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SME 4133 Failure of Engineering Components and Structures

MODULE 4
MECHANISMS OF FAILURE M.N. Tamin, UTM
MECHANISMS OF FAILURE
SME 4133 Failure of Engineering Components and Structures
MECHANISMS OF FAILURE
Static failure
Tensile fracture
Ductile and brittle fracture
MECHANISMS OF FAILURE M.N. Tamin, UTM
Ductile and brittle fracture
Creep rupture
Morphology of fracture surfaces
Fatigue failure
Stages of fatigue failure
Fatigue fracture characteristics
SME 4133 Failure of Engineering Components and Structures
Tensile Fracture
MECHANISMS OF FAILURE M.N. Tamin, UTM
Cleavage (brittle) fracture Ductile fracture
Source: Vander Voort, G.F., Metals Engineering Quarterly, Vol. 16, No. 3,
1976, pp. 33.
SME 4133 Failure of Engineering Components and Structures
Fracture of Bolts in Tensile Overload
(a) Brittle fracture
(Water-quenched to 47
Rockwell C)
MECHANISMS OF FAILURE M.N. Tamin, UTM
Rockwell C)
(b) Ductile fracture
(Annealed to 15 Rockwell C)
(c) Extensive necking and cup-and-cone fracture of an annealed bolt
(d) Brittle fracture of a quenched bolt. No obvious plastic deformation
(a) (b) (c) (d)
SME 4133 Failure of Engineering Components and Structures
Fracture of Shaft in Torsion Overload
Fracture surface is flat and
perpendicular to axis of shaft
MECHANISMS OF FAILURE M.N. Tamin, UTM
Dark spiral
indicates plastic
deformation by
torsion
Swirl pattern of
fracture surface
Ductile failure of 1035 steel drive shaft due to torsion overload
SME 4133 Failure of Engineering Components and Structures
Imperfections in Solid
Screw dislocation
MECHANISMS OF FAILURE M.N. Tamin, UTM
Fig. 4.3, Callister 7ed.
Burgers
vector b
SME 4133 Failure of Engineering Components and Structures
necking
void
nucleation
void growth
and linkage
shearing
at surface
fracture

Fracture Process in Ductile Materials


MECHANISMS OF FAILURE M.N. Tamin, UTM
Particles serve
as void
nucleation
sites.
50 m
P. Thornton, J. Mater. Sci., Vol. 6, 1971, pp. 347-56.)
Slip by plastic
deformation
SME 4133 Failure of Engineering Components and Structures
Ductile failure:
--one piece
--large deformation
Ductile Versus Brittle Fracture
MECHANISMS OF FAILURE M.N. Tamin, UTM
Brittle failure:
--many pieces
--small deformation
Figures from V.J. Colangelo and F.A.
Heiser, Analysis of Metallurgical Failures
(2nd ed.), Fig. 4.1(a) and (b), p. 66 John
Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1987. Used with
permission.
SME 4133 Failure of Engineering Components and Structures
Ductile Fracture Surface
Transgranular fracture
(across grains)
MECHANISMS OF FAILURE M.N. Tamin, UTM
- Dimples in
ductile fracture.
SME 4133 Failure of Engineering Components and Structures
Intergranular fracture
(between grains)
Brittle Fracture Surfaces
MECHANISMS OF FAILURE M.N. Tamin, UTM
304 S. Steel (metal)
Reprinted w/permission from "Metals
Handbook", 9th ed, Fig. 633, p. 650.
Copyright 1985, ASM International, Materials
Park, OH. (Micrograph by J.R. Keiser and
A.R. Olsen, Oak Ridge National Lab.)
4 mm
SME 4133 Failure of Engineering Components and Structures
Deterioration of a material by initiation and
propagation of crack when subjected to
FATIGUE FAILURE
MECHANISMS OF FAILURE M.N. Tamin, UTM
propagation of crack when subjected to
repeated load.
SME 4133 Failure of Engineering Components and Structures
Formation of Fatigue Striations
MECHANISMS OF FAILURE M.N. Tamin, UTM
SME 4133 Failure of Engineering Components and Structures
Fatigue Striations
MECHANISMS OF FAILURE M.N. Tamin, UTM
SME 4133 Failure of Engineering Components and Structures
Fracture Surface Due To Fatigue
MECHANISMS OF FAILURE M.N. Tamin, UTM
PSB persistent slip bands