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Submitted by


Partial fulfilment for the award of the degree of
Master of Technology


December 2011
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Certified that this is the report of the seminar titled
Presented by
Ms. Aswathy Sethu
Of first semester M.Tech in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award
of the degree of Master of Technology in Production Engineering
(Manufacturing Systems Management) of the University of Calicut


Associate Professor
Department of Production Engineering
Government Engineering College

Prof. P.V. Mary C Kurien
Professor and Head
Department of Production Engineering
Government Engineering College

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Computer aided engineering (CAE) is an analysis performed at the
computer terminal using a CAD system. It includes computer-aided design
(CAD), computer-aided analysis (CAA), computer-integrated manufacturing
(CIM), computer-aided manufacturing (CAM), material requirements planning
(MRP), and computer-aided planning (CAP). Its purpose is mainly to analyze
the different materials, products, their performance and quality, such as
durability, stability, etc. It has many advantages like improved safety and
product quality, reduced product cost, customer satisfaction, etc. and so it has
many applications like used to analyze the properties of material, commercial
and flight simulations, etc. It has 3 phases: pre-processing, analysis solver, post-
processing of results.

CAE is mainly of 3 types: finite element analysis (FEA),
computational fluid dynamics (CFD), and Boundary Element Analysis (BEA).
FEA is used to conduct static and dynamic analysis. CFD is used to optimize
components for efficient fluid flow and heat transfer. BEA is used to predict
noise characteristics on various systems.

One of the real world examples is MEMS that is micro electro
mechanical systems. It has the size of a grain of salt or the eye of a needle.

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I take this opportunity to thank the Lord ALMIGHTY for being my driving force
and for his immense blessings towards the successful presentation completion of my seminar.

I wish to express my deepest gratitude to Dr. K. Vijayakumar, Principal of
Government Engineering College, Thrissur and Prof. P.V.Gopinadhan, H.O.D of
Production Department, Prof. Manjeet, who is my guide. I am deeply indebted to him for the
timey help and meticulous guidance that he provided to help with my seminar. I take this
opportunity to sincerely thank my guide for his guidance and encouragement in carrying out
this seminar.

I would also like to express my profound gratitude to Dr. Haris Naduthodi, Ms.
Mary C Kurian and Mr. Sunil D T, Prof. Parameshvaran, Mr. Satish for their constant
and valuable suggestions while doing the seminar work.

Last but not least I would like to extend my special thanks to my beloved family
members and friends for their inspiration and help during the course of this seminar research.

16-12- 2011 ASWATHY SETHU

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Abstract iii
Acknowledgement iv


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The future success of a manufacturing enterprise is likely to be determined by
the speed and efficiency with which it incorporates new technologies into its operations. The
process which is currently used to engineer, or re-engineer, manufacturing systems is often ad
hoc. Computerized tools are used on a very limited basis. Given the costs and resources
involved in the construction and operation of manufacturing systems, the engineering process
must be made more scientific. Powerful new computing environments for engineering
manufacturing systems could help achieve that objective.
Today, Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) technology contributes decisively
to shortening and optimizing product development cycles in many fields of industry and
research. Computer aided analysis and simulation enables our customers to assess and test the
behaviour of future components, products and processes by subjecting them to a range of
computer simulated physical conditions. This leads to savings in both the time and money
which would have been spent on cost-intensive test runs without any loss in quality and
opens up new possibilities for innovation. Computer aided engineering (CAE) retrieves
description and geometry from a computer aided manufacturing (CAD) database. Computer
aided engineering (CAE) is an analysis performed at the computer terminal using a CAD
system. Thus software tools that have been developed to support the activities in computer
analysis are considered CAE tools. CAE tools are being used, for example, to analyze the
robustness and performance of components and assemblies. The term encompasses
simulation, validation, and optimization of products and manufacturing tools. In the future,
CAE systems will be major providers of information to help support design teams in decision
making. In regard to information networks, CAE systems are individually considered a
single node on a total information network and each node may interact with other nodes on
the network. CAE systems can provide support to businesses. This is achieved by the use of
reference architectures and their ability to place information views on the business process.
Reference architecture is the basis from which information model, especially product and
manufacturing models. The term CAE has also been used by some in the past to describe the
use of computer technology within engineering in a broader sense than just engineering
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Historically, engineers analyzed designs by building and testing physical
prototypes, performing calculations by hand or with some computing aid such as a slide rule.
They frequently used tabulated mathematical functions, approximation methods, and data
accumulated from previous experience and physical testing to simplify their analyses. Some
analyses were so time-consuming that, when done at all, they could be completed only for
one simplified example. This frequently led to under- and over-designed systems. The first
case resulted in systems that did not work properly or failed outright. In the second case, the
systems were more expensive than necessary or too heavy to meet their goals. Physical
prototypes were (and remain) very costly and time-consuming to build and testand they
often have to be recreated as designs are changed. The advent of analog and digital computers
provided engineers with systems capable of analyzing designs much more quickly and
allowed them to undertake analyses that were previously impractical to attempt. However,
early computer systems were too slow and limited in capacity (memory, storage, I/O speed)
to handle extremely large or complex mechanical systems. While they provided a base for
new, more extensive design evaluations, many of the historical problems remained and new
problems arose. These included limited access to expensive, high powered computing
systems and difficulties describing the physical form of designs in a way that computers
could work with them efficiently. Therefore, many early analysis programs used
unrealistically simplified, schematic-like descriptions of the physical system. It was
impossible to describe any but the simplest systems geometry within the computing
Then came the creation of CAD/ CAM systems by the aerospace industry in
the early 1960s to assist with the massive design and documentation tasks associated with
producing airplanes. By the late 1970s, these codes were being distributed to other industries.
CAD/CAM systems have been used primarily for detail design and drafting along with the
generation of numerical control instructions for manufacturing. Gradually, more CAE
functions are being added to CAD/CAM systems. A trend toward open architecture with
flexible geometry interfaces is stimulating the addition of more analysis and manufacturing
functions. Modelling with CAD/CAM systems has become fairly sophisticated. Most popular
commercial systems support 2D and 3D wireframe, surface models, and solid models.
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Rendered surface models differ from solid models
about the interior of the object.

Computer aided engineering (CAE) is an analysis performed at the computer
terminal using a CAD system. It includes computer
analysis (CAA), computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM), computer
(CAM), material requirements planning (MRP), and computer
mainly depends on CAD. It is usually used in every industry such as aerospace, automobile

Flow diagram for a computer a

Computer-aided design
drafting (CADD) ,[1] is the use of computer technology
documentation. Computer Aided Drafting describes the process of drafting with
CADD software provides the user with input
processes; drafting, documentation, and
the form of electronic files for print or machining operations. CA
vector based graphics to depict the objects of traditional drafting,
graphics showing the overall appearance of
Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) encompasses the entire range of
product development and manufacturing activities with all the functions being carried out

Rendered surface models differ from solid models in that the latter have full information
Computer aided engineering (CAE) is an analysis performed at the computer
It includes computer-aided design (CAD), computer
integrated manufacturing (CIM), computer-aided manufac
(CAM), material requirements planning (MRP), and computer-aided planning (CAP).
mainly depends on CAD. It is usually used in every industry such as aerospace, automobile

Flow diagram for a computer aided engineering
aided design (CAD), also known as computer-aided
) ,[1] is the use of computer technology for the process of design and design
Drafting describes the process of drafting with a computer.
software provides the user with input-tools for the purpose of streamlining design
processes; drafting, documentation, and manufacturing processes. CADD output is often in
electronic files for print or machining operations. CADD software uses
vector based graphics to depict the objects of traditional drafting, or may also produce raster
graphics showing the overall appearance of designed objects.
Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) encompasses the entire range of
development and manufacturing activities with all the functions being carried out

in that the latter have full information
Computer aided engineering (CAE) is an analysis performed at the computer
aided design (CAD), computer-aided
aided manufacturing
aided planning (CAP). CAE
mainly depends on CAD. It is usually used in every industry such as aerospace, automobile
design and
for the process of design and design-
a computer.
streamlining design
manufacturing processes. CADD output is often in
DD software uses either
or may also produce raster
Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) encompasses the entire range of
development and manufacturing activities with all the functions being carried out
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with the help of dedicated software packages. The data required for various functions are
passed from one application software to another in a seamless manner. For example, the
product data is created during design. This data has to be transferred from the modelling
software to manufacturing software without any loss of data. CIM uses a common database
wherever feasible and communication technologies to integrate design, manufacturing and
associated business functions that combine the automated segments of a factory or a
manufacturing facility. CIM reduces the human component of manufacturing and thereby
relieves the process of its slow, expensive and error-prone component. CIM stands for a
holistic and methodological approach to the activities of the manufacturing enterprise in order
to achieve vast improvement in its performance. This methodological approach is applied to
all activities from the design of the product to customer support in an integrated way, using
various methods, means and techniques in order to achieve production improvement, cost
reduction, fulfillment of scheduled delivery dates, quality improvement and total flexibility in
the manufacturing system. CIM requires all those associated with a company to involve
totally in the process of product development and manufacture. In such a holistic approach,
economic, social and human aspects have the same importance as technical aspects. CIM also
encompasses the whole lot of enabling technologies including total quality management,
business process reengineering, concurrent engineering, workflow automation, enterprise
resource planning and flexible manufacturing.
Material requirements planning (MRP) is a production planning
and inventory control system used to manage manufacturing processes. Most MRP systems
are software-based, while it is possible to conduct MRP by hand as well. The basic function
of MRP system includes inventory control, bill of material processing and elementary
scheduling. MRP helps organizations to maintain low inventory levels. It is used to plan
manufacturing, purchasing and delivering activities. "Manufacturing organizations, whatever
their products, face the same daily practical problem - that customers want products to be
available in a shorter time than it takes to make them. This means that some level of planning
is required." Companies need to control the types and quantities of materials they purchase,
plan which products are to be produced and in what quantities and ensure that they are able to
meet current and future customer demand, all at the lowest possible cost. Making a bad
decision in any of these areas will make the company lose money.
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Computer-aided process planning (CAPP) is the use of computer technology
to aid in the process planning of a part or product, in manufacturing. CAPP is the link
between CAD and CAM in that it provides for the planning of the process to be used in
producing a designed part. Process planning is concerned with determining the sequence of
individual manufacturing operations needed to produce a given part or product. The resulting
operation sequence is documented on a form typically referred to as a route sheet containing
a listing of the production operations and associated machine tools for a workpart or
assembly. Process planning in manufacturing also refers to the planning of use of blanks,
spare parts, packaging material, user instructions (manuals) etc. Process planning translates
design information into the process steps and instructions to efficiently and effectively
manufacture products. As the design process is supported by many computer-aided tools,
computer-aided process planning (CAPP) has evolved to simplify and improve process
planning and achieve more effective use of manufacturing resources.


The goals of computer-aided engineering (CAE) are:
improved product quality
improved safety
reduced engineering time, achieved through fewer design iterations
improved product functionality and usability
reduced number of prototypes, ultimately leading to their elimination in many cases
reduced product cost.

These goals has helped computer aided engineering to achieve various heights like:
CAE can be used to perform variety tests like car crash the test simulation
Can be used for Commercial and military flight simulations
It is also used to analyze properties of different types material used in production
application of computerized methods during the design of technical systems
It increases production efficiency and quality through better designs
It is also a Tool for decision making-what the product is going to look like, its
performance characteristics, what improvements need to be made?
CAD analysis on be done on the computer screen
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There is no need to build products prototypes
Results of analysis is essential and can be saved for future of the product
Customer satisfaction is priority and can be achieved through CAE
CAE has to be compliant with many U.S. and international standards and so the
product real-world performance and safety is achieved
It also provide the customers with a concept before building expensive prototypes and
pre-production units and hence customer satisfaction can be achieved.

CAE applications support a wide range of engineering disciplines or
phenomena including:
Stress and dynamics analysis on components and assemblies using finite element
analysis (FEA)
Thermal and fluid analysis using computational fluid dynamics (CFD)
Kinematics and dynamic analysis of mechanisms (multi body dynamics)
In general, there are three phases in any computer-aided engineering task:
Pre-processing defining the model and environmental factors to be applied to it. It is
typically a finite element model, but facet, voxel and thin sheet methods are also used
in this phase.
Analysis solver- it is usually performed on high powered computers.
Post-processing of results it is the last phase in any computer aided engineering task
and is done using visualization tools.
This cycle is iterated, often many times, either manually or with the use of commercial
optimization software.
The finite element method (FEM) (its practical application often known
as finite element analysis (FEA)) is a numerical technique for finding approximate solutions
of partial differential equations (PDE) as well as integral equations. The solution approach is
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based either on eliminating the differential equation completely (steady state problems), or
rendering the PDE into an approximating system of ordinary differential equations, which are
then numerically integrated using standard techniques such as Euler's method, Runge-Kutta,
In solving partial differential equations, the primary challenge is to create an
equation that approximates the equation to be studied, but is numerically stable, meaning that
errors in the input and intermediate calculations do not accumulate and cause the resulting
output to be meaningless. There are many ways of doing this, all with advantages and
disadvantages. The finite element method is a good choice for solving partial differential
equations over complicated domains (like cars and oil pipelines), when the domain changes
(as during a solid state reaction with a moving boundary), when the desired precision varies
over the entire domain, or when the solution lacks smoothness. For instance, in a frontal crash
simulation it is possible to increase prediction accuracy in "important" areas like the front of
the car and reduce it in its rear (thus reducing cost of the simulation). Another example would
be in Numerical weather prediction, where it is more important to have accurate predictions
over developing highly-nonlinear phenomena (such as tropical cyclones in the atmosphere,
or eddies in the ocean) rather than relatively calm areas.

Example for finite element analysis

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A variety of specializations under the umbrella of the mechanical engineering
discipline (such as aeronautical, biomechanical, and automotive industries) commonly use
integrated FEM in design and development of their products. Several modern FEM packages
include specific components such as thermal, electromagnetic, fluid, and structural working
environments. In a structural simulation, FEM helps tremendously in producing stiffness and
strength visualizations and also in minimizing weight, materials, and costs. FEM allows
detailed visualization of where structures bend or twist, and indicates the distribution of
stresses and displacements. FEM software provides a wide range of simulation options for
controlling the complexity of both modelling and analysis of a system. Similarly, the desired
level of accuracy required and associated computational time requirements can be managed
simultaneously to address most engineering applications. FEM allows entire designs to be
constructed, refined, and optimized before the design is manufactured.
This powerful design tool has significantly improved both the standard of
engineering designs and the methodology of the design process in many industrial
applications. The introduction of FEM has substantially decreased the time to take products
from concept to the production line. It is primarily through improved initial prototype designs
using FEM that testing and development have been accelerated. In summary, benefits of
FEM include increased accuracy, enhanced design and better insight into critical design
parameters, virtual prototyping, fewer hardware prototypes, a faster and less expensive design
cycle, increased productivity, and increased revenue.

The boundary element method (BEM) is a numerical computational method of
solving linear partial differential equations which have been formulated as integral
equations (i.e. in boundary integralform). It can be applied in many areas of engineering and
science including fluid mechanics, acoustics, electro-magnetics, and fracture mechanics. The
integral equation may be regarded as an exact solution of the governing partial differential
equation. The boundary element method attempts to use the given boundary conditions to fit
boundary values into the integral equation, rather than values throughout the space defined by
a partial differential equation. Once this is done, in the post-processing stage, the integral
equation can then be used again to calculate numerically the solution directly at any desired
point in the interior of the solution domain.
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BEM is applicable to problems for which Green's functions can be calculated. These usually
involve fields in linear homogeneous media. This places considerable restrictions on the
range and generality of problems to which boundary elements can usefully be applied.
Nonlinearities can be included in the formulation, although they will generally introduce
volume integrals which then require the volume to be discretised before solution can be
attempted, removing one of the most often cited advantages of BEM
The boundary element method is often more efficient than other methods,
including finite elements, in terms of computational resources for problems where there is a
small surface/volume ratio
. Conceptually, it works by constructing a "mesh" over the
modelled surface. However, for many problems boundary element methods are significantly
less efficient than volume-discretisation methods. Boundary element formulations typically
give rise to fully populated matrices. This means that the storage requirements and
computational time will tend to grow according to the square of the problem size. By
contrast, finite element matrices are typically banded (elements are only locally connected)
and the storage requirements for the system matrices typically grow quite linearly with the
problem size. Compression techniques (e.g. multipole expansions or adaptive cross
approximation/hierarchical matrices) can be used to ameliorate these problems, though at the
cost of added complexity and with a success-rate that depends heavily on the nature of the
problem being solved and the geometry involved.

Computational fluid dynamics, usually abbreviated as CFD, is a branch
of fluid mechanics that uses numerical methods and algorithms to solve and analyze
problems that involve fluid flows. Computers are used to perform the calculations required to
simulate the interaction of liquids and gases with surfaces defined by boundary conditions.
With high-speed supercomputers, better solutions can be achieved. Ongoing research yields
software that improves the accuracy and speed of complex simulation scenarios such as
transonic or turbulent flows. Initial validation of such software is performed using a wind
tunnel with the final validation coming in full-scale testing, e.g. flight tests. The fundamental
basis of almost all CFD problems are the NavierStokes equations, which define any single-
phase fluid flow. These equations can be simplified by removing terms describing viscosity
to yield the Euler equations. Further simplification, by removing terms describing vorticity
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yields the full potential equations. Finally, these equations can be linearized to yield
the linearized potential equations.
In this approach, these procedures are followed:
During preprocessing
The geometry (physical bounds) of the problem is defined.
The volume occupied by the fluid is divided into discrete cells (the mesh). The mesh
may be uniform or non uniform.
The physical modeling is defined for example, the equations of motions
+ enthalpy + radiation + species conservation
Boundary conditions are defined. This involves specifying the fluid behaviour and
properties at the boundaries of the problem. For transient problems, the initial
conditions are also defined.
The simulation is started and the equations are solved iteratively as a steady-state or
Finally a postprocessor is used for the analysis and visualization of the resulting solution.

"Motion study" is a catch-all term for simulating and analyzing the movement
of mechanical assemblies and mechanisms. Traditionally, motion studies have been divided
into two categories: kinematics and dynamics. Kinematics is the study of motion without
regard to forces that cause it; dynamics is the study of motions that result from forces. Other
closely related terms for the same types of studies are multibody dynamics, mechanical
system simulation, and even virtual prototyping. Kinematic analysis is a simpler task than
dynamic analysis and is adequate for many applications involving moving parts. Kinematic
simulations show the physical positions of all the parts in an assembly with respect to the
time as it goes through a cycle. This technology is useful for simulating steady-state motion
(with no acceleration), as well as for evaluating motion for interference purposes, such as
assembly sequences of complex mechanical system. Many basic kinematic packages,
however, go a step further by providing "reaction forces," forces that result from the motion.
Dynamic simulation is more complex because the problem needs to be further defined and
more data is needed to account for the forces. But dynamics are often required to accurately
simulate the actual motion of a mechanical system. Generally, kinematic simulations help
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evaluate form, while dynamic simulations assists in analyzing function. Traditionally,
kinematics and dynamics have followed the classic analysis software method of pre
processing (preparing the data), solving (running the solution algorithms, which involve the
solution of simultaneous equations), and post processing (analyzing the results). Even though
today's programs are much more interactive, most programs follow this basic process since it
is a logical way to solve the problem. Most solvers are available as independent software
programs. The basic output of motion studies are numerous, including animation, detecting
interference, trace functions, basic motion data, and plots and graphs. Animated motions are
the classic output of simple kinematic analyses. Initially, the designer uses simple animation
as a visual evaluation of motion to see if it is what is desired. More sophisticated animations
can show motion from critical angles or even inside of parts, a definite advantage over
building and running a physical prototype. The ability to detect and fix interferences without
switching between software is one of the primary benefits of integrating motion simulation
and CAD.
Most systems provide colour feedback, for example, by turning to red parts
that experience interferences. More useful, however, are systems that turn the interference
volume into a separate piece of geometry, which can then be used to modify the parts to
eliminate the interference. Trace functions provide additional information about motion. The
motion of a joint or a particular point on a part can be plotted in 3D as a line or surface. Or,
the system can leave copies of the geometry at specified intervals. Such functions can provide
an envelope of movement that can be used to design housings or ensure clearances. Motion
data, such as forces, accelerations, velocities, and the exact locations of joints or points on
geometry can usually be extracted, although such capabilities are more applicable to dynamic
simulations rather than kinematic studies. Some systems allow users to attach instruments to
their models to simplify specifying what results they want to see. Most packages provide a
plethora of plotting and graphing functions. Plots and graphs are most commonly used
because values vary over time and are more meaningful than a single value at any given time.
An especially useful capability for studying design alternatives is to plot the results of two
different simulations on the same graph. Such data can also help designers determine the size
of motors, actuators, springs, and other mechanism components. Forces that result from
motion are of particular interest because they can be used as loads (or, at least, to calculate
them) for structural analysis of individual members. Typically, the highest load for a cycle is
used to perform a linear static finite element analysis (FEA) of critical individual components
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of a mechanism. Integration of solid modelling, motion simulation, and FEA software can
greatly streamline this processespecially important when studying design alternatives,
where many analyses are required.
The example for the usage of computer aided engineering is taken from
Stadco automotives, a car manufacturing company. Stadco is the UK's largest Tier 1 supplier
of BIW pressings and assemblies and the only one with a full product design capability from
styling and concept development through to production design, launch support and
production facility implementation. Stadco has operations in the UK, Germany, Russia and
now, India. Stadco has also delivered a number of projects in India, North America, South
America and Europe. Stadco Automotive Pvt. was formed in 2008 and will offer Engineering
services, BIW prototyping and BIW manufacture through a phased move into the Indian
market. Stadco established its Indian technical centre in Chennai in 2008, supporting both
international OEM's and domestic Indian automotive manufacturers.

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The process in the manufacture of car consists of many process like concept of CAD
development, CAD design, PDM and DMU development, Durability simulation, NVH
simulation, Vehicle crash development.
Stadco integrates Concept CAD development for a quick cost effective
method, by which to establish proposals / ideas for evaluation. Stadco's concept team is best
used in parallel to complement detailed sketches and illustrations. It has the benefit of 3D and
is dimensionally accurate. Realistic visuals at this early stage enable the design process to
move forward quickly to satisfactory conclusions by using an integrated team approach.

Stadco has been in the forefront of CAD design for decades. Our experienced
design team uses cutting edge technology to realise design benefits for our customers. Our
team's experience covers a range of different CAD systems so they can deliver excellently
engineered products in the appropriate format for our customers. This also allows us to utilise
the best software for any given design. The engineering design team can use parametric
modeling solutions. The parametric modelers are aware of the characteristics of components
and the interactions between them. By maintaining relationships between elements a model
can quickly be manipulated, allowing variant or face-lifts of vehicles to be achieved in very
competitive time scales.

DMU, Digital mock-up is one of the most powerful engineering tools
currently available. Through using part information stored within Computer Aided Design
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packages, prototype builds can be simulated. The Stadco programme teams have access to
projection facilities to allow life-size screening during design reviews. This ensures the core
team can simultaneously view areas of concern. In addition Stadco uses secure remote
computer conferencing to allow international multi-site project teams to collaborate whilst
viewing the same packaging data. Discussions are aided by using clash detection routines and
dynamic sectioning options. DMU technology is a powerful tool to detect problem areas long
before any metal parts are formed. This reduces the number of prototypes required and
maximises the benefit of using builds to trial assembly processes and not to trial designs.

Stadco's specialists in durability can design and develop structures with the
ability to meet a combination of abuse loads (strength) and cyclic loads (fatigue). In the case
of abuse loads these are well understood, however the cyclic loads generally require
measured road load data. Stadco's relationship with the top testing houses across the world
gives us the capability to capture real road load data to cover all our customers' requirements,
however unique.

Noise, Vibration, and Harshness (NVH) is of strategic importance in
delivering the brand values and in meeting customers increasing level of expectations for
quality and vehicle comfort.
Stadco understands the process of converting the brand values into objective vehicle targets,
which in turn are cascaded down to sub-system and component level. This gives the
fundamental requirement for engineering NVH character of the vehicle. The NVH
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performance of the vehicle covers many different operating conditions and spans a wide
frequency range. In order to design for these numerous conditions, a large number of
simulation and test activities are undertaken to address performance at both the vehicle and
component levels. Stadco has powerful, dedicated cluster hardware enabling numerous
simulations to be undertaken quickly, often around the clock. This ensures calculation of
performance levels and the timely generation of optimum solutions.

Vehicle safety targets are primarily driven by legislation and the legal
requirements which must be met in order to sell vehicles in a particular market. These are
also complemented by the OEM internal company standards, and external factors such as
consumer group and insurance testing, competitor vehicles, etc.

The benefits of CAE are:
Reduced product development cost and time, with improved product quality and
Designs can be evaluated and refined using computer simulations
CAE helps engineering teams manage risk and understand the performance implications
of their designs

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In area of piping plant design in civil engineering
In roadway design, most surveying function
Used in many specialized analysis, for circuit design, VLSI device design, and
Used in Mechanical event simulation (MES)
Control systems analysis
Simulation of manufacturing processes like casting, molding and die press forming
Optimization of the product or process

MEMS is micro electro mechanical system. Micro Electro Mechanical
Systems (MEMS) are micromachines the size of a grain of salt or the eye of a needle that
integrate mechanical elements, sensors, actuators and electronics on a common silicon
substrate. These devices can replace bulky actuators and sensors with micro scale
equivalents that can be produced in large quantities by fabrication process used in integrated
circuit photolithography. This reduces cost, bulk weight and power consumption while
increasing performance, production volume and functionality by orders of magnitude. The
applications of MEMS are:
optical switches within telecommunication and networking systems,
accelerometers in automotive airbags, inkjets in desktop printers and
sensors in medical testing equipment.

CAE is an analysis entirely done on computer using CAD systems. Its purpose
is to analyze different materials, products, their performance and quality such as durability,
stability, endurance and/or reactivity to any possible factor that can affect the performance of
the material, part, and/or the product A typical CAE process comprises of pre-processing,
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solving, and post-processing steps. In the pre-processing phase, engineers model the
geometry and the physical properties of the design, as well as the environment in the form of
applied loads or constraints. Next, the model is solved using an appropriate mathematical
formulation of the underlying physics. In the post-processing phase, the results are presented
to the engineer for review. The analysis of CAE consists of mainly 4 methods like finite
element analysis, computational fluid dynamics, boundary element analysis, kinematic and
dynamic analysis. It has many advantages like its cost saving and ensures customer
satisfaction and improves the speed, efficiency and the quality of many products ranging
from simple parts to vehicles, airplanes etc. Designs can be evaluated and refined using
computer simulations. Its applications include control systems analysis, simulation of
manufacturing processes like casting, moulding and die press forming, Optimization of the
product or process and mems.

CAD/CAM/CIM by P.Radhakrishnan, 3
edition, New Age International publications
Fundamentals of computer aided engineering, by B.Raphael and I.F.C. Smith, Wiley

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