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Centro de Enseanza Tcnica y Superior


Alan Javier Ramrez Chvez 24310
Abiel Algravez ID
Armando Montano Jaime ID
Classroom: 2430
Comunicacin Avanzada en Ingls
July 14, 2014
Circuits are one of the most important subjects for a Cybernetic because it is useful for
other subjects for them, so we wanted to talk about the basics about it.
Before we start with circuits, we will start with the basic of the chemistry, the atoms.
Since the atoms have electrons, protons and neutrons, we will base more on electrons
for this because they can move outside of the nucleus of the atom. For a better
example, we will talk about a tube. As many people knows, every object is formed by
atoms, so with this, we will explain what happens with the electrons, which is moving
from atom to atom.
With this explanation, we can relate it on the other basis of the circuits, which are
Voltage (V), Current (I), and Resistance or Resistor (R). The voltage is the force the
electrons move with, the current is the flow or speed of the electrons, and the resistance
is how resistant (stubborn) they are. Using this concepts, we can relate it with the
previous example, because every time the electron moved to another atom, it had a
current (to know how fast did he change of place), voltage (to know how much force did
he use in order to change of place), and how resistant was the other electron. Overall,
this three concepts can be simplified by the formula V= R*I, so with more resistance and
current, there will be more voltage, and vice versa.
Voltage has the units of volts (V), current of amperes (A), and resistance of ohms ().
Using the amount of resistance that we have, the distance can reach from the gym to
the center of idioms.
After this, we can relate it with short circuits. As many people know them, they think that
it happens because there wasnt too much voltage, but other reason is because, if you
change the formula to I=V/R, and you have too small resistance, doing math operations,
the current will go too high that it will cause a short circuit. As an example for this, it
could be with the batteries from the laptops because some chargers have different
voltages, and some laptops have different resistance. If you use the charger of a
different company to another laptop, even if the hole of the charger is the same, it may
cause a short circuit because the voltage was too high for the resistance.
Now about circuits, we will talk about the Resistor Color Code. Each resistor has at
least 4 bands of colors, and depending on the order, we will know the exact amount of
resistance does it have. The first band means the first digit of the amount, then the
second its the second digit, and the third one means the amount of 0s will it have (this
just happens for the resistor with 4 bands, the others count as another number). The
other bands are the tolerance (how much percentage of tolerance will have from the
exact amount), the temperature in the resistor, and the last one on multiplier that is the
case for the five and six bands.
There are two types of circuits: in Series and Parallel.
Resistors which are connected in series are connected in consecutive fashion such that
all the charge that passes through the first resistor will also pass through the other
resistors. In series connection, all of the charge flowing through the circuit passes
through all the individual resistors. As such, the equivalent resistance of series-
connected resistors is the sum of the individual resistance values of those resistors.
Req = R1 + R2 + R3 + (series connections).
Resistors that are connected in parallel are in side-by-side fashion such that the charge
approaching the resistors will split up into two or more different paths. The charge that
passes through one resistor will not pass through the other resistors. The equivalent
resistance of parallel-connected resistors is less than the resistance values of all the
individual resistors in the circuit. 1/Req = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + 1/R3 +
To know better the differences between the two circuits, in the series, the current (I) is
the same, the voltage (V) changes. In the parallel the voltage is the same, the current is

As a conclusion, in every place where we see lights, we see circuits inside of them, and
we wanted to teach this subject because many people dont have any idea of how the
light bulbs work, what is the purpose of the switches, and how does the electricity works
in better terms. With this presentation, you can now relate it whenever you will make a
house to see how your lights will work, and not confuse about the real explanation about
it. We must consider everything of electricity, because sometimes it can be very
sensitive and you never know if you will get in a short circuit.