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Recruitment & Selection
Recr ui tment and sel ecti on are two of the most i mportant funct i ons of personnel management.
Recr ui tment pr ecedes sel ect i on and hel ps i n sel ect i ng a ri ght candi date.
RECRUITMENT
According to EDWIN FLIPPO, Recruitment is the process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating
them to apply for jobs in the organization.
Need for recrui tment:
The need f or recr ui tment may be due t o t he f ol l owi ng reasons / si tuat i on:
a) Vacanci es due to pr omoti ons, t ransfer, reti rement , termi nat i on, permanent di sabi l i ty, deat h
and l abor t ur nover .
b) Creat i on of new vacanci es due t o t he growth, expansi on and di ver si fi cat i on of busi ness
acti vi ti es of an enter pri se. In addi t i on, new vacanci es ar e possi bl e due t o j ob speci fi cat i on.
Purpose and i mportance of Recrui tment:
1. Determi ne t he pr esent and f ut ur e requi rement s of t he or gani zati on on conj unct i on wi t h
i ts per sonnel -pl anni ng and j ob anal ysi s act i vi ti es.
2. Incr ease t he pool of j ob candi dat es at mi ni mum cost .
3. Hel p i ncrease t he success rate of t he sel ect i on pr ocess by r educi ng t he number of vi si bl y
under qual i fi ed or overqual i f i ed j ob appl i cants.
4. Hel p reduce t he probabi l i t y t hat j ob appl i cant s, once recr ui t ed and sel ect ed, wi l l l eave
the organi zati on onl y after a short per i od of ti me.
5. Meet the organi zati on s l egal and soci al obl i gati ons regardi ng t he composi ti on of i t s wor k
for ce.
6. Begi n i denti f yi ng and prepari ng potenti al j ob appl i cant s who wi l l be appr opr i at e
candi dates.
7. Incr ease organi zati onal and i ndi vi dual ef fecti veness i n t he short ter m and l ong term.
8. Eval uat e t he ef fecti veness of vari ous r ecr ui ti ng techni ques and sour ces f or al l t ypes of
j ob appl i cants.
Recrui tment i s a posi ti ve functi on i n whi ch publ i ci ty i s gi ven to t he j obs avai l abl e i n the
organi zati on and i nterested candi dates are encouraged to submi t appl i cati ons for the purpose
of sel ecti on.
Recrui tment represents the fi rst contact that a company makes wi th potenti al empl oyees. I t i s
through recrui tment that many i ndi vi dual s wi l l come to know a company, and eventual l y
deci ded whether they wi sh to work for i t. A wel l -pl anned and wel l -managed recrui ti ng effort
wi l l resul t i n hi gh qual i ty appl i cants, whereas, a haphazard and pi ecemeal ef forts wi l l resul t i n
medi ocre ones.





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RECRUITMENT PROCESS
Recr ui tment r ef er s to the process of i denti f yi ng and att racti ng j ob seeker s so as to bui l d
a pool of qual i fi ed j ob appl i cants. The process compri ses fi ve i nter rel ated stages, vi z,
1. Pl anni ng.
2. Strategy devel opment .
3. Sear chi ng.
4. Screeni ng.
5. Eval uat i on and contr ol .

STAGE 1: RECRUITMENT PLANNING:
The f i r st stage i n t he recr ui tment process i s pl anni ng. Pl anni ng i nvol ves t he transl ati on of
l i kel y j ob vacanci es and i nfor mati on about the nature of t hese j obs i nt o set of obj ecti ves or
target s that speci f y the (1) Number s and (2) Types of appl i cant s t o be contact ed.
Numbers of contact:
Organi zati on, nearl y al ways, pl an to attract more appl i cant s t han they wi l l hi re. Some of t hose
contact ed wi l l be uni nterested, unqual i fi ed or bot h. Each ti me a recr ui t ment Pr ogr amme i s
cont empl ated, one task i s to est i mat e t he number of appl i cants necessar y t o fi l l al l vacanci es
wi t h t he qual i f i ed peopl e.
Types of contacts:
It i s basi cal l y concer ned wi t h t he t ypes of peopl e t o be i nf or med about j ob openi ng s. The t ype
of peopl e depends on t he tasks and responsi bi l i t i es i nvol ved and t he qual i fi cat i ons and
experi ence expected. These detai l s are avai l abl e through j ob descr i pti on and j ob speci f i cati on.

STAGE 2: STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT:
When i t i s est i mated t hat what types of recr ui t ment and how many are requi red t hen one
has concentrate i n (1). Make or Buy empl oyees. (2). Technol ogi cal sophi sti cati on of recr ui t ment
and sel ecti on devi ces. (3). Geographi cal di stri but i on of l abour markets compri si ng j ob seekers.
(4). Sour ces of recr ui t ment. (5). Sequenci ng the acti vi ti es i n t he r ecr ui tment pr ocess.
Make or Buy :
Organi sat i on must deci de whet her t o hi re l e ski l l ed empl oyees and i nvest on trai ni ng and
educat i on programmes, or t hey can hi re ski l l ed l abour and pr ofes si onal . Essent i al l y, thi s i s the
make or buy deci si on. Organi zat i ons, whi ch hi re ski l l ed and professi onal s shal l have to pay
more for t hese empl oyees.
Technol ogi cal Sophi sti cati on:
The second deci si on i n str ategy devel opment rel ates to the met hods used i n recr ui t ment
and sel ecti on. Thi s deci si on i s mai nl y i nfl uenced by t he avai l abl e technol ogy. The advent of
computers has made i t possi bl e for empl oyer s to scan nati onal and i nt er nati onal appl i cant
qual i fi cat i on. Al t hough i mpersonal , comput ers have gi ven empl oyer s and ob seeker s a wi der
scope of opti ons i n t he i ni t i al screeni ng stage.
Where to l ook:
In or der t o r educe t he cost s, or gani sati ons l ook i n to l abour markets most l i kel y t o of fer
the requi red j ob seekers. General l y, compani es l ook i n t o t he nati o nal mar ket for manageri al
and professi onal empl oyees, regi onal or l ocal mar kets for t echni cal empl oyees and l ocal mar ket s
for t he cl eri cal and bl ue-col l ar empl oyees.
When to l ook:
An ef fecti ve recrui ti ng strat egy must deter mi ne when t o l ook -deci de on the t i mi ngs of events
besi des knowi ng wher e and how t o l ook f or j ob appl i cants .

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STAGE 3: SEARCHNG:
Once a recr ui tment pl an and strategy are wor ked out, t he search pr ocess can begi n.
Sear ch i nvol ves two st eps
A). Sour ce act i vati on and
B). Sel l i ng.
A). SOURCE ACTIVATION:
Typi cal l y, sour ces and sear ch met hods ar e act i vated by t he i ssuance of an empl oyee
requi si t i on. Thi s means that no act ual r ecrui ti ng takes pl ace unt i l l one managers have ver i fi ed
that vacancy does exi st or wi l l exi st.
If t he or gani sati on has pl anned wel l and done a good j ob of devel opi ng i t s sour ces and
sear ch met hods, act i vati on soon resul ts i n a f l ood of appl i cati ons and/or resumes.
The appl i cati on r ecei ved must be screened. Those who pass have to be contact ed and
i nvi ted f or i nter vi ew. Unsuccessf ul appl i cant s must be sent l etter of regret.
B). SELLING:
A second i ssue t o be addressed i n t he sear chi ng process concer ns communi cati ons.
Here, or gani sati on wal ks ti ghtr ope. On one hand, t hey want to do whatever t hey can to attract
desi rabl e appl i cants. On t he ot her hand, t hey must r esi st the t emptat i on of oversel l i ng thei r
vi rt ues.
In sel l i ng t he or gani sati on, bot h t he message and t he medi a deserve attent i on. Message
ref er s to t he empl oyment advert i sement . Wi t h regar ds t o medi a, i t may be stated t hat
ef fect i veness of any r ecr ui ti ng message depends on t he medi a. Medi a ar e several -some have l ow
credi bi l i t y, whi l e others enj oy hi gh credi bi l i ty. Sel ecti on of medi um or medi a needs t o be done
wi t h a l ot of care.

STEP 4: SCREENING:
Screeni ng of appl i cants can be regarded as an i ntegral par t of the recr ui ti ng process,
though many vi ew i t as t he fi r st step i n t he sel ect i on process. Even t he def i ni ti on on
recr ui tment, we quot ed i n t he begi nni ng of t hi s chapt er , excl udes screeni ng f rom i t s scop e.
However , we have i ncl uded screeni ng i n recr ui t ment f or val i d reasons. The sel ecti on process wi l l
begi n af ter t he appl i cati ons have been scr uti ni zed and short -l i st ed. Hi ri ng of pr ofessors i n a
uni ver si ty i s a t ypi cal si t uat i on. Appl i cati on recei ved i n re sponse to adverti sements i s screened
and onl y el i gi bl e appl i cant s are cal l ed f or an i nter vi ew. A sel ect i on commi tt ee compr i si ng t he
Vi ce-chancel l or , Regi st rar and subj ect expert s conduct s i nter vi ew. Here, t he recrui tment process
extends up t o screeni ng t he appl i cati ons. The sel ecti on process commences onl y l ater.
Purpose of screeni ng
The purpose of screeni ng i s t o remove f rom t he r ecr ui tment process, at an earl y stage,
those appl i cants who are vi si bl y unqual i fi ed f or t he j ob. Eff ecti ve screeni ng can save a great
deal of ti me and money. Car e must be exer ci sed, however , t o assur e t hat potent i al l y good
empl oyees ar e not r ej ected wi t hout j usti f i cati on.
In screeni ng, cl ear j ob speci f i cati ons are i nval uabl e. It i s bot h good practi ce and a l egal
necessi ty t hat appl i cant s qual i fi cat i on i s j udged on t he basi s of t hei r knowl edge, ski l l s, abi l i t i es
and i nterest r equi r ed t o do the j ob.
The techni ques used to scr een appl i cant s vary dependi ng on t he candi date sources and
recr ui ti ng met hods used. Inter vi ew and appl i cat i on bl anks may be used to screen wal k-i ns.
Campus recrui ters and agency representat i ves use i nter vi ews and r esumes. Reference checks are
al so usef ul i n screeni ng.


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STAGE 5:
EVALUATION AND CONTROL:
Eval uat i on and contr ol i s necessary as consi derabl e costs ar e i ncur red i n t he recrui tment
process. The costs general l y i ncurred ar e: -
1. Sal ari es f or recr ui t er s.
2. Management and pr of essi onal t i me spent on prepar i ng j ob descr i pti on, j ob speci fi cati ons,
adverti sements, agency l i ai son and so fort h.
3. The cost of adverti sements or other recr ui t ment methods, t hat i s, agency fees.
4. Recr ui tment over heads and admi ni strat i ve expenses.
5. Costs of over ti me and outsour ci ng whi l e t he vacanci es remai n unfi l l ed.
6. Cost of recrui ti ng unsui tabl e candi dates f or the sel ecti on process.

EVALUATION OF RECRUITMENT PROCESS
The recrui tment has t he obj ecti ve of searchi ng f or and obtai ni ng appl i cati ons for j ob seekers
i n suf fi ci ent number and qual i t y. Keepi ng thi s obj ecti ve i n t he mi nd, the eval uati on mi ght
i ncl ude:
1. Return rat e of appl i cat i on sent out.
2. Number of sui tabl e candi dates f or sel ecti on.
3. Retenti on and per f or mance of t he candi dates sel ected.
4. Cost of t he recr ui tment pr ocess
5. Ti me l apsed data
6. Comments on i mage proj ected.

Sources of Recruitment
SOURCES OF MANAGERIAL RECRUITMENT

INTERNAL SOURCES EXTERNAL SOURCES
1) Promotion 1) Campus recruitment
2) Transfers 2) Press advertisement
3) Internal notification 3) Management consultancy service
(Advertisement) private employment exchanges
4) Retirement 4) Deputation of personnel or transfer
from one enterprise to another
5) Recall 5) Management training schemes
6) Former employees 6) Walk-ins, write-ins, talk-ins
7) Miscellaneous external sources



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The sources of recr ui t ment can be broadl y categori zed i nt o i nt er nal and ext er nal sour ces -
(I) Internal Recrui tment Inter nal recr ui t ment seeks appl i cant s f or posi ti ons fr om wi t hi n
the company. The vari ous i nter nal sour ces i ncl ude
Promoti ons and Transfers
Promot i on i s an eff ecti ve means usi ng j ob posti ng and personnel records. Job posti ng
requi res not i f yi ng vacant posi t i ons by post i ng noti ces, ci r cul ati ng publ i cati ons or announci ng
at st af f meeti ngs and i nvi t i ng empl oyees to appl y. Personnel records hel p d i scover empl oyees
who are doi ng j obs bel ow t hei r educati onal qual i f i cati ons or ski l l l evel s. Pr omoti ons has
many advantages l i ke i t i s good publ i c rel at i ons, bui l ds mor al e, encourages competent
i ndi vi dual s who ar e ambi t i ous, i mproves t he pr obabi l i t y of good sel ect i on si nce i nformati on
on t he i ndi vi dual s per formance i s readi l y avai l abl e, i s cheaper t han goi ng outsi de t o recrui t,
those chosen i nt er nal l y ar e fami l i ar wi t h t he organi zat i on t hus reduci ng t he or i entat i on ti me
and ener gy and al so acts as a trai ni ng devi ce for devel opi ng mi ddl e-l evel and top-l evel
manager s. However , promoti ons restri ct t he fi el d of sel ecti on prevent i ng fresh bl ood & i deas
fr om enteri ng the or gani zati on. It al so l eads to i nbreedi ng i n t he organi zat i on. Transfer s are
al so i mpor tant i n pr ovi di ng empl oyees wi th a broad-based vi ew of t he organi zat i on,
necessar y for f ut ure promoti ons.
Empl oyee referral s-
Empl oyees can devel op good pr ospects f or thei r fami l i es and f ri ends by acquai nti ng t hem
wi t h t he advantages of a j ob wi t h t he company, f ur ni shi ng t hem wi th i ntr oduct i on and
encouragi ng t hem t o appl y. Thi s i s a ver y ef fect i ve means as many qual i fi ed peopl e can be
reached at a ver y l ow cost to the company. The ot her advantages ar e t hat t he empl oyees
woul d bri ng onl y t hose referral s t hat they f eel woul d be abl e t o f i t i n t he or gani zati on based
on t hei r own exper i ence. The or gani zati on can be assured of t he r el i abi l i t y and t he char acter
of t he referral s. In t hi s way, t he or gani zati on can al so f ul fi l l soci al obl i gati ons and cr eate
goodwi l l .
Former Empl oyees-
These i ncl ude r eti red empl oyees who are wi l l i ng to wor k on a part -ti me basi s, i ndi vi dual s
who l eft wor k and are wi l l i ng t o come back f or hi gher compensati ons. Even r etrenched
empl oyees ar e taken up once agai n. The advantage here i s t hat t he peopl e are al r eady
known t o the or gani zati on and t here i s no need t o f i nd out t hei r past per f or mance and
character. Al so, t here i s no need of an or i entati on programme for t hem, si nce t hey are
fami l i ar wi t h t he organi zati on.
Dependents of deceased empl oyees-
Usual l y, banks fol l ow thi s pol i cy. If an empl oyee di es, hi s / her spouse or son or daught er i s
recr ui ted i n t hei r pl ace. Thi s i s usual l y an ef fecti ve way to f ul f i l l soci al obl i gati on and create
goodwi l l .
Recal l s: -
When management faces a pr obl em, whi ch can be sol ved onl y by a manager who has
proceeded on l ong l eave, i t may de deci ded to recal l that per sons after the probl em i s
sol ved, hi s l eave may be extended.
Reti rements: -
At t i mes, management may not fi nd sui tabl e candi dates i n pl ace of the one who had ret i red,
after meri t ori ous ser vi ce. Under t he ci r cumstances, management may deci de to cal l r eti red
manager s wi t h new extensi on.




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Internal noti fi cati on (adverti sement): -
Someti mes, management i ssues an i nter nal noti fi cat i on for the benefi t of exi sti ng empl oyees.
Most empl oyees know fr om t hei r own experi ence about t he requi r ement of t he j ob and what
sor t of person t he company i s l ooki ng for. Of ten empl oyees have f ri ends or acquai nt ances
who meet t hese requi r ements. Sui tabl e persons are appoi nted at t he vacant post s.

(II) External Recrui tment Exter nal r ecr ui t ment seeks appl i cant s for posi ti ons fr om sources
outsi de t he company. They have out numbered t he i nter nal methods. The var i ous exter nal
sour ces i ncl ude
Professi onal or Trade Associ ati ons : -
Many associ ati ons pr ovi de pl acement ser vi ce t o i t s members. It consi sts of compi l i ng j ob
seeker s l i sts and pr ovi di ng access t o members duri ng r egi onal or nati onal convent i ons. Al so,
the publ i cati ons of these associ ati ons carr y cl assi f i ed adver t i sements f rom empl oyer s
i nt erested i n recr ui ti ng t hei r members. These are part i cul arl y usef ul for att racti ng hi ghl y
educat ed, exper i enced or ski l l ed personnel . Al so, t he recr ui t er s can zero on i n speci fi c j ob
seeker s, especi al l y f or hard-to-fi l l techni cal posts.
Adverti sements : -
It i s a popul ar method of seeki ng r ecr ui t s, as many recr ui ter s pref er adverti sement s because
of t hei r wi de reach. Want ads descri be the j ob benefi t s, i denti f y t he empl oyer and tel l t hose
i nt erested how t o appl y. Newspaper i s t he most common medi um but f or hi ghl y speci al i zed
recr ui t s, adver ti sements may be pl aced i n pr of essi onal or busi ness j ournal s.
Adverti sement s must cont ai n pr oper i nf or mati on l i ke t he j ob content , wor ki ng condi ti ons,
l ocati on of j ob, compensati on i ncl udi ng fr i nge benefi ts, j ob speci fi cat i ons, gr owt h aspects,
etc. The adverti sement has to sel l t he i dea that the company and j ob ar e perf ect for the
candi date. Recr ui tment adverti sements can al so ser ve as cor porate advert i sements to bui l d
company i mage. It al so cost eff ecti ve.
Empl oyment Exchanges: -
Empl oyment Exchanges have been set up al l over t he count ry i n def erence t o t he pr ovi si on
of t he Empl oyment Exchanges (Compul sor y Not i fi cat i on of Vacanci es) Act, 1959. The Act
appl i es t o al l i ndust ri al establ i shment s havi ng 25 wor ker s or mor e each. The Act r equi r es al l
the i ndustr i al establ i shments t o noti f y t he vacanci es bef ore t hey are f i l l ed. The maj or
f unct i ons of the exchanges are to i ncr ease the pool of possi bl e appl i cant s and t o do the
prel i mi nar y screeni ng. Thus, empl oyment exchanges act as a l i nk between t he empl oyer s and
the pr ospecti ve empl oyees. These of fi ces ar e part i cul ar l y usef ul t o i n r ecr ui t i ng bl ue -col l ar,
whi te col l ar and techni cal wor ker s.
Campus Recrui tments: -
Col l eges, uni versi t i es, resear ch l abor ator i es, sport s fi el ds and i nst i t utes are fer ti l e gr ound
for recr ui t er s, par ti cul arl y the i nsti t ut es. Campus Recr ui t ment i s goi ng gl obal wi t h compani es
l i ke HLL, Ci ti bank, HCL-HP, ANZ Gri ndl ays, L&T, Mot or ol a and Rel i ance l ooki ng f or gl obal
mar ket s. Some compani es recr ui t a gi ven number of candi dates f rom t hese i nst i t utes ever y
year . Campus recrui t ment i s so much sought after t hat each col l ege; uni versi t y depart ment
or i nsti t ute wi l l have a pl acement of fi cer to handl e r ecrui tment func t i ons. However, i t i s
of ten an expensi ve pr ocess, even i f r ecr ui t i ng process pr oduces j ob of fers and acceptances
event ual l y. A maj ori ty l eave t he organi zati on wi t hi n t he f i r st f i ve year s of t hei r empl oyment.
Yet, i t i s a maj or sour ce of recr ui t ment f or prest i gi ous compani es.
Wal k-i ns, Wri te-i ns and Tal k-i ns-
The most common and l east expensi ve appr oach for candi dat es i s di rect appl i cati ons, i n
whi ch j ob seekers submi t unsol i ci ted appl i cati on l etters or resumes. Di rect appl i cat i ons can
al so pr ovi de a pool of potent i al empl oyees t o meet f ut ure needs. Fr om empl oyees vi ewpoi nt ,

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wal k-i ns are preferabl e as they ar e fr ee f rom the hassl es associ ated wi t h other met hods of
recr ui tment. Whi l e di rect appl i cat i ons are parti cul arl y ef fecti ve i n fi l l i ng entr y -l evel and
unski l l ed vacanci es, some organi zat i ons compi l e pool s of potent i al empl oyees fr om di rect
appl i cati ons f or ski l l ed posi ti ons. Wr i te-i ns are those who send wri tten enqui r i es. These
j obseeker s ar e asked to compl ete appl i cat i on f orms f or f ur ther pr oces si ng. Tal k-i ns i nvol ves
the j ob aspi rants meeti ng t he recr ui t er (on an appr opr i ated date) f or detai l ed tal ks. No
appl i cati on i s requi red to be submi tt ed to t he recr ui ter .
Contractors: -
They are used t o recr ui t casual wor ker s. The names of t he wor kers are n ot ent ered i n t he
company records and, to t hi s extent ; di f f i cul ti es experi enced i n mai ntai ni ng permanent
wor kers are avoi ded.
Consul tants: -
They ar e i n the pr ofessi on for recr ui ti ng and sel ecti ng manageri al and execut i ve per sonnel .
They are useful as t hey have nati onwi de contact s and l end pr of essi onal i sm t o t he hi ri ng
process. They al so keep pr ospecti ve empl oyer and empl oyee anonymous. However , t he cost
can be a deterrent factor .
Head Hunters:-
They are usef ul i n speci al i zed and ski l l ed candi dat e wor ki ng i n a parti cul ar company. An
agent i s sent to represent t he recrui ti ng company and of fer i s made t o t he candi date. Thi s i s
a usef ul sour ce when bot h the compani es i nvol ved are i n t he same f i el d, and the empl oyee i s
rel uctant t o take t he of fer si nce he fears, t hat hi s company i s t est i ng hi s l oyal t y.
Radi o, Tel evi si on and Internet: -
Radi o and tel evi si on are used to reach certai n t ypes of j ob appl i cants such as ski l l ed
wor kers. Radi o and tel evi si on are used but spari ngl y, and t hat t oo, by government
depar tment s onl y. Compani es i n t he pri vate sect or are hesi tant t o use t he medi a because of
hi gh costs and al so because t hey fear that such advert i si ng wi l l make t he compani es l ook
desperat e and damage thei r conser vati ve i mage. However, t here i s not hi ng i nher ent l y
desperat e about usi ng radi o and tel evi si on. It depends upon what i s sai d and how i t i s
del i vered. Internet i s becomi ng a popul ar opti on for recr ui t ment t oday. Ther e are speci al i zed
si tes l i ke naukri . com. Al so, websi tes of compani es have a separat e sect i on wher ei n; aspi rants
can submi t t hei r resumes and appl i cati ons. Thi s provi des a wi der reach.
Competi tors:-
Thi s method i s popul arl y known as poachi ng or rai di ng whi ch i nvol ves i denti f yi ng the
ri ght peopl e i n ri val compani es, of feri ng them better terms and l uri ng t hem away. For
i nstance, several executi ves of HMT l eft t o j oi n Ti tan Wat ch Company. There are l egal and
ethi cal i ssues i nvol ved i n rai di ng ri val f i rms for potenti al candi dat es. Fr om the l egal poi nt of
vi ew, an empl oyee i s expect ed to j oi n a new organi zati on onl y af ter obt ai ni ng a no obj ect i on
cer ti fi cate fr om hi s/ her present empl oyer. Vi ol at i ng t hi s requi rement shal l bi nd the
empl oyee t o pay a f ew mont hs sal ar y t o hi s/ her present empl oyer as a puni shment.
However , t here are many ethi cal i ssues attached to i t .
Mergers and Acqui si ti ons: -
When or gani zati ons combi ne, t hey have a pool of empl oyees, out of whom some may not be
necessar y any l onger. As a resul t , t he new organi zati on has, i n ef f ect , a pool of qual i fi ed j ob
appl i cants. As a resul t, new j obs may be created. Bot h new and ol d j obs may be readi l y
staf fed by drawi ng t he best -qual i fi ed appl i cants fr om t hi s empl oyee pool . Thi s method
faci l i tat es t he i mmedi ate i mpl ementati on of an organi zati on s str ate gi c pl an. It enabl es an
organi zat i on t o pursue a busi ness pl an, However , t he need to di spl ace empl oyees and to
i nt egrate a l arge number of t hem rat her qui ckl y i nt o a new or gani zat i on means that the
personnel -pl anni ng and sel ecti on pr ocess becomes cri ti cal more than ever.

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SELECTION
Sel ecti on i s def i ned as t he pr ocess of di f f erenti at i ng between appl i cant s i n order t o i denti f y
(and hi r e) t hose wi t h a greater l i kel i hood of success i n a j ob.
Sel ecti on i s basi cal l y pi cki ng an appl i cant f rom (a pool of appl i cant s) who has t he appropri ate
qual i fi cat i on and competency to do t he j ob.
The di f fer ence between recr ui t ment and sel ecti on:
Recr ui tment i s i denti f yi ng n encouragi ng prospect i ve empl oyees t o appl y f or a j ob.
And
Sel ecti on i s sel ect i ng t he ri ght candi date from t he pool of appl i cants.
SELECTI ON PROCESS
Sel ecti on is along process, commencing from the prelimi nary i nt erview of t he
applicants and endi ng wit h t he cont ract of empl oyment .
The foll owing chart gives an idea about sel ection process: -





































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Envi ronment factor affecti ng sel ecti on: -
Sel ecti on i s i nfl uenced by several fact or s. More promi nent among them are suppl y and demand
of speci fi c ski l l s i n t he l abour market, unempl oyment r ate, l abour - mar ket condi t i ons, l egal and
pol i ti cal consi derat i ons, company s i mage, company s pol i cy, human resour ces pl anni ng and cost
of hi ri ng. The l ast t hr ee consti tute the i nter nal envi ronment and t he remai ni ng f orm t he exter nal
envi ronment of sel ecti on process.

STEP 1: -
PRELIMINARY INTERVIEW
The appl i cant s recei ved f rom j ob seeker s woul d be subj ect t o scr uti ny so as to el i mi nate
unqual i fi ed appl i cant s. Thi s i s usual l y f ol l owed by a prel i mi nar y i nter vi ew t he purpose of whi ch
i s more or l ess t he same as scr ut i ny of appl i cat i on, t hat i s, el i mi nate of unqual i fi ed appl i cants.
Scr uti ny enabl es t he HR speci al i sts t o el i mi nate unqual i fi ed j obseeker s based on t he i nformati on
suppl i ed i n t hei r appl i cati on f or ms. Prel i mi nary i nt er vi ew, on t he ot her hand, hel ps r ej ect mi sfi t s
for reason, whi ch di d not appear i n t he appl i cati on f orms. Besi des, pr el i mi nar y i nter vi ew, often
cal l ed courtesy i nter vi ew , i s a good publ i c r el ati on exer ci se.

STEP 2: -
SELECTION TEST:
Job seeker s who pass the screeni ng and t he prel i mi nar y i nter vi ew are cal l ed for test s. Di f ferent
types of t est s may be admi ni stered, dependi ng on t he j ob and t he company. General l y, t ests are
used to determi ne t he appl i cant s abi l i ty, apti t ude and per sonal i t y.
The fol l owi ng are the type of tests taken:
1). Abi l i ty tests: -
Assi st i n determi ni ng how wel l an i ndi vi dual can per form tasks rel ated to the j ob. An
excel l ent i l l ust rati on of t hi s i s the typi ng test s gi ven t o a prospect i ve empl oyer f or
secretari al j ob. Al so cal l ed as ACHEIVEMENT TESTS . It i s concer ned wi t h what one has
accompl i shed. When appl i cant cl ai ms t o know somet hi ng, an achi evement t est i s taken to
measur e how wel l they know i t. Trade test s are the most common t ype of achi evement test
gi ven. Questi ons have been prepared and tested for such trades as asbest os wor ker , punch -
press operat ors, el ectri ci ans and machi ni sts. There ar e, of cour se, many unstandar di sed
achi evement test s gi ven i n i ndustri es, such as t ypi ng or di ctati on test s for an appl i cant for a
stenographi c posi ti on.
2). Apti tude test: -
Apti tude tests measur e whet her an i ndi vi dual s has t he capaci t y or l at ent abi l i t y to l earn a
gi ven j ob i f gi ven adequat e trai ni ng. The use of apt i t ude t est i s advi sabl e when an appl i cant
has had l i t tl e or no experi ence al ong t he l i ne of t he j ob openi ng. Apti t udes t est s hel p
deter mi ne a person s potent i al t o l earn i n a gi ven area. An exampl e of such t est i s the
general management apti t ude tests (GMAT), whi ch many busi ness student s take pr i or to
gai ni ng admi ssi on t o a graduate busi ness school pr ogramme.
Apti tude test i ndi cates t he abi l i t y or fi t ness of an i ndi vi dual t o engage successf ul l y i n any
number of speci al i zed acti vi ti es. They cover such areas cl er i cal apt i tude, numer i cal apti t ude,
mechani cal apti tude, mot or co-ordi nat i on, f i nger dexteri t y and manual dexteri t y. These tests
hel p t o detect posi t i ve negati ve poi nt s i n a per son s sensor y or i ntel l ect ual abi l i t y. They
focus att enti on on a parti cul ar t ype of tal ent such as l earni ng or reasoni ng i n respect of a
parti cul ar fi el d of wor k.

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Forms of apti tude test:
1. Mental or i ntel l i gence tests:
They measure the overal l i ntel l ect ual abi l i t y of a person and enabl e t o know
whet her t he person has t he mental abi l i t y t o deal wi th certai n probl ems.
2. Mechani cal apti tude tests:
They measure t he abi l i t y of a per son to l ear n a par ti cul ar t ype of mechani c al work.
These test s hel ps t o measur e speci al i zed techni cal knowl edge and pr obl em sol vi ng
abi l i ti es i f t he candi date. They are usef ul i n sel ect i on of mechani cs, mai ntenance wor kers,
etc.
3. Psychomotor or ski l l s tests:
They are t hose, whi ch measure a person s abi l i t y t o do a speci f i c j ob. Such t ests
are conducted i n r espect of semi - ski l l ed and repeti t i ve j obs such as packi ng, testi ng and
i nspect i on, et c.
3). Intel l i gence test:
Thi s test hel ps to eval uat e tr ai t s of i ntel l i gence. Mental abi l i t y, prese nce of mi nd (al ertness),
numeri cal abi l i t y, memor y and such ot her aspects can be measured.
The i ntel l i gence i s pr obabl y t he most wi del y admi ni stered standardi zed test i n i ndust ry. It i s
taken to j udge numer i cal , ski l l s, reasoni ng, memor y and such ot her abi l i ti es.
4). Interest Test:
Thi s i s conducted to f i nd out l i kes and di sl i kes of candi dat es t owards occupati ons, hobbi es, etc.
such tests i ndi cate whi ch occupat i ons are more i n l i ne wi t h a per son s i nterest . Such tests al so
enabl e t he company t o pr ovi de vocati onal gui dance to t he sel ect ed candi dat es and even to t he
exi sti ng empl oyees.
These test s are used t o measure an i ndi vi dual s acti vi t y preferences. These t est s ar e part i cul arl y
usef ul for st udent s consi deri ng many car eer s or empl oyees deci di ng upon caree r changes.
5). Personal i ty Test:
The i mportance of per sonal i t y t o j ob success i s undeni abl e. Often an i ndi vi dual who possesses
the i ntel l i gence, apti t ude and experi ence f or certai n has fai l ed because of i nabi l i t y to get al ong
wi t h and moti vate other peopl e.
It i s conducted t o j udge mat uri t y, soci al or i nterpersonal ski l l s, behavi or under str ess and
strai n, et c. t hi s test i s ver y much essenti al on case of sel ecti on of sal es f or ce, publ i c rel at i on
staf f, et c. where personal i t y pl ays an i mport ant rol e.
Personal i t y tests are si mi l ar to i nterest t ests i n t hat t hey, al so, i nvol ve a ser i ous pr obl em of
obtai ni ng an honest answer .
6). Projecti ve Test:
Thi s test requi res i nt erpr etati on of probl ems or si t uati ons. For exampl e, a photograph or a
pi ct ure can be shown to t he candi dat es and t hey are asked t o gi ve t hei r vi ews, and opi ni ons
about the pi ct ure.
7). General knowl edge Test:
Now days G. K. Test s are very common t o fi nd general awar eness of the candi dat es i n the fi el d
of sports, pol i t i cs, wor l d af fai rs, cur rent af fai rs.


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8). Percepti on Test:
At ti mes per cepti on test s can be conducted to f i nd out bel i ef s, atti t udes, and mental
sharpness. et c.
9). Graphol ogy Test:
It i s desi gned t o anal yze t he handwri t i ng of i ndi vi dual . It has been sai d t hat an i ndi vi dual s
handwri t i ng can suggest t he degree of energy, i nhi bi ti on and spontanei t y, as wel l as di scl ose
the i di osyncrasi es and el ements of bal ance and contr ol . For exampl e, bi g l et ter s and emphasi s
on capi tal l etters i ndi cate a tendency towards domi nati on and competi t i veness. A sl ant to t he
ri ght , moderate pressure and good l egi bi l i t y show l eader shi p potenti al .
10). Pol ygraph Test:
Pol ygraph i s a l i e detect or , whi ch i s desi gned t o ensure accuracy of t he i nfor mati on gi ven i n t he
appl i cati ons. Depart ment store, banks, t reasur y of fi ces and j ewel l ery shops, t hat i s, those hi ghl y
vul nerabl e t o t heft or swi ndl i ng may f i nd pol ygraph t est s usef ul .
11). Medi cal Test:
It reveal s physi cal fi t ness of a candi date. Wi t h t he devel opment of technol ogy, medi cal tests
have become di ver si fi ed. Medi cal ser vi ci ng hel ps measur e and moni t or a candi date s physi cal
resi l i ence upon exposure t o hazardous chemi cal s.

CHOOSING TESTS:
The test must be chosen i n the cri teri a of rel i abi l i t y, val i di t y, obj ecti vi t y and standardi zati on.
They are: -
1. RELIABILITY: -
It refers t o standar di zati on of t he pr ocedure of admi ni ster i ng and scori ng the t est
resul t s. A person who takes tests one day and makes a cert ai n score shoul d be abl e t o take t he
same t est t he next day or t he next week and make more or l ess t he same scor e. An i ndi vi dual s
i nt el l i gence, f or exampl e, i s general l y a stabl e charact eri st i c. So i f we admi ni ster an i nt el l i gence
test , a person who scores 110 i n Mar ch woul d scor e cl ose t o 110 i f t est ed i n Jul y. Test s, whi ch
produce wi de vari at i ons i n resul ts, serve l i ttl e pur pose i n sel ecti on.
2. VALIDITY: -
It i s a test, whi ch hel ps predi ct whether a person wi l l be successful i n a gi ven j ob. A
test t hat has been val i dat ed can be hel pf ul i n di f ferent i ati ng bet ween prospect i ve empl oyees
who wi l l be abl e t o perf or m the j ob wel l and those who wi l l not . Natur al l y, no test wi l l be 100%
accurate i n predi cti ng j ob success. A val i dat ed test i ncreases possi bi l i t y of success.
There are three ways of val i dati ng a test. They are as fol l ows: -
1). Concurrent Val i di ty: - thi s i nvol ves deter mi ni ng t he fact ors t hat are characteri sti cs of
successf ul empl oyees and t hen usi ng these f act or s as t he yardsti cks.
2). Predi cti ve Val i di ty: - i t i nvol ves usi ng a sel ect i on test duri ng the sel ecti on pr ocess and
then i denti f yi ng t he successf ul candi dat es. The characteri sti cs of bot h successful and l ess
successf ul candi dates are t hen i dent i fi ed.
3). Syntheti c Val i di ty: - i t i nvol ves taki ng part s of sever al si mi l ar j obs rat her than one
compl ete j ob to val i date t he sel ecti on test .


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3. OBJECTIVITY: -
When two or more peopl e can i nterpr et t he resul t of t he same test and der i ve the same
concl usi on(s), t he test i s sai d to be obj ect i ve. Ot herwi se, the test eval uat or s subj ect i ve
opi ni ons may render t he test usel ess.
4. STANDARDRIZATION: -
A test that i s st andardi zed i s admi ni stered under standar d condi t i on to a l ar ge group of
person who ar e repr esentat i ves of t he i ndi vi dual s f or whom i t i s i ntended. The purpose of
standar di zati on i s to obtai n norms or standard, so t hat a speci fi c test score can be meani ngf ul
when compared t o ot her score i n the group.

STEP 3: -
INTERVIEW:
The next step i n the sel ecti on pr ocess i s an i nt er vi ew. Int er vi ew i s formal , i n -dept h conversat i on
conduct ed to eval uate the appl i cant s acceptabi l i t y. It i s consi dered to be excel l ent sel ect i on
devi ce. It i s face-t o-face exchange of vi ew, i deas and opi ni on between the candi dates and
i nt er vi ewer s. Basi cal l y, i nt er vi ew i s not hi ng but an oral exami nati on of candi dat es. Inter vi ew
can be adapted t o unski l l ed, ski l l ed, manageri al and pr of essi on empl oyees.
Objecti ves of i ntervi ew: -
Inter vi ew has at l east t hree obj ecti ves and they are a fol l ows: -
1) Hel ps obtai n addi ti onal i nformat i on f rom t he appl i cants
2) Faci l i tates gi vi ng general i nformat i on to t he appl i cant s such as company pol i ci es, j ob,
products manufact ured and the l i ke
3) Hel ps bui l d t he company s i mage among t he appl i cants.
Types of i ntervi ew: -
Inter vi ews can be of di f fer ent t ypes. There i nter vi ews empl oyed by t he compani es.
Fol l owi ng ar e t he vari ous types of i ntervi ew: -
1) Informal Intervi ew:
An i nformal i nter vi ew i s an oral i nter vi ew and may take pl ace anywhere. The empl oyee or
the manager or the personnel manager may ask a few al most i nconsequent i al questi ons l i ke
name, pl ace of bi rt h, names of r el at i ves etc. ei t her i n t hei r respecti ve of f i ces or anywhere
outsi de t he pl ant of company. It i d not pl anned and nobody pr epares for i t . Thi s i s used
wi del y when t he l abour market i s ti ght and when you need wor ker s badl y.
2) Formal Intervi ew:
Formal i nter vi ews may be hel d i n t he empl oyment of f i ce by he empl oyment of fi ce i n a
more f or mal atmosphere, wi t h the hel p of wel l str uct ured questi ons, t he t i me and pl ace of the
i nt er vi ew wi l l be st i pul ated by t he empl oyment of fi ce.
3) Non-di recti ve Intervi ew:
Non-di r ecti ve i nt er vi ew or unst r uctured i ntervi ew i s desi gned t o l et the i nter vi ewee speak hi s
mi nd f reel y. The i nter vi ewer has no formal or di recti ve questi ons, but hi s al l att enti on i s to
the candi dat e. He encourages t he candi dat e to tal k by a l i tt l e proddi ng whenever he i s si l ent
e. g. Mr. Ray, pl ease t el l us about your sel f after your graduat ed f r om hi gh school .
The i dea i s o gi ve the candi date compl ete f reedom to sel l hi msel f , wi t hout the
encumbrances of the i ntervi ewer s questi on. But t he i nter vi ewer must be of hi gher cal i ber and
must gui de and rel ate the i nformat i on gi ven by t he appl i cant t o t he obj ect i ve of t he i nter vi ew.

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4) Depth Intervi ew:
It i s desi gned t o i nt ensel y exami ne the candi date s background and thi nki ng and t o go i nt o
consi derabl e detai l on parti cul ar subj ect s of an i mportant nat ure and of speci al i nterest to t he
candi dates. For exampl e, i f t he candi date says t hat he i s i nt erested i n tenni s, a seri es of
quest i ons may be asked t o test t he dept h of under standi ng and i nterest of the candi date.
These pr obi ng questi ons must be asked wi t h tact and t hr ough exhausti ve anal ysi s; i t i s
possi bl e t o get a good pi ct ur e of t he candi date.
5) Stress Intervi ew:
It i s desi gned to test t he candi date and hi s conduct and behavi or by hi m under condi ti ons
of st ress and st rai n. The i nter vi ewer may start wi t h Mr . Joseph, we do not t hi nk your
qual i fi cat i ons and experi ence are adequate for t hi s posi t i on, and watch t he reacti on of t he
candi dates. A good candi dates wi l l not yi el d, on t he cont rar y he may substanti ate why he i s
qual i fi ed t o handl e the j ob.
Thi s t ype of i nter vi ew i s borr owed fr om t he Mi l i tar y organi sati on and t hi s i s ver y useful t o test
behavi our of i ndi vi dual s when t hey are faced wi t h di sagr eeabl e and tr yi ng si t uati ons.
6) Group Intervi ew:
It i s desi gned t o save busy executi ve s ti me and t o see how the candi dates may be brought
together i n t he empl oyment of f i ce and t hey may be i ntervi ewed.
7) Panel Intervi ew:
A panel or i nter vi ewi ng board or sel ecti on commi ttee may i nter vi ew the candi date, usual l y
i n the case of super vi sor y and manageri al posi ti ons. Thi s t ype of i nter vi ew pool s t he
col l ect i ve j udgment and wi sdom of t he panel i n t he assessment of t he candi date and al so
i n questi oni ng the facul t i es of t he candi dat e.
8) Sequenti al Intervi ew:
The sequent i al i nt er vi ew takes t he one-to-one a st ep f urt her and i nvol ves a seri es of
i nt er vi ew, usual l y ut i l i zi ng t he strength and knowl edgebase of each i nter vi ewer, so t hat
each i nt er vi ewer can ask questi ons i n rel ati on t o hi s or her subj ect area of each candi dat e,
as t he candi date moves fr om room to r oom.
9) Structures Intervi ew:
In a st r uctured i nt er vi ew, t he i nter vi ewer uses preset standardi zed quest i ons, whi ch are
put to al l the i ntervi ewees. Thi s i nter vi ew i s al so cal l ed as Gui ded or Patter ned
i nt er vi ew. It i s usef ul for val i d resul ts, especi al l y when deal i ng wi t h the l ar ge number of
appl i cants.
10) Unstructured Intervi ew:
It i s al so known as Unpat ter ned i nter vi ew, the i nter vi ew i s l argel y unpl anned and the
i nt er vi ewee does most of t he tal ki ng. Ungui ded i ntervi ew i s advantageous i n as much as i t
l eads t o a f ri endl y conver sati on between t he i nter vi ewer and t he i nter vi ewee and i n t he
process, t he l ater r eveal s more of hi s or her desi re and pr obl ems. But the Unpatt er ned
i nt er vi ew l acks uni f ormi t y and worse, thi s appr oach may overl ook key ar eas of t he
appl i cant s ski l l s or backgr ound. It i s useful when the i ntervi ewer tri es t o probe personal
detai l s of the candi dat e i t anal yse why t hey are not r i ght f or t he j ob.
11) Mi xed Intervi ew:
In pr acti ce, t he i ntervi ewer whi l e i nter vi ewi ng t he j ob seekers uses a bl end of str uc t ur ed
and str uct ur ed and unstr uct ured questi ons. Thi s appr oach i s cal l ed t he Mi xed Int er vi ew.
The str uct ur ed questi ons pr ovi de a base of i ntervi ew more convent i onal and permi t great er
i nsi ghts i nto t he uni que di f ferences bet ween appl i cants.


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12) Impromptu Intervi ews:
Thi s i nter vi ew commonl y occur s when empl oyer s are approached di rect l y and tends t o be
ver y i nformal and unstruct ured. Appl i cants shoul d be prepared at al l ti mes for on-t he-spot
i nt er vi ews, especi al l y i n si tuati ons such as a j ob fai r or a col d cal l . It i s an i deal ti me for
empl oyer s to ask t he candi date some basi c quest i ons t o determi ne whet her he/she may be
i nt erested i n f or mal l y i nt er vi ewi ng t he candi date.
13) Di nner Intervi ews:
These i nter vi ews may be str uct ured, i nf ormal , or soci a l l y si tuated, such as i n a restaurant.
Deci de what t o eat qui ckl y, some i nt er vi ewers wi l l ask you to or der fi r st (do not appear
i ndeci si ve). Avoi d potent i al l y messy f oods, such as spaghetti . Be prepar ed for t he
conversat i on to abr upt l y change f rom fr i endl y chat to di rect i nter vi ew quest i ons, however,
do not underesti mate the val ue of casual di scussi on, some empl oyer s pl ace a great val ue
on i t . Be prepared t o swi t ch gears rapi dl y, f r om f un tal k t o busi ness tal k.
14) Tel ephone Intervi ews:
Have a copy of your r esume and any poi nt s you want t o remember to say nearby. If you
are on your home tel ephone, make sur e t hat al l r oommat es or fami l y members are aware
of t he i nt er vi ew (no l oud stereos, bar ki ng dogs et c. ). Speak a bi t sl ower t han usual . It i s
cr uci al t hat you convey your ent husi asm verbal l y, si nce t he i ntervi ewer cannot see your
face. If t here are pauses, do not wor ry; t he i ntervi ewer i s l i kel y j ust taki ng some notes.
15)Second Intervi ews:
Job seeker s ar e i nvi ted back af ter t hey have passed the f i r st i ni t i al i nter vi ew. Mi ddl e or
seni or management general l y conduct s t he second i nter vi ew, together or separat el y.
Appl i cants can expect more i n-dept h quest i ons, and t he empl oyer wi l l be expect i ng a
greater l evel of preparati on on t he part of the candi dat es. Appl i cant s shoul d conti nue to
resear ch t he empl oyer f ol l owi ng t he fi rst i nt er vi ew, and be prepared t o use any
i nf ormati on gai ned thr ough t he pr evi ous i nt ervi ew to t hei r advantage.

STEP 4: -
REFERENCE CHECK: -
Many empl oyer s request names, addresses, and tel ephone number s of references
for the purpose of ver i f yi ng i nf or mati on and perhaps, gai ni ng addi ti onal background i nf ormati on
on an appl i cant. Al t hough l i sted on t he appl i cati on form, r efer ences ar e not usual l y checked
unti l an appl i cant has successf ul l y reached the fourt h stage of a sequenti al sel ecti on process.
When t he l abour mar ket i s ver y t i ght , organi sat i ons someti mes hi r e appl i cants bef ore checki ng
ref erences.
Previ ous empl oyer s, known as publ i c f i gur es, uni ver si t y pr of essors, nei ghbour s o r fr i ends
can act as r ef erences. Previ ous empl oyer s are preferabl e because they ar e al r eady awar e of the
appl i cant s per formance. But , t he probl em wi th t hi s r ef erence i s t he tendency on t he par t of t he
previ ous empl oyers to over -rate t he appl i cant s per for mance j ust t o get ri d of t he per son.
Organi sat i ons nor mal l y seek l etter s of reference or tel ephone refer ences. The l at ter i s
advantageous because of i t s accuracy and l ow cost. The tel ephone reference al so has the
advantage of sol i ci ti ng i mmedi ate, rel ati vel y candi d comments and att i t ude can someti mes be
i nferred fr om hesi tati ons and i nf l ecti ons i n speech.
It may be stated t hat t he i nf or mati on gathered t hr ough r ef erences hardl y i nfl uence
sel ect i on deci si ons. The reasons ar e obvi ous:

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1. The candi date appr oaches onl y t hose persons who woul d speak wel l about hi m or her .
2. Peopl e may wri te favorabl y about t he candi date i n or der t o get r i d of hi m or her .
3. Peopl e may not l i ke t o di vul ge the tr uth about a candi dat e, l est i t mi ght damage or
rui n hi s/her career .

STEP 5: -
SELECTION DECISION: -
Aft er obtai ni ng i nformati on t hr ough t he precedi ng steps, sel ect i on deci si on- t he most cri ti cal of
al l t he st eps- must be made. The ot her stages i n t he sel ecti on process have been used to
nar row t he number of the candi dat es. The f i nal deci si on has t o be made the pool of i ndi vi dual s
who pas the test s, i nt ervi ews and reference checks.
The vi ew of t he l i ne manager wi l l be general l y consi dered i n t he fi nal sel ect i on because i t i s
he/she who i s r esponsi bl e f or t he per for mance of t he new empl oyee. The HR manager pl ays a
cr uci al r ol e i n the fi nal sel ecti on.

STEP 6: -
PHYSICAL EXAMINATION: -
Aft er t he sel ecti on deci si on and bef ore t he j ob of fer i s made, the candi date i s requi red to
undergo a physi cal fi tness test. A j ob of f er i s, ofte n, conti ngent upon t he candi dat e bei ng
decl ared fi t after t he physi cal exami nat i on. The resul ts of the medi cal f i t ness t est are r ecorded
i n a statement and ar e preser ved i n the per sonnel recor ds. There are sever al obj ecti ves behi nd
a physi cal t est . Obvi ousl y, one reason for a physi cal test i s to det ect i f the i ndi vi dual carri es any
i nfect i ous di sease. Secondl y, t he test assi st s i n deter mi ni ng whet her an appl i cant i s physi cal l y
fi t t o per form t he wor k. Thi r dl y, t he physi cal exami nat i on i nformat i on can be use d to determi ne
i f there are cer tai n physi cal capabi l i t i es, whi ch di f ferent i ate successful and l ess successful
empl oyees. Four th, medi cal check-up pr otect s appl i cants wi t h heal th def ects fr om undertaki ng
wor k t hat coul d be detri ment al t o t hem or mi ght ot her wi se endanger t he empl oyer s propert y.
Fi nal l y, such an exami nat i on wi l l pr otect t he empl oyer f rom wor kers compensati on cl ai ms t hat
are not val i d because the i nj uri es or i l l ness were present when t he empl oyee was hi red.

STEP 7: -
JOB OFFER: -
The next st ep i n t he sel ecti on process i s j ob of fer to t hose appl i cant s who have cr ossed al l
the previ ous hur dl es. Job of fer i s made t hr ough a l et ter of appoi nt ed. Such a l et ter general l y
contai ns a date by whi ch the appoi ntee must report on dut y. The appoi nt ee mus t be gi ven
reasonabl e ti me f or r eporti ng. Thos i s par ti cul arl y necessary when he or she i s al r eady i n
empl oyment , i n whi ch case t he appoi ntee i s requi red to obtai n a rel i evi ng cert i fi cate f rom t he
previ ous empl oyer . Agai n, a new j ob may requi re movement t o anot her ci t y, whi ch means
consi derabl e preparati on, and movement of proper ty.
The company may al so want t he i ndi vi dual to del ay t he date of repor ti ng on dut y. If the
new empl oyee s f i r st j ob upon j oi ni ng the company i s t o go on company unti l per haps a wee k
bef or e such tr ai ni ng begi ns. Nat ural l y, t hi s pract i ce cannot be abused, especi al l y i f the
i ndi vi dual i s unempl oyed and does not have suf fi ci ent fi nances.
Decency demands t hat the r ej ected appl i cants be i nf ormed about thei r non-sel ect i on. Thei r
appl i cants may be pr eser ved f or f ut ure use, i f any. It needs no emphasi s that the appl i cati ons of
sel ect ed candi dat es must al so be preser ved for t he future refer ences.

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STEP 8: -
CONTRACT OF EMPLOYMENT: -
Aft er t he j ob of fer has bee mad and candi dates accept t he of fer , cert ai n documents need to be
executed by t he empl oyer and t he candi dat e. One such document i s t he attestati on f orm. Thi s
form contai ns vi tal detai l s about t he candi date, whi ch are aut henti cat ed and att ested by
hi m/her . Attestati on f orm wi l l be a val i d record for t he f ut ure reference.
Ther e i s al so a need f or prepari ng a contract of empl oyment . The basi c i nf or mati on t hat shoul d
be i ncl uded i n a wr i tt en cont ract of empl oyment wi l l var y accor di ng t o t he l evel of the j ob, but
the f ol l owi ng checkl i st set s out t he t ypi cal headi ngs:
1. Job ti t l e
2. Dut i es, i ncl udi ng a parse such as The empl oyee wi l l per f or m such dut i es and wi l l be
responsi bl e t o such a person, as t he company may fr om ti me t o t i me di rect .
3. Date when cont i nuous empl oyment start s and the basi s f or cal cul ati ng ser vi ce.
4. Rate of pay, al l owance, overt i me and shi ft rates, method of payment s.
5. Hour s of wor k i ncl udi ng l unch break and overti me and shi ft arr angements.
6. Hol i day arr angement s:
i . ) Pai d hol i days per year .
i i . ) Cal cul ati on of hol i day pay.
i i i . ) Qual i f yi ng peri od.
i v. ) Accr ual of hol i days and hol i day pay.
v. ) Detai l s of hol i day year .
vi . ) Dates when hol i days can be t aken.
vi i . ) Maxi mum hol i day t hat can be take at any one ti me.
vi i i . ) Carr y over of hol i day ent i tl ement.
i x. ) Publ i c hol i days.
7. Length of not i ce due to and fr om empl oyee.
8. Gr i evances pr ocedure (or refer ence to i t ).
9. Di sci pl i nar y pr ocedure (or any refer ence to i t).
10. Wor k rul es (or any refer ence t o t hem).
11. Ar rangements f or t ermi nat i ng empl oyment.
12. Ar rangements f or uni on membershi p (i f appl i cabl e).
13. Speci al terms rel at i ng to ri ghts t o patent s and desi gns, confi denti al i nformat i on and
rest rai nt s on trade af t er termi nati on of empl oyment .
14. Empl oyer s r i ght to vary ter ms of the cont ract subj ect to pr oper noti fi cat i on bei ng gi ven.
Al ter nati vel y cal l ed empl oyment agreement s or si mpl y bonds, contract s of empl oyment
ser ve many usef ul pur poses. Such contract s seek t o restrai n j ob -hoppers, to protect knowl edge
and i nf or mati on t hat mi ght be vi tal to a company s heal t hy bott om l i ne and t o prevent
competi t or s fr om poachi ng hi ghl y val ued empl oyees.
Gr eat care i s taken to draft t he cont ract f orms. Of ten, ser vi ces of l aw f i r ms (promi nent
fi rms i n t hi s categor y i ncl ude Mul l a, Crai gi e, Bl unt and Car oe, Crawf or d Bai l ey, Amar chand
Mangal das Hi ral al , et c. ) are engag4d to get the f or ms draf ted and fi nal i zed.
Most empl oyers i nsi st on agr eement s bei ng si gned by newl y hi r ed empl oyees. But hi gh
tur nover sect or s such as software, adverti si ng and medi a are more prone t o use cont racts.
The drawback wi t h t he contract s i s t hat i t i s al mos t t o enf or ce t hem. A deter mi ned
empl oyee i s bound to l eave t he or gani sati on, contract or no cont r act . The empl oyee i s prepared
to pay t he penal t y for br eachi ng t he agreement or the new empl oyer wi l l provi de
compensati ons. It i s t he reason that several compani es have scrapped the cont racts al t oget her .

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STEP 9: -
CONCLUDING THE SELECTION PROCESS: -
Cont rar y to popul ar per cepti on, t he sel ecti on process wi l l not end wi t h executi ng the
empl oyment contract . Ther e i s another step amore sensi ti ve one reassur i ng t hose candi dates
who have not sel ected, not because of any seri ous defi ci enci es i n thei r per sonal i t y, but because
thei r profi l e di d not match t he requi rement of t he organi sati on. They must be t ol d t hat t hose
who were sel ected wer e done purel y on r el at i ve meri t .

STEP 10: -
EVALUATION OF SELECTION PROGRAMME: -
The br oad test of t he eff ecti veness of t he sel ecti on process i s t he qual i t y of t he
personnel hi red. An organi sati on must have competent and commi tted personnel . The sel ecti on
process, i f proper l y done, wi l l ensure avai l abi l i ty of such empl oyees. How t o eval uate t he
ef fect i veness of a sel ecti on pr ogramme? A per i odi c audi t i s t he answer . Peopl e who work
i ndependent of HR department must conduct audi t. The tabl e bel ow contai ns an outl i ne that
hi ghl i ghts the areas and questi ons to be covered i n a systemat i c eval uat i on.

Four Approaches to Sel ecti on:
1). Ethnocentri c Sel ecti on:
In t hi s appr oach, st af fi ng deci si ons are made at t he organi zati on s headquarters.
Subsi di ari es have l i mi ted autonomy, and t he empl oyees fr om t he headquarters at home and
abroad fi l l key j obs. Nati onal s fr om t he parent count r y domi nate t he or gani sati ons at home and
abroad.

2). Pol ycentri c Sel ecti on:
In pol ycentri c sel ecti on, each subsi di ar y i s t reated as a di sti nct nati onal enti ty wi t h l ocal
cont rol key fi nanci al t arget s and i nvestment deci si ons. Local ci t i zens manage subsi di ari es, but
the key j obs r emai n wi t h staf f fr om t he parent count r y. Thi s i s the appr oach, whi ch i s l ar gel y
practi ced i n our count ry

3). Regi ocentri c Sel ecti on: -
Here, contr ol wi t hi n t he gr oup and t he movements of staff are managed on a regi onal
basi s, refl ecti ng t he parti cul ar di sposi ti on of busi ness and operat i ons wi t hi n t he gr oup. Regi onal
manager s have greater di screti on i n deci si on. Movement of s taf f i s l ar gel y restr i cted t o speci fi c
geographi cal r egi ons and pr omoti ons to t he j obs cont i nue t o be domi nated by managers f rom
the par ents company.

4). Geocentri c Staffi ng: -
In thi s case, busi ness st rategy i s i ntegrated t horoughl y on gl obal basi s. Sta f f
devel opment and promoti on ar e based on abi l i t y, not nati onal i t y. The br oad and other part s of
the top management str uct ure are t hor oughl y i nter nat i onal i n composi ti on. Needl ess to say,
such or gani sati ons are uncommon.



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PROBLEMS IN EFFECTIVE SELECTION: -
The mai n obj ecti ve of sel ecti on i s t o hi re peopl e havi ng competence and commi tment . Thi s
obj ecti ve s often defeated because of certai n bar ri er s. The i mpedi ments, whi ch check
ef fect i veness of sel ect i on, are percept i on, fai r ness, val i di t y, rel i abi l i t y and pressure.
Percepti on: -
Our i nabi l i t y t o under stand other s accuratel y i s probabl y t he most f undamental bar ri er to
sel ect i ng t he r i ght candi dat e.
Sel ecti on demands an i ndi vi dual or a gr oup of peopl e t o assess and compare the respect i ve
competenci es of ot her s, wi t h t he ai m of choosi ng the ri ght persons for t he j obs. But our
vi ews are hi ghl y personal i zed. We al l per cei ve t he worl d di f ferentl y. Our l i mi ted percept ual
abi l i t y i s obvi ousl y a stumbl i ng bl ock to t he obj ecti ve and rati onal sel ect i on of t he peopl e.
Fai rness: -
Fai rness i n sel ecti on requi res t hat no i ndi vi dual shoul d be di scri mi nated agai nst on the
basi s of rel i gi on, r egi on, race or gender . But t he l ow numbers of women and other l ess
pri vi l eged sect i ons of the soci et y i n mi ddl e and seni or management po si t i ons and open
di scr i mi nati on on the basi s of age i n j ob adver ti sement s and i n t he sel ecti on process woul d
suggest that al l the ef fort s t o mi ni mi ze i nequi t y have not been ef f ect i ve.
Val i di ty: -
Val i di t y, as expl ai ned earl i er , i s a t est that hel ps predi ct j ob per f ormance of an i ncumbent .
A test t hat has been val i dat ed can di f ferenti ate between t he empl oyees who per f orm wel l
and t hose who wi l l not. However , a val i dated test does not predi ct j ob success accurat el y.
It can onl y i ncr ease possi bi l i t y of success .
Rel i abi l i ty: -
A rel i abl e met hod i s one, whi ch wi l l pr oduce consi st ent resul ts when repeated i n si mi l ar
si t uat i ons. Li ke val i dated t est , a rel i abl e test may fai l t o predi ct j ob per formance wi t h
preci si on.
Pressure: -
Pressure i s br ought on the sel ect or s by pol i t i ci ans, bureaucrats, rel ati ves, fr i ends and peers
to sel ect par ti cul ar candi dates. Candi dates sel ect ed because of compul si ons are obvi ousl y
not t he ri ght ones. Appoi nt ments to publ i c sect or s under taki ngs general l y take pl ace under
such pressur es.

Di fference (Recrui tment and Sel ecti on)
1. ) Recr ui tment i s t he process of sear chi ng f or prospect i ve candi dates and moti vat i ng them to
appl y f or j ob i n the or gani sat i on
Whereas, sel ecti on i s a pr ocess of choosi ng most sui tabl e candi dat es out of those, who ar e
i nt erested and al so qual i fi ed f or j ob.
2. ) In t he r ecr ui tment process, vacanci es avai l abl e ar e f i nal i zed, publ i ci t y i s gi ven to them and
appl i cati ons are col l ected fr om i nterested candi dates.
In t he sel ecti on pr ocess, avai l abl e appl i cati ons are scr uti ni zed. Tests, i nt er vi ew and medi cal
exami nati on are conducted i n or der t o sel ect most sui tabl e candi dates.
3. ) In r ecr ui t ment t he purpose i s t o attr act maxi mum number s of sui tabl e and i nt erested
candi dates t hrough appl i cat i ons.
In sel ect i on process t he pur pose i s t hat t he best candi date out of those qual i fi ed and i nterested
i n t he appoi ntment.


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4. ) Recr ui t ment i s pr i or to sel ecti on. It creates pr oper base f or actual sel ect i on.
Sel ecti on i s next t o recr ui tment . It i s out of candi dates avai l abl e/i ntereste d.
5. ) Recr ui tment i s t he posi ti ve f unct i on i n whi ch i nterested candi dat es are encour aged t o
submi t appl i cati on.
Sel ecti on i s a negati ve f uncti on i n whi ch unsui tabl e candi dates ar e el i mi nated and t he best one
i s sel ected.
6. ) Recrui tment i s t he short pr ocess. In recr ui tment publ i ci t y i s gi ven t o vacanci es and
appl i cati ons are col l ected fr om di f ferent sources
Sel ecti on i s a l engt hy process. It i nvol ves scr ut i ny of appl i cati ons, gi vi ng t est s, arrangi ng
i nt er vi ews and medi cal exami nati on.
7. ) In recr ui tment ser vi ces of expert i s not r equi red
Whereas i n sel ecti on, ser vi ces of expert i s r equi red
8. ) Recr ui tment i s not costl y. Expendi t ure i s requi red mai nl y for adver ti si ng the posts.
Sel ecti on i s a costl y acti vi t y, as expendi t ure i s needed f or test i ng candi date s and conduct of
i nt er vi ews.