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Concrete as Construction

Material
=? I.I INTRODUCTION
Concrete is the most widely used man-made construction material in the
world and is second only to water as the most utili!ed su"stance on the #lanet.
It is o"tained "y mi$in% cementitious materials water and a%%re%ates &and
sometimes admi$tures' in re(uired #ro#ortions. The mi$ture when #laced in
)orms and allowed to cure hardens into a roc*-li*e mass *nown as concrete.
The hardenin% is caused "y chemical reaction "etween water and cement and
it continues )or a lon% time and conse(uently the concrete %rows stron%er with
a%e. The hardened concrete may also "e considered as an arti)icial stone in
which the +oids o) lar%er #articles (coarse aggregate) are )illed "y the smaller
#articles (fine aggregate) and the +oids o) )ine a%%re%ates are )illed with cement.
In a concrete mi$ the cementitious material and water )orm a #aste called
cement-water paste which in addition to )illin% the +oids o) )ine a%%re%ate coats
the sur)ace o) )ine and coarse a%%re%ates and "inds them to%ether as it cures
there"y cementin% the #articles o) the a%%re%ates to%ether in a com#act mass.
The strength, durability and other characteristics o) concrete de#end u#on
the #ro#erties o) its in%redients on the #ro#ortions o) mi$ the method o)
com#action and other controls durin% #lacin% com#action and curin%. The
#o#ularity o) the concrete is due to the )act that )rom the common in%redients
it is #ossi"le to tailor the #ro#erties o) concrete to meet the demands o) any
#articular situation. The ad+ances in concrete technolo%y ha+e #a+ed the way
to ma*e the "est use o) locally a+aila"le materials "y ,udicious mi$ #ro#ortionin%
and #ro#er wor*manshi# so as to #roduce concrete satis)yin% performance
requirements.
The *ey to #roducin% a stron% dura"le and uni)orm concrete i.e. high
performance concrete lies in the care)ul control o) its "asic and #rocess
com#onents. These ate-
CHAPTER
2
Concrete Technology
Cement .ortland cement the most widely used cementitinus in%redient in #resent
day concrete com#rises #hases that consist o) com#ounds o) calcium silicon
aluminum iron and o$y%en.
Aggregate These arc #rimarily naturally-occurrin% inert %ranular materials such us
sand %ra+el or crushed stone. /owe+er technolo%y is "roadenin% to include the
use o) recycled materials and synthetic #roducts.
Water The water content and the minerals and chemicals dissol+ed in it arc crucial
to achie+in% (uality concrete.
Chemical Admitures These are the in%redients in concrete oilier than .ortland
cement water and a%%re%ates that arc added to the mi$ture immediately "e)ore or
durin% mi$in% to reduce the water re(uirement accelerate0retard settin% or im#ro+e
s#eci)ic dura"ility charactcristics-
!applementary Ccment"ttious #aterials 1u##lementary cementitious materials also
called mineral additi+es contri"ute IO the #ro#erties o) hardened concrete throu%h
hydraulic or #o!!olanic acti+ity. Ty#ical e$am#les are natural #o!!olans. )ly ash.
%round %ranulated "last-)urnace sla% and silica )ume. 2)ter concrete is #laced these
com#onents must "e cured at a satis)actory moisture content and tem#erature must
he care)ully maintained )or a su))iciently lon% time to allow ade(uate de+elo#ment
o) the stren%th o) the concrete.
The )actors a))ectin% the #er)ormance o) concrete arc shown in 3i%. 4.4. The
conce#t o) treatin% concrete in its entity as a "uildin% material rather than its
in%redients is %ainin% #o#ularity. The user is now interested in the concrete ha+in%
the desired #ro#erties without "otherin% a"out the in%redient5'. This conce#t is
sym"oli!ed with the #ro%ress o) ready mied concrete industry where the consumer
can s#eci)y the concrete o) his needs and )urther in the #ro-cast concrete industry6
where the consumer o"tains )inished srnicmral com#onents satis)yin% the
#er)ormance re(uirements.
The +arious as#ects co+ered in the )ollowin% cha#ters are7materials mi$
#ro#ortionin% elements o) wor*manshi# e%. #lacin% com#action and curin%
methods O) testin% and rele+ant statistical a##roach to (uality control. The
discussions on these as#ects arc "ased on the a##ro#riate #ro+isions in die Indian
1tandard Codes.
Concrete has hi%h com#ressi+e stren%th "ut its tensile stren%th is +ery low. In
situations where tensile stresses are de+elo#ed the concrete is stren%thened "y steel
"ars or short randomly distri"uted )i"ers )ormin% a com#osite construction called
reinforced cement concrete ($C% or fiber reinforced concrete. The concrete without
rein)orcement is termed plain cement concrete or sim#ly as concrete. The #rocess o)
ma*in% concrete is called concreting. 1ometimes the tensile stresses arc ta*en care
o) "y introducin% com#ressi+e stresses in the concrete so that the initial com#ression
neutrali!es the tensile stresses. 1uch a construction is *nown as prestressed cement
concrete construction.
Concrete Technology
1.2 CLASSIFICATION OF CONCRETE
2s mentioned earlier the main in%redient8 o) concrete arc cemen9
)ine a%%re%ate &saud' and coarse a%%re%ate &%ra+el or crushed roc*'. Il is
usual to s#eci)y a #articular concrete "y tile #ro#ortions &"y wei%ht' o) these
constituents and their charactcril) ics. e.%. a 4-:-d concrete re)ers to a #articular
concrete manu)actured "y mi$in% cement sand and "ro*en stone In a 4-:-; ratio
&with a s#eci)ied ty#e o) cement water-cement ratio ma$imum si!e o) a%%re%ate
etc.'. This classi)ication s#eci)yin% the #ro#ortions o) constituents and tlieii5
characteristics is termed8 as prescripti&e specificoiions and is "ased on the ho#e that
adherence to such #rcscri#ili+e s#eci)ications will result in satis)actory #er)ormance.
2lternati+ely die s#eci)ications s#eci)yin% the re(uirements o) the desira"le
#ro#erties o) concrete such as stren%th wor*a"ility etc. ate sli#ularcd. and these are
termed as performance oriented specifications. <ased on these considerations
concrete can "e classi)ied either as nominal mi concrete or designed mi concrete.
1ometimes concrete is classi)ied into controlled concrete and ordinary concrete,
de#endin% u#on the le+els o) control e$ercised in &he wor*s and ihe method o)
#ro#ortionin% concrete mi$es. 2ccordin%ly a concrete with in%redient #ro#ortions
)i$ed "y desi%nin% the concrete mi$es with #reliminary tests arc called controlled
concrete, whereas ordinary concrete is one where nominal mies arc ado#ted. In
I1-;=>-:??? there is nothin% li*e uncontrolled concrete- only the degree of control
&aries from &ery good lo poor or no control. In addition to mi$ #ro#ortionin% the
quality control includes selection of appropriate concrete materials a)ter #ro#er
tests #ro#er wor'manship in l(atchlng. miing, transportation, placing, compaction
and curing, cou#led with necessary chec*s and tests )or quality acceptance.
.RO.@RTI@1 O3 CONCR@T@
Concrete ma*in% is not ,ut a matter o) mi$in% in%redients to #roduce a
#lastic mass "ut good concrete has io satis)y performance requirements in the
plastic or green state and also the hardened slate. In the #lastic state die concrete
should "e wor*a"le and )ree )rom segregation and bleeding. 1e%re%ation is the
se#aration o) coarse a%%re%ate and "leedin% is the se#aration o) cement #aste )rom
the main mass. The se%re%ation and "leedin% result in a poor quality concrete. In its
hardened state concrete should "e strong, durable, and impernwi"#e) and it should
ha+e minimum dimensional changes.
2mon,A die +arious #ro#erties o) concrete its compressi&e strength is considered
to "e the most im#ortant and is ta*en as an inde of itf o&erall quality. Many other
#ro#erties o) concrete a##ear to "e %enerally related to its com#ressi+e stren%th.
These #ro#erties will "e discussed in detail later in die "oo*.
Concrete Technology
These (ualities e$#lain why concrete is e$tensi+ely used in the construction O)
s*yscra#ers su#erhi%hways railways air)ields "uildin%s water-retainin%
structures doc*s and har"ours dams "rid%es "un*ers and silos etc.
4.> DI12DB2NT2C@1 O3 CONCR@T@
3ollowin% are the disad+anta%es ot concrete.
&,' Concrete has low tensile strength and hence crac*s easily. There)ore.
concrete is 4? "e rein)orced with steel "ars or meshes or )i"ers.
&/' 3resh concrete shrin*s on dryin% and hardened concrete e$#ands on
wettin%. .ro+ision )or contraction Doints has to "e made to a+oid the
de+elo#ment o) crac*s due to drying shrin'age- and mohture mo&ement.
&iii' Concrete e$#ands and contracts with the chan%es in tem#erature. /ence
e$#ansion ,oints ha+e to "e #ro+ided w a+oid the )ormation o) crac*s due
to thermal mo&ement.
&i+' Concrete under sustained loadin% under%oes creep, resultin% in the
reduction o) prestress in the #restresscd concrete construction &+' Concrete is
not entirely im#er+ious to moisture and contains solu"le sails
which may cause efflorescence. &+i' Concrete is lia"le to disinte%rate
"y al'ali and sulpluite attac'.
&+ii' The lac* o) ductility inherent in concrete as a material is disad+anta%eous with
res#ect to earthqua'e resistant design.
4.E CONC@.T O3 FU29ITG CONTRO9
*uality in %eneral terms is totality o) )eatures and characteristics o) a
#roduct or ser+ice thai "ear on iis a"ility to satis)y the staled or im#lied needs. The
stated Or im#lied needs arc those deri+ed hy "alanced e$cellence and e(uity within
the sustaina"le re%ime and in the %i+en socio-iechno-ccunoniic scenario. The (uality
mana%ement has e+ol+ed o+er the #eriod throu%hA
H .olicin% (uality7acce#tance and Re,ection throu%h ins#ection and
assessment "y user.
H Dud%in% (uality7con)idence "uildin% throu%h third #arty ,ud%ement.
H 3osterin% (uality7ensurin% (uality o) die )inal #roduct "y attendin% to (uality
at all intermediary sta%es such as in Certi)ication Mar*in% 1chemes.
Concrete %enerally manu)actured at lite site is li*ely to ha+e +aria"ility u)
#er)ormance )iom "arch to "atch and also within die "atch. The ma%nitude o) this
+ariation de#ends on se+eral )actors such as die +ariation in die (uality o)
constituent materials +ariation in mi$ #ro#ortions due to "atchin% #rocess
+ariations in the (uality o) hatchin% and mi$in% e(ui#ment a+aila"le the (uality O)
o+erall wor*manslii# and su#er+ision at die site and +ariation due to sam#lin% and
testin% o) concrete s#ecimens.
Concrete Technology
l.i .ORT92ND C@M@NT
.ortland cement is an e$tremely %round material ha+in% adhesi+e and
cohesi+e #ro#erties which #ro+ide a "indin% medium )or the discrete in%redients-. It
is o"tained "y "urnin% to%ether in a de)inite #ro#ortion a mi$ture o) naturally
occurrin% argillace&us &containin% alumina' and calcareous &containin% calcium
car"onate or lime' materials to a #artial )usion at hi%h tem#erature &a"out 4;=?8C'.
The #roduct o"tained on "urnin% called clin'er, is cooled and %round to the
re(uired )ineness to #roduce a material *nown as cement, lis in+entor. Dose#h
2s#din. ctdled it .ortland cement "ecause when ir hardened it #roduced a material
resem"lin% stone )rom the (uarries near .ortland in @n%land. Durin% %rindin% o)
clin*er %y#sum or #laster o) .aris &Ca1?;' is added to ad,ust the settin% time. The
amount o) %y#sum is a"out I #er cent "y wei%ht o) clin*er. It also im#ro+es the
soundness o) cement.
De#endin% u#on tire location o) the cement-manu)acturin% #lant a+aila"le raw
materials are #ul+eri!ed and mi$td in #ro#ortions such that the resultin% mi$ture
will ha+e the desired chemical com#osition. The common calcareous materials arc
limestone chal* oyster shells and marl. Tlie ar%illaceous materials are clay shale
slate and selected "last-rumacc sla%. Jhen limestone and clay are the two "asic
in%redients the #ro#ortions will "e a##ro$imately )our #arts limestone to one #art
o) clay. Certain clays )ormed durin% +olcanic eru#tion *nown as +olcanic ash or
#u!!olana )ound near Italy ha+e #ro#erties similar to that o) .ortland cement
1ince the raw materials consist mainly o) lime silica alumina and iron o$ide
these )orm the ma,or constituents o) .ortland cement also. De#endin% u#on the
wide +ariety o) raw materials used in the manu)acture o) cements the o$ide
com#osition o) ordinary .ortland cement may he e$#ressed as %i+en in Ta"le :.4-
Ta"le :.4 4 %ide Composition ol %rdinary +ortland Cement
9ime OCK +erceiuage A&erage )
>?->= >I
1ilica. 1iO- 4E-:= :44
2luniina. 2l,O, I-L >.I
Into o$ide 3CDOD ?.=-> 4)t
MJiii-a. M%O ?I-; :.;
1ul#hur iriiiNidc. 1O' 4-: 4.=
2l*alis i.e. M 4.4.4 DINBOI #otash Na-? , No ?.=-4.I 4.?
These o$ides interact with each other to )orm a scries o) more com#le$ #roducts
durin% )usion. The compound composition will he discussed later in the cha#ter.
Con
The #rocesses used )o
and wet. Jhen the "asic n
or ,aw crasher )or #riiuai
throu%h a smaller crushei
to a ;? mm si!e a%%re%a
3rom stac*er the crushed
crushed shale. In the wet ,
mi$ture o) +ery )inely %it is
stored in tan*s under co
*ilns. In the dry process th
arc mi$ed and homo%eui
systems with each systi
#recalcinin% units and I
economical e))icient at
manu)acturin% has re#lao
years si%ni)icant ad+anc
#yro-#rocessin%. control
technolo%ies with ad+anc
coal consum#tion in the O
#rocess. Ty#ically the to as
a%ainst I=? *% in wet
The 'ilns are )ired wii
)orced dra)t so that mater
*iln rotates. The *ilns are
way that the raw materia
e$cess water is dri+en o)l
"rea*s down into calciui
4;=? PC. a"out 4? m )rom
*nown as the #oint o) inc
#oint and a su"stance ha
clin'er is )ormed. The ra-
the degree of crystat./ati
materials. The mineralo,
#ro#erties o) cement consi
l:??8Clo=?F
n
Ciua"oi
tem#erature in a"out 4? i
clin*er is crushed mi$ed a
tu"e null arid #rocessed
siM distri"ution is ensure
%rindin% In tu"e mill the n
which assures that the %ro
o) #articles o) si!es "etwt
)inished #roduct *nown a it
is )inally "a%%ed in hi%
. ".
*n'l ]
'
w^'^
H
H ; !_'
." ". ...
;

I- -
*' "-!"
#F-; ~* $%l
- Wk
Mr;! '.
'-'H&
'--'(';S
;;;/;
--.
)*-*&+L - ,+)-
2G Concrete Technology
/essian "ilumeni!ed sac*s #olyethylene lined ,ute "a%s and tour-#ly #a#er "a%s and
trans#orted to stoc*ists and construction 1ites.
The +ariations in the chemical and #hysical #ro#erties o) cement s#ecially lite
stren%th and )ineness can "e minimi!ed or consistency in (uality can "e ensured "y
installation o) #ro#er (uality control monitoring systems and modem so#histicated
instrumentation control systems. Com#uters arc widely used )or controllin% die
o#erations and (uality at +arious sta%es in cement manu)acturin% #rocess i.e. on-
line analysers )or raw meal (uality control and e$#ort systems )or controllin%
o#erations o) raw materials %rindin% mill #rehcatcrs #recalcinators and clin*er
coolers cement %rindin% and #ac*in% sections )or achie+in% smooth o#eration
uni)orm (uality and ma$imum out#ut.
Tte composition of +ortland cement is rather com#licated "ut "asically it
consists o) the )ollowin% )our main com#ounds.
Tricalcium silicate &C,1' ICaO-1i?=
Dicalciumsaicatc &C-1' :CaO-1iO,
Tricalcium illuminate &CI2K ICaO82l:?
Tctracalcium ulumino )ertile OC23' HICaO-2UO,-3e,O,
The sym"ols in #arentheses arc the a""re+iations %enerally used. To the a"o+e
in%redients is added a"out I #er cent %y#sum &Ca1O,'. De#endin% u#on the wide
+ariety o) raw materials used in the manu)acture o) cements ty#ical ran%es o) these
com#ounds in otdinary .ortland cements may "e e$#ressed as %i+en in Ta"le :.:.
- Ta"le :.:
A
Com#oundCoro#os6)iono0Ordinory.orl)andCeme6t)
Cmnpnund +ercentage by mass in cement
:=-=?
:?-;=
.-12
/-12
------------------------------
Di))erences in the +arious ty#es o) ordinary .ortland cements arise due to the
+ariations in the relati+e #ro#ortions o) these com#ounds in die cement.
2.2.1 -&!"0 123,42'"4! 3% C454n' C35,36n7!
The two silicates namely C,1 and CA1 which to%ether constitute a"out E? to 1O #er
cent o) the cement control the most o) the stren%th %i+in% #ro#erties. U#on
hydration "oth C,1 and C,1 %i+e tlie same #coduct called calcium silicate hydrate
&C,1:/' and calcium hydro$ide. Tricalcium silicate &CQ1' ha+in% a )aster rale o)
reaction &3i% :.4' accom#anied "y %reater heat e+olution de+elo#s early stren%th.
On the other hand dicalcium silicate &C:1' hydrates and hardens slowl+ and
#ro+ides much o) the ultimate stren%th. It is li*ely that "oth CI1 and
-88. Concrete Technology
The com#ound tricalciumaliiminatc OC,2' is characteristically )ast-reactin% with
water and may lead 4? mt immediate sti))enin% o) #aste and this #rocess is termed
flash sel. The role o) %y#sum added in the manu)acture o) cement is to #re+ent such
a )ast reaction. C2 reacts with ;? #er cenl waier "y mass and this is more than lhal
re(uired )or silicates. /owe+er since the amount o) CI2 in cement is com#arati+ely
small the net water re(uired )or the hydration o) cement is not su"stantially
a))ected. It #ro+ides wea* resistance a%ainst sul#hate attac* and its contri"ution to
the de+elo#ment o) stren%th o) cement is #erha#s less si%ni)icant than that o)
silicates. In addition the C 2 #hase is res#onsi"le )or the hi%hest heat o) e+olution
"oth durin% the initial #eriod as well as in the lon% run. 9i*e C,2 C 23 hydrates
ra#idly hur its indi+idual contri"ution to the o+erall stren%th o) cement is
insi%ni)icant. /owe+er it is more sta"le than C&2.
In terms o) o$ide com#osition a hi%h lime content %enerally increases the settin%
time and results in hi%her stren%ths. 2 decrease in lime content reduces the stren%th
o) concrete. 2 hi%h silica content #rolon%s the sellin% time and %i+es more stren%th.
The #resence o) e$cess unhumt lime is harm)ul since it results in delayed hydration
causin% e$#ansion &unsoundness' and deterioration o) concrete. Iron o$ide is not a
+ery acti+e constituent o) cement and %enerally arts as a catalyst and hel#s the
"urnin% #rocess. Owin% to the #resence o) iron o$ide the cement deri+es the
Characteristic %rey colour. Ma%nesia i) #resent in lar%er (uantities causes
unsoundness.
2.2.2 H872&'"3n 3% C454n'!
The e$tent o) hydration o) cement and the resultant microslructure o) hydtatcd
cement in)luences the #hysical #ro#erties o) concrete. The inicrostnicturc o)
hydrated cement is more or less similar to that o) silicate #hases. Jhen the cement
comes in contact with water the hydration of cement #roceeds "oth inward and
outward in the sense lhal the hydration #roducts %el de#osited on the outer #eri#hery
and the nucleus o) the unhydrated cement inside %els %radually diminished in
+olume. The reaction #roceeds slowly )or :7= hours Rcalled induction or dormant
period) "e)ore acceleratin% as the sur)ace s*in "rea*s. 2t any sta%e o) hydration the
cement #aste consists o) %el &a )inely-%rained #roduct o) hydration ha+in% lar%e
sur)ace area collecti+ely called %el' the remnant o) unrcactcd cement calcium
hydro$ide Cu&O/': and water "esides some other minor com#ounds. The crystals
o) +arious resultin% com#ounds )orm an interloc*in% random three-dimensional
networ* %radually )illin% the s#ace ori%inally occu#ied "y the water resultin% in
sti))enin% and su"se(uent de&elopment of strength. 2ccordin%ly the hardened
cement #aste has a #orous structure the #ore si!e +aryin% )rom +ery small &; $ I?5
;
u.m' to a much lar%er +alue. Uie #ores "ein% called gel pores and capillary pores,
res#ecti+ely. The #ore system inside the hardened cement #aste may or may not "e
continuous. 2s the hydration #roceeds the de#osit o) hydration #roducts on the
ori%inal cement %roin ma*es the di))usion o) water to unhydratcd nucleus more and
more di))icult Ihus reducin% the rale o) hydration with time.
:&4
Concrete Technology
hydrate
OC&1S/iA'
or calcium
alutninale
inonosul#t
iaic
hydrate.
The
#roduct
calcium
aluminatc
trisul#hatc
is *nown
as
eilringile,
which
crystalli!e
s as short
#rismatic
needles on
account o)
hi%h
sul#"ale-
aluuiinaic
ions ratio
in the
solution
#hase
&lurin%
)irst hour
o)
hydration.
Jhen
sul#hate
solution
%ets
de#leted
aluminatc
ions
concentrat
ion
increases
due &?
renewed
hydration
and the
aluminate
is
%radually
con+erted
into
monosul#
h
a
t
e

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#
C
m"rane o)
calcium
sul#hoalu
minatc
)ormed on
the C,2
sur)ace.
Owin% to
the lar%er
+olume o)
calcium
sul#hoalu
minatc
#ressure
de+elo#s
and the
mem"ran
e
e+entually
"urT-
allowin%
the
sul#hate
in
solution
to come
in contact
with
unrcactcd
C,2 to
re)orm the
mem"ran
e. The
cyclic
#rocess
continues
until all
the
sul#hate
in
solution is
consumed

whereu#o
n the CA2
can
hydrate
directly at
a )aster
rate and
the
trans)orm
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cu
coll
oid
al
me
mb
thro
u%h
the
#c
me
m"r
ane
till
hyd
rati
on
thus
:.:.I
Jater
2 cement
o) a+i )or
chemical
re-#ores.
The total
the %el
#ores is
o) less
than ?.;?
o)
hydratio
n the
e+en in
die
#resence
la*es
#lace due
o) )act a
water
structural
concretes
.
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T
)ineness o)
a
e$#ressed
in terms
#anicle
si!e
distri"utio
n )actor in
determinin
% a %i+en
w
e
i
%
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o
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:4
1
Concrete #a'ing #aterials-l2 Cement
slic* to )orm a%%lomerate which %row and e+entual'6 settle out. This #rocess is
tenocAflocciilaiion and ihe a%%lomerates )loe. The anions may )locculate the
colloidal membranethus ma*in% it more #ermea"le. The ra#id di))usion o) water
throu%h the #ermea"le mem"rauc increases hydrostatic #ressure hcnealh tlic
mem"rane till it reaches a le+el su))icient to lu#nirc it at an earlier sta%e in
hydration thus acceleratin% the hydration o) cement.
2.2.+ 9&'42-C454n' R&'"3 &n7 C35,24!!":4 S'24n;'<
:
^*
2 Cement o) a+era%e com#osition re(uires a"out := #er C)tut o) water "y mass )or
chemical reaction. In addition an amount o) water is needed to )ill die %el #orts.
The total amount o) water thus needed )or chemical reaction and to )ill the %el #ores
is a"out ;: #er ceut. The %eneral "elie) mat a wuter-3einent ratio o) less man ?.;?
or so should not he used in concretes7"ecause )or die #rocess o) hydration the %el
#ores should he saturated7 is not +alid. This is "ecause e+en in the #resence o)
e$cess water the com#lete hydration o) cement ne+er ta*es #lace due to the
decreasin% #orosity o) the hydration #roducts. 2s a matter o) )act a i&a.r-cenwnt
ratio o) less than ?.;? h (uite common in hi%h-stren%th structural concretes.
In concrete as e$#lained earlier the hardened cement #aste is a #orous
ensem"le. 2lso the concentration o) the solid #roducts o) hydration in the total
s#ace or +olume a+aila"le &the ori%inal water and hydralcd cement' is an inde$ of
porosity. 9i*e any other #orous solid the com#ressi+e stren%th o) cement #aste &or
concrete' is related to the #arameter gels(wee ratio or hydrate-space ratio. The
water4cement ratio which %o+erns the com#ressi+e stren%th is really an
e$#ression o) the concentration o) hydration #roducts in die total +olume at a
#articular a%e )or die resultant de%ree o) hydration.
2.2.= 1<8!"0&l 123,42'"4! 3% 132'l&n7 C454n'
Tile cement to "e used in construction must ha+e certain %i+en (ualities in order to
#lay its #un e))ecti+ely in a structure. Jhen these #ro#erties lie within a certain
ran%e the en%ineer is con)ident mat in most o) the cases &he cement #er)ormance
will "e satis)actory. 2lso "ased on these #ro#erties it is #ossi"le to com#are the
(uality o) cement )rom di))erent sources. 3re(uent tests are carried out on die
cement either on dry #owder or hardened cement #aste and sometimes on me
concrete made )rom Uie cement to maintain (uality within s#eci)ied limits. Tlie
im#ortant #hysical #ro#erties o) a cement are as )ollows.
5ineness -y
The )ineness o) a cement is a measure o) the si!e o) #articles o) cement and h
e$#ressed in terms o) specific surface of cement. It can "e calculated )rom #article
si!e distri"ution or one o) die air #cimta"iliry methods. It is an im#ortant )actor in
determinin% tlie rate of gain of strength and uniformity o) (uality. 3or a %i+en
wei%ht o) cemem the sur)ace area is more )or a )iner cement than )or
Concrete #a'ing A.aeria'-l) Cement
*+
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Ta"le :.;. 3or on ordinary
.ortland temem the initial
sellin% lime should nol "o
less Jan I? minutes and
)inal settin% time should nol
"e mote than >?? minutes.
2 #henomenon o) a"normal
#remaiuic hardenin% within
a )ew minutes o) mi$in%
/ie waler is ictmed false
sei. /owe+er noi much
heal -6 e+ol+ed and
remi$in% the #aste without
water restores the #lasticity
and lltc-n the cement sets in
ihe normal manner with no
a##recia"le loss o) stren%th
In #ractice. Ihc len%th o)
time )or which a concrete
mi$ture will remain #lastic
is usually more de#endent
ou the amount o) mi$in%
water uied and atmos#heric
tem#erature than on the
sellin% lime o) cement.
!oundness -s7
6U6he unsoundness o) cement is caused
"y the undesira"le e$#ansion o) some
o) its constituents sometimes a)ter
settin%. The lar%e chan%e in +olume
accom#anyin% e$#ansion results in
disinte%ration and se+ere crac*in%. The
unsoundnes8T is due to Ihc #resence o)
)ree lime and ma%nesia in the cement.
The
)ree lime hydrates +ery slowly "ecause
it is co+ered "y the thin )ilm o) cemcnl
which #re+ent8 direct contact hctwecn
lime and water. 2)ter the sellin% o)
Cement the moisture #enetrates into
the )ree lime resultin% in its hydration.
1ince
1la*ed lime occu#ies a lar%er +olume
the e$#ansion ta*es #lace resultin% in
se+ere crac*in%. The unsoundness due
to lire #resence o) ma%nesia is similar
io
that o) lime. The unsoundness may "e
reduced "y-
.
. n
&i'
lim
i
t
i
n
%

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e

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%
O

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t


&
i
i'
)in
e
%ri
ndi
n%.
Oui'
ullo
win
%
the
cem
cnl
lo
aera
te
)ur
se+e
ral
day
s
and
&i+'
ilior
ou%l
i
mi$
in%.
T
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e

c
h
i
e
)

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e
s
t
s

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d
2uiocal+e tests. The
e$#ansion cairied out in the
manner descri"ed in I1-
:>V-4VLV should not "e
more than 4? mm in the 9c
Chatclier test and ?.L #er
cent in 2utocla+e test.
Com#ressi+e 1tren%th WH5856
II is one o) the im#ortant
#ro#erties o) cement. The
stren%th tests %enerally
carried out in tension on
sam#les o) neat cement arc
o) dou"t)ul +alue as an
indication o) a"ility o) die
cement 4? mtdce concrete
stron% in com#ression.
There)ore these aie lar%ely
"ein% tu#erscded )ey the
moriar cube crushin% tests
and concrete compression
lusts. These arc conducted
on standantocd a%%re%ate8
under care)ully controlled
conditions and Oicrc)ore
%i+e a %ood indication on
stren%th (ualities o)
cemcnl. Cement mortar
cu"es &4-I' ha+in% an area
o) =??? nun are #re#ared
and tested in com#ression
testin% machine. 3or
ordinary #onland cement
the com#ression stren%th at
I and E days curin% shall
not "e less than 4> M.a
and :: M.a res#ecti+ely.
The %raded standard sand
used )or #re#arin% the
cu"es should con)orm to
I1- >=?S4VV4-
22
Concrete Technology
a coarser cement.
The )iner the
cement the hi%her
is the rate o)
hydration as more
sur)ace area is
a+aila"le )or
chemical reaction.
This results in the
early de+elo#ment
o) stren%th. The
e))ect o) )ineness
on the
com#ressi+e
stren%th o) cement
is shown in 3i%.
:.I. I) the cement
Is %round "eyond
a certain limit it8
cementati+e
#ro#erties may "e
ad+ersely a))ected
due to
#re"ydration "y
atmos#heric
moisture. 2s #er
Indian 1tandard
1#eci)ications the
residue o) cement
should not e$ceed
4? #er cent when
sie+ed on a V?-
micron I1 sie+e.
In addition the
amount o) water
re(uired )or
constant slum#
concrete decreases
with the increase
in die )ineness o)
cement.
1ellin%
Time 96
Cem
ent
when
mi$e
d
with
water
)orm
s
#aste
whic
h
%radu
ally
"eco
mes
less
#lasti
c
and
)inall
y a
hard
mass
is
o"tai
ned.
In
this
#roce
ss o)
settin
% a
sta%e is reached
when the cement
#aste -8
su))iciently ri%id
to withstand a
de)inite amount o)
#ressure. The
time to reach this
sta%e is termed
settin% time. The
time is rec*oned
)rom rhc instant
when water is
added to the
cement. The
settin% time is
di+ided into two
#arts namely the
initial and %9
final selling
times. The time at
which llie cement
#aste loses its
#lasticity is
termed die initial
selling lime. The
lime ta*en to
reach the sta%e
when the #aste
"ecomes a hard
mass is *nown as
the final selling
lime.
It is essential
)or #ro#er
concretin% that
the initial settin%
dmc "e
su))iciently lon%
)or )inishin%
o#erations i.e.
trans#ortin% and
#lacin% the
concrete. The
settin% #rocess is
accom#anied "y
tem#erature
chan%es. The
tem#erature rises
ra#idly )rom die
initial sellin% to a
#ea* +alue at the
)inal settin%. The
sellin% lime
decre
ases
widi
rise
in
tem#
eratu
re u#
to
I?5C
and
+ice
+ersa
. The
sellin
%
times
Concrete #a'ing #aterials-:) Cemeni -X+
to V4 #er cent in si$ months. <y restrictin% the (uantities o) com#ounds C2 and
C,1 in cement the hi%h rate o) heat li"eration in early a%es can "e controlled. The
rale o) hydration and the heat li"eration increases with the )ineness o) cement "ut
the total amount o) heat li"erated is una))ected "y the )ineness.
!pecific ;ra&ity
The s#eci)ic %ra+ity o) #ortland cement is %enerally a"out I.4= "ut that o) cement
manu)actured )rom materials other than limestone and clay the +alue may +ary
1#eci)ic %ra+ity is not .in indication o) the (uality o) cement. It i" used in
calculation o) mi$ #ro#ortions.
2.2.. C<45"0&l 123,42'"4! 3% C454n'!
6ihc loss on ignition lest is carried on #ortland cement to determine the loss o)
wei%ht when die sam#le is heated lo V??-4??? PC. The loss in wei%ht occurs as the
moisture and car"on dio.Mide which are #resent in com"ination with )ree lime or
ma%nesia e+a#orate. The #resence o) rnosilure causes #rehydration o) cement and
may "e a"sor"ed )rom atmos#here durin% manu)acturin% or a)terwards. The car"on
dio$ide is also ta*en )rom the atmos#here. The loss in wei%ht is a measure o) the
)reshness o) cement. 1ince the hydro$ides and car"onates o) lime and ma%nesium
ha+e no cementin% #ro#erty they arc termed inert su"stances. 9esser the loss on
i%nition lesser is the (uanti)y o) these inert su"stances and "etter is the cement.
The loss on i%nition is determined "y heatin% one %ram o) cement sam#le in a
#latinum cruci"le at a tem#erature o) V?? PC-4???
<
C )or minimum o) 4= minutes.
Normally the loss will he in the nei%h"ourhood o) : #er cent. Ma$imum
allowa"le loss is ; #er cent.
<nsoluble Residue
The insolu"le material is an inacti+e #art o) cement. It is determined "y stirrin% one
%ram u) cement in ;? nil o) water and addin% 4? ml o) concentrated /CI. The mi$ is
"oiled )or 4? minutes maintainin% constant +olume. 2ny lum# i) #resent is "ro*en
and the solution )iltered. The residue on )ilter is washed with NaY6O, solution water
and /CI in the %i+en order and )inally a%ain with water. The )ilter #a#er is dried
i%nited aud wei%hed to %i+e an insolu"le residue. The minimum the residue the
"elter is the cement. The ma$imum allowa"le +alue is ?.L= #er cent.
S>- 2.+ T?1ES OF CE@ENTS -
<y usin% additi+es chan%in% the chemical com#osition o) the .ortland
cemcnl7"y +aryin% the #ercenta%e o) the )our "asic com#ounds dirou%h Uw use o)
di))erent raw materials7it is #ossi"le to o"tain se+eral ty#es o) cements each with
some uni(ue characteristics )or the re(uired #er)ormance. 2 %radual
2/
Concrete Technology
increase in the C1
content and )ineness
has ena"led %eneral-
#ur#ose .ortland
cements to de+elo#
+ery hi%h stren%th
ul early a%es. The
oK.ide and
com#ound
com#ositions o)
some o) the
commonly used
.ortland cements
are %i+en in Ta"le
:.I. The com#ound
com#osition o)
cements is
determined "y
(uantitati+e
microsco#y.
Ta"le :.I 6 %ide and Compound Compositions c 0.ortland Cements
Type ofcement Ca% %ide tompositiim, (per
cent)
!i%= Alfis 5e6=
Ci(npouiid compoiitu(n (per
tent)
%! CB >-A C#
Normal or ordinary cement
Ra#id-ta)lideniitN t-+ incut
9ow-hrai cement 1ul#hate-res
i 1tin% cement
>I
>;.=
>? >;
--------
:?.>
:?-ES
:4=
:;=
777
>.I
=.:
=.:
I.E
I.>
:V
;.>
I.?
m =?
:= 4
I? :4
i
;=
;?
44 V
= 1
44
V 4;
V
The )ollowin% are
the main ty#es o)
.ortland cement.
:.I.4 Ceneral-
#ur#ose .ortland
Cements
The commonly used
.ortland cement in
India is "randed as
II-%rade &I1- :>V-
4VLV'. ;I-%radc &I1-
L44:-4VLV' and =I-
%radc &I1- 4::>V-
4VLE' ha+in% :L-
days mean
compressi&e
strengths e$ceedin%
II M.a. ;I M.a and
=I M.a.
res#ecti+ely. 2ll the
ihnsgra
des of
ordinar
y
+ortlan
d6cemen
t arc
#roduce
d )rom
the
same
material
s as
e$#laine
d
earlier.
The
hi%her
stren%th
s arc
achie+e
d "y
increasi
n% the
rricalciu
m
silicate
I.C-.1 H
content
and also
"y )iner
%rindin%
o) the
clin'er.
The
)ineness
o) =I-
%rade
cement
o"tained
"y
?laine"s
air
permea
bility
test is
s#eci)ie
d to "e
o) the
order o)
I=? ???
mm50%.
The
re(uire
ments o) the initial
and )inal setting
times are same as
that o) con+entional
O.C. Tlie
con+entional O.C.
9e. II-%radc cement
has +irtually
disa##eared and has
"een dis#laced "y
hi%h stren%th ;I-
%radc cement. The
minimum
com#ressi+e
stren%ths o) the ;I-
%rade cement arc :I
M.a and II M.a at
the end o) three days
and se+en days
res#ecti+ely. The use
o) this ccmenl was
ori%inally restricted
to the #roduction o)
railway slee#ers and
%enerally re)erred to
as sleeper cement.
6ITic railway
s#eci)ications
re(uire that the
initial settin% time
should not "e less
liiun V? minutes. 2t
hi%her water-cement
ratios, the concrete
#roduced with hi%h-
stren%th cement has
a"out L? #er cent
hi%her stren%th and
at lower water-
cement ratios, it has
;? #er cent hi%her
stren%th than that ol
concrete usin% II-
%radc O.C. The cost
o) hi%h-stren%th
.ortland cements is
only mar%inally
hi%her than the O.C.
6Ihc use o) this
cement in the usual
4-:-; nominal mi$.
with a wmer-eement
ratio o) ?.>? to ?.>=
can easily yield M:=
concrete
. Its
com#osi
tion and
#ro#erti
es are
%o+erne
d hy I1-
L44:-
4VLV.
Creater
)ineness
o) ;I
and =I
%rade
cements
increase
wor*a"i
lity due
to
reductio
n o)
)riction
"etween
a%%re%at
es.
Moreo+
er due
tOK
shorter
settin%
lime
and
faster
de&elop
ment of
strength
, the
strippin
g time is
shorter.
2lthou%
h hi%h.
Concise #a'ing #aierials-<2 Cta.hl
2A
stren
%th
cem
ents
o)
%rad
es
;I
and
=I
arc
desir
a"le
)or
econ
omic
al
desi
%n
o)
high
-
grad
e
conc
retes
, "ut
they
can
also
"e
used
)or
lowe
r
%rad
e
conc
retes
.
/ow
e+er
to
ma*
e
high
stre
ngth
conc
rete
a
high
performance concrete, will re(uire
e$tremely care)ul "atchin%-
mi$in%. trans#ortation #lacin%
com#action and curin%.
I1- 4?:>:-4VL: has classi)ied
the O.C %rade-wise )rom 2 to 3
de#endin% u#on the :Y days
com#ressi+e stren%th as- 2 &I:.=-
IE.= M.a'. < &IE.=-;:.= M.a'. C
&;:.=-;E.= M.a'. D&;E.1-=:.=
M.a'. 3-&=:.=-=E.= M.a'. 3&=E.=-
>:.= M.a'. 2ccordin%ly the II.;I
and =I %rades o) cement
corres#ond to cate%ories 2. C and
@- res#ecti+ely. /owe+er most o)
the ;D-%radc cements a+aila"le in
the mar*et %enerally )all in rhe
cate%ory li. and the =I-%rade
cements a+aila"le are %enerally in
the cate%ory 3 or a"o+e. The
actual stren%th o) cement must "e
ascertained cither )rom the
manu)acturer or throu%h
la"oratory tests "e)ore it is used in
concrete mi design to %et die
ma$imum "ene)it o) the additional
stren%th and su#erior (uality.
:.I.: 1#ecial-#ur#ose Cements
The s#ecial-#ur#ose cements are
manu)actured )or the s#eci)ic
performance requirements. The
)re(uently used ones arc Utc
)ollowin%.
&
i
'

O
.
C
-
h
u
s
c
d

c
e
m
e
n
t
s

&
i
i
'

N
o
n
-
O
.
C

c
e
m
e
n
t
s
ThcZe
ceme
nts
ha+e
some
tim"e
r
classi
)icati
ons
which
are
descri
"ed
"elow
.
%+C-
based
Cements
s
$api
d@ha
nleni
ng
+ortl
and
Cem
epiW
-i8
Cement is similar to O.C "ut with
hi%her C1 content and )iner
,,rlrtdui%. 2 hi%her )ineness o)
cement #articles #ro+ides %reater
1ur)ace area &not less than
I:=IJO mmE%' )or action with
water. It %ains stren%Ui more
(uic*ly than O.C Uionull the
)inal stren%th is only sli%htly
hi%her. The one-day stren%th o)
this cement is e(ual to the three-
day stren%th o) II-%radc O.C with
the same water-cement naio. This
cement is used where a rapid
strength de&elopment -8 re(uired.
The ra#id %ain o) stren%th is
accom#anied "y a hi%her rate o)
heat de+elo#ment durin% the
hydration of cement. This may
ha+e ad+anta%es in cold weather
concretin% "ut it hi%her concrete
tem#erature may lead to crac*in%
due to su"se(uent thermal
contraction, and hence should not
"e used in mass concretin% or thic*
structural sections. The
com#osition )ineness and other
#ro#erties arc %o+erned "y I1- L?;
MV??. It is only a"out 4? #er cent
costlier than O.C. It is
recommended )or #re)a"ricated
concrete construction road re#airs
and in a##lications re(uirin% early
stri##in% o) torms.
l=A9,ht3it +ortland
&5ewiSrtr6T".is Cement is less
reacti+e than O.C and is o"tained
"y increasin% the #ro#ortion o)
Ci1 and reducin% C-1 and C,2
This reduction in the content o)
more ra#idly hydratin%
com#ounds C,1 and C,2
:L
Concrete Technology
results in a
slow
de+elo#ment
o) stren%th
"ul the
ultimate
stren%th is
the same. In
any case. 4?
ensure a
su))icient
rate o)
de+elo#ment
o) stren%th
the specific
surface o)
cement must
not he less
than I:? ???
mn+B%. The
initial selling
lime is
%reater than
O.C. The
#ro#erties
and
com#osition
arc %o+erned
"y I1-
4:>??-4VLV.
This cement
is
recommende
d )or the use
in mass
concrete
construction
such as dams
where
tem#erature
rise "y heat
o) hydration
can "ecome
e$cessi+e.
.Bulpliate-
resisting
Cemen< 2
.ortland
cement with
low C,2 &less
than = #er
cent' and
C
;
2
3

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mi
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te
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in
O.
C
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ies
"et
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en
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to
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cen
t.
2s
it is
not
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red
uce
the
2l,
O8
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ten
t o)
ra
t
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i
n
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h
e
m
ic
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l
y
a
%
%
r
e
s
si+e Zoils
)or #i#es to
"e "uried in
marshy
re%ions or
sul#hate
"earin%
soils and
construction
o) sewa%e
treatment
#lants.
#asonry
Cement This
cement is
manu)acture
d "y
intimately
%rindin% a
mi$ture o)
O.C clin*er
and %y#sum
with mineral
additi+es
&#oStolanas'
or inert &non-
#o!!olanic'
materials
such as
limestone
dolomite
car"onated
slud%e etc.
and air-
etltrainin%
a%ents in
suita"le
#ro#ortions
%enerally to
a )ineness
%reater than
thai O) O.C.
Masonry
ccmcnl
con)ormin%
to the
standard
re(uirements
can "e
#roduced "y
intcr%rindin%
I #arts o)
.ortland
cement
cl
in
*
er

=
#
ar
ts
o)
)l
y
as
h
a
n
d
=
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ar
ts
o)
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a
n
ul
at
e
d
hl
as
i
)u
rn
ac
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sl
a
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or
4
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ar
t
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.
or
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me
wit
h
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ta"
le
(u
ant
ity
o)
%y
#s
um
an
d
an.
air-
ent
rai
nin
%
ad
mi
$tu
re.
Ma
so
nry
ce
me
nt
mo
rta
r is
co
nsi
der
ed
su
#er
ior
to
lim
e
mo
rtar

lim
c-
cc
mc
nt
mo
m
e
n
t
m
o
rt
a
r
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ti
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a
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m
e
m
o
rt
a
r
r
e
l
a
ti
n
%
t
o wor*a"ility
and water-
relenliun.
Thus a
masonry
cement
#roduces a
smooth
#lastic
cohesi+e and
stron% yet
wor*a"le
mortar. The
crac*s due in
shrin*a%e
and
tem#erature
mo+ement
are
considera"ly
reduced. Its
com#osition
and
#ro#erties
are %o+erned
"y I1- I;>>-
4VLL. The
#hysical
re(uirements
o) the
masonry
ccmcnl are-
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c
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tr
e
a
t
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d
W
h
i
te
sam
e as
res
pon
s "y
care
)ul
&R3
O'
mat
eria
l
than
?
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Co
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+l"
Concrete Technology
normaT hydration
ta*es #lace. Tie )ilm
)ormin% materials
also entrain certain
amount o) air in the
"ody o) concrete
which im#ro+es its
wor*a"ility lis
com#osition and
#ro#erties arc
%o+erned "y I1-
L?;I-4VV4. This
cement is use)ul )or
the #laces ha+in%
hi%h humidity #our
trans#ortation
system and #er)orce
stora%e )or lon%
time. In such
situations O.C %ets
deteriorated and
loses si%ni)icant #an
o) its stren%th.
The #hysical and
chemical
re(uirements )or
some o) the
commonly used
cements are
summari!ed id the
Ta"les :.; and CD.
(Air-eiilrmni99
Cement This cement
is manu)actured "y
mi$in% small
(uantity o) air-
entraining a%ent
li*e al*ali salts o)
wood resins-
synthetic deter%ents
o) al*yl-aryl
sul#hate ty#e and
calcium
li%nosul#haie with
ordinary .ortland
cement. Thc2C
a%ents in #owder or
in li(uid )orms are
added to the e$tent
o) ?.?:= to ?.4??
#er cent "y wei%hr
o) O.C cement
clin*er
at the
time o)
%rindin
%. 2t
the
time o)
mi$in%
these
cement
s
#roduc
e tiny
discret
e non-
coalesc
ein% air
"u""le
s in the
concret
e mass
which
enhanc
es
wor'a
bility
and
reduces
tenden
cy to
!egreg
ation
and
bleedin
g-
Epans
i&e
Cemen
t
Cemen
t which
doei
not
shrin*
while
hardeni
n% and
therea)t
er "ut
e$#and
s
sli%htly
with
lime is
called e$#ansi+e
cement. This
cement dues not
su))er any o+erall
clian%e in +olume
on dryin%.
@$#ansi+e cement is
o"tained "y im$in%
a"out L lo :? #arts
o) the
sul#hoalnmiiiale
clin*er with 4??
#art) o) the O.C
and 4= #arts o) the
sta"ili!er. In one
ty#e o) e$#ansi+e
cement called
shrin'age
compensating
cement, the restraint
to the e$#ansion
induces
com#ressi+e stress
which
a##ro$imately
o))sets the tensile
stress induced "y
shrin*a%e. Iu
another ty#e called
self-stressing
cement, the concrete
induces si%ni)icant
com#ressi+e
stressed a)ter the
occurrence o)
drying shrin'age. In
addition lo
neutrali!in% the
shrin*a%e ihey
#ro+ide #restressin%
e))ects in the icnsile
!one o) a )le$ural
mem"er. This
cement is
commonly used )or
%routin% anchor
"olts or %routin%
machine
)oundations or
#restrcssed concrete
duciX wherein
dryin% slirin*a%c
may otherwise
de)eat the #ur#ose
o)
%rout.
%il-
well
Cemen
t The
annula
r s#ace
"etwee
n steel
castin%
and
sedime
ntary
[c*
)ormati
on
diruu%
h
which
oil
well
has
"een
drilled
is
sealed
o)) "y
cement
slurry
to
#re+en
t
esca#e
o) oil
or %as.
The
cement
slurry
also
seals
o)) any
other
)issure
or
ca+itie
s in the
roc*
layer.
3or
this
#ur#os
e
cement
slurry has to "e
#um#ed down to
#oints located in the
annulus around the
castin% at
considera"le de#th
where #re+ailin%
tem#erature may "e
as hi%h as I=? PC
under #ressure u# to
4=? M.a. The
slurry used )or this
#ur#ose must
remain mo"ile to "e
a"le to )low under
these conditions )or
#eriods u# lo
se+eral hours and
then harden )airly
ra#idly to %i+e
su))icient stren%th
lo su##ort the
castin%. It may also
ha+e to resist
corrosi+e conditions
)rom sul#hur %ases
and water
containin%
dissol+ed salts. The
ty#e o) cement
suita"le )or a"o+e
conditions is called
oil-well cement.
The cement
#roduced hy inter-
%rindin% .ortland
cement clin*er )ly
ash %y#sum and
certain admi$tures
&reorders' in
suita"le #ro#ortions
has "een )ound lo
I4
Concrete #a'ing #aierialt-<) Cement
con)orm to the re(uirements o) an oil-well cement. These rctardcrs #re+ent ouic*
settin% and retain slurry in mo"ile condition to )acilitate #enetration to all )issures
and ca+ities. The com#osition and #ro#erties are %o+erned "y I1- L::V-
4VL>.
MD8rK6 lligh !trength Cements The cements o) this cate%ory can "e o"tained "y
im#ro+in% #article #ac*in% density and m*rostnictutc o) cement #astes as
)ollows.
$emo&ing entrapped air In the con+entionally mi$ed cement #aste relati+ely lar%e +oids
or de)ects are usually #resent due to entra##ed air which limit the stren%th. In ync o) the
systems water solu"le #olymer is added as a rheolo%,cal aid to #ermit ccrnenl to "e
mi$ed with a +ery small amount o) water and at )inal #rocessin% sta%e entra##ed air is
remo+ed "y a##lication o) modest #ressure o) = M.a. This #rocess has resulted in a
stren%th o) I?? M.a )or calcium aluminatc system and 4=? M.a )or O.C. This system is
called macro-defect pen cement. +ro&iding (tensely pac'ed system O.C and ultra )ine
silica )ume O= to :? #er cent' are mi$ed to o"tain a densi)ied system containin%
homo%eneously arran%ed #anicles. 2 com#ressi+e stren%th o)DE? M.a has "een o"tained
with silica )ume su"stituted #aste.
Achie&ing densification with warm pressing <y the method o) warm #ressin% i.e.
a##lyin% heat and #ressure simultaneously to cement #aste results in reduction o)
#orosity and %eneration o) +ery homo%eneous )ine mictostructure with small
#orosity. <y warm #ressin% o) mi$ture o) .ortland and calcium cements has resulted
in com#ressi+e stren%th o) o1O M.a.
Non-O.C Cements
0igh-alumina Ccmcnr-This cement is "asically di))erent )rom O.C and concrete
made w,th/tha8 #ro#erties di))erent )rom O.C concrete. 0igh-alumina cement &/2F
is Bery reacti+e and #roduces +ery high early strength. 2"out L? #er cent o) the
ultimate stren%th is de+elo#ed at the a%e o) :; hours and e+en at > to L hours. /i%h-
alumina cement has an initial setting lime o) a"out ; hours and the )inal nettin% time o)
a"out = hours. Cenerally uo additi&es are added to alumina cement. 3or the same
water-cement rutin, the alumina cement is more wor*a"le than .ortland cement. The
stren%th is ad+ersely a))ected "y rise in tem#erature /2C is e$tremely resistant to
chemical attac* and is suita"le )or under sea water a##Ucations-
Thc raw materials used )or its manu)acture arc limestone or chal* and bauite
which a$e crushed into lum#s not e$ceedin% 4?? nun. These raw materials with
a##ro#riate #ro#ortion o) co*e are char%ed into the )urnace which is )ired with
#ul+eri!ed coal or oi* The )usion ta*es #lace at tem#erature a"out 4>?? PC. The
solidi)ied material is )ra%mented and then %round to a )ineness o) :=? ???-I:????
mnr0%. The +ery6 dar* %rey #owder is #assed throu%h ma%netic se#arators to remo+e
metallic iron. The alumina cement is considera"ly more
+2
Concrete Technology
e$#ensi+e. The
#o!!olana additi+es
are not use)ul in
concrete made Jilli
Il2C "ecause it docs
not #roduce calcium
hydro$ide that
would react with
#owolanas. lis
com#osition and
#ro#erties are
%o+erned "y I1-
>;=:-4VLV. The
a##ro$imate
chemical o$ide
com#osition is as
)ollows-
2lu
mina
O2l:
O,'
3erri
c
O$id
e
&3e:
O,'
9im
e
&Ca
O'
3err
ous
O$id
e
&Nc
O'
1ilic
a
&1iO
,'
I
V

#
e
r

c
e
n
t
4
?

#
e
r

c
e
n
t
I
L

#
e
r

c
e
n
;
>
r cent
Durin% hydration
o) II2C initially
mnnocalciuni
aluminale
decahydratc OC2/mM
dicalciuin aluminale
octahydratc &CA2 /N'
and alumina %el
&2/' arc r"rmed.
/owe+er these
com#ounds o)
hydration are
metasta"le and at
normal tem#crarure
con+ert %radually to
a more sta"le
tricalcium aluminale
he$ahydrale
&C,2/'. This
con+ersion is
accom#anied "y a
loss in stren%th and
chan%e in crystal
)orm )rom he$a%onal
to cu"ical sha#e
resultin% in a release
o) water wiih
conse(uent reduction
in the +olume o)
solids and an
increase in
-hcpomsiry. The
increase in #orosily
enhances its
+ulnera"ility io
chemical attac'. The
rate o) con+ersion
increases with the
rise in tem#erature.
6I5he hydration and
con+ersion #rocesses
can "e sym"olically
re#resented as-
C
2
\
4?
/
-8
C
2
/? IC2 /o -8
t-I2/> \ :2/
8 4L II
/i%h
alumina
cement
concrete
loses
consider
a"le
stren%th
when
su",ecte
d to
humid
conditio
ns and
hi%h
tcm#cra
nirc.
Desiccat
ed hi%h
alumina
cement
concrete
when
su",ecte
d to
hi%h
tem#era
ture
under%o
es
insi%ni)i
cant
con+ersi
on and
has
si%ni)ica
nt
residual
stren%th
. 2
com#let
ely
desiccat
ed
alumina
cemeni
has +ery
hi%h
resistan
ce lo
dry hcai. 2 concrete
made usin% this
cement and crushed
)ire"ric*s as
a%%re%ate can
withstand
tem#eratures u# to
4I=? 5C. 2
refractory concrete
)or withstandin%
tem#eratures u# lo
4>?? 5C may he
#roduced "y usin%
a%%re%ates such as
dead-"um)
ma%nesite.
car"orundum
silimanitc. etc. 1ince
hi%h alumina cement
is slow settin% "ul
ra#id hardenin%
certain #ro#ortions
o) O.C may "e
added to reduce
selling lime.
9ithium salts
ha+e "een e))ecti+ely
used as accclcraior
iu hi%h alumina
cement lo o"tain
hi%h early stren%th
cement. This has
rcsulrcd in stren%th
as hi%h as ; M.a in
one hour. := M.a in
ihrcc hours time and
=? M.a in :; hours
time.
#agnesium
+hosphate Cement 2
+ery hi%h early
stren%th mortar and
concrete de+elo#ed
"y CNNI. consists o)
a #re-#ac*ed mi$ture
o) dead-"urnt
ma%nesite and )ine
a%%re%ate mi$ed
with #hos#hate. Il
sets ra#idly and
yields dura"le hi%h
stren%th cement
mortar. The dead-
"urnt ma%nesite is
o"tained
"y
calcinin
%
M%CO,
at or
a"o+e
4=?? PC
and
%rindin%
me
#roduct
to
)ineness
o)
I?????-
I=????
mnr6%
&<laius'.
The
%round
dcad-
"umr
ma%nesi
te is
mi$ed
with
commer
cially
a+aila"l
e
crystalli
ne
mono-
ammoni
um
#hos#ha
te a)ter
%rindin%
it
Concrete"#a'ing #aterials-:) Cement
++
into a
)ine
#owder
#assin%
>?4' #in
sie+e
and
oilier
in%redie
nts li*e
sodium
iri-
#oly#ho
s#hate
in ihe
)orm o)
)ine
#owder
dUsodiu
m lelm
"orate
&"ora$'
)ine
a%%re%at
e
&crushed
dolomite
sand'
and
water
mi$ed
)or one
minute.
2)ter
a##licati
on in
re#air o)
road and
su"se(u
ent air
curin%
die
tra))ic
can "e
o#ened
in a
short
#eriod
o) a"out ;-= hours. :.I.I Com#osite
or Multi#le <lended Cements Juli the
de+elo#ment o) .ortland cements
ha+in% +ery hi%h stren%th ul early
a%es there is %eneral trend now to
#roduce corres#ondin%ly high early
strength concrete mi$tures containin%
lar%e #ro#ortions o) these cements.
Tliesc modem concretes tend to crac*
more easily due to lower creep2 hi%her
thermal and drying shrin'ages and
hi%her elastic modulus. On the other
hand some mineral industrial "y-
#roducts when added to Ute normal
concretes are hi%hly e))ecti+e in
reducin% the heat of hydration,
strength, and elastic modulus o)
concrete. These concretes when
#ro#erly cured arc %enerally less
crac'-prone and there)ore less
#ermea"le in ser+ice.
Thus a composite or blended
cenwnt can "e o#timi!ed with a
syner%istic e))ecu allowin%
com#onent in%redients to
com#ensate )or any mutual
shortcomin%s. There)ore resource-
e))icient cements with tailor-made
#ro#erties can "e de+elo#ed to
achie+e ihc needed "alance
"etween the industry6s (uesl )or
high-performance concrete and
increasin%ly restricti+e
en&ironmental regulations.
De+elo#in% cements in+ol+in%
hi%h-+olume re#lacement o) O.C
with industrial "y-#roducts is
#erha#s the most #romisin%
+enture )or cement industry to
meet its en+ironmental
O"li%ations.
This syner%y "etween modem
.ortland cements and mineral
additi&es is "ein% systematically
e$#loited hy ihe cement0concrete
indusuy to meet sustaina"le
de+elo#ment and en+ironmental
%oals "y #ro%ressi+ely choosin%
supplementary cementitlous
materials o)ten industrial "y-
#roducts called <ta//&lanas such
asy,y ash &32' a waste "y-#roduct
)n,ui coid "urnin% thermal #ower
#lantsA
groun
d
granu
lated
blast
furna
ce
slag
&C<3
1,. a
"y-
#rodii
cl o)
iron
and
steel
manu)
acturi
n%A
silica
fiime
&13'
a
waste
"y-
#rodu
ct o)
ihe
manu)
acture
o)
silicon
or
)erro-
silicyn
alloys
)ront
hi%h
#urity
(uart!
and
coal
in a
su"me
r%ed-
are
electri
c
)urnac
e- and
rice
hus'
ash, a
waste "y-#roduct )rom co-
%eneration electric #ower #lants
"urnin% rice hus* as partial
replacements for cement. 2
#o!!olana is a )inely %round
siliceous %lassy material which as
such docs not #ossess cemenriiioua
#ro#erty in itsel) "ut reacts in die
#resence or water with lime
&calcium hydro$ide' at nunnal
tem#erature to )onli com#ounds o)
low solu"ility ha+in% ccmeittitious
#ro#erties. This action is called
po//olanic action. The #o!!olanic
acti+ity i8 due lo the #resence o)
)inely di+ided %lassy silica and lime
which #roduce calcium silicate
hydrate as is #roduced in .orUand
cement hydration. The %rowth and
interloc*in% o) this hydrate %i+es
mechanical sirensdi. The linie
#roduced in .ortland cement
hydration #ro+ides the ri%ht
en+ironment )or po//olanic action
4? #roceed. 1ince similar hydrates
arc
Concrete #a'ing #aurials-<) Cement
=+
re#lace
ment
cements
and
%uidelin
es )or
their
mi$ture
desi%n
and )ield
im#le-
nicni.it
ion.
AST
@
CLA
SSI
FIC
ATI
ON
T
he
standard
s o)
2merica
n
1ociety
)or
Testin%
Material
s
&21TM'
are
couuiio
nly
re)erred
to in
#racticeA
the
21TM
classi)ic
ation o)
cements
is
"rie)ly
descri"e
d "elow
)or
%eneral in)ormation.
%rdi
nary
+ort
land
Cem
ent
Ty#e
I
7
re(ui
rin%
no
s#eci
al
#ro#
ertie
s.
Ty#e II 7 )or moderate sul#hate
attac* resistance or
moderate heat o)
hydration a##lication.
Ty#e /I 7 )or hi%h early stren%th.
Ty#e IB 7 )or low-heal o) hydration
and
Ty#e B 7 with hi%h sul#hate
resistance.
?lended Cements These cements arc
o"tained "y ultimately and
uni)ormally
"lendin% )ollowin% com"inations-
Ty#e I1 7 O.C or Ty#e I and )ine
%ranulated "last )urnace sla% R:= to E?
#er
cent "y wei%ht o) total
cement' t.e. O.C-C<31A
Ty#e I. ON- o) Ty#e I and )ine
#o!!olana &4= to -/i #er cent o) die
wei%ht
o) total cement' i.e.
O.C-32 cement.
Air-entraining Cements
Ty#es I2 /2 and III27O.C Ty#es
I II aud /I intcr%round with air-
entrainin% a%ents
M
:.= 1TOR2C@ O3
C@M@NT
It is o)ten necessary to store
cement
)or a
lon%
#eriod
#articula
rly when
deli+erie
s are
irre%ular.
2ldiou%
h cement
retains
its
(uality
almost
inde)init
ely i)
moisture
is *e#t
away
)rom it.
"ut ihe
cement
e$#osed
to air
a"sor"s
moisture
slowly
and tins
causes
its
deteriora
tion.
2"sor#ti
on o) i
or : #er
cent o)
water
has no
a##recia
"le
e))ect
"ut a
)urther
amount
o)
a"sor#ti
on
retards
the
hardeiun
% o)
cement
and
reduces its stren%th. The more )inely
cement is %round die more reacti+e it
is. and conse(uently more ra#idly does
it a"sor" moisture )rom dam#
surroundin%s.
Thus cement should "e stored in u
manner wliicl' #ermits easy access )or
#ro#er ins#ection and identi)ication
and in a suita"le weather#roo)
structure. Cement in "ul* can "est "e
stored in "ins n) de#th : in or more.
Usually a crust a"out =? mm thic*
)orms ai die lo#- and this must "e
remo+ed "e)ore cement is ta*en out
)or use. The "a%%ed cement may also
"e *e#t sa)ely )or many months i)
stored in water#roo) shed with
non#orous walls and )loors the
Concrete Ma*in%
Materials-II- 2%%re%ate
+.1 INTRODECTION
2s e$#lained in Cha#ter : concrete can "e considered to "e an arti)icial
stone o"tained "y "indin% to%ether the #anicles o) relati+ely inert tine and coarse
materials with cement #aste. 2%%re%ates arc %enerally chea#er &"an cement and
im#art %reater +olume sta"ility and dura"ility to concrete. The a%%re%ate is used
#rimarily )or the #ur#ose o) #ro+idin% "ull- to the concrete. To increase die density
o) the resultin% mi$ the a%%re%ate is )re(uently used in two or more si!es. T/e
most im#ortant &unction o) the )ine a%%re%ate is to assist in #roducin% wor*a"ility
and uni)ormity in mi$ture. The fine aggregate also assists the cement #aste to hold
the coarse aggregate #anicles in sus#ension. This action #romotes #lasticity in the
mi$ture and #re+ents the #assi"le segregation o) #aste and coarse a%%re%ate
#articularly when it is necessary to trans#ort the concrete some distance )rom the
mi$in% #lant to #oint o) #lacement.
The a%%re%ates #ro+ide a"out E= #er cent o) the "ody o) the concrete and hence
itO in)luence is e$tremely im#ortant. They should there)ore meet certain
re(uirements i) the concrete is to "e wor*a"le- stron% dura"le and economical. The
a%%re%ate must "e o) #ro#er sha#e &cither rounded or a##ro$imately cu"ical' clean
hard stron% and well %raded. It should #ossess chemical sta"ility and. in many
cases e$hi"it a"rasion resistance and resistance lo )ree!in% and thawin%.
^^ +(2 CLASSIFICATION OF AFFREFATES
The classi)ication o) the a%%re%ates is %enerally "ased on their %eolo%ical
ori%in si!e sha#e unit wei%ht etc.
+.2.1 Cl&!!"%"0&'"3n A00327"n; '3 F43l3;"0&l O2";"n
The a%%re%ates are usually deri+ed )rom natural sources and may ha+e "een
naturally reduced to si!e &e.%. %ra+el or shin%le' or may ha+e to "e reduced "y
CHA1TER
6 C.om-reie Technology
crushin%. The suita"ility o) ihc locally a+aila"le a%%re%ate de#ends u#on the
%eolo%ical history o) ihc re%ion. 1uch an a%%re%ate may )urther "e di+ided into two
cate%ories namely the nalund a%%re%ate and arti)icial a%%re%ates.
Fatural Aggregate
These a%%re%ates arc %enerally o"tained )tom natural de#osits o) sand and %ra+el or
)rom (uarries "y cullin% roc*s. Chea#est amon% tliew are die natural sand and
%ra+el which ha+e "een reduced lo their #resent si!e "y natural a%ents such a8
water wind and snow etc. The ri+er de#osits are the mosl common and are o) %ood
(uality. The second most commonly used source o) a%%re%ates is llic (uarried roc*
which is reduced to si!e "y crushin%. Crashed a%%re%ates are made My "rea*in%
roc*s into re(uisite %raded #articles "y "lastin% crushin% and screenin% etc. 3rom
the #enolo%ical stand#oint the natural a%%re%ates whether crushed or naturally
reduced in si!e can he di+ided into se+eral %rou#s o) roc*s ha+in% common
characteristics. Natural roc*s can "e classi)ied accordin% to their %eolo%ical mode o)
)ormation. i.C i%neous sedimentary or metamor#hic ori%in and each %rou# may "e
)urther di+ided into cate%ories ha+in% certain #enolo%ical characteristics in
common. 1uch a classi)ication has "een ado#ted in I1- ILI-4VE?.
Jilhin each %rou# die (uality o) a%%re%ate may +ary to a %reat e$tent due to the
chan%e in structure and ic$mrc o) die #arent roc* )rom #lace to #lace.
2%%re%ates )rom i%neous roc*s arc hi%hly satis)actory "ecause they are normally
hard, tough and dense. They ha+e massi+e structure with crystalline0 %lassy te$ture.
The "ul* o) concrete a%%re%ates are o) i%neous ori%in. The a%%re%ate may "e acidic
or al*aline de#endin% u#on silica content and o) li%ht ur dar* colour.
The (uality o) a%%re%ates deri+ed )rom sedimentary roc*s +ary de#endin% u#on
dre )ormation history o) the roc*. 9imestones and sonic siliceous sand stones ha+e
#ro+ed to "e source o) %ood concrete a%%re%ates. 1ometimes strati)ications in the
#arent ruc* show u# in ihc indi+idual a%%re%ates and there"y im#air the stren%th o)
a%%re%ate. 1edimentary roc*s may +ary )rom so)i to hard #orous to dense and li%ht
to hea+y. They may also yield )la*y a%%re%ates.
The metamor#hic roc*s show )oliated 1tructure. In some cases indi+idual
a%%re%ate may e$hi"it )oliations which is not a desira"le characteristic in
a%%re%ate. /owe+er many metamor#hic roc*s #articularly (uunuile and %neiss
ha+e #ro+ided %ood concrete a%%re%ates.
Artificial Aggregate
The most widely used arti)icial a%%re%ates are clean "ro*en "ric*s and air-cooled
)tesh "last-)umacc-sla%. The "ro*en hric*s o) %ood (uality #ro+ide a satis)actory
a%%re%ate )or ihe mass concrete and are not suita"le )or rein)orced concrete wor* i)
the crushin% stren%th o) "ric* is less limn I? to I= M.a. The "ric*s should "e )ree
)rom lime mortar and lime sul#hate #laster. The "ric*
foncreir #a'ing #aierials-0) Aggregate
A. ]]]]]].^^.
a%%ic%ate is nut suita"le )or water#roo) construction. It has #oor resistance lo wear
and liencc is not used in concrete )or the road wor*.
The "Ta_t-)umacc-sla% is the "y-#roduct o"tained .simultaneously with #i% iron
in the "last )urnace which is cooled slowly in air. Care)ully selected sla% #roduces
concrete ha+in% #ro#erties com#ara"le to that #roduced "y usin% %ra+el a%%re%ate.
/owe+er the corrosion o) steel is more due 4? sul#hur content o) sla% "ut the
concrete made with "last-)urnace-sla% a%%re%ate has %ood )ire resistin% (ualities.
The other e$am#les o) the arti)icial sla% are the e$#anded shale e$#anded sla%
cinder etc.
I.:.: Classi)ication 2ccordin% to 1i!e
The si!e o) a%%re%ates used in concrete ran%e )rom )ew centimetres or more down
lo a )ew microns. The ma$imum si!e o) the a%%re%ate may +ary "ut in each case it
is to "e so %raded that the #articles o) di))erent si!e )ractions arc incor#orated in the
mi$ in a##ro#riate #ro#ortions. The #article si!e distri"ution is called the %radin% o)
the a%%re%ate 2ccordin% lo si!e the a%%re%ate is classi)ied as- tine a%%re%ate coarse
a%%re%ate and all-in-a%%re%ate.
5ine Aggregate
It is the a%%re%ale most o) which #asses Ihrou%h a ;.E= mm I1 sie+e and contains
only dial much coarser material as is #ermitted "y the s#eci)ications. 1and is
%enerally considered to ha+e a lower si!e limit o) a"out ?.?E mm. Material "etween
?.?> mm and ?.??: nun is classi)ied as .silt and still smaller #articles are called
clay 6the so)t de#osit consistin% o) sand silt and clay in a"out e(ual #ro#ortions is
termed I nam. The )ine a%%re%ale may he one o) the )ollowin% ty#es-
&i' natural sand i.e. the )ine a%%re%ate resultin% )rom natural disinte%ration o)
roc* and0or that which has "een de#osited "y stream and %lacial a%encies.
&ii' crushed stone sand i.e. the )ine a%%re%ate #roduced "y crushin% hard
stone or )iii' crushed %ra+el sand i.e. the )ine a%%re%ate #roduced "y crushin%
natural %ra+el.
2ccordin% to si!e rhc )ine a%%re%ate may "e descri"ed as coarse, medium and
fine sands. De#endin% u#ou the #article si!e distri"ution. I1- ILI-4VE? has di+ided
the )ine a%%re%ate into )our %radin% !ones. The %radin% !ones "ecome #ro%ressi+ely
)iner )rom %radin% !one I to %radin% !one IB.
Coarse Aggregate
The a%%re%ates most o) which arc retained on the ;.E= mm I1 sie+e and contain
only that much o) )ine material as is #ermitted "y the s#eci)ications are termed
coarse a%%re%ates. The coarse a%%re%ate- may "e one o) the )ollowin% ty#es-
&i' crushed %ra+el or stone o"tained "y the crushin% o) %ra+el or hard stone
9- WA Concrete Technology
&ii' uncrushed %ra+el O) stone resultin% )rom the natural disinte%ration o)
roc* or &iii' #artially crushed %ra+el or 1tone o"tained as a #roduct o) the "lendin%
o) the a"o+e two ty#es.
The %raded coarse a%%re%ate is descri"ed "y its nominal si/e, i.c. ;? mm. :? mm.
4> mm and 4:.= mm. etc. 3or e$am#le a %raded a%%re%ate o) nominal si!e
4:.= mm means an a%%re%ate most o) which #auses the 4:.= nun I1 sie+e. 1ince the
a%%re%ates are )ormed due to natural disinte%ration o) rac*s or "y the arti)icial
crushin% o) roc* or %ra+el ihey deri+e many o) Uieir #ro#erties )rom the #arent
roc*s. These #ro#erties are chemical and mineral com#osition #ctrn%ra#"ic
descri#tion s#eci)ic %ra+ity hardness stren%th #hysical and chemical 1ta"ility
#ore structure and colour. 1ome Other #ro#erties o) the a%%re%ates not #ossessed
hy the #arent ruc*s arc #article slia#e and siEc sur)ace te$ture a"sor#tion etc. 2ll
these #ro#erties may ha+e a considera"le e))ect on
the (uality o) concrete in )resh and hardened states.
#i-in-aggregate
1ometimes com"ined a%%re%ates arc a+aila"le in nature com#risin% di))erent
)ractions o) )ine and coarse a%%re%ates which are *nown as ull-in-aggregate. In
such cases ad,ustments o)ten "ecome necessary to su##lement Uic %radin% "y
addition o) res#ecti+e si!e )raction which may "e de)icient iu the a%%re%ate. 9i*e
coarse a%%re%ate die all-in-a%%rc%aie is also descri"ed "y its nominal si!e. The all-
in-a%%re%ates are not %enerally used )or ma*in% hi%h duality concrete.
!mgte-si/e-aggrega te
2%%re%ates com#risin% #articles )allin% essentially within a narrow limit o) si!e
)ractions arc called iinglesi/e-aggregmes. 3or e$am#le a :? mm sin%lc-si!e-
a%%rc%atc means an a%%re%ate most o) which #asses throu%h a :? mm I1 sie+e and
the ma,or #ortion o) which is retained in a 4? mm I1 sie+e.
+.2.+ Cl&!!"%"0&'"3n A00327"n; '3 S<&,4
The #article sha#es o) a%%re%ates in)luence the #ro#erties o) )resh concrete more
than those o) hardened concrete. De#endin% u#on the #article sha#e the a%%re%ate
may "e classi)ied as rounded irre%ular or #artly rounded an%ular or Oa*y.
Rounded 2%%re%ate
The a%%re%ate with rounded #articles &ri+er or seashore %ra+el' has minituum +oids
ran%in% )rom I: to II #er cent. It %i+es minimum ratio o) sur)ace area to the
+olume mus re(uirin% minimum cement #aste lo ma*e %ood concrete. The only
disad+anta%e is that the interloc*in% "etween its #articles is less and hence the
de+elo#ment o) the "ond is #oor ma*in% it unsuita"le )or hi%h stren%th concrete
and #a+ements.
Concrete #a'ing #aterials"::) Aggregate
<rregular Aggregate
The a%%re%ate ha+in% #artly rounded #anicles &#ilsand and %ra+el' has hi%her
#ercenta%e o) +oids ran%in% .)rom I= lo IL. Ii re(uires more cement #aste )or a
%i+en wor*a"ility. Ttie interloc*in% "etween #anicles thou%h "etter than that
o"tained with the rounded a%%re%ate is inade(uate )or hi%h stren%th concrete.
Angular Aggregate
The a%%re%ate with shar# an%ular and tou%h #anicles &crushed roc*' has a
ma$imum #ercenta%e o) +oids ran%in% )rom IL to ;?. The interloc*in% "etween the
#articles is %ood there"y #ro+idin% a %ood "ond. The a%%re%ate re(uires more
cement #aste to ma*e wor*a"le concrete o) hi%)i stren%th than that re(uired "y
rounded #anicles. The an%ular a%%re%ate is suita"le )or hi%h stren%th coiicicle and
#a+ements su",ected to tension.
5la'y and Elongated Aggregates
2n a%%re%ate is termed )la*y when its least dimension &thic*ness' is less i"an thrcc-
ti)th o) its mean dimension. The mean dimension o) the a%%re%ate is the a+era%e o)
the sie+e si!es throu%h which the #anicles #ass and arc retained res#ecti+ely. The
#anicle is said to "e elon%ated when its %reatest dimension &len%th' is %reater than
nine-)i)th o) lis mean dimension.
The an%ularity o) a%%re%ate a))ects die wor*a"ility or sta"ility o) the mi$ which
de#ends on the interloc*in% o) the #articles. The elon%ated and )la*y #anicles also
ad+ersely a))ect the dura"ility o) concrete as they tend lo he oriented in one #lane
with water and air +oids )ormin% underneath. The #resence o) these #articles should
"e restricted to 4? to 4= #er cent. This re(uirement is #articularly im#ortant )or
crushed-)ine a%%re%ate since &he material made this way contains more )lat and
elon%ated #anicles. The an%ularity o) the a%%re%ate can "e estimated )rom the
#ro#ortion o) +oids iu a sam#le com#acted us #rescri"ed in I1- :IN> &.art-4'-4`I.
The hi%her the angularity number, tiie more an%ular is die a%%re%ate. The
elongation inde o) an a%%re%ate is de)ined as die #ercenta%e "y wei%ht o) #anicles
#resent in it whose %reatest dimension &len%Ui' is %reater than nine-)i)th o) their
mean dimension-
Jhereas the Gla'mes inde is the #ercenta%e "y wei%ht o) #articles ha+in% least
dimension &i.c. thic*ness' less than diree-riitu o) dicir mean dimension.
The sur)ace le8turc o) me a%%re%ate de#ends on die hardness %rain si!e and #ore
characteristics o) the #arent roc*s as well as die ry#e and ma%nitude o) the
disinte%ratin% )orces. <ased on the sur)ace characteristics I1- ILI-4VE? classi)ies
the a%%re%ates as %lassy smooth %ranular crystalline honeycom"ed #orous etc
The sha#e and sur)ace te$ture u) a%%re%ate in)luence die wor*a"ility o) )resh
concrete and the com#ressi+e 1tren%th o) hardened concrete #articularly in hi%h
stren%th concrete. The stren%th o) concrete es#ecially the tlc$ural stren%th.
-.?] Concrete Technology
H-H-2"
de#ends on the "ond "etween the a%%re%ate and cemeni #aste. The hond is #artly
due to the interloc*in% o) the a%%re%ate and #aste. 2 rou%h sur)ace results in a
"etter "ond. The "ond is also a))ected "y the #hysical and chemical #ro#ctics
mincraln%ical and chemical com#osition and the electrostatic condition o) the
#article sur)ace e.%. a chemical "und may e$ist in the case o) a limestone
a%%re%ate.
I.:.; Classi)ication <ased on Unit Jei%ht
6Ihe a%%re%ates can also "e classi)ied accordin% to their unit wei%hts as normal-
wei%ht hea+ywei%ht and li%htwei%ht a%%re%ates.
Normal-u0et6%h). Aggregate
The commonly used a%%re%ates i.e. sands and %ra+elsA crushed roc*s such as
%ranite "asalt (uart! sandstone and limestone- and "ric* "allast etc. which ha+e
s#eci)ic %ra+ities "etween IJ and :.E #roduce concrete with unit wei%ht ran%in%
)rom :I to :> *N0n+ and crushin% .stren%th at :L days "etween 4= to ;? M.a are
termed normal-wei%ht concrete. The #ro#erties and the re(uirements o) normal-
wei%ht a%%re%ate will he discussed in details in the succeedin% sections.
/ea+ywei%ht Aggregate
1ome hea+ywei%ht a%%re%ates ha+in% s#eci)ic %ra+ities ran%in% )rom :.L to :.V and
unit wei%hts )rom :L to :V *N0m
D
such as ma%netite &3c-,OD. "arytcs &<a1O,' and
scra# iron are used in the manu)acture o) hea+ywei%ht concrete which is more
e))ecti+e as a radiation shield. Concretes ha+in% unit wei%ht o) a"out I? *N0m
D
I)i
*N0m
4
and =E *N0m8 can "e #roduced "y usin% ma%netite "aryte and scra# iron
res#ecti+ely. The com#ressi+e stren%th o) these concretes is o) the order o) :? to :4
M.a. The ccmcnt-a%%rc%atc ratio +aries )rom 4-= to 4-V with a waicr-cancni ratio
"etween ?.= to ?.>=. They #roduce dense and crac*-)ree concrete. The main
draw"ac* with these a%%re%ates is that mcy are not suita"ly %raded and hence it is
di))icult to ha+e ade(uate wor'ability without segregation.
>ightweight Aggregate
The li%htwei%ht a%%re%ates ha+in% unit wei%ht u# to 4: *NBm6 are used to
manu)acture the structural concrete and masonry "loc*s )or reduction o) die sel)-
wei%ht o) the structure. These a%%re%ates can "e cither natural such as diotomitc.
#umice +olcanic cinder etc. or manu)actured such as "loated clay sintered )ly ash
or )oamed "last)urnace-sla%. In addition to reduction in the wei%ht the concrete
#roduced "y usin% li%ht-wei%ht a%%re%ate #ro+ides "etter thermal insulation and
im#ro+ed tire resistance.
The main re(uirement o) the li%htwei%ht a%%re%ate is its low densityA some
s#eci)ications limit the unit wei%ht to 4: *N0m )or )ine a%%re%ate and a##ro$imateT
+ 4? )cN0nr )or coarse a%%re%ates )or the use in concrete. <ecause
Concrete #a'ing #ateriais-0) Aggregate .?B
o) hi%h water a"sor#tion ihc wor*a"le concrete mi$es "ecome 1ti)) wiihin a )ew
minutes o) mi$in% thus re(uirin% the weltin% o) tlie a%%re%ates "e)ore mi$in% in the
mi$er. In the mi$in% o#eration lite re(uired water and a%%re%ate arc usually
#remi$ed #rior to the addition o) cemcnl. 2##ro$imately. > litres o) e$tra water #er
cu"ic metre o) li%htwei%ht a%%re%ate concrete is needed to enhance the wor*a"ility
"y := mm. To #roduce satis)actory stren%th o) concrete the cement content may "e
I.= *N0m
4
or more. Due to the increased #ermea"ility and ra#id car"onation o)
concrete the co+er lo the rein)orcement usin% li%htwei%ht a%%re%ate in concrete
.should he increased. The other characteristics o) concrete usin% li%htwei%ht
a%%re%ates art reduced wor*a"ility due lo rou%h sur)ace te$ture lower tensile
stren%th lower modulus o) elasticity &=? to E= #er cent o) that o) normal concrete'
and hi%her cree# and shrin*a%e. /owe+er the ratio o) cree# strain to the elastic
strain is the same )or "oth the li%htwei%ht and normal-wei%hl concretes. They ha+e
the tendency to se%re%ate. 1ome o) the im#ortant li%htwei%ht a%%re%ates are as
)ollows.
?loated Clay Aggregate ITic #articles o) such an a%%re%ate ran%e )rom D to :? mm
si!e. They are a##ro$imately s#herical in sha#e. Irani li%ht and #orous. The water
a"sor#tion is a"out L to :? #er cent. They #roduce concrete wei%hin% u# to a"out 4V
*N0m8. Tlie "loated clay a%%re%ates arc used in #laces where the cost o) crushed
slone a%%re%ate is hi%h and suita"le clays es#ecially silts )rom waterwor*s are
easily a+aila"le. The sintered fly ash aggregate ha+in% a unit wei%ht o) a"out 4?
*N0m #roduces structural concrete with a unit wei%ht o) 4: to 4; *N0m
I
.
The epanded s'ate *nown as heiculite Or "ayditc is #roduced "y #assin% the
crushed shale throu%h u rotary *iln at 4 ICO
-
C. Cases within the shale e$#and
)ormin% millions o) tiny air cells within the mass. The cells arc surrounded "y a
hard +itreous water#roo) mem"rane. The #roduct is care)ully screened into
commercial si!es. This a%%re%ate is used lo a lar%e e$tent to re#lace the stone
a%%re%ate in the #roduction o) structural concrete "ecause it reduces the wei%ht "y
a"out one-third )or no loss o) stren%th )or com#ara"le cement content. It has hi%h
resistance to heal and is used )or re)ractory linin% )ire#roo)in% o) structural steel
and )or the construction o) other concrete sur)aces e$#osed to hi%h tem#eratures. In
addition they ha+e "etter sound a"sor#tion.
Kermiculite is anotiier arti)ical li%htwei%ht a%%re%ate which #roduces low-
stren%th and hi%h-shrin*a%e concrete. It is not used )or structural concrete "ut is
widely used )or insulatin% concrete roo) dec*s.
The com#ressi+e stren%th o) li%htwei%ht concrete is com#ara"le lo that o)
normal-wei%ht concrete. The concrete #roduced with artificial and processed
aggregates needs e$tra co+er to the rein)orcement due to hi%h a"sor#tion o) the
a%%re%ate. The other )actor limitin% their use)ulness is the relati+ely low modulus o)
elasticity. The )le$ural stren%th o) li%ht-wei%ht concrete is o) the same order as lliat
o) normal concrete at early a%es "ut does not im#ro+e si%ni)icantly with lon% moist
curin%. The shear stren%th on lhe a+era%e is as hi%h as )or normal-
.2
Concrete "technology
wei%ht concrete. The
shrin*a%e and cree#
strains are usually
somewhat hi%her )or
li%htwei%ht
concretes. Air-
entraiiwtent can "e
used to ma*e the
concrcic to #er)orm
li*e %ood Fuality
normal wei%ht
concrete.
I1- V4;:-4VEV
co+ers the
s#eci)ications )or
arti)icial li%htwei%ht
a%%re%ate )or
concrete uiasonary
units while I1-
:CL>-4VEE co+ers
cinder a%%re%ate )or
use in lime concrete
)or the manu)acture
o) #recast "loc*s.
The use o) "loated
clay and sintered )ly
ash a%%re%ate has
"een en+isa%ed in I1-
=;>-:???.
+.+
CHARACT
ERISTICS
OF
AFFREFA
TES
2s e$#lained
earlier the #ro#erties
and #er)ormance o)
concrete arc
de#endent to a lar%e
e$tent on the
characteristics and
#ro#erties o) the
a%%re%ates
themsel+es. In
%eneral an a%%re%ate
to "e used in concrete
must "e clean hard
stron% #ro#erly
sha#ed and well
%raded.
The
a%%re%at
e must
#ossess
chemical
sta"ility
resistanc
e to
a"rasion
and to
)ree!in%
and
thawin%.
They
should
not
contain
deleterio
us
material
which
may
cause
#hysical
or
chemical
chan%es
such as
crac*in%

swellin%
so)tenin
% or
leachin%.
The
#ro#ertie
s o)
a%%re%at
e )or
concrete
are
discusse
d under
the
)ollowin
% heads.
!trength
of
Aggrega
te
The
stren%th
o)
concrete cannot
e$ceed mat o) the
"ul* o) a%%re%ate
contained therein.
There)ore so lon% us
the stren%th o)
a%%re%ate is o) an
order u) ma%nitude
stron%er than tliat o)
me concrete made
with them il is
su))icient. /owe+er
in the cases o) hi%h
stren%th concretes
su",ected to locali!ed
stress concentration
leadin% 4? stresses
hi%her man the
o+erall stren%th o)
concrete the stren%th
o) a%%re%ate may
"ecome critical.
Cenerally three tests
are #rescri"ed )or the
determination o)
stren%th o) a%%re%ate
namely a%%re%ate
crushin% +alue
a%%re%ate im#act
+alue and ten #ercent
)ines +alue. O) these
the crushin% +alue
test is more #o#ular
and the results arc
re#roduci"le
/owe+er. Ute ten #er
cent )ines +alue test
which %i+es the load
re(uired to #roduce
ten #er cent )ines
)rnm 4:.= mm to 4?
mm #articles is more
relia"le. i1- ILI-4VE?
#rescri"es a ;= #er
cent limit )or the
crushin% +alue
determined as #er I1-
:IL> &.art-lB'-aV>I
)or the a%%re%ate
used )or concrete
odier man )or
wearin% sur)aces and
#- #er cent )or
concrete )or wearin%
sur)aces
such as
runways
roads
and
#a+emen
ts. <1-
LL:-
4V>=
#rescri"
es a
minimu
m +alue
o) leu
tonnes in
the 4?
#er cent
)ines test
)or
a%%re%at
e to "e
used in
wearin%
sur)aces
and )i+e
tonnes
when
used in
other
concrete
s.
The
other
related
mechan
ical
properti
es o)
a%%re%at
e which
are
im#orta
nt
es#ecial
ly when
the
a%%re%at
e is
su",ecte
d lu
hi%h
wear are
toughne
ss and
hardness.
The toughness o)
a%%re%ate which is
measured as the
resistance o) the
a%%re%ate to )ailure
"y im#act
determined in
accordance with I1-
:IL> &.art-IB'-4V>I
may "e used instead
o) its crushin% +alue.
The aggregate
impact &alue shall
not e$ceed ;= #er
cent "y wei%ht )or
a%%re%ate used )or
concrete other than
Concrete #a'ing #aterials-ll) Aggregate
.+
those
used lor
wearin%
sur)aces
and I?
#er cent
)or
concrete
)or
wearin%
sur)aces
-
T
he
hea&
iness
o)
the
a%%r
e%ate
de)in
ed as
its
resist
ance
to
wear
o"tai
ned
in
term
s o)
aggr
egat
e
abra
sion
&alu
e is
deter
mine
d "y
usin
% the
9os
2n%
eles
mac
hine
as
descr
i"ed
in
I1- :IL> &#art-IB'-lV>I. The method
com"ines the test )or attrition and
abrasion. 2 satis)actory a%%re%ate
should ha+e an a"rasion +alue o) not
more than I? #er cent )or a%%re%ates
used tor wearin% sur)aces and =? #er
cent )or a%%re%ates used )or non
wearin% sur)ace.
The stren%th o) an a%%re%ate as
measured "y its resistance to free/ing
and thawing is an im#ortant
characteristic )or a concrete e$#osed to
se+ere weather. The resistance to
)reein% and thawin% is related to its
porosity, absorption, and pore
structure. In a )ully saturated
a%%re%ate there is not enou%h s#ace
a+aila"le to accommodate the
e$#ansion due to )ree!in% o) water
resultin% in the )ailure o) the #anicles.
2n a%%re%ate with hi%her modulus
of elasticity %enerally #roduces a
concrcic with hi%her modulus o)
elasticity. The modulus o) elasticity o)
a%%re%ate al$o a))ects the ma%nitude o)
creep and shrin'age o) concrete. The
compressibility of aggregate would
reduce distress in concrete durin% its
+olume chan%es while a stron% and
ri%id a%%re%ate mi%ht lead to the
crac'ing o) the surroundin% cement
#aste. Thus the a%%re%ate o) moderate
or low slren%Ci and modulus o)
elasticity can "e +alua"le in #reser+in%
the durability of concrete.
+article !hape and Teture
The #hysical characteristics such as
sliape, teture and roughness o)
a%%re%ates
si%ni)icantly in)luence the mobility &i.c.
the wor*a"ility' o) )resh concrete aud
the bond "etween the a%%re%ate and the
mortar #liase. 2s descri"ed earlier the
a%%re%ates are %enerally di+ided into
)our cate%ories namely rounded,
irregular
angular and fla'y. The rounded
aggregates arc a+aila"le in the )orm o)
ri+er or
seashore %ra+el which are )ully
watcrworn or com#letely sha#ed "y
attrition.
wliereas irregular or partly rounded
aggregate &#itsands and %ra+els' are
#artly
slia#e
d "y
attritio
n and
ha+e
rotind
cd
ed%es.
The
angul
ar
aggre
gate
#osses
sin%
we/-
de)inc
d
ed%es
)orme
d at
the
interse
ction
o)
rou%hl
y
#laner
)aces
are
o"tain
ed "y
crushi
n% the
roc*s.
The
an%ula
r
a%%re%
ates
o"tain
ed
)rom
lamina
ted
roc*s
ha+in%
thic*n
ess
smalle
r than
the
width
and0or len%th arc termed fla'y.
The rounded a%%re%ates re(uire lesser
amount o) water and ccmcnl #aste )or a
%i+en wor'ability. The water content
could "e reduced "y = to 4? #er cent
and
die sand content "y I to = #er cent "y the
use o) rounded a%%re%ate. On the other
hand the use o) crushed a%%re%ate may
result in 4? to :? #er cent hi%her
compressi&e strength due to the
de+elo#ment uf sWAa8tr aggreguie-
mortar bond.
This increase in stren%th may "e u# to IL
#er cent )or the concrete ha+in% a
water-cement ratio "elow ?-;. The
elon%ated and )la*y #articles ha+in% a
hi%h
ratio o) sur)ace area to +olume reduce
the wor*a"ility a##recia"ly. These
#articles tend to "e oriented in one #lane
with water and air +oids underneath.
=;
Comma Technology
The
fla'int
ss
inde
o)
coarse
a%%re%
ate is
%enera
lly
limited
to :=
#er
cent.
The
surfac
e
teture
is a
measur
e o)
the
smoot
hness
or
rou%hn
ess o)
the
a%%re%
ate.
<ased
on the
+isual
e$ami
nation
ol5 ihc
s#ecim
en the
surfac
e
teture
, may
"e
classi)i
ed as
glassy,
smoot
h,
granul
ar,
rough,
crystal
line,
porous
and
honey
c
o
T
!
T
T
a = b
L
c
?
T
K
T
D
t )ormati o
Concrete #a'ing #aieriah-.) Aggregate B+B
The s#eci)ic %ra+ity is determined as descri"ed in I1- :IY> (Part-144 '-lV>I-
The s#eci)ic %ra+ily is %i+en "y-
1#eci)ic %ra+ily = 7 ^^^
and
2##arent s#eci)ic %ra+ity = --------7
a 4 b
where
a L mass o) saturated sur)ace dry a%%re%ate in air b ^ mass o) saturated sur)ace
drM a%%re%ate in water and c - mass o) o+eudry a%%re%ate in air. The a+era%e
s#eci)ic %ra+ily o) ma,ority o) natural a%%re%ates lie "etween :.>
&n7 2.G.
Bulk Density
The bul' density o) an a%%re%ate is de)ined as the mass o) the material in a %i+en
+olume and is e$#ressed in *ilo%rams0litre. The hul* density o) an a%%re%ate
de#ends on how densely the a%%re%ate is #ac*ed in the measure. The oilier )actors
atrcctin% the hul* density arc ihc panicle shape, si/e, the grading of the aggregate
and the moisture content. The sha#e o) the #articles %reatly a))ects Ihc closeness o)
the #ac*in% that can "c achie+ed. 3or a coarse aggregate o) %i+en s#eci)ic %ra+ity a
hi%her hul* density indicates that there are )ewer +oids to "e tilled "y sand and
ccmenr.
The "ul* density o) an a%%re%ate can "e used )or,ud%in% ihc (uality o) a%%re%ate
"y com#arin% it with normal density )or dial ly#e o) a%%re%ate. It determines the
ty#e o) concrete )or which il may "e used. The "ul* density is also re(uired )or
con+enin% #ro#ortions "y wei%ht inlo the #ro#ortions "y +olume. The "ul* density
is determined as descri"ed in I1- :IL> &/an-Ill'74V>I.
H3"7!
The em#ty s#ace "etween Ihc a%%re%ate #articles arc termed &oids. It is the
di))erence "etween the %ross +olume o) a%%re%ate mass and the +olume occu#ied
"y the #articles alone. The +oid ratio o) an a%%re%ate can he calculated )ront ihc
s#eci)ic %ra+ity and "ul* density o) a%%re%ate mass as )ollows-
.... "ul* density
H3"7 2&'"3 > 1----------------------rrr-*-----IJ
a##arent s#ccilic %ra+ity
+orosity and Absorption of Aggregates
Due to the #resence o) air "u""les which are entra##ed in a roc* durin% its
)ormation or on accounl o) the decom#osition u) certain constituent minerals "y
atmos#heric action minute holes or ca&ities arc )ormed in it which arc eonimonl+
*nown as pores.
./
Concrete Technology
Tlie #ores in the
a%%re%ate +ary in
si!e o+er a wide
ran%e the lar%est
"ein% lar%e enou%h in
he seen under a
microsco#e or e+en
with the na*ed eye.
They arc distri"uted
throu%h out the "ody
o) the material some
are wholly within the
solid and the others
arc o#en 4? the
sur)ace o) the
#article. The #orosity
o) some o) the
commonly used
roc*s +aries )rom ?
lo :? #er cent. 1ince
the a%%re%ate
constitute a"out E=
#er cent o) the
concrete the porosity
of aggregate
contri"utes to the
o+erall porosity of
concrete. The
permeability and
absorption a))ect the
bona "etween the
a%%re%ate and the
cement #aste the
resistance o) concrete
la free/ing and
tlwwing, chemical
stability, resistance
to abrasion, and die
specific gra&ity o) the
a%%re%ate.
The #ores may
"ecome reser+oirs o)
)ree moisture inside
the a%%re%ate. The
#ercenta%e-o) water
a"sor"ed "y an
a%%re%ate when
immersed in water is
termed the
absorption of
aggregate. The
a%%re%ate which is
saturate
d with
water
"ut
contains
no
surface
free
moistur
e is
termed
the
saturate
d
surface
dry
aggrega
te.. The
method
)or
determi
nin% the
water
a"sor#ti
on o) an
a%%re%at
e is
descri"e
d in I1-
:IL>
O.arr-
III'-
lV>I. I)
the
a%%re%at
e is
#re+ious
ly dried
in an
o+en at
4?= PC
to a
constant
wei%ht
"e)ore
"ein%
immerse
d in
water
)or :;
houis
the
a"sor#ti
on is
re)erred to as on
o+endry "asis. On die
other hand die
#ercenta%e o) water
a"sor"ed "y an air
dried a%%re%ate when
immersed in water
)or :; hours is
termed a"sor#tion o)
a%%re%ate &air dry
"asis'. The
*nowled%e o) the
a"sor#tion o) an
a%%re%ate is
im#ortant )or
concrete mi$ desi%n
calculations.
Moisture Content of
2%%re%ate
The surface moisture
e$#ressed as a
#ercenta%e o) die
wei%ht o) the
saturated surface dry
aggregate is termed
as moisture content.
1ince the a"sor#tion
re#resents tile water
contained in the
a%%re%ate in the
saturated-sur)ace dry
condition and the
moisture content is
the water in e$cess
o) that die total
water content o) a
moist a%%re%ate is
eiAual to die sum n)
a"sor#tion and
moisture content- I1-
:IL> &.art-Ill'-4`I
descri"es the method
to determine the
moisture content o)
concrete a%%re%ate.
The dcrermination
o) moisture content
o) an a%%re%ate is
necessary in order to
determine die net
water-cement ratio
)or a "atch o)
concrete. 2 hi%h
moistur
e
content
will
increase
the
e))ecti+
e water-
cement
ratio to
an
a##recia
"le
e$tent
and may
ma*e
the
concrete
wea*
unless a
suita"le
allowan
ce is
made.
I1- :IL>
&.art-
UI'-l
)l
>I
%i+es
two
methods
)or its
determi
nation.
The )irst
method
namely
the
displace
ment
method,
%i+es
the
moistur
e
content
as a
#ercenta
%e "y
mass o)
the
saturate
d
sur)ace
dry
Concrete #a'ing #aterials-.) Aggregate
=E
<ul*in%
of fine
Aggrega
te
T*re
increase
in ihc
+olume
o) a
%i+en
masts o)
)ine
a%%re%at
e caused
"y the
#resence
o) water
is
*nown
as
bul'ing.
The
"ul*in%
o) tine
a%%re%at
e is
caused
"y ihc
)ilms o)
water
which
#ush the
#anicles
a#art.
The
e$tent o)
"ul*in%
de#ends
u#on the
percent
age of
moistur
e
#resent
in the
sand
au)l its
fmene.C
C. It is
seen that
"ul*in%
increase
s %radually with moisture content u# to a
certain #oint and then "e%ins 4? decrease
with )urther addition o) water due to ihe
mer%in% o) )ilms until when the sand is
inundated. 2t this sta%e the "ul*in% is
#ractically nil. Jith ordinary sands the
"ul*in% usually +aries "etween 4= ami I?
#er cent. 2 ty#ical %ra#h shown in 3i%.
I.4 %i+es the +ariation o) #er cent "ul*in%
with moisture content. Niner sand "ul*s
considera"ly more and the ma$imum
"ul*in% is o"tained at a hi%her water
content than the coarse sand. In e$tremely
fine sand the "ul*in% may "e o) the order
o) ;? #er cent at a moisture content o) 4?
#er cent "ut such a sand is unsuita"le )or
coucrctc. In thi case o) coarse aggregate,
the increase in Bolume is ne%li%i"le due to
the #resence o) )ree water as the thic*ness
o) the moisture )ilm is +ery small
com#ared with #article si!e. The
#rcccnta%c "ul*in% is o"tained in
accordance Jild I1- :IL> &.aiJII/V>I.
I) the sand is measured "y +olume and no
allowance is mad? )or "ul*in% ihc mi$
will "e richer than that s#eci)ied "ecause
)or %i+en mass moist sand occu#ies a
considera"ly lar%er +olume t)ian the same
mass o) the dry sand- Tliis results in a
mi$ de)icient in sand increasin% the
chances o) the segregation and honey-
combing o) concrete. The yield of
concrete will also "e reduced. It is
necessary in such u case to increase the
measured +olume o) the land "y the
#ercenta%e "ul*in% in order thai the
amount o) sand #ut into concrete the
K
Concrete Teclniology
amount Intended )or the nominal mi used &"ased on dry sand'. I) nn allowance is
made )or the hul*in% o) sand a nominal concrete mi$ 4-:-;. )or e$am#le will
corres#ond to 4-4.E;-; )or a "ul*in% o) 4= #er cent. 2n increase in "ul*in% )rom
4= to I? #er cent will result in an increase in the concrete strength "y as much as 4;
#er cent- I) no allowance is made )or "ul*in% the concrete stren%th may
+ary "y as much as := #er cent.
SS I.; D@9@T@RIOU1 1U<1T2NC@1 IN 2CCR@C2T@1
6Nil The materials whose #resence may ad+ersely a))ect the strength, wor'ability
and lon%-term perfomtam& of concrete are termed deieieriotti materials. These are
considered undesira"le as constituent "ecause o) their intrinsic wea*ness so)tness
)ineness or oilier #hysical or chemical characteristics harm)ul to the concrete
"eha+iour.
De#endin% u#on their action the deleterious su"stances )ound in the a%%re%ates
can "e di+ided into three "road cate%ories-
&i' im#urities inter)erin% with the #rocess o) hydration o) cements &ii' coalin%s
#re+entin% the de+elo#ment o) %ood "ond "etween a%%re%ate and t,ie cement #aste
and
&iii' unsound #anicles which are wea* or "rin% a"out chemical reaction "etween the
a%%re%ate and cement #aste.
The im#urities in the )orm o) or%anic matter inter)ere with the chemical reactions
o) hydration. The8c im#urities %enerally consistin% o) decayed +e%eta"le matter
and a##earin% in the toroi o) humus or or%anic loam are mote li*ely to "e #resent in
fine aggregate than in coarse aggregate which is easily washed. The e))ect o)
im#urities is tested as #er I1- :IY? &.art-II'-I`I.
The clay and other )ine materials such as silt and cmshcr dust may "e #resent in
the )orm o) sur)ace coatin%s which inter)ere with the bond "etween the a%%re%ate
and the cement #aste. 1ince a %ood "ond is essential )or ensurin% satis)actory
strengtli and durability o) concrete the #ro"lem o) coating of impurities is ait
im#ortant one- The so)t or loosely adherent coatin%s can "e remo+ed "y washin%
The well-"onded chemically sta"le coatin%s ha+e no harm)ul e))ect e$ce#t that the
shrin*a%e may "e increased. /owe+er an a%%re%ate with chemically reacti+e
coalin%s can lead to serious trou"le- The silt and the )ine dust- i) #resent in e$cessi+e
amounts increase the specific surface of the aggregate and hence the amount o)
water re(uired to wet all #anicles in the mi$ there"y reducin% the stren%th and
dura"ility o) concrete.
The total amount o) deletcricUs material should not e$ceed = #er cent as #er I1A
IL.BIVE?. The limits o) deleterious5matcri.6Us are %i+en in Ta"le I.4.
The sand o"tained )rom a seashore or a ri+er estuary contain8 salt and sometimes
its #ercenta%e may "e as hi%h as ? #er cent o) mass o) sand. The salt can "e
remo+ed )rom the sand "y washin% it with )resh water "e)ore use. I) salt
=L
Concrete #a'ing #aieriah-<f) Aggregate
=V.
H HTa"le I.' A limits %f Meleterious #aterials
(#aimum
4 Meleterious substances
Coal and li%nite
Cloy lum#s
-1o)t )ia, incuts
Mneri,l #us+inS 6= mm I1 1ie+e
1I+B
Total o) all deleterious materials
is nut
remo+ed
it
a"sor"s
moisture
)rom air
and may
cause
effloresc
ence)
and
sli%ht
corrosio
n of
reinforc
ement
may
also
occur.
.
nso
und
part
icle
s
arc
"roa
dly
%ro
u#e
d as
&i'
Uie
#ani
cles
raili
n%
to
mai
ntai
n
thei
r inte%rity and &ii' #anicles leadin%
4? disru#ti+e e$#ansion on )ree!in%
or e$#osure to water.
The shale and oilier #articles o)
low density such as clay lumps,
wood, goal, eic. are re%arded as
unsound as they lead lo pitting and
scaling. I) the #ercenta%e o) these
#anicles e$ceeds : to = #er cent o) the
mass o) a%%re%ate they may ad+ersely
a))ect die stren%th o) concrete. The
#resence o) mica in )ine a%%re%ate has
also "een )ound to considera"ly
reduce the com#ressi+e 1tren%th o)
concrete. /ence i) mica is #resent in
)ine a%%re%ate a suita"le allowance
)oi the #ossi"le reduction in stren%th
o) concrete should he made. 9i*ewise
%y#sum and other sul#hates must not
"e #resent in the a%%re%ates.
Iron #yrilies and marcasitc arc the
mast common epansi&e inclusions id
the a%%re%ate. These sul#hides react
with water and o$y%en in the air
resultin% in the surface staining of
concrete aud pop-ouis. The e))ect is
more under warm and humid
conditions.
The ma,ority o) these im#urities
are )ound in natural a%%re%ate
de#osits rather than crushed
a%%re%ate.
+.. SOENDNESS OF
AFFREFATE
Tlie soundness indicates the
a"ility o) the a%%re%ate to resist
e$cessi+e chan%es in +olume due lo
chan%es in en+ironmental conditions
e.%. )ree!in% and thawin% thermal
chan%es and alternatin% wettin% and
dryin%. The a%%re%ate is said to "e
unsound when +olume chan%es result
in the deterioration of concrete. This
may a##ear In the )orm o) local
scalin% to e$tensi+e sur)ace crac*in%
or to disinte%ration o+er a
considera"le de#th and thus +ary
)rom an im#arted a##earance to a
structurally dan%erous situation.
I1- :IYo &.an-B'-iy>I descri"es a
method to determine the resistance to
disi
nte%
ratio
n o)
a%%r
e%at
es
"y
satu
rate
d
solu
tion
o)
sodi
um
sul#
hate
&.Na
S1O
D or
ma%
nesi
um
sul#
hate
&M%
1O,'
.
2cc
ordi
n%
to
I1-
ILI-
4VE
?
the
a+er
a%e
loss
m
Concrete Technology
o) wei%ht a)ter ten
cycles should nor
e$ceed 4: and IY #er
cent when tented
with sodium sul#hate
and ma%nesium
sul#hate
res#ecti+ely.
The al*ali-
a%%re%ate reaction
&22R' or al*ali-
silica reacti+ity
&21R' is the reaction
"etween acti+e silica
constituents o) the
a%%re%ate and
al*alies i.e. NaA? and
N? #resent in the
cement. The reacti+e
)orms o) silica
%enerally nccur in the
a%%re%ates o"tained
)roin tra#s o#aline or
chalcedenic cherts
andestitc and
andesite lu))s
rhyolitcs and rhylotic
lu))s siliceous
liuiestoncs and
certain ty#es o)
sandstone?. The
e$#ansi+e al*ali-
silicate %els are
)ormed due to the
reaction when
conditions arc
con%enial and
#ro%ressi+e
mani)estation "y
swellin% ta*es #lace
which result in
disru#tion o)
concrete with the
s#readin% o) pattern
crac's and e+entual
)ailure o) concrete
structures. /owe+er
only such a%%re%ates
which contain
^ +./ ALLALI-AFFREFATE
REACTION BAARC
reacti+e
silica in
#articula
r
#ro#orti
on and
in
#articula
r
)inencs.8
are
)ound to
e$hi"it
tendenci
es )or
al*ali-
a%%re%at
e
reaction.
The
)actors
#romoti
n% the
al*ali-
a%%re%at
e
reaction
arc-
reacti&e
type of
aggrega
te2 high
al'ali
content
in
cement2
a&ailabi
lity of
moisture
and
optimum
tempera
ture
conditio
ns.
$eacti&i
ty of the
Aggreg
ate The
#otentia
l
reacti+it
y o) an
a%%re%at
e can "e determined
"y #etro%ra#hic
e$amination o) dim
roc* sections. I1-
:IL> &.ilrt-B4D-4
y>I descri"es two
method.8 namely the
mortar "ar e$#ansion
lest and die chemical
test )or the
determination o) the
#oteutial reacti+ity
o) the a%%re%ate. The
reacti&ity of
aggregate de#ends
u#on its particle si/e
and porosity as these
in)luence the area
o+er which the-
reaction can ta*e
#lace.
Al'ali Content in
Cement The total
amount is e$#ressed
as Na.? e(ui+alent
&Na&' \ ?.>=L NTC?.
Many s#eci)ications
limit the al*ali
content to less tlian
?->. 1uch a cement is
desi%nated as low-
al'ali cement. The
epansion due 4?
reaction also de#ends
u#on the fineness of
cement"
A&ailability of
#oisture The
#ro%ress o) al*ali-
a%%re%ate reaction
de#end u#on the
a+aila"ility o) nou-
e+a#ora"lc water in
die #aste. The
reaction and hence
the conse(uent
deterioration will "e
more on the sur)ace
and insi%ni)icant in
the interior o) the
mass concrete. The
a##lication o)
waterproofing
agents
to the
1ur)ace
o) die
concrete
can
reduce
deterior
ation
due to
al*ali-
a%%re%at
e
reaction
"y
#re+enti
n%
addition
al
#enetrat
ion o)
water
into
structur
e. The
reaction
is
accelera
ted
under
the
conditio
n o)
alternat
ing
wetting
and
drying.
Temper
ature
Conditi
ons The
o#timu
m
tem#era
mre )or
die
#romoti
on o)
al*ati-
a%%re%at
e
reaction
is in the ran%e o) 4?P
to ;&4 PC.
Al'ali-aggregate
$eaction #echanism
The solu"le al*alies
in the cement
dissol+e in the
mi$in% water turnin%
it into a hi%hly
caustic li(uid which
reacts with the
reacti+e silica
#resent in the
reacti+e a%%re%ates
to )orm hi%hly
e$#ansi+e al'ali-
silica gel alterin% the
"oundaries o)
a%%re%ate. The
e$#ansi+e %rowtii
doe to continuous
su##ly o) water and
correct tem#erature
results )rom
Concrete #a'ing #aterials-0) Aggregate
ril
una
"ate
d
)or
mati
on
o)
silic
a
%el.
2s
the
silic
a %el
is
con)
ined
"y
die
surr
oun
din%
#ast
e the
cont
inuo
us
%ro
wth
o)
silic
a %el
e$er
ts
inter
nal
hyd
raul
ic
pres
sure
%ene
rate
d
thro
u%h
osm
osis
on
rhc
surr
oun
din% set-cement %el to cause pattern
crac'ing with .su"se(uent loss in
stren%th and elasticity #articularly in
tliiuuer sections li*e #a+ements. The
)ormation o) crac*s due to al*ali-
a%%re%ate reaction accelerates other
#rocesses o) deterioration li*e
carlAonation.
Control of Al'ali-aggregate $eaction
The 22R can "e controlled "y-
a+oidin% the use o) reacti+e
a%%re%ateA in case the use o)
sus#icious reacti+e a%%re%ateA cau nnt
"e a+oided due to economic reasons
the #ossi"ility o) 22R can "e reduced
"y the use o) low-al'ali cement with
al*ali content less than ?.> #er cent or
#ossi"ly ?.; #er cent- "y a"sor"in%
the osmotic #ressure de+elo#ed due to
the )ormation o) e$#ansi+e silica-%el
in 22R "y usin% air-entraining
agent2 "y controllin% the continuous
a+aila"ility o) water which is one o)
the "asic re(uirements o) 22R and
"y ensurin% that the optimum
temperature is not a+aila"le.
One o) the e))ecti+e methods o)
controllin% 22R is "y turnin% trie
a%%re%ate innocuous "y distur"in% the
o#timum conditions o) silica "ein% in
#articular #ro#ortion and )ineness "y
addition o) #o!!olanic additi+es such
as crushed stone dust dialuuiaceous
earth sur*hi. )ly ash. etc. The use o)
#o!!olanic additi+e is an e))ecti+e and
#ractical solution o) inhi"itin% 22R.
The e$#ansion due to al'ali-aggregate
reaction can also "e reduced "y addin%
die reacti+e silica in a )inely #owdered
)orm to the concrete mi$. The addition
o) (awreacli&e silica increases me
surface area, increasin% the calcium
hydro$ide-al*ali ratio o) the solution
at the "oundaries o) the a%%re%ate.
Under such circumstances a
nonc$#andin% calcium-al*ali-silicate
#roduct is )ormed. It is %enerally
recommended thul :? % o) reacti+e
silica "e added )or each %ram o) al*ali
in e$cess o) ?.= #er cent o) the mass o)
the cement.
I.E T/@RM29 .RO.@RTI@1
O3 2CCR@C2T@1 The thermal
properti
es o) die
a%%re%at
es a))ect
die
dura"ilit
y and
die other
(ualities
o)
concrete
. The
in+esd%a
tious
re#orted
to date
do not
#resent
a clear-
cut
#icture
o) the
e))ects
that
mi%ht "e
e$#ected
.
T
he
#rin
ci#a
l
ther
mal
#ro#
ertie
s o)
the
a%%r
e%at
e
arc-
&i'
coe)
)icie
nt o)
ther
mal
J
e$#ansion &ii' s#eci)ic heat and &/i'
Uieniial conducti+ity.
The coefficient of thermal
epansion o) the concrete increases
with the coe))icient o) dicrmal
e$#ansion o) a%%re%ate. I) the
coe))icient o) e$#ansion o) coarse
a%%re%ate and o) cement #aste di))ers
too much a lar%e chan%e in
tem#erature may introduce di))erential
mo+ement which may "rea* the bond
"etween the a%%re%ate and die #aste.
I) the coe))icients o) the two materials
di))er "y more than =.; $ 4?58 #er PC
the durability o) concrete su",ected to
)ree!in% and thawin% may "e a))ected.
The coe))icient o) e$#ansion o) the
a%%re%ate de#ends on the #arent roc*.
3or ma,ority o) a%%re%ates the
coe))icient o) thermal e$#ansion lies
"etween
*
-??-. Concrete Technology
a##ro$imately =.; $ Ur1ud 4:.> $ 4?
>
#cr
e
C. 3orhydrated #onland cement ihc
coe))icient +aries "etween 4?.1 $ I)066 and 4>.: $ I?5
>
#er
<
C.
Jhereas ihc linear thermal coe))icient o) e$#ansion o) concrete lies in die ran%e
o) ahotil =.L N 4?58 #er PC 4? 4; Y 4?58 #er 6C de#endin% u#on the ty#e o)
a%%re%ate mi$ #ro#ortions de%ree o) saturation etc. I) can he determined "y
Ber"ec*6s dilatometer. Ui is o"ser+ed that while there is thermal com#ati"ility at
hi%her ran%e there crista thermal incom#ati"ility at the lower ran%e. This Uhernial
incom#ati"ility at lower ran%e causes se+ere stress a))ectin% dura"ility and inte%rity
o) concrete structure. Jhen concrete is su",ected to a hi%h ran%e o) tem#erature
di))erence the ad+erse e))ects "ecome acute. The coe))icient o) thermal e$#ansion
also a)reets the )ire resistance o) the concrete.
The specific heat o) ihc a%%re%ate is a measure o) its heat ca#acity whereas the
tlwmial conducti&ity is the a"ility o) the a%%re%ate to conduct the heat. These
#ro#erties o) the a%%re%ate in)luence the s#eci)ic heat and thermal conducti+ity o)
the concrete and are im#ortant in the case o) mass concrete and where insulation is
re(uired.
I.L 3IN@N@11 MODU9U1 The fineness modulus is a numerical inde$ o)
)ineness %i+in% some idea o) the mean si/e ofil
O
ie panicles #resent in the
entire "ody o) the a%%re%ate. The determination o) ihc )ineness modulus
consists in di+idin% a sam#le o) a%%re%ate inio )ractions o) di))erent si!es "y sie+in%
throu%h a set o) standard test sie+es ta*en in Order. @ach )raction contains #articles
"etween de)inite limits. The limits "ein% the o#etu6n% si!es o) siandanl test sie+es.
The material retained on each sie+e a)ter sie+in% re#resents the )raction o) a%%re%ate
coarser thati ihc sie+e in (uestion "ut )iner ihan the sie+e a"o+e. The sum o) the
cumulati&e percentages retained on the sie+es di+ided "y 4?? %i+e the )ineness
modulus. The sie+es thai are to #c used )or Ihc sie+e analysis o) the a%%re%ate
&coarse )ine or all-,n-a%%re%ate' )or concrete as #er I1- :IL> &.art-tBl`I. arc L?
mm ;? mm. :? mm. 4? mm ;.E= mm :.I> mm 4.4L mm >?? Mm I?? urn and
4=? #m. Tlie )ineness modulus can "e re%arded as a weighted a&erage si/e o) a sie+e
^Kn which material is retained and the sie+es "ein% counted )rom the )inest. 3or
e$am#le a )ineness modulus o) >.? can "e inter#reted to mean that the si$th sie+e
i.e. ;.E= nun is the a+era%e si!e. The +alue o) )ineness modulus is hi%her )or coarser
a%%re%ate. 3or the a%%re%ates commonly used the )ineness modulus af fine
aggregate +aries "etween :.? and I.= )or coarse aggregate it +aries "etween =.=
and L.? md )rom I.= lcK >.= )ar all-in-aggregate.
The o",ect o) )indin% )ineness modulus is to %rade the %i+en a%%re%ate )or ihc
ntosl cc#numicid mi$ )or the re(uired strength and wor'ability with minimum
(uantity o) cement. I) the test a%%re%ate %i+es hi%her )ineness modulus the mi$ will
"e harsh and i) on the od+r hand %i+es a lower )ineness modulus it will #roduce an
uneconomical mi$. 3or wotbibilit&, a coarser a%%re%ate re(uires less
)
Concrete #a'ing #aterials-ll) Aggregate
/+
wat
er-
cem
ent
rati
o.
The
)ine
ness
mod
ulus
is
also
im#
orta
nt
)ar
mea
suri
n%
the
sli%
ht
+ari
atio
ns in
the
a%%r
e%at
e
)ro
m
&"e
sam
e
sour
ce.
M%0^
+.
@ANI
@E@
SIOE
OF
AFFR
EFAT
E
I
n
%ener
al
the
lar%er the maimum si/e of the
aggregate, llie smaller is ihe cement
re(uirement )or a #articular walcr-
cemcnl ratio. This is due to the )act
that the wor*a"ility o) concrete
increases with ihc increase in the
ma$imum si!e o) the a%%re%ate. In a
mass concrete wor* the use o) a lar%er
si!e a%%re%ate is henc)icial due to the
lesser consum#tion o) cement. This
will also reduce the heal of hydration
and corres#ondin% thermal stresses
and shrin'age crac's. Moreo+er due
lo llw smaller sur)ace area o) the
lar%er si!e a%%re%ate the water-
cement ratio can "e decreased which
increases the stren%th. /owe+er in
#ractice the si!e o) a%%re%ate is
limited de#endin% u#on the si!e o)
mi$in% handlin% and #lacin%
e(ui#ment. The ma$imum si!e o)
a%%re%ate also in)luences the
com#ressi+e stren%th o) concrete in
that )or a #articular +olume o)
a%%re%ate the com#ressi+e stren%th
tends to increase with the decrease in
the si!e o) the coarse aggregate. 6Ihis
is due lo ihe )act that smaller si!e
a%%re%ates #ro+ide lar%er sulfate area
)or "ondin% wiih ihe moriar matri$. In
addition the stress concentration in
the mortarBaggregaie interface
increases with the ma$imum si!e o)
the a%%re%ate. Thus )or concrete ++iih
a hi%her waler-cemenl ratio the
nominal 1i!e o) the coarse a%%re%ate
must "e as lar%e as #ossi"le whereas
)or hi%h stren%th concretes a 4? or :?
mm si!e o) a%%re%ate is #re)era"le. In
%eneral )or stren%ths u# to :? M.a
a%%re%ates u# to ;? mm may "e used
and )or stren%ths a"o+e I44 M.a.
a%%re%ates u# to :? mm may "e used.
2ccordin% to I1- ;=> -:??? the
ma$imum nominal si!e o) coarse
a%%re%ate should not "e %reater than
one-)ounh the minimum thic*ness o)
the mem"er and should "e restricted
lu = mm less than the minimum clear
distance "etween the main "ars or D
mm less than the minimum-co+er-to-
rein)orcement distance and = mm less
than the s#acin% "etween the ca"les
strands or sheathin% in case o)
#restr
esscd
concr
ete.
Jithi
n
dtese
limits
the
nomi
nal
ma$i
mum
si!e
o)
coars
e
a%%re
%ates
may
he as
lar%e
as
#ossi
"le.
>2
+.1#
FRAD
INF
AND
SERF
ACE
AREA
OF
AFFR
EFAT
E
T
he
parti
cle
si/e
distr
ibuti
on o)
an
a%%r
e%ate
as
deter
mine
d "y
sie+e
analysis is termed grading of the
aggregate. I) all the #articles o) an
a%%re%ate are o) uni)orm si!e the
com#acted mass will contain mure
&oids, whereas an a%%re%ate
com#risin% #articles o) +arious si!es
will %i+e a mass containin% lesser
+oids. The #article si!e distri"ution o)
a mass o) a%%re%ate should he such
that the smaller #articles )ill the +oids
"etween the lar%er #articles. The
#ro#er %radin% o) an a%%re%ate
#roduces dense concrete and needs
less (uantity of fine aggregate and
cement paste. It is. there)ore essential
that the coarse and )ine a%%re%ates "e
well %raded lo #roduce quality
concrete.
.?. Concrete Technology
The %radin% o) an a%%re%ate i8 e$#ressed in terms o) #ercenta%es "y wei%ht
retained on or #assin% throu%h a series o) sie+es ta*en in order. L? nun. ;&4 mm. :?
mm. 4? mm. ;.E= nun )or coarse a%%re%ate and 4? mm ;.E= mm. :.I> mm 4.41
nun. >?? microns. I?? microns and 4=? microns )or )ine a%%re%ate. The
1ie+es are arran%ed in such an order that the s(uare O#enin%s arc hal) )or each
succeedin% smaller si.
The cur+e showin% the cumulati+e #ercenta%es o) the material #assin% the sie+es
re#resented on the ordinate with me sie+e o#enin%s to the lo%arithmic scale
re#resented On die a"scissa is termed the grading cur&e. The %radin% cur+e
indicates whether the %radin% o) s %i+en sam#le con)orms to thai s#eci)ied or is roo
coarse or too )ine or de)icient in a #articular si!e.
&i' In caw me actual %radin% cur+e is lower than the s#eci)ied %radin% cur+e
the a%%re%ate is coarser and segregation o) m,$ mi%ht ra*e #lace )u' In case the
actual %radin% cur+e lies well a"o+e the s#eci)ied cur+e the a%%re%ate is )iner and
more water will "e re(uired- thus increasin% the (uantity o) cement )or a constant
water-ceinent ratio. There)ore this is uneconomical.
&niK I) the actual %radin% cur+e is stee#er than the s#eci)ied it indicates an
e$ecs8 o) middle-si!e #anicles and leads to harsh mi$. &i+' I) the actual %radin% cur+e
is )latter than the s#eci)ied %radin% cur+e the a%%re%ate will "e de)icient in middle-
si!e #articles.
The grading of the aggregate a))ects die wor'ability which in turn controls the
water and cement re(uirements segregation- and in)luences the placing and
finishing o) concrete. These )actors re#resent toe im#ortant cliaracterislics o) )resh
concrete and a))ect its #ro#erties in the hardened state. The main )actors
%o+ernin% the desired a%%re%ate %radin% are- the surface area of aggregate, die
relati&e &olume occupied by tlw aggregate, die wor'ability of the mi. and the
tendency to yegregalc.
2 num"er o) meUiods ha+e "een #ro#osed 0or arri+in% at an ideal %radin% that would
"e a##lica"le to all a%%re%ates. None o) these has "een uni+ersally success)ul "ecause o)
economic considerations e))eet o) particle shape and teture o) the a%%re%ate and
di))erence8 in cement )rom di))erent sources &tradin% s#eci)ications h,i+e "een
de+elo#ed howe+er which on the a+era%e will #roduce a concrete o) satis)actory
#ro#erties )rom materials a+aila"le in a #articular area. The surface area is a))ected "y
the ma$imum si!e o) a%%re%ates. I) a s#here o) diameter d is ta*en as re#resentati+e o)
the sha#e o) a%%re%ate the ratio o) sur)ace area to the +olume is )i0t). This ratio o)
sur)ace o) the #articles trK their +olume is called specific surface. The sur)ace area will
+ary with the sha#e "ut is in+ersely #ro#ortional to the #article si!e. The smaller )iie
si!e o) a%%re%ate the %reater is the sur)ace area #er unit mass Or unit +olume. The aim
must utere)ore "e to ha+e as lar%e a ma$imum 2%%re%ate si!e as #ossi"le and to %rade
it down in such a way that the +oids in the coarse aggregate arc )illed
=
Concrete #a'ing #ateriah-0) Aggregate O8?.
with the minimum amount o) fine aggregate. This arran%cmenl. howe+er cannot "e
carried too )a? as an a%%re%ate %raded in this wA.iy would "e 4?? harsh and a sli%hi
e$cess o) )ines is necessary to #re+ent i"is. 6/ie %reatest contri"ution to this total
sur)ace area is made "y the smaller si!e a%%re%ate und. there)ore #articular attention
should "e #aid to the #ro#ortion and %radin% o) )ine a%%re%ate. The moitar
consistin% o) )ine a%%re%ate and cement should "e sli%htly in e$cess o) thai ,ust
re(uired to )ill the +oids in the coarse a%%re%aic. Too coarse a )ine a%%re%ate results
in harslmess. bleeding and segregation and loo )ine an a%%re%ate re(uires 4?? lar%e
a water-cement rutin )or ade(uate wor'ability, The surface area o) a%%re%aic also
in)luences the amount o) mi$in% water and cement re(uired. Cenerally the water-
cement ratio is )i$ed )rom stren%th considcra-linns. /owe+er the amount o) cement
#aste should "e su))icient in co+er the sur)ace o) all the #articles )or #ro#er
wor*a"ility and "ond. The &)ryin% shrin'age is less with a 1maller amount O)
mi$in% water and the tem#erature rise due to hydration and. there)ore crac'ing on
su"se(uent coolin% is less with the smaller #ro#ortion o) cement in the mis.
@conomical and uni)orm concrete cannot "e #roduced with #it-run or crushor-run
a%%re%ate and it in necessary lliat the a%%re%ate "e se#arated into its com#onent
si!es so dial it can "e com"ined in the concrete mi$ within the limits o) +ariation
#ermitted "y die s#eci)ications.
Tre grading o) )ine a%%re%ate has a much %reater e))ect on wor*a"ility o)
concrete lhan does the %radin% o) die coarse a%%re%ate. @$#erience has shown dial
usually +ery coarse sand or +ery )ine sand is unsatis)actory )or concrete )ine
%radin% con)ormin% to the s#eci)ications laid "y I1- ILI-4VE? shall "e satis)actory
)or most concretes.
In the case o) graded aggregate. Uic %radin% and die o+erall specific surface
area are related to one another althou%h there can "e many %radin% cur+es
corres#ondin% to same s#eci)ic sur)ace. I) the %radin% e$tends 4? a lar%er ma$imum
#article si!e the o+erall s#eci)ic sur)ace is reduced decreasin% Ihe water
re(uirements hut the relation is not linear 2s discussed earlier the ma$imum si!e o)
the a%%re%ate Uiat can "e used )or a certain ,o" de#ends u#on Ihcsi!e o) die mem"er
and o) the rein)orcement used. 3or rein)orced concrete wor* die a%%re%ate ha+in% a
ma$imum si!e o) :? mm is %enerally considered satis)actory.
The Road Research 9a"oratory o) the De#artment o) 1cienti)ic and Industrial
Research. 9ondon has #re#aied a series n) %radin% cur+es which arc use)ul )or the
desi%n o) concrete nu$.es. The %radin% cur+es )or ihe a%%re%ates o) ma$imum
nominal si!e o) ;? mm. :? mm and 4? mm arc shown in the 3i%s I.: to I.;
res#ecti+ely. These are not ihe ideal or standard cur+es "ut re#resent %radiu%s used
in the road research la"oratory testin%. /i%her die num"er o) %radin% cur+e the
lar%er will "e the #ro#ortion o) )ine #articles. The coarsest grading cur&e No.l is
suita"le )or harsh mi$es i.e. the most economical mi$ ha+in% hi%hest #ermissi"le
aggregate-cement ratio. Ihe finest grading cur&e
I=?um I??Zm >?Ium /)lmm :.I>rrm D.E=mm 4?mm :?mm ;?mm
ISS"4:3PQ4"
F";. ).2 I'''0nw"4n2l47 ;"."7"n;062:4! hi 40 mm n35"n&l 5&R"565 !"Q4
&;;24;&'4
No.; iit suita"le )or lean mies where a hi%h wor*a"ility is re(uired. Tht) chan%e
)rom one e$treme to the other Is #ro%ressi+e. The outer cur+es b and ; re#resent the
limit8 )or the normal Continuous gnulings. The sa+in% in cement a))ected "y usin%
a coarse %radin% can "e considera"le. I) the locally a+aila"le a%%re%ate does not
con)orm to the desired %radin% the )iner and the coarser )ractions o) a%%re%ates can
"e suita"ly com"ined to o"tain the desired %radin%. This can "e achie+ed either "y
analytical calculation.8 or %ra#hically as e$#lained in 1ection 4?.I.; o) Cha#ter 4?.
3-10.1 Gap-graded Aggregate
;ap-grading is de)ined ss a %radin% in which one or more inlermcdia6e-si!e
)ractions arc a"sent. The term ^continuously %raded8 is used to distin%uish the
con+entional %radin% )rom %a#-%radin%. On a %radin% cur+e %u#-%radin% is
re#resented "y a hori!ontal line o+er the ran%e o) the si! omitted. 1ome o) the
im#ortant )eatures o) %a#-%raded a%%re%ate are as )ollows.
?' 3or the %i+en aggregate-Pemeni and water-cemmi ratios the hi%hest
worNa"iliry is o"tained with lower sand content in the case o) %a#-%raded
a%%re%ate rather than when continuously %raded a%%re%ated is used.
&ii& In the more wor*a"le ran%e o) mi$es %a#-%raded a%%re%ates show a
%reater tendency to se%re%ation. /ence %a#-%radin% is recommended
// Concrete Technology
=
Concrete Technology
mainly )or
mi$es o)
relati+ely low
wor*a"ility
that are to "e
com#acted "y
+i"ration.
&ni& Ca#-%raded
a%%re%ate does not
a))ect com#ressi+e
or tmsile stren%ths
&i+' 1#eci)ic sur)ace
area o) %a#-%raded
a%%re%ate is lower
"ecause o) hi%her
#ercenta%e o)
coarse a%%re%ate.
&+K Ca#-%raded
a%%re%ate re(uires
lesser cement and
lower water-cement
ratio &+i' The
dryin% slirin*a%c is
reduced in the
concrete usin% %a#-
%raded
a%%re%ate.
+.1#-2 F2&7"n;
L"5"'!
There is no uni+ersal
ideal %radin% cur+e.
Tile concrete )or
satis)actory
#er)ormance ean "e
o"tained with
+arious %radin%s o)
a%%re%ate. /owe+er
I1- .i1I -4VE&4 has
recommended certain
limits within which
the %radin% must lie
to #roduce
.satis)actory
concrete su",ect to
the )ul)ilment o)
certain desira"le
#ro#erties o)
a%%re%ate such as
shape, surface
teture, type of
aggregate and
amount of fla'y and
IS
elongate
d
material
s. The
%radin%
o)
coarse
a%%re%at
e may
he
+itried
throu%h
wider
limits
than that
)or )ine
a%%re%at
e since
it Does
not
lar%ely
a))ect
the
wor*a"i
lity
uni)ormi
ty and
)inishin
%
(ualities
. The
%radin%
limits
)or
coarse
a%%re%at
e arc
%i+en in
Ta"le
I.I.
It is
di))icult
to
control
the
%radin%
o) )ine
a%%re%at
e. 3or
"i%%er
,o"s it
can "e
e))ected
"y
com"inin% two or
more di))erent *inds
o) sand )rom
di))erent sources.
The sands are
%enerally di+ided
into di))erent !ones
accordin% to the
#ercenta%e #assin%
die I1- ??? micron
sie+e. I1- ILI-4VE?
classi)ies the sand
into )our !ones. 4 U.
Ml and IB so mat die
ran%e o) #ercenta%e
#assin% the O1O?
micron sie+e in each
!one does not
o+erla#. The grading
limits o) )our !ones
arc %i+en in Ta"le
I.;. #rom %radin%
!one I to TK. the )ine
a%%re%ate "ecomes
#ro%ressi+ely )iner
and the ratio o) )ine
to coarse a%%re%ate
should "e
#ro%ressi+ely
reduced a_
su%%ested in Ta"le
I.>.
2 )ine a%%re%ate
is considered a8
"elon%in% to die !one
in which hs
#ercenta%e #assin%
die >?? micron sie+e
)alls and it is allowed
to )all outside die
limits )i$ed )or other
sie+es "y not more
than A total o) = #er
cent. 3or crushed
stone sands the
#ermissi"le limit on
I1- 4=? micron sie+e
is increased "y :?
#er cent. /owe+er
this docs not a))ect
rhe = #er cent
allowance #ermitted
a"o+e as a##lied tn
otlier sie+e si!es.
The
)ollowin
% +alues
o)
)ineness
modulus
may "e
ta*en as
%uidanc
e )or
ma*in%
satis)act
ory
concrete
Type
of
sand
5inen
ess
modul
us
3ine
sand
:.:-
:.>
Mediu
m
sand
:.>-
:.V
Coarse
sand
:.V-
I:
/
Concrete #a'ing #auria.-<<) Aggregate
2ny sand ha+in% )ineness modulus more ihan I.: will not "e suita"le )ur ma*in%
satis)actory concrete.
It has "een noticed thai i) the specific surface of aggregate h *e#t constant wide
di))erence in %radin% does nut a))ect the wor'ability a##recia"ly. /owe+er the
+ariation o) )ine to coarse a%%re%ate ratio to *ee# total sur)ace constant cannot hi
#ushed too )ur and i) a +ery )ine siiud is "ein% used this #rocess ma+ result in the
mi$ "ein% under-sanded with a serious ris* o) segregation, s#ecially
in cases o) lenn mi$es.
In the case o) all-in-aggregale, the necessary ad,ustments may bi mads in the
%radin% "y the addition o) a sin%lc-si:c a%%re%ate without se#aratin% into )ine
and coarse a%%re%ates.
The %radin% limits )or +arious ty#es o) a%%re%ates are %i+en in Tahles I.: to DD.
I.4?.I Crushed 1and
The a+aila"ility o) commonly used natural sand wliich is normnlly rounded and
smooth te$tured is shrin*in% at a )ast rate nod "ecomin% cosily. The concrete
industry is increasin%ly %oin% in )or crushed or manufactured sand. /ow)t+cr.
ordinarily crushed sand is )la*y #oorly %raded rou%hl te$tured and hence
de
7GB"7"7QQ ZS J XN CI.D
Ta"le I.: I ;"ading limits for !ingle !i/e *oarse Aggregate (<!) JRJ-CSTU)
<! liew +ercentage pawing for "ingle si/e dggrrgale ofminiiuil ,iA.c. mm b
dest$nalion B :? VCW CI.D CU
1O mm 7 - - -
;? mm 11SlOO I)lF - -
:D mm ?-:? L=-4?? 4??
l)K una - - N=-4?? N/I
4:.= mm - - L=-4?? 4??
4? mm ?-= 44-:? ?-I? ?-;= L=-4??
;.E= mm - &4-= ?-= ?-4? ? :?
Ta"le I.I A (i(ading >imits for Coarse Aggregate (<!) JRJ-CSTU)
<! sie&e +eeeentoge pawing for guided angreg;ie 7f7U70nial sits, mm
Ta"le I.: D ;t*dirtg.mitsfor!in6le!i/eCoarse$ggregale .!) JRJ-CSTU)
<! sie&e I +ercentage poising for 3ingle si/e aggregate of nominal si/e, mm
designation -to IU CW
E? Concrete Trc(=aolt"gy
Ta"ic I.; ;rading >imits for 5ine Aggregates (<!) JRJ-CSTU)
<! rif&e +ercentage pasting by weight ..................b
designation ;rading
Xone < Xone 0 Xonelll XmelK
b? mni 4?? 4?? 4?? 4??
;.E= ii im V?-4?? V?-4?? V?-4?? V=-4??
:I> nun >?-VI E=-4?? L=-4?? V=-4?? 4
V?-4?? I.I1 mm I?-E? ==-J E=-4??
>?? wn 4=-I; I=-=? >?-EV L?-4??
I?? #n =-:? 1-I? 4:-;? 4=-=?
4=? nm
o-io o-io
O-IO ?-4=
Riic)icKK mo)liilii.6 ;.?-:.E4 IDE-:.I? :.EL-4.E4 :.:=-4.I=
Ta"le I.= b ;rading >imits for All in-flgg(egale (<!) JJJ-CSTU)
<! sie&e designation +ercentage by weight ptaing for all-in-aggregate of
G% mm nominal 3i0 IU nun nominal YiyA
L? mm llZ
i-
;? nun V=-4?? IOC
:? mm ;=-E= V=-4??
L> mm 4?? - -
;? mm VI-4?? 4??
:? mm I&4-E? V=-4?? 4?? 4??
4> mm - - V=-4??
4:.= mm - - V?-4??
4?.? mm 4?-I= :=-== I?-E? ;?-L=
;.E= mm ?-= ?-4? ?-4? O-lO
;.E= mm :=S= I?-=?
fffillm L-I? 4?-I=
4=?0on ?-= ?->
rcsul9s in a harsh concrete mi$ re(uirin% the use o) sii#er#lastici!ers ro im#ro+e the
wor*a"ility. Jith the ad+ent o) modem crushers s#ecially desi%ned )or #roducin%
cu"ical com#arati+ely smooth te$tured and well %raded sand the crushed sand is
)ast re#lacin%6natural sand. New technolo%ies are a+aila"le )or #roducin% coarse and
)ine a%%re%ates o) ihe desired (uality in terms o) sha#e. te1tnre and %radin%. The
dust i.e. the #ortion o) a%%re%ates consistin% o) #articles o) si!e )iner than E= micron
is limited to 4= #er cent in )ine a%%re%ate and I #er cent in coarse a%%re%ate.
Cenerally the manu)actured sands con)orm to the %radin% cones I and ), o) tine
a%%re%ates as %i+en in the Ta"le I.E.
" I e I.> !uggested +roportion of 5ine to Coarse Aggregate Zor Mifferen t !i/e
of Aggregates
Fominal si/e of
graded cfarse
aggregate, nun
1#
2#
=#
5ine aggrtgaif) Coarse aggregate, for rite land of &ine.
Xone <<
4-4.=
m
4-;
Xone
<
4-4
1I1..
4-:
Xone
<<<
4:
4-I
4-I.=
ten* IV 1I+
1I+.
.
Concrete #a'ing #ulfrials-0- Aggregate
E4
Ta"ic
I.E
;rad"m
g>imits
fotCrus
hca!an
ds
<! sie&e a6dr
cone I loot
44
CU mm
lOe 4F?
-1.T! mn
1S
I.44
T@1TI
NC O3
2CCR
@C2T
@1
T
he
im#ortan
t
characte
ristics
their
si%ni)ica
nce and
lest
standard
s o)
a%%re%at
es arc
summari
sed in
the
Ta"ic
I.L.
"6le I.L
!ummar
y o)
2%%re%a
te
.ro#erti
es
9D... 7.A---------.7
r
!iYl0f&,uice
I. .anicle sto#s and
te$ture
2ITct)1 wor*a"ility
o) )itah concrete.
T&
elon%ation test I1-
:IL> ?6an D-4?>I.
:. Resistance to In hi%h stren%th 2%%re%ate im#act
cnNlunn concrete a%%re%ate low
in crushin% +alue
+alue lest I1- :II>
&46art IB'-4V>I.
will not %i+e hi%h siren
.H/i e+en thou%h
cement stren%th is
"i%ncr.
I- 1#eci)ic%n+liy Re(uired in mi$ oe+l%n
calculationsA unit wei%h
ml concrete- yield o)
concrete.
1#eci)ic %ra+ity
I1- c4L> &.art CO'
-4V>I.
Ot. <ul* density
Roddeu "ul" density is
use)ul a8 a chec*
Test )or "ul* i
density I1- :IL> i
&.art UD-4V>I on ihe uni)urniiry o)
a%%re%ate %radin%- loese
"ul* density is udc)ul tn
con+ert masses into "ul*
+olumes on situ or rice
+ersa.
=. 2"sor#tion and 2))ects the mi8 #ro8 Test )or a"sOKnKuon
sur)ace n$wslurt #ortionsA la control
water content to
and sur)ace moisture
I1- :II> &I6an 444'-4
4V>I. 6 maintain wiuer-ccmeiit
4 ratio constant.
Concme Technology
KTadte I.L 4 (Contd.)
Cftirooettet's !"ntfiiance TeN !p(Ktfictlfi%n
>. #c)cic)iuus %tf=mie im#uniic? and Tea o) raiiwriti) .rate on im,iuiiiiss 4
sule&)li8cc coatin% inter)ere wiih .6 I1- :I1> &U5an /I' ha+e "een #iewiihed I
hydration o) cement. U -4V>I. in I1- ILI-4VE?.
E. Cradin% ) AconoOni?es ccmctit I1- :IL> &#an I' Cradin% limits )or
COi/cnl and im#ro+e8 -4V>I. coarse )ine and
wor*a"ility. all H in-a%%re%ate are
&,id down in I1-
I/I-4VE?-
L. C)cciiiical 1i%ni)icant )or sire<%ih <- :IL> &.Sl BII' -
lia"ility niid dura"ility o) all
ty#es o) strwtuic$
s#ecially su",ected ro
-4V>I.
chemical anacl-
V. Rc1iM)lDM &? 1i%ni)icant to oKld Tea )or soundness -
)leerin% and countries where )net I1- :I/> &.at BII'
U)lawin% aclion deteriorate8
cFOCrcrc due to
animate )leerin%
-4V>I.
and i hawin%.
2dmi$tures and
Mineral 2dditi+es
=.4 INTRODUCTION
Admitures are the chemical compounds in concrete other than hydraulic
cement &O.C'. water anil a%%re%ate8 and mineral additi+es that aic added to the
concrete mi$ immediately "e)ore or durin% mi$in% to modi)y one or more o) the
s#eci)ic #ro#erties o) Concrete in the )resh or hardened -slate. The use o) admi$ture
should o))er an im#ro+ement hot economically attaina"le "y ad,ustin% the
#ro#ortions o) water cement and a%%re%ates and should not ad+ersely a))ect the
#er)ormance o) the concrete. 2dmi$tures are no su"stitute )or %ood concretin%
#ractice. 2n 2dmi$ture should "e em#loyed only a)ter an a##ro#riate e+aluation o)
its e))ects on the #er)ormance o) concrete under the conditions in which the
concrete is intended to "e used. It is o)ten necessary to conduct tests under
simulated ,o" conditions in order to o"tain relia"le in)ormation on the #er)ormance
o) concrete containin% admi$tures. 2dmi$tures that contain relati+ely lar%e amounts
o) cllloridc may accelerate corrosion o) #rcstressin% steel- In case o) rein)orced
concrete to minimi!e the chances o) deterioration o) concrete the total chloride
content in the concrete should "e limited as 1#eci)ied in I1 ;=> -:?&M'.
1u#er#lastici!crs are e$#ected to "e chloride )ree.
The admitures haw formulated chemical composition and special chemical
action, and are used to modify certain properties of concrete. They arc used
#rimarily to reduce the cost o) concrete constructionA to modi)y the #er)ormance o)
hardened concreteA to ensure the (uality o) concrete durin% mi$in% trans#ortin%
#lacin% com#actin% and curin%A and to o+ercome certain emer%encies durin%
concretin% o#erations. The properties commonly modified are thai the rate of
hydration or setting limes, wor'ability, dispersion and air-cntrainineni. The
admi$ture is %enerally added in a relati+ely small (uantity. 2 de%ree o) control must
he e$ercised to ensure #ro#er (uantity o) the admi$ture as an e$cess (uantity may
"e detrimental to the #ro#erties o) concrete. Most admi$tures are su##lied in ready-
to-usc li(uid )orm and are added to the concrete
CHA1TER
Concrete Technology
at the mi$in% #lant or at ihc ,o"sitc. Certain admi$tures such an #i%ments
e$#ansi+e a%ents and #um#in% aid8 arc used only in e$tremely small amounts and
are usually "atched hy hand )rom premeasured containers. The e))ecti+eness ui6 an
admi$ture de#end8 on se+eral )actors includin%- ty#e and (uantity o) cement water
content mi$in% time slum# and tem#eratures o) the concrete and air.
The mineral additi&es or supplementary cemeniitious materials, on the other
hand- ha+e no )ormulated chemical com#osition nor do they ha+e s#ecial chemical
action distinct )rom po//olana. These materials do not ha+e any "indin% #ro#erty hy
themsel+es "ut react with calcium hydro$ide li"erated on hydration o) cement to
#roduce cemeniitious com#ound with %ood "indin% #ro#erties. 2s e$#lained in
Cha#ter : these are added in lar%e (uantities to im#ro+e #er)ormance o) the
concrete and reduce the cost o) construction.
..2 FENCTIONS OF AD@INTERES
1onic o) the im#ortant #ur#oses )or which the admi$tures could "e used arc
the )ollowin%.
&i' To accelerate the initial set o) concrete he. to s#eed u# the rate o)
de+elo#ment o) stren%th at early a%es )u' To retard the initial set. i.c. to *ee#
cOiNrete wor*a"le )or a lon%er time
)or #lacement.
&ui' To enhance the wor*a"ility.
&i+' To im#ro+e the #enetration &)lowa"ilily' and #uiu#a"iiity o) concrete &+' To
reduce the se%re%ation in %rout and concrete mi$tures &+i' To increase the
stren%th o) concrete "y reducin% the water content and
"y densi)ication o) concrete &+ii' To increase the dura"ility o) concrete i.e.
its resistance to s#ecial
conditions o) e$#osure &+iii' To decrease the ca#illary )low o) water throu%h
concrete and to increase its im#ermea"ility to li(uids &i$' Toeontrol the al*ali-
a%%re%ate e$#ansion or al*ali-silica reacti+ity &21R'. O$' To inhi"it the corrosion
o) rein)orcement in concrete &$i' To increase the resistance to chemical attac*
&$ii' To reduce the heat o) hydration.
&$iii' To increase the "ond "etween old and new concrete sur)aces-&$l+' To
enhance the "ond o) concrete to the steel rein)orcement &$+' To #roduce non-
s*id wearin% sur)aces &$+i' To #roduce cellular concrete.
&$+ii' To #roduce coloured concrete or mortar )or coloured sur)aces &$+iii' To
decrease the wei%ht o) concrete #er cu"ic meter &$i$' To #roduce concrete o)
)un%icidal %ermicidal and insccticidal #ro#erties.
Admiture and #ineral Additi&es
1I
.
.
+
C
L
A
S
S
I
F
I
C
A
T
I
O
N

O
F
A
D
@
I
N
T
E
R
E
S
T
he
admi
$tur
es
may
"e
"roa
dly
class
i)ied
as
"elo
n%in
% to
the
%ene
ral
cate
%ory and the s#ecialty
cate%ory. 2ccordin% to the
)unctions or characteristic
e))ects #roduced "y them
there are )our distinct classes
o) %eneral cate%ory chemical
admi$tures.
;eneral +urpose Admitures
The commonly used
admi$tures o) this cate%ory
arc-
?' acceleratin% admi$tures
liii retardin% admi$tures
&hi' air-entrainin% admi$tures
&i+' water-reducin% admi$tures
!pecially Category
Admitures The
admi$tures o) tliis
cate%ory arc- &i'
%routin% admi$tures
Oii' air-detairi"i%
admi$tures &iii' %as-
)ormin% admi$tures
&i+' corrosion
inhi"itin% admi$tures
&+' shrin*a%e reducin%
admi$tures
&+i' water or dam#
#roo)in% and
#ermea"ility reducin%
admi$tures &+ii'
"ondin% admi$tures
&+iii' concrete sur)ace
hardenin% admi$tures
&i$' colourin%
admi$tures or #i%ments
&M' )un%icidal
%ermicidal and
insecticidal admi$tures
..+.1 A004l42&'"n;
A75"R'624 32 A004l42&'32
2n admi$ture used to s#eed
u# the initial set o) concrete is
culled an accelerator. These
are added to concrete cither
&a' lu increase tlie rate of
hydration o) hydraulic
cement, and "ertce to
incrpane the rate of
de&elopment of strength, or
&"'
to
short
en
the
setti
ng
linu".
2n
incre
ase
in
the
rate
o)
early
stren
%th
de+el
o#m
ent
may
hel#
in-
&a'
earli
er
remo
+al
o)
)orm
s &"'
redu
ction
o)
re(ui
red
#erio
d o)
curin
%
and
&C'
earli
er
#lace
ment
o)
struc
ture
in
ser+i
ce.
Acce
lerating admitures are also
used when rhc concrete is to
"e #laced at low tem#eratures.
The "ene)its o) reduced time
o) settin% may include- &a'
early )inishin% o) sur)ace &h'
reduction o) #ressure on )orms
or o) #eriod o) time durin%
which the )orms arc su",ected
to hydraulic #ressure- and &c'
more e))ecti+e #lu%%in% o)
lea*s a%ainst hydraulic
#ressure. Jith the a+aila"ility
o) #ower)ul accelerators the
under water concretin% the
"asement water#roo)in%
o#erations the re#air wor* o)
the water)ront structures in the
tidal !ones ha+e "ecome easy.
Jith #ro#er #ro#ortion these
adnii$nircs #artly com#ensate
)or the retardation o) stren%th
de+elo#ment due to low
tetti#eranires in cold weather
concretin%.