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Second International Conference on Industrial,

Mechatronics and Manufacturing Engineering


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Multi-Response Optimization Using Multiple Regression and Evolutionary
Computation: Applications in a Welding Process of the Automotive Industry
L. M. Torres-Trevio
1
and M. R. Pia-Monarrez
2

1
Corporacin Mexicana de Investigacin en Materiales (COMIMSA) PICYT
Ciencia y Tecnologa 790, Saltillo, Coahuila C.P. 25290 Mxico
2
Autonomous University of Ciudad Jurez
Henry Dunant 4016, Zona Pronaf
Ciudad Jurez Chih. Mxico, C.P. 32310
Ph (656) 688-4843Fx (656) 688-4813
ltorres@comimsa.com.mx, manuelp@uacj.com.mx
Abstract
This paper presents a linear regression model of a welding process and uses a multi-objective
optimization tools by using Evonorm to generate a set of optimal welding conditions to improve
some parameters of the quality of the weld joint. The quality in welding process for the automotive
industry depends of several parameters. The velocity, the amperage and voltage have influence in
the quality of the welded piece. It is illustrates the generation of a model based in linear
regression and it is shown the necessity to use a multi-objective optimization. As a preliminary
study an Evonorm algorithm for multi-objective optimization is used to generate a set of viable
solutions.
1. Introduction
This Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) is widely used in the automotive industry. Automotive industry is using new
materials like dual steels because improve the vehicle in security terms. However, these steels are very hard to weld
and the welding process must be adjusted frequently. The improvement of the quality of a weld joint is the principal
objective of welding optimization. The search of solutions or welding input parameters depends of models to relate
these inputs to output variables that define the quality of a joint such as mechanical properties (tension, flexion),
weld-bead geometry (see Figure 1) and other metallographic ones like the microstructures and porosity, oxidation.
Applications of multi-objective optimizations have been reported recently [1, 2, 3]. However, in welding process,
few studies have been made. Several approaches are used to determine the inputs of a welding process [4]; in this
paper, evolutionary computation is used considering a search of a distribution function that represent a near
continuous Pareto optimal set with a set of solutions that represent the optimal welding conditions. Multi-objective
optimization in welding process has been reported a reduced work ([5, 6, 7]). Global optimization is commonly
considered. The must appreciated work has been done by Benyounis et al. [8]. They use a previous models [9] and
desirability approach to find the optimal conditions in two optimization criteria (penetration and search of an
efficient and low cost weld joint) and proposed the use of multi-response optimization for a laser welding process
[10].

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Figure 1. Weld-bead geometry used in the experimentation.
2. Framework
2.1. Design of experiments and linear regression
The modeling and optimization of industrial processes has been made usually by applying an experiment design and
multiple linear regression. The objective in both cases is to modeling the response of the process in order to
understand its behavior [11]. Using an experimental data, the fit polynomial model, generally fitted by ordinary least
square, can be represented in compact formas:
n n
x x y ...
1 1 0
(1)
Were
0
is the slope and
j

represent the contribution of the


j
X variable to response [12].
2.2 Multi-objective Evonorm
Multi-response optimization is related with multi-objective optimization that can be defined as follows [13]:
Defining as the search space where there are n objective functions, optimize
(X)) (X),...f f (X), f (X), (f F(X)
n 3 2 1
where X . The Pareto dominance can be defined as follows,
considering a minimization problem: X are two vectors (solutions) from where
1
X dominates
2
X if
) ( ) (
2 1
X F X F
i i
for n i ,... 2 , 1 . If S is a subset of then all solutions not dominated by S are called non-
dominated with respect toS . A local Pareto solutions can be defined if this set of solutions are not dominated by a
defined subset S . Solutions that are non-dominated with respect to the entire search space are called Pareto
Optimal solutions. When the search space is a subset of $R$, then Pareto Optimal set may be represented as:
A set of points.
A set of disjoin intervals.
A recombination of the last two.

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The Pareto Optimal set is usually a union of continuous sets. When discrete solutions are used, there is some
information loss. Considering this definition, a multi-objective optimization may be reduced to the search of a
distribution function that represents a Pareto Optimal Set. The solution may be a distribution function, as a
preliminary result of a set of parameters of a normal distribution function. The evolutionary estimation of a normal
distribution function parameters (Evonorm) [14, 15] is an easy implementation of an estimation of distribution
algorithms (EDAs) [16] where the crossover and mutation operators are substituted by an estimation of a
distribution function to represent a population of fittest solutions [17]. A general algorithmof Evonormfor multi-
objective optimization is shown in Table 1. Usually the number of selected individuals to generate a new population
(PS) is lower than the number of individuals of the original population (P is a matrix where the number of rows
represents the number of individuals and the number of columns represents the number of parameters or decision
variables). A fitness (MFE is a matrix where the number of objective functions and the number of individuals
determine its size) is determined considering the normalized value of the evaluation function. A mean(MN) and a
standard deviation (SD) is calculated per parameters considering the selected population (These structures are
vectors that stores the calculated mean and standard deviation per decision variable, the number of decision
variables determines the size of these vectors). A new population is generated using a normal random generator
considering the mean and standard deviation calculated per parameter. Considering a probability of 50%, the
calculated mean (MN) is used. The other 50% is used the best solution found.

Table 1. Evonorm algorithm for multi-objective optimization.
Create basic population P.
Evaluation(P) -> (MFE,Imax)
Selection(P,MFE) -> PS
Calculation(PS,Imax) -> (MN,SD)
Generation(MN,SD) -> P
If end condition not satisfied go to step (2)

2.3 Welding Process Modeling
An experimental design is carry out to get an experimental data. As a response, quality of the welded piece, we
measure the length of the formof the welding. Three input parameters were used in the experimental design:
Voltage (V)
Amperage (A)
Travel speed (mm/seg)
A linear regression model is made considering the experimental data. Usually, the extreme value of the range
(maximumor minimum) is used in every variable to maximize or minimize the response according to the
parameter. GMAW experiments were performed with a fully automated welding system [18]. Shielding gas was
90Ar-10 \% CO_2, power wave 310, rapid arc application, lap joint horizontal position, electrode size 0.045 in of
diameter, and a work angle of 45 grades was used. Welding was done on a lap joint.
3 Experimental Results
The regression models for every parameter are as follows:
3 2 1 leg1
0.0282x 1.4335x - 0.0080x - 6.4038 y (2)


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3 2 1 leg2
0.1642x - 1.3679x - 0.0247x 3.8045 y (3)
3 2 1 throat
0.0035x - 1.5877x 0.0044x 0.7289 y (4)
3 2 1 profusion1
0.0168x 1.2732x - 0.0116x - 5.9569 y (5)
3 2 1 profusion2
0.0097x - 0.9546x - 0.0021x 1.3879 & y (6)
The parameter of every equation has a different effect in every response, per example: If it is desirable to
maximize the leg 1 (Equation 1), the negative value of the parameter indicates that the voltage (
1
x ) must be
decreased, the negative value of the for the amperage indicates a decrement too and the for the travel speed
indicates an increment. However if it is desirable to maximize the leg2 (Equation 2), the operation conditions
suggested by the parameter is opposed to the indications given in the equation of the leg 1. If it is desirable to
maximize the leg 2 (Equation 2), It is necessary to increase the voltage and decrease the amperage and the travel
speed.
This is a clear example of opposite function where a single solution is not useful. It is necessary to generate a set of
solutions that guaranty the satisfaction of several functions at the same time. With this multi-objective optimization,
we used an Evonormapproach, considering the regression models as objective functions. It is desirable to minimize
both legs and the throat in order to optimize the weld-bead geometry. The profusion 1 and profusion 2 must be
increased to increment the mechanical properties of the welded piece.
The best solution found is considering a voltage of 387.7777 V, an amperage of 0.8701 A and a travel speed of
47.3833 (mm/seg). This solution generates the following mechanical characteristics considering the regression
model, a leg 1 =3.3905 mm, leg 2 =4.4121 mm, throat =3.6507 mm, profusion 1 =1.1469 mm, profusion 2 =
0.9120 mm. However, it is desirable to get a set of solutions. Using a standard deviation of 10% of the difference
between the maximum and the minimum value of the range per variable, it is possible to get a Pareto Front of the
Leg 2 and the profusion 2 illustrated in Figure 2. Figure 3 illustrate a Pareto front considering the Leg 2 and the
profusion 1.

Figure 2. Pareto front considering the leg 2 and the profusion 2


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Figure 3. Pareto front considering the leg 2 and the profusion 1
4. Conclusion
In welding processes, it is very common the use of several requirements that involves the use of multiple criteria.
Global optimization search only solution; however, for multiple criteria a unique solution is not enough. This paper
illustrate an example where it is required a set of solution that satisfy a set of responses represented by a set of linear
regression model. As a future work, the diversity of response given in welding process requires the use of better
ways to model the responses and the use of multi-objective optimization when it is required to satisfied more
objectives that is very common in real applications. Future work includes a comparison with literature reported
multi-objective algorithms like NSGAII or SPEA2. Some quantitative comparisons between these algorithms with
the proposed approach could improve the solutions provided for these kinds of problems.
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[10] K.Y. Benyounis and A.G. Olabi and M.S.J . Hashmi, Multi-response optimization of CO2 laser-welding process of austenitic
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