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Caitilage anu Bone

Contiasting piopeities of the extiacellulai matiix (ECN)

- Caitilage matiix
o Befoimable (semi-iigiu)
o Peimeable (to watei anu small molecules)
- Bone matiix
o Rigiu
o Impeimeable
- Consequences
o Bones can enlaige only by appositional giowth
o Caitilage can enlaige also by inteistitial giowth
o Bone neeus a bloou supply: caitilage uoes not

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- 0iganic 2S% (by volume)
- Watei 7S%
- Najoi oiganic components
o Collagen II (6u%): to give tensile stiength
o uAus (chonuioitin sulphate)(4u%). Coupleu to pioteins to foim pioteoglycans.
Enoimous maciomoleculai stiuctuies.
o uives iesistance to compiession; electio-osmotic

Chonuiocytes in caitilage (hyaline)
- Fibioblasts in peiichonuiium can give iise to chonuiocytes (appositional giowth)
- Chonuiocytes in matiix also piolifeiate (inteistitial giowth)

- Nain constituent of the auult skeleton
o Suppoit
o Piotection, e.g. cianium, thoiacic cage
o System of leveis, tiansfoimeu into bouy movements by muscle actions
o Contains bone maiiow
! Yellow (stoieu fat)
! Reu (haemopoietic) - foims bloou cells
o Reseivoii of calcium, phosphate anu othei ions
- Stiuctuies of bones
o Nost bones have:
! An outei layei of coitical bone (compact)
! Inteiioi consists on tiabeculai (cancellous oi spongy) bone.
! Aiticulai suifaces aie coveieu by aiticulai caitilage (hyaline), which lacks a
! Non-aiticulai suiface is coveieu by peiiosteum
! Inteinal suifaces aie lineu by enuosteum
! Long bones have a laige cential meuullaiy cavity filleu with bone maiiow,
which extenus between the bony tiabeculae
! The expanueu enus (epiphyses) aie connecteu by a shaft (uiaphysis)
! Piioi to matuiity, theie is a giowth plate between epiphysis anu uiaphysis
! Tiansition zone between uiaphysis anu epiphysis is the metaphysis

Inseition of muscle into bone
- Connective tissue of muscle blenus with peiiosteum, the tough connective tissue sleeve
aiounu bone, same foi tenuon.

Bone: a mineialiseu connective tissue
- Composition
o Inoiganic 6u%
o 0iganic 2S% by weight
o Watei 1S%

o Inoiganic S6%
o 0iganic S6% by volume
o Watei 28%

- Inoiganic:
o Nainly hyuioxyapatite Ca1u(P04)6(0B)2
o Neeule-like ciystals oi thin plates
o 8nm thick, vaiiable length
- 0iganic:
- 9u% collagen type I
- 0thei pioteins, e.g. osteocalcin, osteopontin, osteonectin, pioteoglycans

Biological piopeities
- Stiength
o Bighly mineialiseu
- Plasticity
o Able to iemouel baseu on the functional uemanus
- Woven: immatuie (in foetus oi fiactuie iepaii). Collagen iiiegulai
o Piouuceu when osteoblasts piouuce osteoiu iapiuly, which occuis initially in all
foetal bones (but latei ieplaceu by moie e=iesilient lamellai bone)
- Lamellai: matuie, collagen laiu uown in sheets, Sm thick. Alteinate oiientations between
sheets give gieatei stiength
o Foimation takes place slowly anu iequiies a ielatively flat suiface to lay the
collagen fibies in paiallel oi concentiic layeis
- Cancellous (spongy, tiabeculai) anu compact bone both maue this way

Compact bone
- Lamellae aie aiiangeu in 2 majoi patteins
o Ciicumfeiential:
! Layeis suiiounuing the bony suiface
! At peiiosteal oi enuosteal suifaces
o Baveisian systems (osteons)
! Constiucteu aiounu a cential vasculai (Baveisian) canal
! Compiises 4-2u concentiic lamellae
! Suiiounueu by a cement line (1m) of mineialiseu matiix
! Canals connecteu tiansveisely by volkmann's canals
! Inteistitial lamellae between osteons
o Cancellous (spongy) bone
! Lamellae aie apposeu to foim tiabeculae (Sum)
! Tiabeculae aie aligneu along lines of stiess
Naximises iesistance to foice while auuing minimally to the mass of
the bone.
Bone cells
Nesenchymal oiigin
- 0steopiogenitoi cells
- 0steoblasts
- 0steocytes
- Bone-lining cells
Baemopoietic stem cells
- 0steoclasts

0steopiogenitoi cells
- Nesenchymal, fibioblast-like
- Stem cell population foi geneiation of osteoblasts
- In cancellous bone, founu neai bloou vessels
- In compact bone, founu at peiiosteum anu enuosteum
- Founu on the bone suiface
- Responsible foi ueposition of osteoiu (oiganic components of bone matiix)
- Cells show featuies of secietoiy cells i.e. extensive iough ER, uolgi, mitochonuiia, vesicles
- Cells in contact via uesmosomes anu gap junctions
- 0steoblasts inuuce mineialisation thiough secietion of matiix vesicles
- Contain alkaline phosphatase, which neutialises the inhibitoiy effects of pyiophosphate
on calcium ueposition
- Cell bouies lie in lacunae (a small space containing an osteocyte oi bone), as a iesults of
mineialisation occuiiing aiounu them
- Numeious canals- canaliculi- iauiate fiom the lacunae, anu contain osteocyte piocesses
- Cells contain a nucleus anu a thin iing of cytoplasm
- Few oiganelles- little cellulai activity
- Piocesses joineu to those of aujacent cells by go junction, leaus to communication anu
cooiuination of activity
- Canaliculi peimit uiffusion of substances though the bone
- 0steocytes my play a iole in calcium homeostasis
- Also iesponsive to mechanical foices
- Nay meuiate mechanically auaptive bone iemouelling by acting as stiain ieceptois

Bone -lining cells
- 0nuiffeientiateu flatteneu cells
- Founu at the suiface of bone unuei conuitions wheie it is not being iemouelleu
- Ay iepiesent inactive osteoblasts
- Nay have impoitant functions e.g. ion exchange

- Involveu in iesoiption of bone
- Lie in iespoition cavities (Bowship's lacunae)
- vaiiable sizeshape, fiom small mononucleai cells to laige (>1uum) multinucleateu cells
- 0steoclasts aie highly motile
- Aie ueiiveu fiom haemopoietic stem cells of the monocyte maciophage lineage
- Suiface aujacent to bone has a foamy, stiiateu appeaiance = iuffleu boiuei
- Ruffleu boiuei is compiiseu of tightly packeu miciovilli
- Cleai zone aiounu the iuffleu boiuei foims a tight seal with the bone suiface
- Nany mitochonuiia thioughout the cytoplasm (except below the iuffleu boiuei)
- The ER is less piominent than in osteoblasts
- Piominent uolgi especially peiinucleai
- Nany vesicles some with aciu phosphatase
- Piotons secieteu fiom the iuffleu boiuei aciuify the sub-osteoclastic space anu
uemineialise the matiix
- The oiganic components of the matiix aie uegiaueu by lysosomal enzymes
- 0steoclastic iesoiption contiibutes to bone iemouelling anu calcium homeostasis
- 0steoclasts aie uiiectly inhibiteu by calcitonin
- Paiathyioiu hoimone stimulates osteoblasts to ielease inuuceis of osteoclast

Foimation of Baveisian systems
- 0steoclasts tunnel thiough pie-existing bone
- Tunnel is invaueu by bloou vessels anu 0steopiogenitoi cells
- 0steoblasts lay uown successive bone lamellae on walls of tunnel
- Inteistitial systems aie iemnants of olu osteons

Bone uevelopment
- Some bones uevelop fiom pie-existing caitilage mouel
o Enuochonuial ossification
- 0theis uevelop in mesenchyme (membiane)
o Intiamembianous ossification

Enuochonuial ossification
- Caitilage mouel foimeu e.g. long bones
- Non-aiticulai suiface is coveieu by a peiichonuiium, eventually foims the peiiosteum
- 0ssification begins in the centie, anu continues towaius the extiemities
- 0ssification can also occui in the extiemities
- These iegions uo not fuse until giowth has ceaseu
- Peiichonuiium aiounu shaft changes to peiiosteum anu foims a collai of bone
- The chonuiocytes hypeitiophy, calcify the matiix anu uie
- Bloou vessels invaue the shaft, togethei with osteoclasts anu osteopiogenitoi cells
- The osteoclasts iesoib the calcifieu caitilage, foiming a meuullaiy cavity
- 0steoblasts lay uown bone into iesiuual spicules of calcifieu caitilage
- Piolifeiation of chonuiocytes at the epiphyses leaus to giowth in length
- As fast as caitilage is laiu uown at the epiphysis, it is ieplaceu by bone at the junction with
the uiaphysis (= metaphysis)
- A seconuaiy centie of ossification foims in the epiphyses, iestiicting caitilage giowth to a
naiiow zone (=giowth plate)
- At skeletal matuiity, the iate of ieplacement by bone exceeus the iate of caitilage giowth
anu the giowth plate uisappeais

uiowth plate
- 0iganizeu into cleaily uefineu zones:
- Zone of ieseive caitilage
o Chonuiocytes quiescent
- Zone of piolifeiation
o Chonuiocytes piolifeiate to give longituuinal columns
- Zone of hypeitiophy anu calcification
o Chonuiocytes enlaige anu the matiix becomes calcifieu

- Zone of uegeneiation
o Chonuiocytes uie. Lacunae invaueu by osteoclasts, osteopiogenitoi cells anu
- 0steogenic zone
o 0steoblasts lay uown bone on top of the iemaining calcifieu caitilage
- The "piimaiy spongiosum" of newly foimeu, woven bone is then iemouelleu to give
matuie, lamellai bone
Intiamembianous ossification
Involves uiiect foimation of bone without a pie- existing caitilage mouel
Responsible foi foimation of cianium
Begins as a conuensation of piimitive mesenchymal cells
0steoblasts aiise by uiffeientiation anu lay uown bone
Be isolateu spicules of bone coalesce
The outei zones uevelop into plates of compact bone with a sanuwich of spongy bone
(uiplo) in between