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171

Multi-Response Optimization Using Multiple Regression and Evolutionary

Computation: Applications in a Welding Process of the Automotive Industry

L. M. Torres-Trevio

1

and M. R. Pia-Monarrez

2

1

Corporacin Mexicana de Investigacin en Materiales (COMIMSA) PICYT

Ciencia y Tecnologa 790, Saltillo, Coahuila C.P. 25290 Mxico

2

Autonomous University of Ciudad Jurez

Henry Dunant 4016, Zona Pronaf

Ciudad Jurez Chih. Mxico, C.P. 32310

Ph (656) 688-4843Fx (656) 688-4813

ltorres@comimsa.com.mx, manuelp@uacj.com.mx

Abstract

This paper presents a linear regression model of a welding process and uses a multi-objective

optimization tools by using Evonorm to generate a set of optimal welding conditions to improve

some parameters of the quality of the weld joint. The quality in welding process for the automotive

industry depends of several parameters. The velocity, the amperage and voltage have influence in

the quality of the welded piece. It is illustrates the generation of a model based in linear

regression and it is shown the necessity to use a multi-objective optimization. As a preliminary

study an Evonorm algorithm for multi-objective optimization is used to generate a set of viable

solutions.

1. Introduction

This Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) is widely used in the automotive industry. Automotive industry is using new

materials like dual steels because improve the vehicle in security terms. However, these steels are very hard to weld

and the welding process must be adjusted frequently. The improvement of the quality of a weld joint is the principal

objective of welding optimization. The search of solutions or welding input parameters depends of models to relate

these inputs to output variables that define the quality of a joint such as mechanical properties (tension, flexion),

weld-bead geometry (see Figure 1) and other metallographic ones like the microstructures and porosity, oxidation.

Applications of multi-objective optimizations have been reported recently [1, 2, 3]. However, in welding process,

few studies have been made. Several approaches are used to determine the inputs of a welding process [4]; in this

paper, evolutionary computation is used considering a search of a distribution function that represent a near

continuous Pareto optimal set with a set of solutions that represent the optimal welding conditions. Multi-objective

optimization in welding process has been reported a reduced work ([5, 6, 7]). Global optimization is commonly

considered. The must appreciated work has been done by Benyounis et al. [8]. They use a previous models [9] and

desirability approach to find the optimal conditions in two optimization criteria (penetration and search of an

efficient and low cost weld joint) and proposed the use of multi-response optimization for a laser welding process

[10].

Second International Conference on Industrial,

Mechatronics and Manufacturing Engineering

172

Figure 1. Weld-bead geometry used in the experimentation.

2. Framework

2.1. Design of experiments and linear regression

The modeling and optimization of industrial processes has been made usually by applying an experiment design and

multiple linear regression. The objective in both cases is to modeling the response of the process in order to

understand its behavior [11]. Using an experimental data, the fit polynomial model, generally fitted by ordinary least

square, can be represented in compact formas:

n n

x x y ...

1 1 0

(1)

Were

0

is the slope and

j

j

X variable to response [12].

2.2 Multi-objective Evonorm

Multi-response optimization is related with multi-objective optimization that can be defined as follows [13]:

Defining as the search space where there are n objective functions, optimize

(X)) (X),...f f (X), f (X), (f F(X)

n 3 2 1

where X . The Pareto dominance can be defined as follows,

considering a minimization problem: X are two vectors (solutions) from where

1

X dominates

2

X if

) ( ) (

2 1

X F X F

i i

for n i ,... 2 , 1 . If S is a subset of then all solutions not dominated by S are called non-

dominated with respect toS . A local Pareto solutions can be defined if this set of solutions are not dominated by a

defined subset S . Solutions that are non-dominated with respect to the entire search space are called Pareto

Optimal solutions. When the search space is a subset of $R$, then Pareto Optimal set may be represented as:

A set of points.

A set of disjoin intervals.

A recombination of the last two.

Second International Conference on Industrial,

Mechatronics and Manufacturing Engineering

173

The Pareto Optimal set is usually a union of continuous sets. When discrete solutions are used, there is some

information loss. Considering this definition, a multi-objective optimization may be reduced to the search of a

distribution function that represents a Pareto Optimal Set. The solution may be a distribution function, as a

preliminary result of a set of parameters of a normal distribution function. The evolutionary estimation of a normal

distribution function parameters (Evonorm) [14, 15] is an easy implementation of an estimation of distribution

algorithms (EDAs) [16] where the crossover and mutation operators are substituted by an estimation of a

distribution function to represent a population of fittest solutions [17]. A general algorithmof Evonormfor multi-

objective optimization is shown in Table 1. Usually the number of selected individuals to generate a new population

(PS) is lower than the number of individuals of the original population (P is a matrix where the number of rows

represents the number of individuals and the number of columns represents the number of parameters or decision

variables). A fitness (MFE is a matrix where the number of objective functions and the number of individuals

determine its size) is determined considering the normalized value of the evaluation function. A mean(MN) and a

standard deviation (SD) is calculated per parameters considering the selected population (These structures are

vectors that stores the calculated mean and standard deviation per decision variable, the number of decision

variables determines the size of these vectors). A new population is generated using a normal random generator

considering the mean and standard deviation calculated per parameter. Considering a probability of 50%, the

calculated mean (MN) is used. The other 50% is used the best solution found.

Table 1. Evonorm algorithm for multi-objective optimization.

Create basic population P.

Evaluation(P) -> (MFE,Imax)

Selection(P,MFE) -> PS

Calculation(PS,Imax) -> (MN,SD)

Generation(MN,SD) -> P

If end condition not satisfied go to step (2)

2.3 Welding Process Modeling

An experimental design is carry out to get an experimental data. As a response, quality of the welded piece, we

measure the length of the formof the welding. Three input parameters were used in the experimental design:

Voltage (V)

Amperage (A)

Travel speed (mm/seg)

A linear regression model is made considering the experimental data. Usually, the extreme value of the range

(maximumor minimum) is used in every variable to maximize or minimize the response according to the

parameter. GMAW experiments were performed with a fully automated welding system [18]. Shielding gas was

90Ar-10 \% CO_2, power wave 310, rapid arc application, lap joint horizontal position, electrode size 0.045 in of

diameter, and a work angle of 45 grades was used. Welding was done on a lap joint.

3 Experimental Results

The regression models for every parameter are as follows:

3 2 1 leg1

0.0282x 1.4335x - 0.0080x - 6.4038 y (2)

Second International Conference on Industrial,

Mechatronics and Manufacturing Engineering

174

3 2 1 leg2

0.1642x - 1.3679x - 0.0247x 3.8045 y (3)

3 2 1 throat

0.0035x - 1.5877x 0.0044x 0.7289 y (4)

3 2 1 profusion1

0.0168x 1.2732x - 0.0116x - 5.9569 y (5)

3 2 1 profusion2

0.0097x - 0.9546x - 0.0021x 1.3879 & y (6)

The parameter of every equation has a different effect in every response, per example: If it is desirable to

maximize the leg 1 (Equation 1), the negative value of the parameter indicates that the voltage (

1

x ) must be

decreased, the negative value of the for the amperage indicates a decrement too and the for the travel speed

indicates an increment. However if it is desirable to maximize the leg2 (Equation 2), the operation conditions

suggested by the parameter is opposed to the indications given in the equation of the leg 1. If it is desirable to

maximize the leg 2 (Equation 2), It is necessary to increase the voltage and decrease the amperage and the travel

speed.

This is a clear example of opposite function where a single solution is not useful. It is necessary to generate a set of

solutions that guaranty the satisfaction of several functions at the same time. With this multi-objective optimization,

we used an Evonormapproach, considering the regression models as objective functions. It is desirable to minimize

both legs and the throat in order to optimize the weld-bead geometry. The profusion 1 and profusion 2 must be

increased to increment the mechanical properties of the welded piece.

The best solution found is considering a voltage of 387.7777 V, an amperage of 0.8701 A and a travel speed of

47.3833 (mm/seg). This solution generates the following mechanical characteristics considering the regression

model, a leg 1 =3.3905 mm, leg 2 =4.4121 mm, throat =3.6507 mm, profusion 1 =1.1469 mm, profusion 2 =

0.9120 mm. However, it is desirable to get a set of solutions. Using a standard deviation of 10% of the difference

between the maximum and the minimum value of the range per variable, it is possible to get a Pareto Front of the

Leg 2 and the profusion 2 illustrated in Figure 2. Figure 3 illustrate a Pareto front considering the Leg 2 and the

profusion 1.

Figure 2. Pareto front considering the leg 2 and the profusion 2

Second International Conference on Industrial,

Mechatronics and Manufacturing Engineering

175

Figure 3. Pareto front considering the leg 2 and the profusion 1

4. Conclusion

In welding processes, it is very common the use of several requirements that involves the use of multiple criteria.

Global optimization search only solution; however, for multiple criteria a unique solution is not enough. This paper

illustrate an example where it is required a set of solution that satisfy a set of responses represented by a set of linear

regression model. As a future work, the diversity of response given in welding process requires the use of better

ways to model the responses and the use of multi-objective optimization when it is required to satisfied more

objectives that is very common in real applications. Future work includes a comparison with literature reported

multi-objective algorithms like NSGAII or SPEA2. Some quantitative comparisons between these algorithms with

the proposed approach could improve the solutions provided for these kinds of problems.

5. References

[1] Carlos A. Coello Coello and Gary B. Lamont, "Applications of Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithms (Advances in

Natural Computation)", "world scientific publishing Co. Pte. Ltd ", 2004

[2] LamThu Bui and Sameer Alam, Multi-Objective Optimization in Computational Intelligence: Theory and Practice", IGI

global, 2008.

[3] Mitsuo Gen and Runwei Cheng, "Genetic Algorithms & Engineering Optimization.", J ohn Wiley and Sons, 2000.

[4] K.Y. Benyounis a and A.G. Olabi b, Optimization of different welding processes using statistical and numerical approaches

A reference guide, Advances in Engineering Software, 39, 2008, 483-496.

[5] S.H.R. Pasandideh and S.T. Akhavan Niaki, Optimizing Multi-Response Statistical Problems Using a Genetic Algorithm,

Scientia Iranica, 13, 1, 2006, pp. 50-59

[6] Suh-Lih Doong, Multi-objective Process Optimization of Electron Beam Welding Inconel 718, Master's Thesis,

Department of Mechanical and Automation Engineering. National Kaohsiung First University of Science and Technology,

Kaohsiung City, Taiwan. 2007.

[7] V. Gunaraj and N. Murugan, Prediction and Optimization of Weld Bead Volume for the Submerged Arc Process Part 2},

Welding J ournal Magazine (Welding Research Supplement), Octuber, 2000, pp. 331s-338s.

[8] K.Y. Benyounis and A.G. Olabi and M.S.J . Hashmi, Optimizing the laser-welded butt joint of mediumcarbon steel using

RSM, journal Of Materials Processing Technology, 164-165, 2005, pp. 986-989.

[9] K.Y. Benyounis a and A.G. Olabi b, Effect of laser welding parameters on the heat input and weld-bead profile, J ournal Of

Materials Processing Technology, 164-165, 2005, PP. 978-985

Second International Conference on Industrial,

Mechatronics and Manufacturing Engineering

176

[10] K.Y. Benyounis and A.G. Olabi and M.S.J . Hashmi, Multi-response optimization of CO2 laser-welding process of austenitic

stainless steel, Optics And Laser Technology, 40, 1, 2008, pp. 76-87.

[11] D. C. Mongomery, "Diseos y anlisis de experimentos.", Editorial Limusa Willey , segunda edicin, Mxico, 2006.

[12] D. C. Mongomery and E. A. Peck and G. G. Vining, Introduccin al Anlisis de Regresin Lineal.", "Editorial Continental,

Tercera edicin", "Mxico", 2002.

[13] D. Dumitrescu and C. Grosan and M. Oltean, Evolving Continuous Pareto Regions, Evolutionary Multiobjective

Optimization: Theoretical Advances and Applications, AbrahamA., J ain L. and Goldberg R. (Eds.). Springer-Verlag, 2005,

pp. 167-199.

[14] Luis M. Torres-Trevio, EvoNorm, A New Evolutionary Algorithm to Continuous Optimization, Workshop on

Optimization by Building and Using Probabilistic Models (OBUPM-2006) Genetic and Evolutionary Computation

Conference (GECCO-2006) CD Proceeding Tutorials and Workshops, Seattle, WA, 2006.

[15] Luis M. Torres-Trevio, Evonorm: Easy and effective implementation of estimation of distribution algorithms, Research in

Computing science, 23, 2006, 75-83.

[16] Pedro Larranaga and J ose A. Lozano, "Estimation of Distribution Algorithms: A New Tool for Evolutionary Computation

(Genetic Algorithms and Evolutionary Computation) ", Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2002.

[17] Luis M. Torres-Trevio, On the estimation of the Pareto optimal set using an evolutionary parameter adjustment of the

normal distribution function, Accepted for the Mexican International Conference in Artificial Intelligence (MICAI 2008),

poster session, Mxico, 2008.

[18] F.A. Reyes-Valdes and L. Torres-Trevio and V.H. Lopez-Cartes and F.De La Cruz-Marquez and F. Bricei-Ramirez,

Correlation Between GMAW Process and Weld Quality Parameters: A Neural Network Approach Applied in the

Automotive Industry, FABTECH and AWS 2006. October 31-November 2, Atlanta, Georgia, 2006.

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