocity
CDEP = Vertical shift of layer upon entry into the
model with respect to its default values.
HS = Half space
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A formatted model file
LINE
NO.
1 *( 0)*MIMIC
+
MODEL FILE
2 MIMIC+ DEPTH MODEL
3 REVISION+2.2
4
5
6 10.0000 0.0000 0.0000 10.0000 2 4 0 0
7 50 50 5 2 513861028 0 0 0
8 0.20408 0.20408 5.00518 20.00000 0.57735 2.73436 776.20 .344.98
9 -1.00000 -1.00000 -1.00000 -1.00000 -1.00000 -1.00000 -1.00 -1.00
10 LAY W 2 FLTS
11 GRIDDED FROM FAULT.DAT
12 0.00000 0.00000 00
13 823851038 0
14 -0.11668 -0.03972 11.00000 0.57735 2.35476 0.00000 212.65 94.51
15 -1.00000 -1.00000 -1.00000 -1.00000 -1.00000 -1.00000 -1.00 -1.00
16 LAY W/3 FLTS
17 GRIDDED FROM FALT2.DAT
18 0.00000 0.00000 00
19 823851038 0
20 -2.00518 -1.92822 12.00000 0.57735 2.40654 -1.88850 255.58 113.59
21 -1.00000 -1.00000 -1.00000 -1.00000 -1.00000 -1.00000 -1.00 -1.00
. . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . .
34 LAYW/4 FLTS
35 GRIDDED FROM FALT5.DAT
36 0.00000 0.00000 00
37 823851039 0
38 -5.00518 -4.92822 15.00000 0.57735 2.54461 -4.88850 413.05 183.58
39 -1.00000 -1.00000 -1.00000 -1.00000 -1.00000 -1.00000 -1.00 -1.00
40 -0.1114981E+00 -0.1093904E+00 -0.1075395E+00 -0.1059453E+00 -0.1046077E+00
41 -0.1035269E+00 -0.1027033E+00 -0.1020933E+00 -0.1015745E+00 -0.1010745E+00
42 -0.1005746E+00 -0.1000955E+00 -0.9989925E-01 -0.9962049E-01 -0.9928688E-01
43 -0.9919678E-01 -0.9910122E-01 -0.1020479E+00 -0.1009630E+00 -0.1015094E+00
. . . . . .
. . . . . .
. . . . . .
2536 -0.4975330E+01 -0.4973321E+01 -0.4971580E+01 -0.4970114E+01 -
0.4969050E+01
2537 -0.4968005E+01 -0.4967616E+01 -0.4967916E+01 -0.4968415E+01 -
0.4968647E+01
2538 -0.4968587E+01 -0.4968508E+01 -0.4968302E+01 -0.4967906E+01 -
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226 Output from MIMIC+ Software Release 5000.0.0
LINE NO. DESCRIPTION
1 Positive file identifier
2 Model file descriptor (up to 80 characters)
3 Program revision number
4 Model modification descriptor (up to 80 characters)
5 Model modification descriptor (up to 80 characters)
6 Map coordinates: lower left (X,Y), upper right (X,Y); Z axis
definition: 1 = negative down, 2 = positive down; Z unit definition:
1 = kilometers, 2 = kilofeet, 3 = meters, 4 = feet; Time unit
variable: 1 = seconds, 2 = milliseconds, 0 for non-time files;
Undefined
7 Number of grid points in N-S direction; Number of grid
points in E-W direction; Number of layers in model; Map
units: l = kilometers, 2 = kilofeet, 3 = meters, 4 = feet;
Date and time of model creation; Model type: 0 = depth,
2 = time; Number of variable velocity files; Velocity
layer numbers
8 Distance between grid points in N-S direction (N-S); Distance
between grid points in E-W direction (E-W); Absolute maximum
of depth/time of model; P-wave velocity (constant only)
for half-space; S/P velocity ratio for half-space; Density for
half-space;P-wave quality factor for half-space; S-wave
quality factor for half-space
9 Dummy variables (not used in processing)
LAYER INFORMATION (repeated for each layer)
10, 16, 34 Layer file descriptor (up to 80 characters)
11, 17, 35 Where file was created (GR, FO, etc.)
12, 18, 36 Vertical velocity gradient; Reference plane depth;
Reference plane pointer if greater than 0, Truncation characteristic.
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13, 19, 37 Date and time velocity layer was created
Variable velocity pointer if greater than 0.
14, 20, 38 Minimum depth/time of layer; Maximum depth/time of layer;
Constant P-wave velocity; S/P velocity ratio; Layer
density; Amount depth was raised or lowered when layer
was entered into model; P-wave quality factor;
S-wave quality factor
15, 21, 39 Dummy variables (not used in processing)
DATA POINTS
40 to 2539 Data points:
number of N-S grid points by number of E-W grid points by number
of layers. N-S grid points increase faster than E-W.
FAULT TRACES
2540 Number of faults
2541 Pointers to fault traces. Number signifies the position
of the last set of data points.
2542 Indicates the number of faults in model, by layers.
The number for each new layer is the accumulative total of faults.
2543 to
2583
Data points for fault traces
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228 Output from MIMIC+ Software Release 5000.0.0
Disk File Output
Intermediate and final results of the modeling process are saved as disk
files. There are nine types of data files output from the MIMIC+
program. The data in these files consist of time or depth layers, velocity
maps, formatted and unformatted models, and reports.
The following data file types are output from the MIMIC+
software
.
MIMIC+
OUTPUT
FILE TYPE
OUTPUT
USING
COMMANDS
FILE CONTENT
DESCRIPTION
Time or Depth Layer
(unformatted)
L, LC Single geologic inter-
face; basic component of
model
Velocity Layer
(unformatted)
L, LC Velocity information for
a single geologic inter-
face
Density Layer
(unformatted)
L, LC Density information for
a
single geologic interface
Vertical Velocity Gra-
dient Layer
(unformatted)
L, LC Vertical velocity gradient
information for a
single geologic interface
Layer (formatted) RP Single geologic inter-
face; basic component of
model
Model (unformatted) M, MC, M2 Ordered set of time or
depth layers, including
velocity, density and
seismic quality factors
for each layer
Model (formatted) RP Ordered set of time or
depth layers, including
velocity, density and
seismic quality factors
for each layer
Report RP Header information for a
layer or model file with
subset of depth values
Size DS Memory configuration
for application startup
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Index
Numerics
2D
adding time or depth layer 157
editing example 141-143
maximum depth/time 135
2D model
creating 132
creation from 3D 126
2D Model Editor 140
2D modeling 129-130
3D
contour interval 211
surface display 210
vertical scale factor 207
viewing angles 207
3D Graphics Fault Edit Menus 59
3D Graphics Point Edit Menu 57
3D Map Edit Menu 55
A
adding
2D layer 136
layer 123
annotation, contour maps 190
annotation, primry title 191
axis 201, 202
B
batch mode 21, 23
building fault model 124-126
C
Contour Definition Menu 189
contour interval
3D 211
Contour Map Menu 173
contour map
color fill 169
definition 4
line 183
Contour Map Menu (Color Fill) 172
Contour Map Menu (Line) 184
coordinate system description 5
D
deleting
2D layer 136
layer 123
layers from 2D models 160
Density Options menu 158
density value 95
depth-to-time conversion 113
digital map
3D layer 26
definition 4
digitized file, adding to 2D file 151
display
2D model information 136
3D 211
contour map 169
contour map mode 185
cross section map 196
model layer information 124
reverse Z axis 211
Display Type Menu 175, 187
E
exchanging layer 123
F
file types 8-11
files
color Spectrum 8
data size 8
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depth maps 8
digitized points 8
grid edit patch 9
LOG 9
prespecified layers 9
property layer 10
report 10
time layer 10
Wellbore 10
Wells 11
window report 10
fitting a curve 156
Forms Shape Command Menu 34
G
General Display Menu 178
geometric forms, build example 39
geometric shapes 34
gradient blanking 190, 214
graphics
2D
deleting data points 141
fit points 140
layer 136
velocity 141
enter data points 151
fault edit 59
grid editing 71-80
INQUIRE command 140
map edit 54-56
map edit exercise 62
point edit 57, 59
Grid Edit Patch Definition Choices Menu
74
Grid Operations Command Menu 80
gridding
3D layers 42
prespecified files 4- 46
surface 56, 58, 60, 79
H
hachures contour map 191
hardcopy
title block 216
header correction
2D model 164
layer 51
model 113, 115-117
I
impedance 95
impedance masking for 2D 214
impedance masking for 3D 211
interpolation
2D data points 148
contour map 173
cross section map 199
layer 51
model 113, 114
isopach/isochron 175, 187
L
layer
2D 134
3D 26
definition 4
handling of 96
modification 49
pinchout 96
setup menu 27
smooth 51
Layer Command Menu 30
Layer files 9
Layer Setup Menu 28
Layer Smoothing Choice Menu 86
layers, relationship between 37
Line Display Menu 190
LOG command 22
M
Main Menu Commands 14
map
2D map resolution 134
parameters 101
resolution values 101
Map Editing menu 71
map resolution, 2D 134
menus
Landmark MIMIC+ Software User Guide
Release 5000.0.0 Index 231
2D Layer Input 150
2D Model Editor 136
2D Model Editor Color Display 136
2D Model Initialization 133
3D Graphics Fault Edit 59
3D Graphics Point Edit 57
3D Map Edit 55
Color Selection 208
Contour Definition 190, 211
Contour Map 170
Contour Map (Color Fill) 172
Contour Map (Line) 184
Density Options 105, 158
Density Options menu 119
Display 190
Display Parameter Choices 201
Display Type 175, 187
entry 13
Fault Edit 59
Fault Segment 59, 61
Forms Shape 34
Forms Shape Command 34
General Display 178
Grid Edit Contour Data Definition 76
Grid Edit Flow Choice B 77
Grid Edit Flow Choice C 79
Grid Edit Patch Definition 74
Grid Edit Patch Definition Choices 75
Grid Operations Command 80
Horizon 176
Layer Command 30, 34
Layer Correction Command 49
Layer Entry 104, 157, 158
Layer Header Correction 52
Layer Setup 28
Layer Smoothing 86
Layer Smoothing Choice 86
Map Edit 54, 71
Mask Type Selection 211
Model Correction Command 112
Model Header Correction 115
Multiple Grid Operation Command 89
Perspective Plot 206
Physical Property 118
Post and Annotation 181
Post Data 181, 192
Prespecified Layer Option 46
Setup Menu 14
Sierra Gridding Control 45
Spectrum Choice 201
Structural Modification 121
Surface Display
2D 214
3D 210, 211
Title Display Menu 178
Velocity Options 105, 158
Velocity Options menu 119
Vertical Velocity Gradient 105, 158
Vertical Velocity Gradient menu 119
Wells Read and Display Parameters 181,
192
MIMIC
altering its behavior 19
command file 21
creation and correction 93
features 2-3
order of input 99
parameters 96
start up 19
windows 19
model
3D to 2D 114
correction 111
definition 4
parameters 101-103
Model files 9
Model Header Correction Menu 165
modeling concepts 95
Multiple Grid Operation Command Menu
89
P
patches 72
Perspective Plot Menu 206
physical properties
2D model header 166
changing in model file header 116
layer 101-109
model file header 117
plot origin 178
plotting
Landmark MIMIC+ Software User Guide
Release 5000.0.0 Index 232
color-fill contour map 170
line contour map 183
three-dimension 205
Poisson ratio
Layer Entry Menu 105
model file header 119, 158
Post and Annotation Menu 181
post data 186
contour map 173
Post Data Menu 181, 192
Prespecified Layer Option Menu 46
P-wave quality factor
Layer Entry Menu 105
model file header 119, 158
P-wave velocity
model file header 119, 158
R
reference depth 107, 120, 159
reference plane 5
replicating a layer in 2D model 161
replication, 2D layer 136
reports
layer 217
model 221
S
Setup Menu 14
Sierra gridder 43
Sierra Gridding Control Menu 45
smoothing a layer 82-86
structural modification 113, 121-124
Surface Display Menu
2D files 214
3D files 211
S-wave quality factor, model file header
119
S-wave velocity, model file header 119, 158
T
time-to-depth model conversion 113
Title Display Menu 178
truncation
layer 106
model file header 119, 158
U
units
density 7
map coordinates 6
V
velocity
2D 134
entering in 2D model 153
layer 105, 107, 108, 119, 120, 158, 159
vertical scale factor, 3D 207
viewing angles, 3D 207
W
Wells Read and Display Parameters Menu
181, 192
windows
File Selection 111
Z
Z-axis 5-7
zero thickness
contour map (color-fill) 175
contour map (line) 187
zoom feature 58
Z-value 104, 158