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Airborne Noise Measurement Study for DRven

Corporations Proposed Ladd Marine Coal Terminal









Prepared for


DRven Corporation
711 H Street, Suite 350
Anchorage, AK 99501


Version 1

May 29, 2007


Airborne Noise Measurement Study for DRven Corporations
Proposed Ladd Marine Coal Terminal








Prepared by

Christopher Whitt, Alex MacGillivray, David Hannay and Holly Sneddon


2101 4464 Markham Street
Victoria, British Columbia, Canada V8Z 7X8






Prepared for

DRven Corporation
711 H Street, Suite 350
Anchorage, AK 99501


Version 1.0

May 29, 2007


Release
Version #
Date Author/Editor Comment
1 May 29, 2007 Holly Sneddon Final release version to be sent to M
Link.



































Suggested format for citation:

Whitt, C., A. MacGillivray, D. Hannay and H. Sneddon. 2007. Airborne Noise Measurement
Study for DRven Corporations Proposed Ladd Marine Coal Terminal. Unpublished report
prepared by JASCO Research, Ltd. for DRven Corporation, Anchorage, AK, 40 p.
Airborne Noise Study Westshore Terminal & Ladd Proposed Terminal

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Table of Contents
Table of Contents............................................................................................................ 1
List of Tables.................................................................................................................. 2
List of Figures................................................................................................................. 3
1 Introduction............................................................................................................. 5
2 Noise Measurements at the WestShore Coal Terminal, Roberts Bank, British
Columbia, September 2006 ............................................................................................. 6
2.1 General............................................................................................................ 6
2.2 Study Location ................................................................................................ 6
2.3 Methods........................................................................................................... 9
2.3.1 Measurement Apparatus........................................................................... 9
2.3.2 Source Level Measurements................................................................... 10
2.3.3 Data Analysis......................................................................................... 10
2.4 Results........................................................................................................... 11
2.4.1 Long Range Coal Loading Noise ........................................................... 11
2.4.2 Conveyor Drive System Noise ............................................................... 14
2.4.3 Coal Car Dumping Noise ....................................................................... 16
2.4.4 Stacker Reclaimer Noise ........................................................................ 19
2.4.5 Summary of Measurements.................................................................... 22
3 In-Air Noise Measurements at the Proposed Ladd Terminal Location, Upper Cook
Inlet, Alaska, October 2006........................................................................................... 24
3.1 General.......................................................................................................... 24
3.2 Study Locations............................................................................................. 24
3.2.1 Beluga Airstrip ...................................................................................... 26
3.2.2 Freemans Barge.................................................................................... 26
3.2.3 Ladd Landing Beach.............................................................................. 27
3.2.4 Ladd Landing Bluff................................................................................ 27
3.3 Methods......................................................................................................... 28
3.3.1 Measurement Apparatus......................................................................... 28
3.3.2 Data Analysis......................................................................................... 28
3.4 Results........................................................................................................... 28
3.4.1 Beluga Airstrip ...................................................................................... 28
3.4.2 Freemans Barge Launch ....................................................................... 31
3.4.3 Ladd Landing Beach.............................................................................. 33
3.4.4 Ladd Landing Bluff................................................................................ 35
3.5 Summary....................................................................................................... 37
4 Discussion of Results ............................................................................................ 38
5 Literature Cited ..................................................................................................... 39
Appendix A Tables of 1/3 Octave Band Source Levels .............................................. 40

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List of Tables
Table 1: Summary of flat-weighted and A-weighted source levels measured at Westshore
Terminal coal yard. ....................................................................................................... 23
Table 2: Latitude and longitude of Ladd area in-air measurement study locations.......... 26
Table 3: Flat-weighed and A-weighted L
N
percentile level statistics for the Beluga airstrip
ambient noise measurements. ........................................................................................ 31
Table 4: Flat-weighed and A-weighted L
N
percentile level statistics for the Freemans
barge launch ambient noise measurements. ................................................................... 33
Table 5: Flat-weighed and A-weighted L
N
percentile level statistics for the Ladd Landing
beach ambient noise measurements. .............................................................................. 35
Table 6: Flat-weighed and A-weighted L
N
percentile level statistics for the Ladd Landing
bluff ambient noise measurements................................................................................. 37
Table 7: Summary of L
10
, L
50
, and L
90
percentile ambient noise levels for all four
measurement sites. ........................................................................................................ 38

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List of Figures
Figure 1: Aerial photographs of Westshore marine coal terminal in Delta, BC, Canada. a)
Overview of Westshore, Deltaport and Tsawwassen Ferry Terminal, b) Close-up of
Westshore terminal note Berth 1 and 2 and stacker reclaimers (3). ............................... 7
Figure 2: Photographs of the equipment for which in-air measurements were taken at
Westshore terminal on September 16, 2006..................................................................... 8
Figure 3: Acoustic monitoring equipment: Larson Davis Sound Level Meter with
Marantz PMD690 digital recorder, laser rangefinder and GPS....................................... 10
Figure 4: Diagram showing the work boat GPS track during the acoustic measurements
of coal loading aboard the bulk carrier Pierre LD.......................................................... 13
Figure 5: Flat-weighted and A-weighted sound pressure level versus range from the coal
loading operation. ......................................................................................................... 13
Figure 6: Estimated 1/3-octave band source levels for the coal loading operation.......... 14
Figure 7: Broadband sound pressure levels and time-frequency spectrogram of the
loading operation at 150-200 meters distance. ............................................................... 14
Figure 8: Broadband sound pressure levels and spectrogram plots of the conveyor drive
system measured at 16 meters distance.......................................................................... 16
Figure 9: Estimated 1/3 octave band source levels for the conveyor drive system. ......... 16
Figure 10: Broadband sound pressure level and spectrogram plots for the coal car
dumping operation. ....................................................................................................... 18
Figure 11: Back-propagated 1/3-octave band source levels of coal car dumping, averaged
over the entire 3:45 minute coal dumping cycle............................................................. 18
Figure 12: Back-propagated1/3-octave band source levels for the loudest 30 seconds of
the coal car dumping operation...................................................................................... 19
Figure 13: Broadband sound pressure level and spectrogram plots while the stacker
reclaimer was stacking coal........................................................................................... 20
Figure 14: Back-propagated 1/3-octave band source levels for the stacker reclaimer
during coal stacking. ..................................................................................................... 21
Figure 15: Broadband sound pressure level and spectrogram plots recorded while the
stacker reclaimer was moving. ...................................................................................... 21
Figure 16: Back-propagated 1/3-octave band source levels for the moving stacker
reclaimer. ...................................................................................................................... 22
Figure 17: Map of the Tyonek area showing the location of the ambient noise
measurement sites near the proposed Ladd coal terminal. The position of a nearby oil
platform (Phillips-A) is also indicated. .......................................................................... 25
Figure 18: View offshore from Freemans barge launch. Note the offshore platform in the
upper left of the photo. .................................................................................................. 26
Figure 19: Photograph of Ladd landing beach measurement location. Note the offshore
platform (right). ............................................................................................................ 27
Figure 20: Flat-weighted, A-weighted, and decade-band SPLs (top) and spectral levels
(bottom) for ambient noise recordings taken at the Beluga Airstrip measurement site.... 30
Figure 21: Histogram of flat-weighted and A-weighted SPLs for 1 hour ambient noise
recording taken at the Beluga Airstrip measurement site. .............................................. 30
Figure 22: Flat-weighted, A-weighted, and decade-band SPLs (top) and spectral levels
(bottom) for ambient noise recordings taken at Freemans barge launch. ....................... 32
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Figure 23: Histogram of flat-weighted and A-weighted SPLs for 1 hour ambient noise
recording taken at the Freemans barge launch measurement site. ................................. 32
Figure 24: Flat-weighted, A-weighted, and decade-band SPLs (top) and spectral levels
(bottom) for ambient noise recordings taken at the Ladd Landing beach measurement
site. ............................................................................................................................... 34
Figure 25: Histogram of flat-weighted and A-weighted SPLs for 1 hour ambient noise
recording taken at the Ladd Landing beach measurement site........................................ 34
Figure 26: Flat-weighted, A-weighted, and decade-band SPLs (top) and spectral levels
(bottom) for ambient noise recordings taken at the Ladd Landing bluff measurement site.
..................................................................................................................................... 36
Figure 27: Histogram of flat-weighted and A-weighted SPLs for 1 hour ambient noise
recording taken at the Ladd Landing bluff measurement site. ........................................ 36
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1 Introduction
Development of a marine coal terminal by DRven Corporation at Ladd in Upper
Cook Inlet would introduce new industrial activity into the area that would generate
airborne noise. Ladd is approximately 2.5 km (1.5 mi) north of the Village of Tyonek on
the west side of Upper Cook Inlet, Alaska. The proposed terminal would include an over
water pile-supported trestle to carry conveyor systems that transport coal from the
onshore coal yard to the vessel berths, approximately 3 km (2 miles) offshore. The
primary sources of airborne noise will be large machinery operating in the coal yard and
the conveyor system that extends from the coal yard to the offshore berth. The large coal
carrier vessels generate relatively low levels of airborne noise during loading. Their noise
emission levels while moored at berth should be similar to noise produced by other large
vessel traffic already transiting in Upper Cook Inlet.
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2 Noise Measurements at the WestShore Coal Terminal,
Roberts Bank, British Columbia, September 2006

2.1 General
The purposes of the study outlined in this report were to quantify acoustic source
levels of machinery that would be used at the terminal, and to determine the noise levels
at distance produced by overall operations of the coal yard and conveyor systems. To
satisfy this requirement, JASCO Research Ltd made airborne sound level measurements
at a similar marine terminal, the Westshore marine coal terminal, located in Delta, British
Columbia, Canada. The measurements were performed on 15 and 16 September 2006 and
comprised both source level measurements on individual pieces of equipment and longer
range noise level measurements from distances between 100 m and 900 m from the
Southern Westshore terminal Berth 1. The longer range measurements were made over
water from a small boat as it drifted away from this loading berth.
The source level measurements were performed 16 September 2007 within 20 m
of each piece of equipment monitored. These measurements included a coal rail car
dumping station, a stacker-reclaimer and a conveyor drive. The dumping station and
conveyor drive were measured at 16 meters distance. The stacker reclaimer was moving
on its tracks during the measurement; the closest distance being 21 meters.

2.2 Study Location
The Westshore marine coal terminal is located on an artificial island off Delta,
British Columbia, Canada, approximately 35 km south of Vancouvers inner harbor. The
island is shared by the Westshore coal terminal, situated on the southwest section (shown
in Figure 1), and the TSI Deltaport container shipping terminal, situated to the northeast.
The terminal is connected to the mainland by a 4 km long constructed causeway with
roadway and railway access. British Columbias Tsawwassen ferry terminal is located
1.75 km south and east of the Westshore terminal. The marine area between the island
and the ferry terminal is used by ferries, fishing and private vessels, tug boats and large
container and coal carrier vessels.
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Figure 1: Aerial photographs of Westshore marine coal terminal in Delta, BC,
Canada. a) Overview of Westshore, Deltaport and Tsawwassen Ferry Terminal, b)
Close-up of Westshore terminal note Berth 1 and 2 and stacker reclaimers (3).

All of the coal that Westshore handles arrives by train via two rail loops. Each day
on average, six unit coal trains up to 125 cars long arrive on the island and are unloaded
within two to four hours within the enclosed dumper sheds (Figure 2a) located near the
southwest corner of the coal stockpile yard. Three pieces of equipment called stacker
reclaimers (Figure 2c & d), service the stockpile area by moving up and down the site to
add or remove coal from the storage piles. A series of high capacity, high volume
conveyors joined by conveyor drives (Figure 2b) are then used to transfer the coal to one
of Westshores two shipping berths. The conveyor drives transfer coal from one conveyor
belt to another and drive each conveyor. Other equipment that would contribute to the
overall noise output of the Westshore coal terminal include bulldozers, loaders, cranes
and water trucks. (Westshore Terminals Ltd.)

Berth 1
Berth 2
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a) Photograph of Coal Car Dumping
Station

b) Photograph of Conveyor Hopper

c) Photograph of Stacker Reclaimer Base

d) Photograph of Stacker Reclaimer
Figure 2: Photographs of the equipment for which in-air measurements were taken
at Westshore terminal on September 16, 2006
Westshore terminal uses two berths (see Figure 1) to load coal carrier vessels. the
carrier vessels Pierre LD and Hanjin Richards Bay were being loaded throughout the time
period of this study. Berth 1, located at the end of a 600 meter pile-supported trestle off
the south corner of the yard, uses a single rail-mounted Krupp shiploader capable of
7,000 tonnes per hour. Berth 2, situated to the east, adjacent to the coal pile yard uses
Twin quadrant shiploaders capable of a combined loading rate of 7,000 tonnes per hour.
The conveyors transport the coal from the stockpile yard to the vessels where it is loaded
directly into the carrier holds.
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The noise measurements made for the present study were made off the south berth
(Berth 1), as well as near the coal car dumping station, the main conveyor drive, and a
stacker-reclaimer machine. Berth 1 is most closely representative of the proposed Ladd
terminal berth in terms of water depth and its pile-supported conveyor belt system.

2.3 Methods
2.3.1 Measurement Apparatus
The field study was performed to measure noise emission levels of the equipment
associated with the Westshore Coal terminals activities. Sound level measurements were
made using a Larson Davis System 824 Type-1 Logging Sound Level Meter (SLM) that
monitored and logged Flat-weighted and A-weighted sound levels on the slow time
integration (1-second) setting. At the same time, digital recordings of broadband flat-
weighted acoustic pressure were made on a Marantz PMD690 digital recorder at 48kHz
sample rate with 16-bit samples. Refer to Figure 3 for a photograph of the recording
system and associated equipment. A Larson Davis CAL200 calibrator was used in the
field to perform calibrations of both the SLM and digital recorder before and after each
measurement. A laser range finder and GPS were used to determine the distance between
the recording system and the equipment measured. Timing of calibrations and noise
source events, such as coal car dumps, were logged throughout each measurement.


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Figure 3: Acoustic monitoring equipment: Larson Davis Sound Level Meter with
Marantz PMD690 digital recorder, laser rangefinder and GPS.

2.3.2 Source Level Measurements
Source level measurements were made on the coal rail car dumper, the stacker-
reclaimer, and a conveyor hopper-drive system. These measurements were made at
distances less than 30 m from the respective equipment. For each measurement the sound
measurement equipment was set up with the microphone of the sound level meter facing
the equipment, and placed at a height of 1.5 m (5 feet). The digital recorder was started
and the CAL200 calibrator placed over the microphone for 30 seconds. The calibrator
was removed while operations of the equipment were monitored. A continuous written
log of the environment was kept during the recording to log non-related noise sources
such as passing vehicle traffic and to accurately note the time of events such as the actual
dumping of a coal car. The calibrator was placed over the microphone again during the
last 30 seconds of each recording. Calibrator signals were processed for each
measurement to ensure system gain changes were properly accounted for in each
measurement.

2.3.3 Data Analysis
Digital waveform recordings were analyzed using custom data processing
software written in IDL programming language. For each recording, the data processing
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routines computed the following sound level metrics versus time inside a sliding 1-
second analysis window:
1. Broadband sound pressure level (SPL)
2. A-weighted sound pressure level
3. 1/3-octave band pressure levels (BPLs)
4. Spectrum levels in 1 Hz frequency bins
Broadband SPL was computed from the rms sound pressure level inside each 1-
second analysis window. Spectrum levels from 1 Hz to 24 kHz, in 1 Hz frequency bins,
were computed from the FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) of each analysis window. A-
weighted sound pressure levels were computed by integrating spectral levels using a
standard A-weighting filter network. 1/3-octave band pressure levels were computed by
integrating spectral levels inside standard 1/3-octave bands. Sound pressure levels, band
pressure levels and spectral levels were computed from the start to the end of each
recording on a 100 msec time base (the overlap of consecutive analysis windows was
90%). Absolute sound levels in the recordings were calibrated using a 94 dB, 1 kHz
calibration tone at the beginning of each recording. Source levels were computed by
back-propagating sound pressure levels and band pressure levels to a reference distance
of 1 meter assuming spherical (i.e., 20 log
10
r) spreading.

2.4 Results
2.4.1 Long Range Coal Loading Noise
Long range coal loading noise measurements were obtained at Westshore terminal
Berth 1 during loading of the forward hatches (numbers 1 and 2) of the bulk carrier,
Pierre LD. Noise levels were recorded at ranges from 150 meters to 900 meters from the
bulk carrier aboard a small work boat drifting downwind from the pier in a south easterly
direction; the GPS drift track of the recording vessel is shown in Figure 4. The primary
noise source in this recording was identified to be a conveyor drive located near the bow
of the bulk carrier. However, at longer ranges, noise from other sources at the coal
terminal likely contributed to the overall measured noise levels. Approximately 36
minutes of sound recordings were obtained during the drift measurements.
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Figure 5 shows flat-weighted and A-weighted SPLs for the recording period,
plotted versus range from the conveyor drive. This plot illustrates how noise levels
diminished with distance from the loading operation. Flat weighted levels shown in
Figure 5 were dominated by low-frequency wind noise concentrated below 20 Hz
whereas A-weighted levels were almost entirely due to noise from the loading operation.
Note that the spike in the A-weighted levels between 750m and 800m was caused by
wave noise on the work boat hull from the wake of a passing ferry.
To estimate the source level of the coal loading operation, A-weighted and 1/3-
octave band sound levels measured at close range (< 300 meters) were back-propagated
to the source assuming spherical (20 log
10
r) spreading. Sound refraction due to wind and
temperature gradients can generally be neglected at short distances and so spherical
spreading was most appropriate for back-propagation at these distances. The A-weighted
back-propagated source level of the loading operation was estimated to be 114.7 dB(A) re
20 !Pa @ 1-m. The flat-weighted back-propagated source level of the loading operation
filtered above 22 Hz was estimated to be 121.7 dB(F) re 20 !Pa @ 1-m. Figure 6 shows
1/3-octave band source levels for the coal loading operation; the dominant 1/3-octave
bands from the coal loading were observed to be between 20-60 Hz and 250-630 Hz and
band levels dropped off rapidly above 1 kHz. Note that bands below 20 Hz in Figure 6
were dominated by wind noise. Figure 7 shows a time-spectrogram for an 80 second
section of recording taken at 150-200 meters distance from the loading operation. The
strongest tones identified in the recordings were at 235 Hz, 360 Hz and 470 Hz, with
weaker tones identified at 1600 Hz and 2100 Hz.
At long range, A-weighted levels diminished with distance approximately
according to a 15 log
10
r curve, as shown in the Figure 5 trendline. The long range sound
decay was weaker than spherical (20 log
10
r) spreading for the following two reasons:
1. The long-range noise measurements were taken in the downwind
direction. Noise levels measured downwind are usually higher than those
measured upwind because sound rays emanating from the source are
refracted back down towards the ground in the downwind direction.
2. At ranges beyond approximately 300 meters from the loading pier, noise
from other sources at the coal terminal also contributed to measured noise
levels. This is because the distance to the loading pier and the distance to
other sources at the coal terminal were comparable at measurement ranges
greater than 300 meters.
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Figure 4: Diagram showing the work boat GPS track during the acoustic
measurements of coal loading aboard the bulk carrier Pierre LD.


Figure 5: Flat-weighted and A-weighted sound pressure level versus range from the
coal loading operation.

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Figure 6: Estimated 1/3-octave band source levels for the coal loading operation


Figure 7: Broadband sound pressure levels and time-frequency spectrogram of the
loading operation at 150-200 meters distance.

2.4.2 Conveyor Drive System Noise
Noise measurements from a conveyor drive system at the coal yard were recorded
at 16 meters range on 16 September. A total of 5.5 minutes of acoustic data were
obtained from the conveyor drive system. A two minute section of the recording was
selected for analysis that was free of interfering noise from passing vehicles. Note that
the conveyor drive from this measurement was different than the pier conveyor drive
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measured in the previous section. Figure 8 shows a plot of flat-weighted and A-weighted
SPLs and spectral levels from the conveyor drive measurements. Noise from the
conveyor drive was quite steady with no significant transients. Spectral levels from the
conveyor drive system were observed to be loudest around 30 Hz, with two additional
strong tones at 1600 Hz and 1800 Hz. Many weaker tonal components were observed in
the data: one particularly interesting group of tones was observed between 630 Hz and
750 at evenly spaced 30 Hz increments. The conveyor is driven by three identical
Toshiba 600 hp, 4160 VAC motors. The specified speed of the motors is 1785 rpm, or
29.75 revolutions per second, which closely corresponds to the large amount of noise
energy at 30 Hz.
Source levels for the conveyor drive were estimated by back-propagating sound
levels measured at 16 meters range using spherical spreading. The estimated flat-
weighted and A-weighted source levels for the conveyor drive were 111.2 dB(F) or 107.2
dB(A) re 20 !Pa @ 1-m, respectively. Figure 9 shows 1/3-octave band source levels for
the conveyor loader, which were estimated by back-propagating measured 1/3-octave
band levels, averaged over the two minute recording period. An occasional high pitched
tone was observed from the drive system at 3.7 kHz. When this tone was present, sound
levels in the 4 kHz band increased from 60.3 dB to 77.9 dB. Flat-weighted and A-
weighted source levels for the conveyor drive increased to 111.8 dB(F) or 108.6 dB(A)
respectively while the 3.7 Hz tone was present.
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Figure 8: Broadband sound pressure levels and spectrogram plots of the conveyor
drive system measured at 16 meters distance.

Figure 9: Estimated 1/3 octave band source levels for the conveyor drive system.

2.4.3 Coal Car Dumping Noise
Noise levels from the coal car dumping station were measured at 8 meters range
on 16 September. A total of 7 minutes of acoustic data were obtained from the coal
dumping operation. A 3.75 minute section of the recording was selected for analysis that
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had the least extraneous noise from passing vehicles and other unrelated sources. The
analysis period corresponded to one complete cycle of a train car entering the shed, being
dumped, and leaving the shed. Figure 10 shows flat-weighted levels, A-weighted levels
and spectral levels for the analysis period. The spectral data show that the strongest tones
in the coal car dumping noise were observed at 16 Hz and 32 Hz. The increased noise
levels from 230 s to 270 s in Figure 10 correspond to the period when coal was being
dumped from the car. Figure 10 shows that the flat-weighted SPL was dominated by
energy from 10-100 Hz, whereas the A-weighted SPL was dominated by energy between
100-1000 Hz.
Figure 11 shows 1/3 octave band source levels, averaged over the entire 3.75
minute coal car dumping cycle. Coal dumping source levels were estimated by back-
propagating sound levels measured at 8 meters range using spherical spreading. Figure
11 clearly shows that the dominant bands from the coal car dumping cycle were at 16 Hz
and 35 Hz. The flat-weighted and A-weighted source levels averaged over the entire 3.75
minute dumping cycle were estimated to be 118.3 dB(F) and 103.5 dB(A) re 20 !Pa @
1m, respectively. Figure 12 shows the back-propagated 1/3 octave band source levels for
the loudest 30 seconds of the dumping operation, corresponding to when coal was being
dumped from the car. Most bands below 500 Hz increased by 3-5 dB during the coal
dumping compared to the rest of the cycle. The broadband flat weighted and A-weighted
SPLs for the loudest section of the coal dumping were 119.5 dB(F) and 105.9 dB(A) re
20 !Pa @ 1m, respectively.
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Figure 10: Broadband sound pressure level and spectrogram plots for the coal car
dumping operation.

Figure 11: Back-propagated 1/3-octave band source levels of coal car dumping,
averaged over the entire 3.75 minute coal dumping cycle.
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Figure 12: Back-propagated1/3-octave band source levels for the loudest 30 seconds
of the coal car dumping operation.

2.4.4 Stacker Reclaimer Noise
Approximately 8 minutes of acoustic recordings were obtained from the stacker
reclaimer on 16 November. These acoustic recordings included periods when the stacker
was actively servicing the stockpile and periods when it transited to a new position in the
stockpile area. The stacker reclaimers noise emissions were substantially different while
it was servicing the stockpile and while it was in transit. Noise emissions from the
stacker while servicing the stockpile were concentrated below 1 kHz and were primarily
from the stackers engines and rollers on the stackers boom. When it was moving to a
different part of the stockpile, the stacker reclaimers engines were idling and so its noise
emissions below 1 kHz were substantially reduced. Noise emissions from the transiting
stacker reclaimer were dominated by a loud warning buzzer concentrated at 2.7 kHz.
However, noise from the buzzer was only intermittent since the stacker moved only
occasionally during its operations.
Figure 13 shows flat-weighted levels, A-weighted levels and spectral levels for a
1 minute section of recording when the stacker was actively stacking coal. The spectral
data show that noise from the coal stacking contained several strong, low-frequency tones
below 100 Hz, with the loudest tonal component of the noise observed at 26 Hz. Figure
14 shows 1/3-octave band source levels for the stacker reclaimer that were estimated by
back-propagating levels measured at 30 meters range using spherical spreading. Figure
14 shows that, while stacking coal, noise levels from the stacker reclaimer were loudest
between 20 Hz and 630 Hz. Broadband flat-weighted and A-weighted source levels for
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the stacker reclaimer were 113.5 dB(F) and 105.9 dB(A) re 20 !Pa @ 1m, respectively,
during coal stacking.
Figure 15 shows flat-weighted levels, A-weighted levels and spectral levels for a
section of recording when the stacker reclaimer was moving along its track past the
measurement location. The closest point of approach of the stacker reclaimer was at 270
seconds into the recording where the distance was measured to be 8 meters. The tone at
2.7 kHz in the spectrogram data corresponds to a warning buzzer which sounded while
the stacker reclaimer was in motion. Figure 16 shows back-propagated 1/3-octave band
source levels for the moving stacker reclaimer. The broadband flat weighted and A-
weighted SPLs for the moving stacker reclaimer were 107.6 dB(F) and 107.1 dB(A) re
20 !Pa @ 1m, respectively.


Figure 13: Broadband sound pressure level and spectrogram plots while the stacker
reclaimer was stacking coal.

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Figure 14: Back-propagated 1/3-octave band source levels for the stacker reclaimer
during coal stacking.


Figure 15: Broadband sound pressure level and spectrogram plots recorded while
the stacker reclaimer was moving.

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Figure 16: Back-propagated 1/3-octave band source levels for the moving stacker
reclaimer.

2.4.5 Summary of Measurements
Table 1 presents a summary of the estimated flat-weighted and A-weighted source
levels from the various operations measured at Westshore terminal. Composite source
levels of in-air noise for all operations at Westshore terminal were computed based on
measurements made between 150 m and 900 m from berth 1 during loading of coal
aboard the Pierre LD. Flat-weighted and A-weighted source levels from this operation,
referred to as coal loading, were estimated at 121.7 dB(F) and 114.7 dB(A), respectively;
1/3-octave band levels from the coal loading showed that noise from this operation was
concentrated at low to mid frequencies, from 20-60 Hz and from 250-630 Hz. Wind
noise in these data prevented an accurate source level assessment at the lowest
frequencies (below 20 Hz). The source levels of coal loading (being a composite noise
source) were as expected greater than any of the individual sources measured at the coal
terminal. The long-range measurements were taken in the downwind direction. Possible
downward focusing of sound energy to the measurement location may have caused
higher levels than would have been measured in a no-wind condition. This may have led
to a slight overestimation of the true source level.
The A-weighted levels of the conveyor drive were the highest of the three
individual sources measured at Westshore terminal, with an estimated source level of
107.2 dB(A). The noise from the conveyor drive was continuous and steady, and 1/3-
octave band levels from the conveyor drive were fairly evenly distributed between 20 Hz
and 2 kHz.
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The coal dumper was the second loudest A-weighted source but it was the loudest
flat-weighted source. Loud tones in the coal dumper spectrum at 16 Hz and 32 Hz would
be inaudible or barely perceptible to human beings and most animals. Thus, the A-
weighted noise levels from the coal dumping were substantially lower than the flat-
weighted levels from this source. Impulsive noise from the dumping station was only
present when a coal car was being unloaded, as the coal bumped against the sides of the
metal container car. The coal dumper measurements were made through a large doorway
in the side of the dumping station. It is likely that sounds in other directions would be
partly attenuated by the building. The door to this station faced the sea rather than toward
shore and urban areas.
While the stacker reclaimer was servicing the stockpile, its noise emissions were
comparable in loudness and frequency distribution to noise from the conveyor drive.
However, the stacker occasionally moved to and fro to different between parts of the coal
stockpile and during these periods its noise emissions below 1 kHz were substantially
reduced. Instead, while it was transiting, the stacker briefly generated a loud warning
tone at 2.7 kHz. Such high frequency noise is expected to attenuate much more rapidly
with range than low frequency noise.

Table 1: Summary of flat-weighted and A-weighted source levels measured at
Westshore Terminal coal yard.
Source
Measurement
range (m)
Flat-weighted SL
(dB(F) re 20 !Pa@1m)
A-weighted SL
(dB(A) re 20 !Pa@1m)
Coal loading
(composite source) 150 121.7 114.7
Conveyor drive 16 111.2 107.2
Coal dumping 8 118.3 103.5
Stacker reclaimer 30 113.5 105.9

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3 In-Air Noise Measurements at the Proposed Ladd
Terminal Location, Upper Cook Inlet, Alaska, October
2006
3.1 General
This chapter presents the results of an in-air ambient noise study conducted near
the site of the proposed marine coal terminal, in the Ladd area, north of the village of
Tyonek in Upper Cook Inlet. The purpose of this study was to measure baseline ambient
noise levels in the Ladd area to estimate the region surrounding the proposed coal
terminal site that would be exposed to increased noise levels, and to determine whether
any increase would have significant impacts on wildlife populations in this area.
One-hour ambient airborne noise recordings were taken at four different locations
in the Ladd area on October 20th and 21st, 2006. The noise recordings were
subsequently analyzed to determine ambient noise level statistics at each location,
including mean A-weighted and flat-weighted sound pressure levels (SPLs), and the
frequency distribution of the baseline noise conditions. The recordings were also
examined to identify existing sources of noise, both transient and continuous, in the area.

3.2 Study Locations
Ambient sound measurements were made at four locations near the proposed
Ladd terminal site: Beluga Airstrip, Freemans Barge Launch, Ladd Landing bluff and
Ladd Landing beach. A list of the study areas locations is provided in Table 2 and an
overview map is presented in Figure 17. The Ladd area is for the most part uninhabited,
the closest settlement being Tyonek, Alaska, 2.5 km to the southwest. Features of the area
include boreal forest, marsh habitats, mixed sand and gravel beaches and mudflats.
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Figure 17: Map of the Tyonek area showing the location of the ambient noise
measurement sites near the proposed Ladd coal terminal. The position of a nearby
oil platform is also indicated.
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Table 2: Latitude and longitude of Ladd area in-air measurement study locations.
Location Latitude Longitude
Beluga Airstrip 6117'23"N 15104'24"W
Freemans Barge Launch 6112'15"N 15108'90"W
Ladd Landing Beach 6111'27"N 15109'66"W
Ladd Landing Bluff 6111'27"N 15109'73"W


Figure 18: View offshore from Freemans barge launch. Note the offshore platform
in the upper left of the photo.

3.2.1 Beluga Airstrip
Beluga airstrip is located approximately 8 km to the north of Ladds Landing,
fairly close to the coastline in a boreal forest area, at 6117'23"N 15104'24"W.
Measurements were taken on the evening of 21 October 2006. The measurements were
made next to a small passenger waiting area at the airstrip. At the time of measurement
the prevailing winds were from a bearing of 155 degrees at an average speed of 0.9 km/h.
3.2.2 Freemans Barge
Freemans barge launch is a gravel boat launch approximately 1.1 km north of
Ladds Landing. An hour of measurement was done in the morning of 21 October 2006
at 6112'15"N 15108'90"W. There were small waves of approximately 30cm breaking
on the shoreline, winds light to none, and clear skies. The tide was outgoing during the
measurement period. There is an oil platform approximately 9 km ESE offshore from
Freemans barge launch, at approximately 6107'62"N 15095'11"W. This platform is
visible in Figure 18, and also in Figure 19 (right).
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3.2.3 Ladd Landing Beach
Ladd Landing is a boat launch leading down to a beach located at 6111'27"N
15109'66"W, approximately 5 km north of the village of Tyonek. The landing has a
gravel access road at the top of a bluff approximately 15m to 20m above the beach level.
An access road parallel to the waterline slopes down to the beach. About an hour of
measurement was done in the afternoon of 20 October 2006. The measurement location
is shown in Figure 19. At the start of measurement the weather was sunny with a light
breeze averaging 5.9 km/h from a bearing of 174 degrees. The winds diminished to 3.9
km/h during the measurement period. There were small waves approximately 10cm to 15
cm in height at the waterline. The waterline was 15m to 20m east of the measurement
location at the start of the measurement and receded by approximately 5m over the
measurement period as the tide was outgoing. The offshore platform visible from
Freemans barge launch can also be seen from Ladd Landing beach (see Figure 19 right).

3.2.4 Ladd Landing Bluff
An hour of measurement was done in the early evening of 2006 October 20 from
the gravel access road on the bluff overlooking the beach at Ladds Landing, at
6111'27"N 15109'73"W. At the time of the measurement the weather was very calm
with wind averaging 0.4 km/h from a bearing of 186 degrees at the beginning of the
measurement, and diminishing over the measurement period.


Figure 19: Photograph of Ladd landing beach measurement location. Note the
offshore platform (right).
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3.3 Methods
3.3.1 Measurement Apparatus
The measurement apparatus used to obtain the Ladd ambient noise recordings was
identical to the apparatus used for the Westshore coal terminal measurements (see
Section 2.3.1).
3.3.2 Data Analysis
The ambient noise recordings for the Ladd measurement sites were processed
according to the same methodology as the Westshore data (see Section 2.3.3) to obtain 1-
second A-weighted and flat-weighted SPLs versus recording time. The processed SPL
data were used to generate histograms of the ambient noise distribution at each
measurement site; a SPL histogram bin width of 1 dB was used for this study.
Cumulative percentiles from the histograms were used to generate L
N
percentile sound
level statistics for each set of measurements. The L
N
percentile sound level is the SPL
that is exceeded during N% of the total recording time. So, for example, if 60 dB SPL
was exceeded 10% of the time during an acoustic recording then L
10
=60 dB. L
N

percentile levels for each measurement site were computed at 10%, 30%, 50%, 70%, and
90% intervals.

3.4 Results
3.4.1 Beluga Airstrip
Figure 20 shows flat-weighted, A-weighted, decade-band SPLs and spectral
levels for approximately 1 hour of acoustic recording at the Beluga airstrip measurement
site. At low frequencies less than 100 Hz, baseline ambient noise levels at this location
were dominated by tonal and narrow-band noise, e.g., at 13 Hz, 24 Hz. This noise very
likely originated at the offshore oil platform that was approximately 12 km (7.5 miles)
south east and directly upwind of the airport. Continuous tonal background noise above
100 Hz was from a gas discharge lamp outside the passenger waiting area building, 5
meters (16 feet) from the recording site. Intermittent spikes in the broadband levels
throughout the recording are due to vehicle traffic (mostly pickup trucks) traveling on a
road close to the measurement site. Passing vehicles were observed to increase the flat
and A-weighted broadband levels by up to 30 dBF and 15 dBA, respectively. Transient
noise at the beginning of the recording period (19:21-12:24) was engine noise which may
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have originated from a passing helicopter (c.f., 9:35 in Figure 22), though the actual noise
source was not identified in the logs. The temporary increase in both flat and A-weighted
SPL from this source was about 10 dB. The descending tones at 19:55-19:59 were from
a commercial airplane (most likely a turboprop) which passed by the measurement site at
long range. The 20 dB spike in the A-weighted levels at 20:02-20:05 were from a
commercial jet flying past the Beluga airstrip site.
Figure 21 shows histograms of flat-weighted (black) and A-weighted (red)
background levels at the Beluga airstrip measurement site. These histograms show the
time distribution of ambient noise levels for the entire 1 hour sound recording. The
concentration of levels below 40 dBA in the A-weighted histogram shows that
intermittent noise sources like passing vehicles represented only a small fraction of the
total ambient noise, despite large temporary increases in the SPL in Figure 20. Table 3
shows the L
N
percentile levels computed from the histograms. A-weighted and flat-
weighted L
50
percentile levels for the Beluga airstrip site were 39.3 dBA and 58.3 dBF,
respectively. Mean flat-weighted levels were almost 20 dB higher than mean A-weighted
levels at the Beluga airstrip site which indicates that much of the continuous background
noise was concentrated at very low frequencies below 100 Hz. The source of this low
frequency noise, which would have been largely inaudible to the human observer, was
not identified in the measurement logs. Some of it was likely produced by the offshore oil
platform.
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Figure 20: Flat-weighted, A-weighted, and decade-band SPLs (top) and spectral
levels (bottom) for ambient noise recordings taken at the Beluga Airstrip
measurement site.


Figure 21: Histogram of flat-weighted and A-weighted SPLs for 1 hour ambient
noise recording taken at the Beluga Airstrip measurement site.

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Table 3: Flat-weighed and A-weighted L
N
percentile level statistics for the Beluga
airstrip ambient noise measurements.
L
N
percentile
level
Flat-weighted
level (dBF)
A-weighted
level (dBA)
10% (L
10
) 64.6 52.3
30% (L
30
) 59.7 41.8
50% (L
50
) 58.3 39.3
70% (L
70
) 57.2 38.5
90% (L
90
) 56.1 37.8

3.4.2 Freemans Barge Launch
Figure 22 shows flat-weighted, A-weighted, and decade-band SPLs as well as
spectral levels for approximately 1 hour of acoustic recording at the Freemans barge
launch measurement site. Broadband ambient noise at this site was predominantly due to
the splashing of small ocean waves at the shoreline; the wave height was approximately
30 cm and winds were light to none at the time of measurement. Ambient noise below
100 Hz was dominated by low to infrasonic tones (e.g., at 13 Hz, 24 Hz and 30 Hz)
which are believed to be from the power generator at an oil platform approximately 9 km
offshore. The noise spectra in Figure 22 show that most of the ambient noise was
concentrated below 100 Hz; consequently the A-weighted SPL is significantly lower than
the flat-weighted SPL at this location. Tonal noise at 9:34-9:37 in Figure 22 was from a
distant helicopter. Transient noise events at 9:50-9:52 and again at 10:13-10:15 were due
to passing aircraft.
Figure 23 shows histograms of flat-weighted (black) and A-weighted (red)
background levels at the Freemans barge launch measurement site. The narrow
histogram distributions show that ambient noise levels were fairly constant over the 1
hour recording duration. Table 4 presents L
N
percentile levels for ambient noise at
Freemans barge launch. The A-weighted and flat-weighted L
50
percentile levels for this
site were 46.1 dBA and 57.0 dBF, respectively. Flat weighted levels at this site were
dominated by very low frequency engine noise from passing aircraft and the power
generator at the distant oil platform. A-weighted levels were dominated by the noise of
splashing waves at the shoreline.
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Figure 22: Flat-weighted, A-weighted, and decade-band SPLs (top) and spectral
levels (bottom) for ambient noise recordings taken at Freemans barge launch.


Figure 23: Histogram of flat-weighted and A-weighted SPLs for 1 hour ambient
noise recording taken at the Freemans barge launch measurement site.
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Table 4: Flat-weighed and A-weighted L
N
percentile level statistics for the
Freemans barge launch ambient noise measurements.
L
N
percentile
level
Flat-weighted
level (dBF)
A-weighted
level (dBA)
10% (L
10
) 60.1 49.0
30% (L
30
) 58.1 47.3
50% (L
50
) 57.0 46.1
70% (L
70
) 56.1 45.0
90% (L
90
) 55.0 43.4

3.4.3 Ladd Landing Beach
Figure 24 shows flat-weighted, A-weighted, and decade-band SPLs as well as
spectral levels for approximately 1 hour of acoustic recording at the Ladd Landing beach
measurement site. Ambient noise at the Ladd Landing beach was observed to be
primarily from small waves at the shoreline and small aircraft overhead. Quite a few
small aircraft passed by during the ambient noise recordings: the loudest passes were at
14:42, 14:52, 15:05, 15:14, and 15:36. These are clearly visible in the spectral data in
Figure 24 as groups of tones that shift down in frequency, due to the Doppler effect, as
the noise source approached the measurement position, reached CPA, and then moved
away from the measurement position. The A-weighted SPL increased by 20-25 dB during
the aircraft passes. The other notable feature of the spectral data was the continuous
tones at 30 Hz, 38 Hz and 90 Hz. These are believed to be noise emissions from an oil
platform which was approximately 9 km (5.5 miles) offshore from the measurement site.
Figure 25 shows histograms of flat-weighted (black) and A-weighted (red)
background levels and Table 5 presents L
N
percentile levels for ambient noise at the Ladd
landing beach measurement site. The A-weighted and flat-weighted L
50
percentile levels
for this site were 54.4 dBA and 60.8 dBF, respectively. A-weighted levels were closer to
the flat weighted levels at this site primarily because the breaking ocean waves were
larger than at Ladd Landing and had more sound energy at mid frequencies. Though
passing aircraft briefly increased broadband SPLs, average ambient noise levels at this
site were dominated by breaking waves at the shoreline and very low frequency noise
from the distant oil platform.
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Figure 24: Flat-weighted, A-weighted, and decade-band SPLs (top) and spectral
levels (bottom) for ambient noise recordings taken at the Ladd Landing beach
measurement site.


Figure 25: Histogram of flat-weighted and A-weighted SPLs for 1 hour ambient
noise recording taken at the Ladd Landing beach measurement site.
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Table 5: Flat-weighed and A-weighted L
N
percentile level statistics for the Ladd
Landing beach ambient noise measurements.
L
N
percentile
level
Flat-weighted
level (dBF)
A-weighted
level (dBA)
10% (L
10
) 66.8 59.5
30% (L
30
) 62.4 56.1
50% (L
50
) 60.8 54.4
70% (L
70
) 59.5 52.9
90% (L
90
) 57.7 51.1

3.4.4 Ladd Landing Bluff
Figure 26 shows flat-weighted, A-weighted, and decade-band SPLs and spectral
levels for approximately 1 hour of acoustic recording at the Ladd Landing bluff
measurement site. Ambient noise at this location was dominated by low frequency tonal
noise believed to be from a power generator at the offshore oil platform 9 km away.
Noise from the offshore platform was much more prominent at the bluff than at the beach
and continuous audible tones from the platform were clearly noted in the measurement
logs; the loudest tones were at 30 Hz, 38 Hz, and 90 Hz, with fainter tones identified at
100 Hz, 110 Hz and 220 Hz. Ocean wave noise at the shoreline was also observed at this
location, though mid-frequency wind noise was much lower than at the beach site.
Transient spikes in the ambient SPL data were from passing propeller aircraft (at 18:28-
18:30 and 18:39-18:41) and a diesel engine pickup truck (at 18:39 and 18:41) that passed
by the measurement site. Frequencies below 20 Hz in the Ladd Landing bluff recording
were obscured by low frequency ocean wave noise at the shoreline.
Figure 27 shows histograms of flat-weighted (black) and A-weighted (red)
background levels and Table 6 presents L
N
percentile levels for ambient noise at the Ladd
landing bluff measurement site. The A-weighted and flat-weighted L
50
percentile levels
for the bluff were 44.5 dBA and 61.4 dBF, respectively. Ambient levels at this site were
clearly dominated by noise from the offshore oil platform, as noted in the field
observations logs. A-weighted SPLs at Ladd Landing bluff were about 8 dB lower than
at the beach site because mid-frequency breaking wave noise was much lower at this
location. The greater prominence of the platform noise at this site was partly due to the
higher elevation at the bluff and partly due to decreased masking from breaking wave
noise at the shoreline.
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Figure 26: Flat-weighted, A-weighted, and decade-band SPLs (top) and spectral
levels (bottom) for ambient noise recordings taken at the Ladd Landing bluff
measurement site.


Figure 27: Histogram of flat-weighted and A-weighted SPLs for 1 hour ambient
noise recording taken at the Ladd Landing bluff measurement site.

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Table 6: Flat-weighed and A-weighted L
N
percentile level statistics for the Ladd
Landing bluff ambient noise measurements.
L
N
percentile
level
Flat-weighted
level (dBF)
A-weighted
level (dBA)
10% (L
10
) 64.8 47.6
30% (L
30
) 62.7 45.7
50% (L
50
) 61.4 44.5
70% (L
70
) 60.1 43.2
90% (L
90
) 58.1 41.6

3.5 Summary
Table 7 summarizes ambient noise level statistics for all four Ladd in-air
measurement sites. The two most prominent sources of continuous noise in the ambient
recordings were breaking ocean waves at the nearby shoreline and by low frequency
industrial noise from a distant oil platform, 9 km offshore. Industrial noise from the
offshore oil platform, in particular, was concentrated at low frequencies less than 100 Hz,
with prominent tones observed at 13, 24, 30, 38, and 90 Hz. Transient events in the
ambient noise recordings were identified as passing aircraft and as vehicles traveling on a
nearby road.
The quietest location, in terms of the average A-weighted ambient noise level,
was the Beluga airstrip measurement site, with L
50
=39.3 dBA. However, transient noise
events from passing vehicles and aircraft were also very frequent at this location. Flat-
weighted ambient noise levels at the Beluga airstrip were dominated by low frequency
industrial noise from an unknown source which was not identified in the field observation
logs. Flat-weighted levels were almost 20 dB higher than A-weighted levels at Beluga
airstrip, which was the greatest difference observed at all four measurement sites.
The loudest location, in terms of the average A-weighted ambient noise level, was
the beach at Ladd Landing, with L
50
=54.4 dBA. Noise from breaking ocean waves
dominated measured levels at Ladd Landing beach. Breaking wave noise was less
prominent, but still significant, at the Ladd Landing bluff and Freemans barge launch
measurement sites. Continuous industrial noise, believed to be from an offshore oil
platform 9 km away, was identified to be the loudest source of continuous low frequency
noise at all three of these sites. Noise from the offshore oil platform was loudest at the
Ladd Landing bluff measurement site. However, the low frequency platform noise was
below audible frequency range for humans, and consequently did not strongly influence
the A-weighted noise levels, which were generally low at all sites.
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Table 7: Summary of L
10
, L
50
, and L
90
percentile ambient noise levels for all four
measurement sites.
A-weighted levels (dBA) Flat-weighted levels (dBF)
L
90
L
50
L
10
L
90
L
50
L
10

Beluga airstrip 37.8 39.3 52.3 56.1 58.3 64.6
Freemans barge launch 43.4 46.1 49.0 55.0 57.0 60.1
Ladd Landing beach 51.1 54.4 59.5 57.7 60.8 66.8
Ladd Landing bluff 41.6 44.5 47.6 58.1 61.4 64.8


4 Discussion of Results

The present study includes results of sound level measurements at a marine coal
terminal representative of the proposed Ladd marine coal terminal, and ambient sound
level measurements made at four locations near the proposed terminal site. While overall
sound levels from the monitored coal terminal were less than 60 dB(A) at distances
greater than 1 km (0.6 mi) from the terminal, the proposed Ladd terminal would be
located in a rural setting with relatively little present industrial activity, and consequently
quite low existing background sound levels. Terminal sounds in this environment could
be audible in some instances to several miles distance.
The long-distance sound level measurements made at the Westshore marine coal
terminal found overall sound level was 59 dB(A) at 1 km (0.6 mi) distance, 57 dB(A) at
1.5 km (1 mi) distance and 54 dB(A) at 2 km (1.2 mi) distance. These measurements
were made overwater in the downwind direction from the terminal and are expected to be
representative of the highest sound level reception conditions. Levels measured overland
and in upwind or cross-wind directions are typically less than downwind and overwater.
The measured sound level decrease with distance followed a transmission loss rate of 15
log (r), where r is range or distance, meaning that sound levels decrease by 15 dB each
time the distance from the source increases by a factor of 10. Transmission loss rates
overland in normal wind conditions are typically greater at between approximately 20
log(r) and 25 log(r). Assuming the same (measured) sound level of 64 dB at 500 m
distance and 20 log(r) loss rates for greater distances yields predicted levels of 58 dB at 1
km, 52 dB(A) at 2 km, 48 dB(A) at 4 km, 42 dB(A) at 8 km and 39 dB(A) at 11 km.
Measurements of background sound levels at locations near the proposed terminal site
gave L
50
levels between 39.3 dB(A) and 46.1 dB(A). L
50
levels are the levels that are
exceeded 50% of the time during a sound level measurement. A higher L
50
of 54.4 dB(A)
was measured at Ladd Landing beach where breaking waves increased the ambient
Airborne Noise Study Westshore Terminal & Ladd Proposed Terminal

Page 39
levels. A comparison of predicted 20 log(r) sound levels with the measured L
50
levels
indicates, that in normal conditions away from the beach, terminal sounds would equal
background A-weighted sound levels at distances between about 5 km (3 mi) and 11 km
(6.6 mi). These are the normal distances that terminal sounds would be barely audible in
calm conditions. Certain situations such thermal gradients in calm wind conditions, or
light downwind reception locations could experience extended distances. Upwind
receptors or high-wind conditions would lead to reduced distances for audibility.
The measurements and predicted audibility distances here are based on the sound
levels produced by the Westshore marine coal terminal. That facility does not appear to
have implemented significant sound reduction technologies such as acoustic shielding
and vibration isolation of noise generating equipment. Those technologies could
significantly reduce emitted sound levels and are recommended for machinery installed at
the proposed terminal. Reductions of sound levels by 6 decibels, which is quite feasible
using these methods, leads to halving of the normal distance to which any given sound
level is received.


5 Literature Cited

Westshore Terminals Ltd., Background, < http://www.westshore.com/> (15
February 2007)



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Appendix A Tables of 1/3 Octave Band Source Levels
A.1 Long Range Measurements
Wave file name: F:\Documents and Settings\Christopher\My
Documents\RobertsBank\Air measurements\Offshore\RawData.WAV
Number of channels: 1
Sample rate: 48000
Bits per sample: 16
Number of samples: 110583808
Duration (min:sec): 0038:23
SL range correction: 155.000m
Start time for analysis: 76 seconds
Duration of analysis: 2 seconds

Frequency dB(F) dB(A) SL(F) SL(A)
---------------------------------------------
10.0 68.1 -4.5 111.9 39.3
12.5 68.5 3.0 112.3 46.8
16.0 62.3 3.5 106.1 47.3
20.0 67.0 16.6 110.8 60.4
25.0 68.6 23.9 112.4 67.7
31.5 68.9 29.5 112.7 73.3
40.0 66.6 32.0 110.4 75.8
50.0 65.4 35.2 109.2 79.0
63.0 67.5 41.3 111.3 85.1
80.0 62.8 40.3 106.6 84.1
100.0 61.6 42.5 105.4 86.3
125.0 63.5 47.4 107.3 91.2
160.0 62.8 49.4 106.6 93.2
200.0 62.4 51.5 106.2 95.3
250.0 66.6 58.0 110.4 101.8
315.0 66.2 59.6 110.0 103.4
400.0 65.2 60.4 109.0 104.2
500.0 64.8 61.6 108.6 105.4
630.0 62.9 61.0 106.7 104.8
800.0 61.4 60.6 105.2 104.4
1000.0 61.3 61.3 105.1 105.1
1250.0 60.8 61.4 104.6 105.2
1600.0 59.6 60.6 103.4 104.4
2000.0 58.2 59.4 102.0 103.2
2500.0 54.9 56.2 98.7 100.0
3150.0 52.1 53.3 95.9 97.1
4000.0 48.6 49.6 92.4 93.4
5000.0 45.5 46.0 89.3 89.8
6300.0 42.3 42.2 86.1 86.0
8000.0 40.3 39.2 84.1 83.0
10000.0 39.3 36.8 83.1 80.6
12500.0 37.3 33.0 81.1 76.8
16000.0 36.0 29.4 79.8 73.2
20000.0 36.6 27.3 80.4 71.1

Broadband levels
79.1 70.9 122.9 114.7
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A.2 Conveyor Drive System
Wave file name: F:\Documents and Settings\Christopher\My
Documents\RobertsBank\Air measurements\Conveyor
Loader\ConveyorLoader_Sept16.wav
Number of channels: 1
Sample rate: 48000
Bits per sample: 16
Number of samples: 19505152
Duration (min:sec): 0006:46
SL range correction: 16.0000m
Start time for analysis: 160 seconds
Duration of analysis: 120 seconds

Frequency dB(F) dB(A) SL(F) SL(A)
---------------------------------------------
10.0 65.9 -6.7 90.0 17.4
12.5 64.5 -1.0 88.6 23.1
16.0 68.2 9.4 92.3 33.5
20.0 70.9 20.5 94.9 44.5
25.0 71.0 26.3 95.1 50.4
31.5 77.5 38.1 101.5 62.1
40.0 73.3 38.7 97.4 62.8
50.0 70.8 40.6 94.8 64.6
63.0 72.6 46.4 96.7 70.5
80.0 74.0 51.5 98.1 75.6
100.0 71.9 52.8 96.0 76.9
125.0 74.4 58.3 98.5 82.4
160.0 74.3 60.9 98.4 85.0
200.0 70.5 59.6 94.6 83.7
250.0 73.0 64.4 97.1 88.5
315.0 72.6 66.0 96.7 90.1
400.0 74.4 69.6 98.5 93.7
500.0 74.3 71.1 98.4 95.2
630.0 76.2 74.3 100.3 98.4
800.0 73.8 73.0 97.9 97.1
1000.0 71.8 71.8 95.9 95.9
1250.0 70.9 71.5 95.0 95.6
1600.0 76.1 77.1 100.2 101.2
2000.0 73.9 75.1 97.9 99.1
2500.0 66.2 67.5 90.3 91.6
3150.0 64.7 65.9 88.8 90.0
4000.0 60.3 61.3 84.4 85.4
5000.0 56.3 56.8 80.4 80.9
6300.0 54.0 53.9 78.1 78.0
8000.0 50.0 48.9 74.0 72.9
10000.0 46.7 44.2 70.8 68.3
12500.0 45.9 41.6 69.9 65.6
16000.0 41.1 34.5 65.2 58.6
20000.0 38.5 29.2 62.6 53.3

Broadband levels
87.1 83.1 111.2 107.2

Airborne Noise Study Westshore Terminal & Ladd Proposed Terminal

Page 42
A.3 Coal Car Dumping
Wave file name: F:\Documents and Settings\Christopher\My
Documents\RobertsBank\Air measurements\Coal Car
Dumping\CoalCarDumping_Sept16.WAV
Number of channels: 1
Sample rate: 48000
Bits per sample: 16
Number of samples: 24535040
Duration (min:sec): 0008:31
SL range correction: 16.0000m
Start time for analysis: 131 seconds
Duration of analysis: 195 seconds

Frequency dB(F) dB(A) SL(F) SL(A)
---------------------------------------------
10.0 70.4 -2.2 94.5 21.9
12.5 73.1 7.6 97.2 31.7
16.0 92.9 34.1 117.0 58.2
20.0 71.9 21.5 96.0 45.6
25.0 75.4 30.7 99.5 54.8
31.5 82.5 43.1 106.6 67.2
40.0 76.4 41.8 100.5 65.9
50.0 78.1 47.9 102.1 71.9
63.0 75.2 49.0 99.3 73.1
80.0 76.8 54.3 100.9 78.4
100.0 75.9 56.8 100.0 80.9
125.0 74.1 58.0 98.2 82.1
160.0 72.7 59.3 96.8 83.4
200.0 72.1 61.2 96.2 85.3
250.0 72.5 63.9 96.6 88.0
315.0 74.4 67.8 98.5 91.9
400.0 72.2 67.4 96.3 91.5
500.0 71.9 68.7 96.0 92.8
630.0 73.7 71.8 97.8 95.9
800.0 73.2 72.4 97.3 96.5
1000.0 69.3 69.3 93.4 93.4
1250.0 68.5 69.1 92.6 93.2
1600.0 65.9 66.9 90.0 91.0
2000.0 63.7 64.9 87.8 89.0
2500.0 62.3 63.6 86.4 87.7
3150.0 60.5 61.7 84.6 85.8
4000.0 58.3 59.3 82.4 83.4
5000.0 55.3 55.8 79.4 79.9
6300.0 52.7 52.6 76.8 76.7
8000.0 49.5 48.4 73.6 72.5
10000.0 47.1 44.6 71.2 68.7
12500.0 43.6 39.3 67.7 63.4
16000.0 38.7 32.1 62.8 56.2
20000.0 36.7 27.4 60.8 51.5

Broadband levels
94.2 79.4 118.3 103.5

Airborne Noise Study Westshore Terminal & Ladd Proposed Terminal

Page 43
A.4 Stacker
A.4.1 Stacker Stationary
Wave file name: F:\Documents and Settings\Christopher\My
Documents\RobertsBank\Air measurements\Stacker\Stacker_Sept16.WAV
Number of channels: 1
Sample rate: 48000
Bits per sample: 16
Number of samples: 26681344
Duration (min:sec): 0009:15
SL range correction: 30.0000m
Start time for analysis: 40 seconds
Duration of analysis: 60 seconds

Frequency dB(F) dB(A) SL(F) SL(A)
---------------------------------------------
10.0 67.1 -5.5 96.6 24.0
12.5 65.5 -0.0 95.0 29.5
16.0 64.1 5.3 93.7 34.9
20.0 64.9 14.5 94.4 44.0
25.0 73.4 28.7 103.0 58.3
31.5 72.1 32.7 101.6 62.2
40.0 71.2 36.6 100.8 66.2
50.0 70.0 39.8 99.5 69.3
63.0 70.3 44.1 99.8 73.6
80.0 73.1 50.6 102.7 80.2
100.0 71.1 52.0 100.6 81.5
125.0 73.3 57.2 102.9 86.8
160.0 72.3 58.9 101.9 88.5
200.0 69.6 58.7 99.2 88.3
250.0 72.8 64.2 102.3 93.7
315.0 70.2 63.6 99.8 93.2
400.0 70.7 65.9 100.2 95.4
500.0 70.5 67.3 100.1 96.9
630.0 70.7 68.8 100.2 98.3
800.0 68.2 67.4 97.7 96.9
1000.0 66.0 66.0 95.5 95.5
1250.0 65.3 65.9 94.9 95.5
1600.0 62.4 63.4 91.9 92.9
2000.0 60.0 61.2 89.6 90.8
2500.0 59.0 60.3 88.5 89.8
3150.0 56.5 57.7 86.0 87.2
4000.0 53.4 54.4 82.9 83.9
5000.0 51.1 51.6 80.7 81.2
6300.0 48.0 47.9 77.5 77.4
8000.0 45.4 44.3 75.0 73.9
10000.0 46.3 43.8 75.8 73.3
12500.0 41.5 37.2 71.1 66.8
16000.0 36.5 29.9 66.0 59.4
20000.0 36.3 27.0 65.9 56.6

Broadband levels
84.0 76.3 113.5 105.9

Airborne Noise Study Westshore Terminal & Ladd Proposed Terminal

Page 44
A.4.2 Stacker In Motion
Wave file name: F:\Documents and Settings\Christopher\My
Documents\RobertsBank\Air measurements\Stacker\Stacker_Sept16.WAV
Number of channels: 1
Sample rate: 48000
Bits per sample: 16
Number of samples: 26681344
Duration (min:sec): 0009:15
SL range correction: 8.00000m
Start time for analysis: 269 seconds
Duration of analysis: 2 seconds

Frequency dB(F) dB(A) SL(F) SL(A)
---------------------------------------------
10.0 74.5 1.9 92.5 19.9
12.5 72.9 7.4 91.0 25.5
16.0 68.7 9.9 86.7 27.9
20.0 69.5 19.1 87.5 37.1
25.0 75.8 31.1 93.8 49.1
31.5 74.2 34.8 92.3 52.9
40.0 71.3 36.7 89.4 54.8
50.0 71.3 41.1 89.4 59.2
63.0 73.8 47.6 91.9 65.7
80.0 72.1 49.6 90.2 67.7
100.0 72.6 53.5 90.7 71.6
125.0 72.6 56.5 90.6 74.5
160.0 66.7 53.3 84.8 71.4
200.0 66.5 55.6 84.6 73.7
250.0 69.6 61.0 87.7 79.1
315.0 67.9 61.3 86.0 79.4
400.0 68.5 63.7 86.6 81.8
500.0 70.1 66.9 88.1 84.9
630.0 69.7 67.8 87.8 85.9
800.0 67.9 67.1 86.0 85.2
1000.0 66.4 66.4 84.4 84.4
1250.0 70.3 70.9 88.4 89.0
1600.0 67.4 68.4 85.5 86.5
2000.0 69.3 70.5 87.3 88.5
2500.0 86.8 88.1 104.8 106.1
3150.0 74.1 75.3 92.1 93.3
4000.0 71.9 72.9 90.0 91.0
5000.0 66.9 67.4 85.0 85.5
6300.0 70.4 70.3 88.5 88.4
8000.0 76.4 75.3 94.5 93.4
10000.0 65.6 63.1 83.7 81.2
12500.0 57.1 52.8 75.2 70.9
16000.0 53.4 46.8 71.5 64.9
20000.0 53.1 43.8 71.2 61.9

Broadband levels
89.5 89.1 107.6 107.1


Broadband levels
85.3 79.5 103.4 97.6