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Experiment 1 : GEOMETRY SHAPES OF COVALENT

MOLECULES

Course Code : CHM 138

Name : Muhammad Hafizzudin Bin Norazahar

Matrix No : 2014837388

Name of Lab Partner : Ahmad Harith Bin Amiruddin (2014206332)

Date of experiment : 16 July 2014

Lecturess Name : Dr. Rohaiza Binti Saat






Title : Geometry Shapes of Covalent Molecules
Objective : 1) To build a geometric structures of simple covalent molecules.
Procedure: 1) The geometric shape of the molecules : Beryllium chloride,
BeCl
2,
Boron trichloride, BCl
3
, Carbon dioxide, CO
2
, Sulphur
dioxide, SO
2
, Carbon tetrachloride, CCL
4
, Methane, CH
4,

Ammonia, NH
3
, Water, H
2
O.
Results :
a) Beryllium chloride, BeCl
2







Geometric shape = Linear



b) Boron trichloride, BCl
3











Geometric shape : Trigonal planar




Be
be
Cl
Cl
C
Cl
B
Cl
Cl

c) Carbon dioxide. CO
2




Geometric shape : Linear

d) Sulphur dioxide, SO
2






Geometric shape : V-shaped

e) Carbon tetrachloride, CCl
4










Geometric shape : Tetrahedral




O C O
S
O
O
Cl
Cl
Cl
C
Cl


f) Methane, CH
4











Geometric shape : Tetrahedral

g) Ammonia NH
3









Geometric shape : Trigonal Pyramidal






H
H
H
H
C
H
H
H
N

h) Water, H
2
O







Geometric shape: V-Shaped


















H H
O
Questions.

1) List down the molecules have lone pair electrons.
SO
2,
NH
3,
H
2
O
2) Write the Lewis structures and predict the molecular geometry by using
VSEPR method for the following species.

a. H
2
Se

H Se H

Molecular Geometry : V-shaped

b. H
3
O
+

+
H O H
H

Molecular Geometry : Trigonal Pyramidal

References: 1) Laboratory Manual Basic Chemistry CHM138
provided by Madam Nurul Huda Abdul Halim, UITM
Kuala Pilah.
2) College Matriculation Chemistry SK016, S.A.P
Publication Sdn.Bhd
3) Chemistry Reference Book edited by Raymond Chang.
4) Wikipedia Webpage. www.wikipedia.com/molecular
geometry

DISCUSSION:
Based on the results obtained, my laboratory partners and I managed to obtain
the particular geometry shapes of the specified covalent molecules. In addition,
a theory is known as Valance Shell Electron Pair Repulsion theory (VSEPR) is
used to predict the shape for covalent molecules and polyatomic ions. There are
3 basic molecular shape that we identified from the results where the central
atom has bonding pairs electrons such as linear, trigonal planar and tetrahedral
compared with theory that states 5 basic molecular shape which are linear,
trigonal planar, tetrahedral, trigonal bipyramidal and octahedral. The molecule
that has bonding pair and lone pair electrons such as SO
2,
H
2
O and NH
3
. This
experiment could be more successful if we read and understand the instruction
manuals first before starting the experiment.

CONCLUSION:
The molecular shape and bond angle is affected by the number of lone pairs
and bond pairs in the molecules; hence the shape matches our expectation.
Thus, the experiment is a success.