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Oscilloscope Tutorial

The Oscilloscope
What Can You Do With It?
Analog and Digital
How Does an Oscilloscope Work?
Oscilloscope Terminology
Measurement Terms
Types o Wa!es
Wa!eorm Measurements
"erormance Terms
Setting Up
$etting the Controls
Compensating the "ro%e
The Controls
Display Controls
&ertical Controls
Hori'ontal Controls
Trigger Controls
Ac(uisition Controls or Digital Oscilloscopes
Other Controls
Measurement Techniques
The Display
&oltage Measurements
Time and )re(uency Measurements
"ulse and *ise Time Measurements
"hase $hit Measurements
What+s ,e-t?
The Oscilloscope
What is an oscilloscope. what can you do with it. and how does it work? This section
answers these undamental (uestions/
The oscilloscope is %asically a graph0displaying de!ice 0 it draws a graph o an electrical
signal/ In most applications the graph shows how signals change o!er time1 the !ertical
2Y3 a-is represents !oltage and the hori'ontal 243 a-is represents time/ The intensity or
%rightness o the display is sometimes called the 5 a-is/ 2$ee )igure 6/3 This simple graph
can tell you many things a%out a signal/ Here are a ew1
You can determine the time and !oltage !alues o a signal/
You can calculate the re(uency o an oscillating signal/
You can see the 7mo!ing parts7 o a circuit represented %y the signal/
You can tell i a malunctioning component is distorting the signal/
You can ind out how much o a signal is direct current 2DC3 or alternating
current 2AC3/
You can tell how much o the signal is noise and whether the noise is changing
with time/
Figure 1: X, Y, and Components o! a "isplayed #a$e!orm
An oscilloscope looks a lot like a small tele!ision set. e-cept that it has a grid drawn on
its screen and more controls than a tele!ision/ The ront panel o an oscilloscope normally
has control sections di!ided into &ertical. Hori'ontal. and Trigger sections/ There are also
display controls and input connectors/ $ee i you can locate these ront panel sections in
)igures 8 and 9 and on your oscilloscope/
Figure %: The T&S '() &nalog Oscilloscope Front *anel
Figure +: The T"S +%, "igital Oscilloscope Front *anel
#hat Can You "o #ith -t.
Oscilloscopes are used %y e!eryone rom tele!ision repair technicians to physicists/ They
are indispensa%le or anyone designing or repairing electronic e(uipment/
The useulness o an oscilloscope is not limited to the world o electronics/ With the
proper transducer. an oscilloscope can measure all kinds o phenomena/ A transducer is a
de!ice that creates an electrical signal in response to physical stimuli. such as sound.
mechanical stress. pressure. light. or heat/ )or e-ample. a microphone is a transducer/
An automoti!e engineer uses an oscilloscope to measure engine !i%rations/ A medical
researcher uses an oscilloscope to measure %rain wa!es/ The possi%ilities are endless/
Figure ': Scienti!ic "ata /athered 0y an Oscilloscope
&nalog and "igital
:lectronic e(uipment can %e di!ided into two types1 analog and digital/ Analog
e(uipment works with continuously !aria%le !oltages. while digital e(uipment works
with discrete %inary num%ers that may represent !oltage samples/ )or e-ample. a
con!entional phonograph turnta%le is an analog de!ice; a compact disc player is a digital
Oscilloscopes also come in analog and digital types/ An analog oscilloscope works %y
directly applying a !oltage %eing measured to an electron %eam mo!ing across the
oscilloscope screen/ The !oltage delects the %eam up and down proportionally. tracing
the wa!eorm on the screen/ This gi!es an immediate picture o the wa!eorm/
In contrast. a digital oscilloscope samples the wa!eorm and uses an analog0to0digital
con!erter 2or ADC3 to con!ert the !oltage %eing measured into digital inormation/ It then
uses this digital inormation to reconstruct the wa!eorm on the screen/
Figure ): "igital and &nalog Oscilloscopes "isplay #a$e!orms
)or many applications either an analog or digital oscilloscope will do/ Howe!er. each
type does possess some uni(ue characteristics making it more or less suita%le or speciic
"eople oten preer analog oscilloscopes when it is important to display rapidly !arying
signals in 7real time7 2or as they occur3/
Digital oscilloscopes allow you to capture and !iew e!ents that may happen only once/
They can process the digital wa!eorm data or send the data to a computer or processing/
Also. they can store the digital wa!eorm data or later !iewing and printing/
1o2 "oes an Oscilloscope #or3.
To %etter understand the oscilloscope controls. you need to know a little more a%out how
oscilloscopes display a signal/ Analog oscilloscopes work somewhat dierently than
digital oscilloscopes/ Howe!er. se!eral o the internal systems are similar/ Analog
oscilloscopes are somewhat simpler in concept and are descri%ed irst. ollowed %y a
description o digital oscilloscopes/
&nalog Oscilloscopes
When you connect an oscilloscope pro%e to a circuit. the !oltage signal tra!els through
the pro%e to the !ertical system o the oscilloscope/ )igure < is a simple %lock diagram
that shows how an analog oscilloscope displays a measured signal/
Figure (: &nalog Oscilloscope 4loc3 "iagram
Depending on how you set the !ertical scale 2!olts=di! control3. an attenuator reduces the
signal !oltage or an amplifier increases the signal !oltage/
,e-t. the signal tra!els directly to the !ertical delection plates o the cathode ray tu%e
2C*T3/ &oltage applied to these delection plates causes a glowing dot to mo!e/ 2An
electron %eam hitting phosphor inside the C*T creates the glowing dot/3 A positi!e
!oltage causes the dot to mo!e up while a negati!e !oltage causes the dot to mo!e down/
The signal also tra!els to the trigger system to start or trigger a 7hori'ontal sweep/7
Hori'ontal sweep is a term reerring to the action o the hori'ontal system causing the
glowing dot to mo!e across the screen/ Triggering the hori'ontal system causes the
hori'ontal time %ase to mo!e the glowing dot across the screen rom let to right within a
speciic time inter!al/ Many sweeps in rapid se(uence cause the mo!ement o the
glowing dot to %lend into a solid line/ At higher speeds. the dot may sweep across the
screen up to >??.??? times each second/
Together. the hori'ontal sweeping action and the !ertical delection action traces a graph
o the signal on the screen/ The trigger is necessary to sta%ili'e a repeating signal/ It
ensures that the sweep %egins at the same point o a repeating signal. resulting in a clear
picture as shown in )igure @/
Figure 5: Triggering Sta0ili6es a 7epeating #a$e!orm
In conclusion. to use an analog oscilloscope. you need to adAust three %asic settings to
accommodate an incoming signal1
The attenuation or ampliication o the signal/ Bse the !olts=di! control to adAust
the amplitude o the signal %eore it is applied to the !ertical delection plates/
The time %ase/ Bse the sec=di! control to set the amount o time per di!ision
represented hori'ontally across the screen/
The triggering o the oscilloscope/ Bse the trigger le!el to sta%ili'e a repeating
signal. as well as triggering on a single e!ent/
Also. adAusting the ocus and intensity controls ena%les you to create a sharp. !isi%le
"igital Oscilloscopes
$ome o the systems that make up digital oscilloscopes are the same as those in analog
oscilloscopes; howe!er. digital oscilloscopes contain additional data processing systems/
2$ee )igure C/3 With the added systems. the digital oscilloscope collects data or the
entire wa!eorm and then displays it/
When you attach a digital oscilloscope pro%e to a circuit. the !ertical system adAusts the
amplitude o the signal. Aust as in the analog oscilloscope/
,e-t. the analog0to0digital con!erter 2ADC3 in the ac(uisition system samples the signal
at discrete points in time and con!erts the signal+s !oltage at these points to digital !alues
called sample points/ The hori'ontal system+s sample clock determines how oten the
ADC takes a sample/ The rate at which the clock 7ticks7 is called the sample rate and is
measured in samples per second/
The sample points rom the ADC are stored in memory as waveform points/ More than
one sample point may make up one wa!eorm point/
Together. the wa!eorm points make up one wa!eorm record/ The num%er o wa!eorm
points used to make a wa!eorm record is called the record length/ The trigger system
determines the start and stop points o the record/ The display recei!es these record points
ater %eing stored in memory/
Depending on the capa%ilities o your oscilloscope. additional processing o the sample
points may take place. enhancing the display/ "retrigger may %e a!aila%le. allowing you
to see e!ents %eore the trigger point/
Figure 8: "igital Oscilloscope 4loc3 "iagram
)undamentally. with a digital oscilloscope as with an analog oscilloscope. you need to
adAust the !ertical. hori'ontal. and trigger settings to take a measurement/
Sampling Methods
The sampling method tells the digital oscilloscope how to collect sample points/ )or
slowly changing signals. a digital oscilloscope easily collects more than enough sample
points to construct an accurate picture/ Howe!er. or aster signals. 2how ast depends on
the oscilloscope+s ma-imum sample rate3 the oscilloscope cannot collect enough samples/
The digital oscilloscope can do two things1
It can collect a ew sample points o the signal in a single pass 2in real-time
sampling mode3 and then use interpolation/ Interpolation is a processing
techni(ue to estimate what the wa!eorm looks like %ased on a ew points/
It can %uild a picture o the wa!eorm o!er time. as long as the signal repeats
itsel 2equivalent-time sampling mode3/
7eal9Time Sampling 2ith -nterpolation
Digital oscilloscopes use real0time sampling as the standard sampling method/ In real0
time sampling. the oscilloscope collects as many samples as it can as the signal occurs/
2$ee )igure D/3 )or single0shot or transient signals you must use real time sampling/
Figure :: 7eal9time Sampling
Digital oscilloscopes use interpolation to display signals that are so ast that the
oscilloscope can only collect a ew sample points/ Interpolation 7connects the dots/7
Einear interpolation simply connects sample points with straight lines/ $ine interpolation
2or sin x over x interpolation3 connects sample points with cur!es/ 2$ee )igure 6?/3 Sin x
over x interpolation is a mathematical process similar to the 7o!ersampling7 used in
compact disc players/ With sine interpolation. points are calculated to ill in the time
%etween the real samples/ Bsing this process. a signal that is sampled only a ew times in
each cycle can %e accurately displayed or. in the case o the compact disc player.
accurately played %ack/
Figure 1,: ;inear and Sine -nterpolation
<qui$alent9Time Sampling
$ome digital oscilloscopes can use e(ui!alent0time sampling to capture !ery ast
repeating signals/ :(ui!alent0time sampling constructs a picture o a repetiti!e signal %y
capturing a little %it o inormation rom each repetition/ 2$ee )igure 66/3 You see the
wa!eorm slowly %uild up like a string o lights going on one0%y0one/ With sequential
sampling the points appear rom let to right in se(uence; with random sampling the
points appear randomly along the wa!eorm/
Figure 11: <qui$alent9time Sampling
Oscilloscope Terminology
Eearning a new skill oten in!ol!es learning a new !oca%ulary/ This idea holds true or
learning how to use an oscilloscope/ This section descri%es some useul measurement and
oscilloscope perormance terms/
Measurement Terms
The generic term or a pattern that repeats o!er time is a wave 0 sound wa!es. %rain
wa!es. ocean wa!es. and !oltage wa!es are all repeating patterns/ An oscilloscope
measures !oltage wa!es/ One cycle o a wa!e is the portion o the wa!e that repeats/ A
waveform is a graphic representation o a wa!e/ A !oltage wa!eorm shows time on the
hori'ontal a-is and !oltage on the !ertical a-is/
Wa!eorm shapes tell you a great deal a%out a signal/ Any time you see a change in the
height o the wa!eorm. you know the !oltage has changed/ Any time there is a lat
hori'ontal line. you know that there is no change or that length o time/ $traight diagonal
lines mean a linear change 0 rise or all o !oltage at a steady rate/ $harp angles on a
wa!eorm mean sudden change/ )igure 6 shows common wa!eorms and )igure 8 shows
some common sources o wa!eorms/
Figure 1: Common #a$e!orms
Figure %: Sources o! Common #a$e!orms
Types o! #a$es
You can classiy most wa!es into these types1
$ine wa!es
$(uare and rectangular wa!es
Triangle and sawtooth wa!es
$tep and pulse shapes
Sine #a$es
The sine wave is the undamental wa!e shape or se!eral reasons/ It has harmonious
mathematical properties 0 it is the same sine shape you may ha!e studied in high school
trigonometry class/ The !oltage in your wall outlet !aries as a sine wa!e/ Test signals
produced %y the oscillator circuit o a signal generator are oten sine wa!es/ Most AC
power sources produce sine wa!es/ 2AC stands or alternating current. although the
!oltage alternates too/ DC stands or direct current. which means a steady current and
!oltage. such as a %attery produces/3
The damped sine wave is a special case you may see in a circuit that oscillates %ut winds
down o!er time/
)igure 9 shows e-amples o sine and damped sine wa!es/
Figure +: Sine and "amped Sine #a$es
Square and 7ectangular #a$es
The square wave is another common wa!e shape/ Fasically. a s(uare wa!e is a !oltage
that turns on and o 2or goes high and low3 at regular inter!als/ It is a standard wa!e or
testing ampliiers 0 good ampliiers increase the amplitude o a s(uare wa!e with
minimum distortion/ Tele!ision. radio. and computer circuitry oten use s(uare wa!es or
timing signals/
The rectangular wave is like the s(uare wa!e e-cept that the high and low time inter!als
are not o e(ual length/ It is particularly important when analy'ing digital circuitry/
)igure G shows e-amples o s(uare and rectangular wa!es/
Figure ': Square and 7ectangular #a$es
Sa2tooth and Triangle #a$es
$awtooth and Triangle waves result rom circuits designed to control !oltages linearly.
such as the hori'ontal sweep o an analog oscilloscope or the raster scan o a tele!ision/
The transitions %etween !oltage le!els o these wa!es change at a constant rate/ These
transitions are called ramps/
)igure > shows e-amples o sawtooth and triangle wa!es/
Figure ): Sa2tooth and Triangle #a$es
Step and *ulse Shapes
$ignals such as steps and pulses that only occur once are called single-shot or transient
signals/ The step indicates a sudden change in !oltage. like what you would see i you
turned on a power switch/ The pulse indicates what you would see i you turned a power
switch on and then o again/ It might represent one %it o inormation tra!eling through a
computer circuit or it might %e a glitch 2a deect3 in a circuit/
A collection o pulses tra!elling together creates a pulse train. Digital components in a
computer communicate with each other using pulses/ "ulses are also common in -0ray
and communications e(uipment/
)igure < shows e-amples o step and pulse shapes and a pulse train/
Figure (: Step, *ulse, and *ulse Train Shapes
#a$e!orm Measurements
You use many terms to descri%e the types o measurements that you take with your
oscilloscope/ This section descri%es some o the most common measurements and terms/
Frequency and *eriod
I a signal repeats. it has a frequency/ The re(uency is measured in Hert' 2H'3 and e(uals
the num%er o times the signal repeats itsel in one second 2the cycles per second3/ A
repeating signal also has a period 0 this is the amount o time it takes the signal to
complete one cycle/ "eriod and re(uency are reciprocals o each other. so that 6=period
e(uals the re(uency and 6=re(uency e(uals the period/ $o. or e-ample. the sine wa!e in
)igure @ has a re(uency o 9 H' and a period o 6=9 second/
Figure 5: Frequency and *eriod
&oltage is the amount o electric potential 2a kind o signal strength3 %etween two points
in a circuit/ Bsually one o these points is ground 2'ero !olts3 %ut not always 0 you may
want to measure the !oltage rom the ma-imum peak to the minimum peak o a
wa!eorm. reerred to at the peak0to0peak !oltage/ The word amplitude commonly reers
to the ma-imum !oltage o a signal measured rom ground or 'ero !olts/ The wa!eorm
shown in )igure C has an amplitude o one !olt and a peak0to0peak !oltage o two !olts/
Phase is %est e-plained %y looking at a sine wa!e/ $ine wa!es are %ased on circular
motion and a circle has 9<? degrees/ One cycle o a sine wa!e has 9<? degrees. as shown
in )igure C/ Bsing degrees. you can reer to the phase angle o a sine wa!e when you
want to descri%e how much o the period has elapsed/
Figure 8: Sine #a$e "egrees
"hase shit descri%es the dierence in timing %etween two otherwise similar signals/ In
)igure D. the wa!eorm la%eled 7current7 is said to %e D?> out o phase with the
wa!eorm la%eled 7!oltage.7 since the wa!es reach similar points in their cycles e-actly
6=G o a cycle apart 29<? degrees=G H D? degrees3/ "hase shits are common in electronics/
Figure :: *hase Shi!t
*er!ormance Terms
The terms descri%ed in this section may come up in your discussions a%out oscilloscope
perormance/ Bnderstanding these terms will help you e!aluate and compare your
oscilloscope with other models/
The %andwidth speciication tells you the re(uency range the oscilloscope accurately
As signal re(uency increases. the capa%ility o the oscilloscope to accurately respond
decreases/ Fy con!ention. the %andwidth tells you the re(uency at which the displayed
signal reduces to @?/@I o the applied sine wa!e signal/ 2This @?/@I point is reerred to
as the 709 dF point.7 a term %ased on a logarithmic scale/3
7ise Time
*ise time is another way o descri%ing the useul re(uency range o an oscilloscope/
*ise time may %e a more appropriate perormance consideration when you e-pect to
measure pulses and steps/ An oscilloscope cannot accurately display pulses with rise
times aster than the speciied rise time o the oscilloscope/
=ertical Sensiti$ity
The !ertical sensiti!ity indicates how much the !ertical ampliier can ampliy a weak
signal/ &ertical sensiti!ity is usually gi!en in milli!olts 2m&3 per di!ision/ The smallest
!oltage a general purpose oscilloscope can detect is typically a%out 8 m& per !ertical
screen di!ision/
S2eep Speed
)or analog oscilloscopes. this speciication indicates how ast the trace can sweep across
the screen. allowing you to see ine details/ The astest sweep speed o an oscilloscope is
usually gi!en in nanoseconds=di!/
/ain &ccuracy
The gain accuracy indicates how accurately the !ertical system attenuates or ampliies a
signal/ This is usually listed as a percentage error/
Time 4ase or 1ori6ontal &ccuracy
The time %ase or hori'ontal accuracy indicates how accurately the hori'ontal system
displays the timing o a signal/ This is usually listed as a percentage error/
Sample 7ate
On digital oscilloscopes. the sampling rate indicates how many samples per second the
ADC 2and thereore the oscilloscope3 can ac(uire/ Ma-imum sample rates are usually
gi!en in megasamples per second 2M$=s3/ The aster the oscilloscope can sample. the
more accurately it can represent ine details in a ast signal/ The minimum sample rate
may also %e important i you need to look at slowly changing signals o!er long periods o
time/ Typically. the sample rate changes with changes made to the sec=di! control to
maintain a constant num%er o wa!eorm points in the wa!eorm record/
&"C 7esolution >Or =ertical 7esolution?
The resolution. in %its. o the ADC 2and thereore the digital oscilloscope3 indicates how
precisely it can turn input !oltages into digital !alues/ Calculation techni(ues can
impro!e the eecti!e resolution/
7ecord ;ength
The record length o a digital oscilloscope indicates how many wa!eorm points the
oscilloscope is a%le to ac(uire or one wa!eorm record/ $ome digital oscilloscopes let
you adAust the record length/ The ma-imum record length depends on the amount o
memory in your oscilloscope/ $ince the oscilloscope can only store a inite num%er o
wa!eorm points. there is a trade0o %etween record detail and record length/ You can
ac(uire either a detailed picture o a signal or a short period o time 2the oscilloscope
7ills up7 on wa!eorm points (uickly3 or a less detailed picture or a longer period o
time/ $ome oscilloscopes let you add more memory to increase the record length or
special applications/
Setting Up
This section %riely descri%es how to set up and start using an oscilloscope 0 speciically.
how to ground the oscilloscope. set the controls in standard positions. and compensate the
"roper grounding is an important step when setting up to take measurements or work on a
circuit/ "roperly grounding the oscilloscope protects you rom a ha'ardous shock and
grounding yoursel protects your circuits rom damage/
/round the Oscilloscope
#rounding the oscilloscope is necessary or saety/ I a high !oltage contacts the case o
an ungrounded oscilloscope. any part o the case. including kno%s that appear insulated. it
can gi!e you a shock/ Howe!er. with a properly grounded oscilloscope. the current
tra!els through the grounding path to earth ground rather than through you to earth
To ground the oscilloscope means to connect it to an electrically neutral reerence point
2such as earth ground3/ #round your oscilloscope %y plugging its three0pronged power
cord into an outlet grounded to earth ground/
#rounding is also necessary or taking accurate measurements with your oscilloscope/
The oscilloscope needs to share the same ground as any circuits you are testing/
$ome oscilloscopes do not re(uire the separate connection to earth ground/ These
oscilloscopes ha!e insulated cases and controls. which keeps any possi%le shock ha'ard
away rom the user/
/round Yoursel!
I you are working with integrated circuits 2ICs3. you also need to ground yoursel/
Integrated circuits ha!e tiny conduction paths that can %e damaged %y static electricity
that %uilds up on your %ody/ You can ruin an e-pensi!e IC simply %y walking across a
carpet or taking o a sweater and then touching the leads o the IC/ To sol!e this
pro%lem. wear a grounding strap 2see )igure 63/ This strap saely sends static charges on
your %ody to earth ground/
Figure 1: Typical #rist Type /rounding Strap
Setting the Controls
Ater plugging in the oscilloscope. take a look at the ront panel/ It is di!ided into three
main sections la%eled ertical. !ori"ontal. and Trigger/ Your oscilloscope may ha!e
other sections. depending on the model and type 2analog or digital3/
,otice the input connectors on your oscilloscope/ This is where you attach pro%es/ Most
oscilloscopes ha!e at least two input channels and each channel can display a wa!eorm
on the screen/ Multiple channels are handy or comparing wa!eorms/
Figure %: Front *anel Control Sections o! an Oscilloscope
$ome oscilloscopes ha!e an ABTO$:T or "*:$:T %utton that sets up the controls in
one step to accommodate a signal/ I your oscilloscope does not ha!e this eature. it is
helpul to set the controls to standard positions %eore taking measurements/
$tandard positions include the ollowing1
$et the oscilloscope to display channel 6
$et the !olts=di!ision scale to a mid0range position
Turn o the !aria%le !olts=di!ision
Turn o all magniication settings
$et the channel 6 input coupling to DC
$et the trigger mode to auto
$et the trigger source to channel 6
Turn trigger holdo to minimum or o
$et the intensity control to a nominal !iewing le!el
AdAust the ocus control or a sharp display
These are general instructions or setting up your oscilloscope/ I you are not sure how to
do any o these steps. reer to the manual that came with your oscilloscope/ The Controls
section descri%es the controls in more detail/
,ow you are ready to connect a pro%e to your oscilloscope/ It is important to use a pro%e
designed to work with your oscilloscope/ A pro%e is more than a ca%le with a clip0on tip/
It is a high0(uality connector. careully designed not to pick up stray radio and power line
"ro%es are designed not to inluence the %eha!ior o the circuit you are testing/ Howe!er.
no measurement de!ice can act as a perectly in!isi%le o%ser!er/ The unintentional
interaction o the pro%e and oscilloscope with the circuit %eing tested is called circuit
loading/ To minimi'e circuit loading. you will pro%a%ly use a 6?4 attenuator 2passi!e3
Your oscilloscope pro%a%ly arri!ed with a passi!e pro%e as a standard accessory/ "assi!e
pro%es pro!ide you with an e-cellent tool or general0purpose testing and
trou%leshooting/ )or more speciic measurements or tests. many other types o pro%es
e-ist/ Two e-amples are acti!e and current pro%es/
Descriptions o these pro%es ollow. with more emphasis gi!en to the passi!e pro%e since
this is the pro%e type that allows you the most le-i%ility o use/
Using *assi$e *ro0es
Most passi!e pro%es ha!e some degree o attenuation actor. such as 6?4. 6??4. and so
on/ Fy con!ention. attenuation actors. such as or the 6?4 attenuator pro%e. ha!e the 4
ater the actor/ In contrast. magniication actors like 46? ha!e the 4 irst/
The 6?4 2read as 7ten times73 attenuator pro%e minimi'es circuit loading and is an
e-cellent general0purpose passi!e pro%e/ Circuit loading %ecomes more pronounced at
higher re(uencies. so %e sure to use this type o pro%e when measuring signals a%o!e >
kH'/ The 6?4 attenuator pro%e impro!es the accuracy o your measurements. %ut it also
reduces the amplitude o the signal seen on the screen %y a actor o 6?/
Fecause it attenuates the signal. the 6?4 attenuator pro%e makes it diicult to look at
signals less than 6? milli!olts/ The 64 pro%e is similar to the 6?4 attenuator pro%e %ut
lacks the attenuation circuitry/ Without this circuitry. more intererence is introduced to
the circuit %eing tested/ Bse the 6?4 attenuator pro%e as your standard pro%e. %ut keep
the 64 pro%e handy or measuring weak signals/ $ome pro%es ha!e a con!enient eature
or switching %etween 64 and 6?4 attenuation at the pro%e tip/ I your pro%e has this
eature. make sure you are using the correct setting %eore taking measurements/
Many oscilloscopes can detect whether you are using a 64 or 6?4 pro%e and adAust their
screen readouts accordingly/ Howe!er with some oscilloscopes. you must set the type o
pro%e you are using or read rom the proper 64 or 6?4 marking on the !olts=di! control/
The 6?4 attenuator pro%e works %y %alancing the pro%e+s electrical properties against the
oscilloscope+s electrical properties/ Feore using a 6?4 attenuator pro%e you need to
adAust this %alance or your particular oscilloscope/ This adAustment is called
compensating the pro%e and is urther descri%ed in the ne-t section/ )igure 9 shows a
simple diagram o the internal workings o a pro%e. its adAustment. and the input o an
Figure +: Typical *ro0e@Oscilloscope 1,9to91 "i$ider Aet2or3
)igure G shows a typical passi!e pro%e and some accessories to use with the pro%e/
Figure ': & Typical *assi$e *ro0e 2ith &ccessories
Using &cti$e *ro0es
Acti!e pro%es pro!ide their own ampliication or perorm some other type o operation to
process the signal %eore applying it to the oscilloscope/ These types o pro%es can sol!e
pro%lems such as circuit loading or perorm tests on signals. sending the results to the
oscilloscope/ Acti!e pro%es re(uire a power source or their operation/
Using Current *ro0es
Current pro%es ena%le you to directly o%ser!e and measure current wa!eorms/ They are
a!aila%le or measuring %oth AC and DC current/ Current pro%es use Aaws that clip
around the wire carrying the current/ This makes them uni(ue since they are not
connected in series with the circuit; they. thereore. cause little or no intererence in the
#here to Clip the /round Clip
Measuring a signal re(uires two connections1 the pro%e tip connection and a ground
connection/ "ro%es come with an alligator0clip attachment or grounding the pro%e to the
circuit under test/ In practice. you clip the grounding clip to a known ground in the
circuit. such as the metal chassis o a stereo you are repairing. and touch the pro%e tip to a
test point in the circuit/
Compensating the *ro0e
Feore using a passi!e pro%e. you need to compensate it 0 to %alance its electrical
properties to a particular oscilloscope/ You should get into the ha%it o compensating the
pro%e e!ery time you set up your oscilloscope/ A poorly adAusted pro%e can make your
measurements less accurate/ )igure > shows what happens to measured wa!eorms when
using a pro%e not properly compensated/
Figure ): The <!!ects o! -mproper *ro0e Compensation
Most oscilloscopes ha!e a s(uare wa!e reerence signal a!aila%le at a terminal on the
ront panel used to compensate the pro%e/ You compensate a pro%e %y1
Attaching the pro%e to an input connector
Connecting the pro%e tip to the pro%e compensation signal
Attaching the ground clip o the pro%e to ground
&iewing the s(uare wa!e reerence signal
Making the proper adAustments on the pro%e so that the corners o the s(uare
wa!e are s(uare
When you compensate the pro%e. always attach any accessory tips you will use and
connect the pro%e to the !ertical channel you plan to use/ This way the oscilloscope has
the same electrical properties as it does when you take measurements/
The Controls
This section %riely descri%es the %asic controls ound on analog and digital
oscilloscopes/ *emem%er that some controls dier %etween analog and digital
oscilloscopes; your oscilloscope pro%a%ly has controls not discussed here/
"isplay Controls
Display systems !ary %etween analog and digital oscilloscopes/ Common controls
An intensity control to adAust the %rightness o the wa!eorm/ As you increase the
sweep speed o an analog oscilloscope. you need to increase the intensity le!el/
A ocus control to adAust the sharpness o the wa!eorm/ Digital oscilloscopes
may not ha!e a ocus control/
A trace rotation control to align the wa!eorm trace with the screen+s hori'ontal
a-is/ The position o your oscilloscope in the earth+s magnetic ield aects
wa!eorm alignment/ Digital oscilloscopes may not ha!e a trace rotation control/
Other display controls may let you adAust the intensity o the graticule lights and
turn on or o any on0screen inormation 2such as menus3/
=ertical Controls
Bse the !ertical controls to position and scale the wa!eorm !ertically/ Your oscilloscope
also has controls or setting the input coupling and other signal conditioning. descri%ed in
this section/ )igure 6 shows a typical ront panel and on0screen menus or the !ertical
Figure 1: =ertical Controls
*osition and =olts per "i$ision
The !ertical position control lets you mo!e the wa!eorm up or down to e-actly where
you want it on the screen/
The !olts per di!ision 2usually written !olts=di!3 setting !aries the si'e o the wa!eorm
on the screen/ A good general purpose oscilloscope can accurately display signal le!els
rom a%out G milli!olts to G? !olts/
The !olts=di! setting is a scale actor/ )or e-ample. i the !olts=di! setting is > !olts. then
each o the eight !ertical di!isions represents > !olts and the entire screen can show G?
!olts rom %ottom to top 2assuming a graticule with eight maAor di!isions3/ I the setting
is ?/> !olts=di!. the screen can display G !olts rom %ottom to top. and so on/ The
ma-imum !oltage you can display on the screen is the !olts=di! setting times the num%er
o !ertical di!isions/ 2*ecall that the pro%e you use. 64 or 6?4. also inluences the scale
actor/ You must di!ide the !olts=di! scale %y the attenuation actor o the pro%e i the
oscilloscope does not do it or you/3
Oten the !olts=di! scale has either a !aria%le gain or a ine gain control or scaling a
displayed signal to a certain num%er o di!isions/ Bse this control to take rise time
-nput Coupling
Coupling means the method used to connect an electrical signal rom one circuit to
another/ In this case. the input coupling is the connection rom your test circuit to the
oscilloscope/ The coupling can %e set to DC. AC. or ground/ DC coupling shows all o an
input signal/ AC coupling %locks the DC component o a signal so that you see the
wa!eorm centered at 'ero !olts/ )igure 8 illustrates this dierence/ The AC coupling
setting is handy when the entire signal 2alternating plus constant components3 is too large
or the !olts=di! setting/
Figure %: &C and "C -nput Coupling
The ground setting disconnects the input signal rom the !ertical system. which lets you
see where 'ero !olts is on the screen/ With grounded input coupling and auto trigger
mode. you see a hori'ontal line on the screen that represents 'ero !olts/ $witching rom
DC to ground and %ack again is a handy way o measuring signal !oltage le!els with
respect to ground/
4and2idth ;imit
Most oscilloscopes ha!e a circuit that limits the %andwidth o the oscilloscope/ Fy
limiting the %andwidth. you reduce the noise that sometimes appears on the displayed
wa!eorm. pro!iding you with a more deined signal display/
Channel -n$ert
Most oscilloscopes ha!e an in!ert unction that allows you to display a signal 7upside0
down/7 That is. with low !oltage at the top o the screen and high !oltage at the %ottom/
&lternate and Chop "isplay
On analog scopes. multiple channels are displayed using either an alternate or chop
mode/ 2Digital oscilloscopes do not normally use chop or alternate mode/3
Alternate mode draws each channel alternately 0 the oscilloscope completes one sweep on
channel 6. then one sweep on channel 8. a second sweep on channel 6. and so on/ Bse
this mode with medium0 to high0speed signals. when the sec=di! scale is set to ?/> ms or
Chop mode causes the oscilloscope to draw small parts o each signal %y switching %ack
and orth %etween them/ The switching rate is too ast or you to notice. so the wa!eorm
looks whole/ You typically use this mode with slow signals re(uiring sweep speeds o 6
ms per di!ision or less/ )igure 9 shows the dierence %etween the two modes/ It is oten
useul to !iew the signal %oth ways. to make sure you ha!e the %est !iew/
Figure +: Multi9Channel "isplay Modes
Math Operations
Your oscilloscope may also ha!e operations to allow you to add wa!eorms together.
creating a new wa!eorm display/ Analog oscilloscopes com%ine the signals while digital
oscilloscopes mathematically create new wa!eorms/ $u%tracting wa!eorms is another
math operation/ $u%traction with analog oscilloscopes is possi%le %y using the channel
in!ert unction on one signal and then use the add operation/ Digital oscilloscopes
typically ha!e a su%traction operation a!aila%le/ )igure G illustrates a third wa!eorm
created %y adding two dierent signals together/
Figure ': &dding Channels
1ori6ontal Controls
Bse the hori'ontal controls to position and scale the wa!eorm hori'ontally/ )igure >
shows a typical ront panel and on0screen menus or the hori'ontal controls/
Figure ): 1ori6ontal Controls
*osition and Seconds per "i$ision
The hori'ontal position control mo!es the wa!eorm rom let and right to e-actly where
you want it on the screen/
The seconds per di!ision 2usually written as sec=di!3 setting lets you select the rate at
which the wa!eorm is drawn across the screen 2also known as the time %ase setting or
sweep speed3/ This setting is a scale actor/ )or e-ample. i the setting is 6 ms. each
hori'ontal di!ision represents 6 ms and the total screen width represents 6? ms 2ten
di!isions3/ Changing the sec=di! setting lets you look at longer or shorter time inter!als o
the input signal/
As with the !ertical !olts=di! scale. the hori'ontal sec=di! scale may ha!e !aria%le timing.
allowing you to set the hori'ontal time scale in %etween the discrete settings/
Time 4ase Selections
Your oscilloscope has a time %ase usually reerred to as the main time %ase and it is
pro%a%ly the most useul/ Many oscilloscopes ha!e what is called a delayed time %ase 0 a
time %ase sweep that starts ater a pre0determined time rom the start o the main time
%ase sweep/ Bsing a delayed time %ase sweep allows you to see e!ents more clearly or
e!en see e!ents not !isi%le with Aust the main time %ase sweep/
The delayed time %ase re(uires the setting o a delay time and possi%ly the use o delayed
trigger modes and other settings not descri%ed in this %ook/ *eer to the manual supplied
with your oscilloscope or inormation on how to use these eatures/
Trigger *osition
The trigger position control may %e located in the hori'ontal control section o your
oscilloscope/ It actually represents 7the hori"ontal position o the trigger in the wa!eorm
record/7 Hori'ontal trigger position control is only a!aila%le on digital oscilloscopes/
&arying the hori'ontal trigger position allows you to capture what a signal did #efore a
trigger e!ent 2called pretrigger viewing3/
Digital oscilloscopes can pro!ide pretrigger !iewing %ecause they constantly process the
input signal whether a trigger has %een recei!ed or not/ A steady stream o data lows
through the oscilloscope; the trigger merely tells the oscilloscope to sa!e the present data
in memory/ In contrast. analog oscilloscopes only display the signal ater recei!ing the
"retrigger !iewing is a !alua%le trou%leshooting aid/ )or e-ample. i a pro%lem occurs
intermittently. you can trigger on the pro%lem. record the e!ents that led up to it and.
possi%ly. ind the cause/
Your oscilloscope may ha!e special hori'ontal magniication settings that let you display
a magniied section o the wa!eorm on0screen/
XY Mode
Most oscilloscopes ha!e the capa%ility o displaying a second channel signal along the 40
a-is 2instead o time3/ This is called 4Y mode; you will ind a longer discussion later in
this %ook/
Trigger Controls
The trigger controls let you sta%ili'e repeating wa!eorms and capture single0shot
wa!eorms/ )igure < shows a typical ront panel and on0screen menus or the trigger
Figure (: Trigger Controls
The trigger makes repeating wa!eorms appear static on the oscilloscope display/ Imagine
the Aum%le on the screen that would result i each sweep started at a dierent place on the
signal 2see )igure @3/
Figure 5: Untriggered "isplay
Trigger ;e$el and Slope
Your oscilloscope may ha!e se!eral dierent types o triggers. such as edge. !ideo. pulse.
or logic/ :dge triggering is the %asic and most common type and is the only type
discussed in this %ook/ Consult your oscilloscope instruction manual or details on other
trigger types/
)or edge triggering. the trigger le!el and slope controls pro!ide the %asic trigger point
The trigger circuit acts as a comparator/ You select the slope and !oltage le!el o one side
o the comparator/ When the trigger signal matches your settings. the oscilloscope
generates a trigger/
The slope control determines whether the trigger point is on the rising or the
alling edge o a signal/ A rising edge is a positi!e slope and a alling edge is a
negati!e slope/
The le!el control determines where on the edge the trigger point occurs/
)igure C shows you how the trigger slope and le!el settings determine how a wa!eorm is
Figure 8: *ositi$e and Aegati$e Slope Triggering
Trigger Sources
The oscilloscope does not necessarily ha!e to trigger on the signal %eing measured/
$e!eral sources can trigger the sweep1
Any input channel
An e-ternal source. other than the signal applied to an input channel
The power source signal
A signal internally generated %y the oscilloscope
Most o the time you can lea!e the oscilloscope set to trigger on the channel displayed/
,ote that the oscilloscope can use an alternate trigger source whether displayed or not/ $o
you ha!e to %e careul not to unwittingly trigger on. or e-ample. channel 6 while
displaying channel 8/
Trigger Modes
The trigger mode determines whether or not the oscilloscope draws a wa!eorm i it does
not detect a trigger/ Common trigger modes include normal and auto/
In normal mode the oscilloscope only sweeps i the input signal reaches the set trigger
point; otherwise 2on an analog oscilloscope3 the screen is %lank or 2on a digital
oscilloscope3 ro'en on the last ac(uired wa!eorm/ ,ormal mode can %e disorienting
since you may not see the signal at irst i the le!el control is not adAusted correctly/
Auto mode causes the oscilloscope to sweep. e!en without a trigger/ I no signal is
present. a timer in the oscilloscope triggers the sweep/ This ensures that the display will
not disappear i the signal drops to small !oltages/ It is also the %est mode to use i you
are looking at many signals and do not want to %other setting the trigger each time/
In practice. you will pro%a%ly use %oth modes1 normal mode %ecause it is more !ersatile
and auto mode %ecause it re(uires less adAustment/
$ome oscilloscopes also include special modes or single sweeps. triggering on !ideo
signals. or automatically setting the trigger le!el/
Trigger Coupling
Just as you can select either AC or DC coupling or the !ertical system. you can choose
the kind o coupling or the trigger signal/
Fesides AC and DC coupling. your oscilloscope may also ha!e high re(uency reAection.
low re(uency reAection. and noise reAection trigger coupling/ These special settings are
useul or eliminating noise rom the trigger signal to pre!ent alse triggering/
Trigger 1oldo!!
$ometimes getting an oscilloscope to trigger on the correct part o a signal re(uires great
skill/ Many oscilloscopes ha!e special eatures to make this task easier/
Trigger holdoff is an adAusta%le period o time during which the oscilloscope cannot
trigger/ This eature is useul when you are triggering on comple- wa!eorm shapes. so
that the oscilloscope only triggers on the irst eligi%le trigger point/ )igure D shows how
using trigger holdo helps create a usa%le display/
Figure :: Trigger 1oldo!!
&cquisition Controls !or "igital Oscilloscopes
Digital oscilloscopes ha!e settings that let you control how the ac(uisition system
processes a signal/ Eook o!er the ac(uisition options on your digital oscilloscope while
you read this description/ )igure 6? shows you an e-ample o an ac(uisition menu/
Figure 1,: <Bample o! an &cquisition Menu
&cquisition Modes
Ac(uisition modes control how wa!eorm points are produced rom sample points/
*ecall rom the irst section that sample points are the digital !alues that come directly
out o the Analog0to0Digital0Con!erter 2ADC3/ The time %etween sample points is called
the sample inter!al/ Wa!eorm points are the digital !alues that are stored in memory and
displayed to orm the wa!eorm/ The time !alue dierence %etween wa!eorm points is
called the wa!eorm inter!al/ The sample inter!al and the wa!eorm inter!al may %e %ut
need not %e the same/ This act leads to the e-istence o se!eral dierent ac(uisition
modes in which one wa!eorm point is made up rom se!eral se(uentially ac(uired
sample points/ Additionally. wa!eorm points can %e created rom a composite o sample
points taken rom multiple ac(uisitions. which leads to another set o ac(uisition modes/
A description o the most commonly used ac(uisition modes ollows/
$ample Mode1 This is the simplest ac(uisition mode/ The oscilloscope creates a
wa!eorm point %y sa!ing one sample point during each wa!eorm inter!al/
"eak Detect Mode1 The oscilloscope sa!es the minimum and ma-imum !alue
sample points taken during two wa!eorm inter!als and uses these samples as the
two corresponding wa!eorm points/ Digital oscilloscopes with peak detect mode
run the ADC at a ast sample rate. e!en at !ery slow time %ase settings 2long
wa!eorm inter!al3. and are a%le to capture ast signal changes that would occur
%etween the wa!eorm points i in sample mode/ "eak detect mode is particularly
useul or seeing narrow pulses spaced ar apart in time/
Hi *es Mode1 Eike peak detect. hi res mode is a way o getting more inormation
in cases when the ADC can sample aster than the time %ase setting re(uires/ In
this case. multiple samples taken within one wa!eorm inter!al are a!eraged
together to produce one wa!eorm point/ The result is a decrease in noise and an
impro!ement in resolution or low speed signals/
:n!elope Mode1 :n!elope mode is similar to peak detect mode/ Howe!er. in
en!elope mode. the minimum and ma-imum wa!eorm points rom multiple
ac(uisitions are com%ined to orm a wa!eorm that shows min=ma- changes o!er
time/ "eak detect mode is usually used to ac(uire the records that are com%ined to
orm the en!elope wa!eorm/
A!erage Mode1 In a!erage mode. the oscilloscope sa!es one sample point during
each wa!eorm inter!al as in sample mode/ Howe!er. wa!eorm points rom
consecuti!e ac(uisitions are then a!eraged together to produce the inal displayed
wa!eorm/ A!erage mode reduces noise without loss o %andwidth %ut re(uires a
repeating signal/
Stopping and Starting the &cquisition System
One o the greatest ad!antages o digital oscilloscopes is their a%ility to store wa!eorms
or later !iewing/ To this end. there are usually one or more %uttons on the ront panel
that allow you to stop and start the ac(uisition system so you can analy'e wa!eorms at
your leisure/ Additionally. you may want the oscilloscope to automatically stop ac(uiring
ater one ac(uisition is complete or ater one set o records has %een turned into an
en!elope or a!erage wa!eorm/ This eature is commonly called single sweep or single
se(uence and its controls are usually ound either with the other ac(uisition controls or
with the trigger controls/
Sampling Methods
In digital oscilloscopes that can use either real0time sampling or e(ui!alent0time
sampling as descri%ed earlier. the ac(uisition controls will allow you to choose which one
to use or ac(uiring signals/ ,ote that this choice makes no dierence or slow time %ase
settings and only has an eect when the ADC cannot sample ast enough to ill the record
with wa!eorm points in one pass/
Other Controls
$o ar we ha!e descri%ed the %asic controls that a %eginner needs to know a%out/ Your
oscilloscope may ha!e other controls or !arious unctions/ $ome o these may include1
Measurement cursors
Keypads or mathematical operations or data entry
"rint capa%ilities
Interaces or connecting your oscilloscope to a computer

Measurement Techniques
This section teaches you %asic measurement techni(ues/ The two most %asic
measurements you can make are !oltage and time measurements/ Just a%out e!ery other
measurement is %ased on one o these two undamental techni(ues/
This section discusses methods or taking measurements !isually with the oscilloscope
screen/ Many digital oscilloscopes ha!e internal sotware that will take these
measurements automatically/ Knowing how to take the measurements manually will help
you understand and check the automatic measurements o the digital oscilloscopes/
The "isplay
Take a look at the oscilloscope display/ ,otice the grid markings on the screen 0 these
markings create the graticule/ :ach !ertical and hori'ontal line constitutes a ma$or
division/ The graticule is usually laid out in an C0%y06? di!ision pattern/ Ea%eling on the
oscilloscope controls 2such as !olts=di! and sec=di!3 always reers to maAor di!isions/ The
tick marks on the center hori'ontal and !ertical graticule lines 2see )igure 63 are called
minor di!isions/
Many oscilloscopes display on the screen how many !olts each !ertical di!ision
represents and how many seconds each hori'ontal di!ision represents/ Many
oscilloscopes also ha!e ?I. 6?I. D?I. and 6??I markings on the graticule 2see )igure
63 to help make rise time measurements. descri%ed later.
Figure 1: &n Oscilloscope /raticule
=oltage Measurements
&oltage is the amount o electric potential. e-pressed in !olts. %etween two points in a
circuit/ Bsually one o these points is ground 2'ero !olts3 %ut not always/ &oltages can
also %e measured rom peak0to0peak 0 rom the ma-imum point o a signal to its
minimum point/ You must %e careul to speciy which !oltage you mean/
The oscilloscope is primarily a !oltage0measuring de!ice/ Once you ha!e measured the
!oltage. other (uantities are Aust a calculation away/ )or e-ample. Ohm+s law states that
!oltage %etween two points in a circuit e(uals the current times the resistance/ )rom any
two o these (uantities you can calculate the third/ Another handy ormula is the power
law1 the power o a DC signal e(uals the !oltage times the current/ Calculations are more
complicated or AC signals. %ut the point here is that measuring the !oltage is the irst
step towards calculating other (uantities/
)igure 8 shows the !oltage o one peak 0 &LpM 0 and the peak0to0peak !oltage 0 &Lp0pM 0.
which is usually twice &LpM/ Bse the *M$ 2root0mean0s(uare3 !oltage 0 &L*M$M 0 to
calculate the power o an AC signal/
Figure %: =oltage *ea3 and *ea39to9pea3 =oltage
You take !oltage measurements %y counting the num%er o di!isions a wa!eorm spans
on the oscilloscope+s !ertical scale/ AdAusting the signal to co!er most o the screen
!ertically. then taking the measurement along the center !ertical graticule line ha!ing the
smaller di!isions. makes or the %est !oltage measurements/ The more screen area you
use. the more accurately you can read rom the screen/
Figure +: Measure =oltage on the Center =ertical /raticule ;ine
Many oscilloscopes ha!e on0screen cursors that let you take wa!eorm measurements
automatically on0screen. without ha!ing to count graticule marks/ Fasically. cursors are
two hori'ontal lines or !oltage measurements and two !ertical lines or time
measurements that you can mo!e around the screen/ A readout shows the !oltage or time
at their positions/
Time and Frequency Measurements
You take time measurements using the hori'ontal scale o the oscilloscope/ Time
measurements include measuring the period. pulse width. and timing o pulses/
)re(uency is the reciprocal o the period. so once you know the period. the re(uency is
one di!ided %y the period/ Eike !oltage measurements. time measurements are more
accurate when you adAust the portion o the signal to %e measured to co!er a large area o
the screen/ Taking time measurement along the center hori'ontal graticule line. ha!ing
smaller di!isions. makes or the %est time measurements/ 2$ee )igure G/3
Figure ': Measure Time on the Center 1ori6ontal /raticule ;ine
*ulse and 7ise Time Measurements
In many applications. the details o a pulse+s shape are important/ "ulses can %ecome
distorted and cause a digital circuit to malunction. and the timing o pulses in a pulse
train is oten signiicant/
$tandard pulse measurements are pulse width and pulse rise time/ *ise time is the amount
o time a pulse takes to go rom the low to high !oltage/ Fy con!ention. the rise time is
measured rom 6?I to D?I o the ull !oltage o the pulse/ This eliminates any
irregularities at the pulse+s transition corners/ This also e-plains why most oscilloscopes
ha!e 6?I and D?I markings on their screen/ "ulse width is the amount o time the pulse
takes to go rom low to high and %ack to low again/ Fy con!ention. the pulse width is
measured at >?I o ull !oltage/ $ee )igure > or these measurement points/
Figure ): 7ise Time and *ulse #idth Measurement *oints
"ulse measurements oten re(uire ine0tuning the triggering/ To %ecome an e-pert at
capturing pulses. you should learn how to use trigger holdo and how to set the digital
oscilloscope to capture pretrigger data. as descri%ed earlier in the Controls section/
Hori'ontal magniication is another useul eature or measuring pulses. since it allows
you to see ine details o a ast pulse/
*hase Shi!t Measurements
The hori'ontal control section may ha!e an 4Y mode that lets you display an input signal
rather than the time %ase on the hori'ontal a-is/ 2On some digital oscilloscopes this is a
display mode setting/3 This mode o operation opens up a whole new area o phase shit
measurement techni(ues/
The phase o a wa!e is the amount o time that passes rom the %eginning o a cycle to
the %eginning o the ne-t cycle. measured in degrees/ "hase shit descri%es the dierence
in timing %etween two otherwise identical periodic signals/
One method or measuring phase shit is to use 4Y mode/ This in!ol!es inputting one
signal into the !ertical system as usual and then another signal into the hori'ontal system/
2This method only works i %oth signals are sine wa!es/3 This set up is called an 4Y
measurement %ecause %oth the 4 and Y a-is are tracing !oltages/ The wa!eorm resulting
rom this arrangement is called a EissaAous pattern 2named or )rench physicist Jules
Antoine EissaAous and pronounced E::0sa0'hoo3/ )rom the shape o the EissaAous
pattern. you can tell the phase dierence %etween the two signals/ You can also tell their
re(uency ratio/ )igure < shows EissaAous patterns or !arious re(uency ratios and phase
Figure (: ;issaCous *atterns
#hatDs AeBt.
This section has co!ered %asic measurement techni(ues/ Other measurement techni(ues
in!ol!e setting up the oscilloscope to test electrical components on an assem%ly line.
su%tracting noise rom a signal. capturing elusi!e transient signals. and many others that
would take too much room to list/ The measurement techni(ues you will use depend on
your application. %ut you ha!e learned enough to get started/ "ractice using your
oscilloscope and read more a%out it/ $oon its operation will %e second nature to you/