This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Background: In engineering, design ideas are always based in someone's earlier work, so documenting sources is important to put your work in context. It serves two important purposes:
proving you have some authority to back up your idea. giving appropriate credit to someone else for their ideas.
TWO KEY CONCEPTS Documentation involves two parts: the Citation and the Reference List. The Citation is a short code (in the middle of your document) that identifies an idea or fact as borrowed from somewhere. Whenever you refer to information, you must identify the source right then and there, so that your reader knows exactly what information comes from which source. The Reference List provides the complete information on each source at the end of the document. This is sometimes called a bibliography, but unlike a formal bibliography, a reference list includes only works to which you refer. WHAT THIS SITE OFFERS This website provides detailed information on the following documentation issues -- with lots of examples:
• • • • • • • •
Principles of Documentation: What, When. and Why Plagiarism Principles of Citation Basic Examples Working Citations into your Text Principles of Referencing General Reference Templates Sample References
We cover the two most common documentation styles used in Engineering. Select whichever one is more appropriate to your field:
Based on Chicago Manual of Style Used in Civil, Chemical, Industrial and Mechanical Engineering. Return to Top
Standard Numerical Method Used in Electrical, Computer, and Mechanical Engineering.
Last modified 08/19/2002 19:10:20 . Site designed and maintained by Engineering Communication Centre Staff.
Related Sites: Documentation Introduction | Author-Date Documentation Style | EWC Bibliography Builder 1.2 IEEE Style Documentation Before reading on, see this Guide to IEEE Manuscript Preparation (PDF format) Whenever you refer to information that you took from another source, you must identify the source right then and there, so that your reader knows exactly what information comes from which source.
IEEE Documentation comprises two parts: the citation and the list of references. The citation is a short code (within the body of the document) which identifies an idea or fact the writer has borrowed from elsewhere. The list of references provides a complete and detailed list (at the end of the document) of all the sources the writer used. Go to the EWC Bibliography Builder IEEE VERSION for a utility that helps you format items for the list of references. 1. EWC Bibliography Builder IEEE VERSION for Books 2. EWC Bibliography Builder IEEE VERSION for Book Articles
General Structure Specific Practices
List of References
3. EWC Bibliography Builder IEEE VERSION for Periodical Articles 1.2.1 IEEE Citation - In- text practices General Structure: Substitution | Placement | Multiple References | Personal Communication | Other notes | Direct Quotation | Paraphrase The major difference between IEEE and other styles is that IEEE style encloses citation numbers within the text of a paper in square brackets  rather than as superscripts1 or in bracketed form (Jones 98) . All other bibliographical information regarding the citation is reserved for the list of references at the end of the document. According to one technical writing expert, even though IEEE is the most difficult style to learn, it is still the most valuable style for aspiring engineers to pick up1. According to one technical writing expert, even though IEEE is the most difficult style to learn, it is still the most valuable style for aspiring engineers to pick up (Jones 98). According to one technical writing expert, even though IEEE is the most difficult style to learn, it is still the most valuable style for aspiring engineers to pick up . 1. Author-Name Substitution IEEE style encourages substituting reference numbers for the name of the author whenever appropriate. For example, "As Smith, Wesson, and Williams demonstrate, the natural course of microprocessor evolution will likely lead to computers with . . . . " "As , , and  demonstrate, the natural course of microprocessor evolution will likely lead to computers with . . . " "According to Inose et al, current internet technology is still years behind industry projections." "According to , current Internet technology is still years behind industry projections. . . " 2. NOTE: Only implement this strategy when possible: there are occasions in which the author's name is necessary. When citing a theory commonly attributed to one person,for example, identifying it with the author's name is often essential
"To a large degree, quantum mechanics remains dependent on 's theory of relativity, which states that . . . " "To a large degree, quantum mechanics remains dependent on Einstein's theory of relativity, which states that . . . " 3. 4. Citation Note Placement Place note numbers directly after the reference rather than at the end of a clause or sentence, unless the reference ends at the end of a clause or sentence. Place all punctuation outside the square brackets, except commas used to separate multiple references "One study examined the mRNA levels of jun C, Jun B, and Jun D in mouse tissues ." "One study  examined the mRNA levels of Jun C, Jun B, and Jun D in mouse tissues." "Current Internet technology is still years behind industry projections, one study suggested ." 5. NOTE: Placement of the citation can be important. 6. Example 1: ...some photographs  are not easily reproduced. This sentence means that it is hard to reproduce the photographs published by source . The reader will assume that the writer has actually tried to reproduce these photos. Example 2: Some photographs are not easily reproduced  This means that source  claimed that it is hard to reproduce some (unspecified) photos. The reader will assume that  tried to reproduce the photos. 7. Multi-reference Citations When more than one work is involved in the same citation, separate citation numbers with commas and without any spaces. If a sequence of three of more citation numbers occurs in the reference, use a single range separated by a hyphen.
"Though unlikely, the same effects were reported by , , ." "Though unlikely, the same effects was reported by [2,7,12]. "Motion or centrifugation can speed up the diagnosis of some viral infections [19-22] ." 8.
9. Personal Communication and Other "Nonrecoverable" Information IEEE style manual states that you cite only published works, forthcoming published works, and unpublished materials available to scholars in a library, a depository, or an archive. For interviews or other "Non-recoverable" information, not citation number is necessary. This does not mean that an attempt to identify the author is unnecessary, but that it needs to be done in the text itself. Example 1: "In a personal interview with Bill Gates, he suggested that he would soon rule the world." This sentence contains information about the origin of the reference, even without citation. If the sentence were "Bill Gates suggested that he would soon rule the world," the reader would not know where that information came from. 2. Content, Biographical, and Additional Bibliographic Notes In the interests of brevity, IEEE discourages the use of content, biographical, and additional bibliographic notes.
Previous studies did not address this issue, however, because "[t]they neglected any effects of liquid surface tension and viscosity, so that their results are applicable only to the initial stages of droplet impact, when these forces are negligible compared to their inertial effects [at the time of impact]" . The above passage is an example of direct quotation. A specific detail from the book was important enough that the writer reproduced it wordfor-word, and gave the appropriate credit to the original author. o The writer here uses square brackets to indicate that the original source differs slightly from this reproduction. In order to fit this quotation into the grammar of the main sentence, the writer has changed the first letter of the original source from uppercase to lowercase. Square brackets signify the addition of clarification material to the quoted passage. o If you quote more than three lines from an outside source, you should indent the quoted material. o Provide page number from which the quotation is drawn in your citation in the reference list.
10. Paraphrase: Single-shot flash photography yields better results
than fast-motion movies . (The above passage is an example of effective paraphrasing) What the authors actually wrote was: A variety of high-speed ciné film and short-duration single-shot photographic techniques have been used to this end (see, for example, Worthington 1908; Savic & Boult 1955; Watchers & Westerling 1966; Toda 1974; Akao et al. 1980; Inada et al. 1983). The method which has yielded the greatest clarity is single-shot flash photography.
The writer has determined that only the comparison between movies and still flash pictures is important enough to repeat, and rephrased the original source in order to emphasize that comparison. Even though the writer does not use the exact words, the paraphrased detail still comes from Chandra and Avedisian, who listed six different sources to defend their point. An author who uses Chandra and Avedisian's statement is ethically obligated to give them credit for the effort they put into researching it. Without proper documentation, the statement would at best function as mere opinion, and would be of little or no professional value; at worst, you would be guilty of plagiarism.
1.1.2 IEEE Reference List The second part of IEEE documentation is a list of references, which should include a list of all sources used by the writer. Title: References (Placed Flush Left) Arrangement: Arrange the reference list by the order of citation, not by alphabetical order. • Spacing: Double-space both within an between entries • Indentation: Place the number of the entry at the left margin, enclosed in square brackets. Indent the text of all entries 2 or 3 spaces to the right of the closing square bracket. • Appendices: Each appendix should have its own reference list.
See the IEEE bibliography builder help file for more information about how to reference: 1. 2. 3. General Help How to Reference Books How to Reference Articles
Sample List of References : References  D. Jones, Technical Writing Style, Toronto: Allyn and Bacon, 1998.  H. Inose and J.R. Pierce, Information Technology and Civilization, New York: Freeman, 1984.  D. Beer, R.F. Martin, and P. Fingle, Photosensory Transduction, New York: Willey, 1993.  W. Heisenberg, The Physical Principles of the Quantum Theory, C. Eckhart and F.C. Hoyt, Trans., Chicago: University of Chicago Press,1930.  W. Heisenberg, The Physical Principles of the Quantum Theory, C. Eckart and F.C. Hoyt, Trans., 2nd.ed., New York: Dover, 1949.  Council of Biology Editors, Scientific Style and Format: The CBE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers, 6th ed., Chicago: Cambridge University Press, 1994.  An Anonymous Critique of Computer Culture, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997.  J.L Spudich and B.H. Satir, Eds., Sensory Receptors and Signal Transduction, New York: Wiley-Liss,1991.  S.A. Selber, Ed. Computers and Technical Communication: Pedagogical and Programmatic Perspectives, Greenwich, Connecticut: Ablex, 1997.  R.F. Follet and D. J Walker. "Ground water quality concerns about nitrogen," in Nitrogen Management and Ground Water Protection," Ed. R. F. Follet, Amsterdam: Elsevier Publishing Company Inc, 1989,pp. 1-20.  K.A. Nelson, R.J. Dwayne Miller, D.R. Lutz, and M.D. Fayer, "Optical generation of turntable ultrasonic waves," Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 53, no. 2, Feb., pp. 1144-1149.  S. Chandra and C.T. Avedisian, "On the collision of a droplet with a solid surface," Proc. R. Soc. Lond., vol A 432, pp. 13-41,1991.  T. Land, "Web extension to American Psychological Association style (WEAPAS)," [Online document], 1996 Mar 31(Rev 1.2.4), [cited 1996 Sept 14], Available HTTP: http://www.nyu.edu/pages/psychology/WEAPAS Return to Top Last modified 08/19/2002 19:09:09 . Site designed and maintained by
Engineering Communication Centre Staff.
Related Sites: Documentation Introduction | IEEE Documentation Style | EWC Bibliography Builder This webpage covers the aspects of citation listed at left below. To move directly to information on the bibliography (also called references), click on the righthand column:
• • •
Principles of Citation Basic Examples Working Citations into your Text
• • •
Principles of Referencing General Reference Templates Sample References
Principles of Citation Citations appear in parentheses in one of two places in your text:
after any fact or phrasing that you have taken from an outside source. after the name of an author you are summarizing.
As the name of this style implies, the citation includes NAME and DATE, that is, the last name of the author, and the date of publication. Sometimes the citation will also need to include the page number(s) of the original source. So a basic example looks like this: (Author 19XX) or (Author 19XX:Page) Or, to put a real face on it, a book or article by Neil Postman would look like this: (Postman 1999) or (Postman 1999: 308) Examples of Common Author-Date Citations Note: Because the sample citations are hyperlinks to the sample bibliography, they will appear to be underlined on most browsers. Ordinarily, citations should not be underlined.
Work by a Option 1: The name and the date of the source can be enclosed in Single author parentheses either when the work is first mentioned or after the information drawn from the source. One influential study (Tung 1982) raised the same question. The results from studies that neglected the effects of liquid surface tension and viscosity only apply to the initial stages of droplet impact,when these forces are negligible (Tung 1982). Option 2: When a writer mentions the author's name in the main part of the sentence, the citation only needs the date. An influential study by Tung (1982) raised the same question. More than one author When a source has two authors, include both names. You may either spell out the word "and" or use the symbol "&", but be consistent. If the work has more than two authors, use the name of the first listed author, followed by "et al." which is an abbreviation for the Latin phrase "et alias" ("and others"). Because it is Latin, the phrase should be italicized or underlined. Note only "al." has a period after it. A similar study endorsed photographic evidence (Chandra and Avedisian 1991), but some photographs (Akao et al. 1980) are not easily reproduced. When an author has written two articles in the same year, you differentiate between them with "a" for the first, "b" for the second, and so forth. If your paper refers only to one of these two articles,you do not need any letters. Worthington's ground-breaking first study (1877a)was soon followed by a second (1877b). Sometimes your sources will not be published documents. If you use information from a telephone conversation, for example, cite it just as you would any other source. One mid-level computer programmer estimated that she spends 25%- 30% of her time writing reports and memos for her clients (Jerz 1996).
Same author(s), same year
Working Citations into your Writing
This section covers ways to use citations, and a caution about the position of citations in your text. Essentially you can use citations in three ways:
• • •
General Reference Paraphrase Direct Quotation.
General references, like all of the examples above, refer to the entirety of a study rather than a specific page or concept. This is the most common type of reference in technical writing. Paraphrase typically involves the summary of a single part of another author's work, for example: Single-shot flash photography yields better results than fast-motion movies (Chandra and Avedisian 1991:15). Note that the writer has included the page number here because the information comes from a specific point in the original work. Chandra and Avedisian's original looked like this: A variety of high-speed ciné film and shortduration single-shot photographic techniques have been used to this end (see, for example, Worthington 1908; Savic & Boult 1955; Watchers & Westerling 1966; Toda 1974;Akao et al. 1980; Inada et al. 1983). The method which has yielded the greatest clarity is single-shot flash photography. The writer has determined that only the comparison between movies and stillflash pictures is important enough to repeat, and rephrased to emphasize that comparison. Even though the writer does not use the exact words, the paraphrased detail still comes from Chandra and Avedisian, who listed six different sources to defend their point. An author who uses Chandra and Avedisian's statement is ethically obligated to give them credit. Without proper documentation, the statement would at best function as mere opinion, and would be of little or no professional value; at worst, it would be plagiarism. Direct quotation is not used much in technical writing, often only when one is trying to show how stupid another writer is; however, occasionally, you might encounter something written so well, you just have to quote it. Here is a sample below: Previous studies did not address this issue, however, because "they neglected any effects
of liquid surface tension and viscosity, so that their results are applicable only to the initial stages of droplet impact, when these forces are negligible compared to their inertial effects [at the time of impact]" (Pasandideh-Fard et al. 1996:650). The writer took a piece of information directly from page 650, reproduced it word-for-word, and gave appropriate credit to the original authors. (Square brackets signify the addition of clarification material to the quoted passage.) A Word of Warning: Where you place the citation can have significant impact on meaning. These two examples mean different things, even thought the words are the same: Example 1 ...some photographs (Akao et al. 1980) are not easily reproduced. Example 2 Some photographs are not easily reproduced (Akao et al. 1980).
The left-hand sentence means Akao et al.'s photographs are hard to reproduce, whereas the sentence on the right means that Akao et al. claimed that some other (unspecified) photos are hard to reproduce. In the first instance, the reader will assume you tried to reproduce Akao et al.'s photos, and in the second, the reader will assume that Akao at al. tried to reproduce photos. So in positioning the citation, make sure it indicates what you intend.
Next: Principles of Referencing - Making a Bibliography Return to Top Last modified 08/19/2002 19:10:11 . Site designed and maintained by Engineering Communication Centre Staff.
Last modified 08/19/2002 19:24:48 . Site designed and maintained by Engineering Communication Centre Staff.
The Problem of Plagiarism The word "plagiarism" comes from a Latin word meaning "kidnapper," because a plagiarist is one who makes off with another person's ideas. Whether intentional or unintentional, it is a breach of professional or academic trust, in which a person takes credit for someone else's work.
Knowing how to plagiarize is an invaluable skill because it can
• • •
speed up your writing eliminate your grammar worries get you kicked out of some of the nicest schools in the country.
Seriously, though, if you know how to do it, you know how to avoid it. And you want to avoid it. The University of Toronto's position on plagiarism is clear. It looks like this:
The Code of Behavior on Academic Matters (University of Toronto Governing Council Secretariat, 1991) reads: It shall be an offence for a student knowingly:
to represent as one's own any idea or expression of an idea or work of another in any academic examination or term test or in connection with any other form of academic work, i.e. to commit plagiarism; to submit, without the knowledge and approval of the instructor to whom it is submitted, any academic work for which credit has previously been obtained or is being sought in another course or program of study in the University or elsewhere; to submit any academic work containing a purported statement of fact or reference to a source which has been concocted; (B.1.df)
That word "knowingly" doesn't get you out of trouble because the university understands that as including "should have known." And any student who gets as far as university, should know. And yes, students do lose their degrees over plagiarism charges. So how exactly do you do it? If you are like most students, it's what a priest might call a "sin of omission," that is, you do it by leaving something out, rather than by intentionally doing something. Most often, the problem occurs when you do not include the citation in the text of your paper. Citation is covered on our Documenting Sources site. Citation comprises half of how you document your source. It is the half that is most troubling for students because it raises questions:
what do I have to cite? when do I quote? how can I impress the TA or prof with my ideas if I have to keep telling where I got them?
• • •
This last question lies at the heart of plagiarism. None of us wants to look stupid. The definition of plagiarism in the U of T code suggests how plagiarism makes us look stupid: Plagiarism is at once a perversion of originality and a denial of the interdependence and mutuality which are at the heart of scholarship itself, and hence of the academic experience. (Appendix A, 2.p) Rather than being a pervert, understand this: using sources adds value. It gives ideas authority; it provides evidence. One of the major problems we see in Engineering papers is a failure to give evidence. Sources provide evidence. Part of how we look smart is by using sources correctly. We need to be able to decide which authors to use, how to work them into our writing, and when we absolutely have to quote. Also, and more importantly, your prof or TA will be more impressed by your work if you can synthesize several sources; that means, you draw conclusions and construct your own idea by putting the source together in a new or interesting way. If you're still looking for more on plagiarism, check out the University of Toronto Advice on Writing site, where you can find the useful document on How Not to Plagiarize. For a bigger picture see our site on Documenting sources. You might also be interested in playing around with our Plagiarism Self-Test, a kind of online quiz that helps you understand plagiarism better by looking at examples.
How Not to Plagiarize
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.