Workshop to Organize a Pan-American Nanotechnology Network (PNN) as part of the Global Nanotechnology Network (GNN

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September 21, 2009 International Conference on Advanced Materials (ICAM 2009) Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Acknowledgements Executive Summary Background- Introduction to GNN Workshop Goals Program Summary Report Conclusions Next Steps for Implementation

Page 1 Page 2 Page 2 Page 3 Page 4 Page 8 Page 9

Appendix 1: List of Participants Appendix 2: Summary of Group Discussions Appendix 3: Presentations Overview Brazil Mexico Colombia and Andean Countries Argentina Venezuela Chile Uruguay United States

Page 10 Page 13 Page 16 Page 16 Page 18 Page 26 Page 32 Page 38 Page 50 Page 52 Page 55 Page 59

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The organizers wish to thank Professor Guillermo Solorzano, Conference Chair of the International Conference on Advanced Materials (ICAM 2009) and Professor Elisa Saitovich, Program Chair of ICAM 2009, for their gracious assistance and support for this workshop. We would like to thank the presenters for providing an excellent overview of national and regional activities in nanotechnology-related research, education, and networking. Finally, we would like to thank all of the participants for their valuable input in helping to envision and plan a Pan-American Nanotechnology Network. We look forward to your continued leadership and support as we pursue the establishment of the PNN and the further development of the GNN!

Sincerely,

Jesús González Hernández, Director, Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Mexico Coordinator, Pan-American Nanotechnology Network

R.P.H. Chang, Director, Materials Research Institute, Northwestern University, US Coordinator, Global Nanotechnology Network Co-Coordinator, Pan-American Nanotechnology Network

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Workshop to Organize a Pan-American Nanotechnology Network (PNN) was held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil on September 21, 2009. The event was hosted by the International Union of Materials Research Societies’ International Conference on Advanced Materials (IUMRS-ICAM 2009) and co-organized by Dr. Jesús González Hernández, Director of the Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados in Mexico and Prof. R.P.H Chang, Director of the Materials Research Institute at Northwestern University in the United States. The goal of the workshop was to envisage and plan a Pan-American Nanotechnology Network (PNN), as part of the larger Global Nanotechnology Network (GNN), which was launched in 2001. The 1-day workshop program consisted of a) morning talks introducing nanotechnology-related programs and activities in the region; and b) afternoon working sessions designed to plan important aspects of the PNN. The workshop was attended by some 100 persons representing academic, industrial, and governmental organizations from nine (9) Pan-American countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Columbia, Costa Rica, Mexico, United States, Uruguay, and Venezuela and two (2) other countries: China and France. The main finding of the workshop is that a shared Pan-American infrastructure is needed to foster nanotechnology research, education, and technology development in the region. Participants found great disparity in regional capabilities, infrastructure, and investment in nanotechnology and concluded that a Pan-American Nanotechnology Network, jointly funded and operated by Pan-American partners, would greatly enhance regional capabilities, distribute benefits across the region, and facilitate cooperation with global partners. BACKGROUND: INTRODUCTION TO THE GNN The Global Nanotechnology Network (GNN) is a platform for addressing shared global challenges through nanotechnology-related research, education, policy, and cyberinfrastructure development, governed by the principles of shared ownership and universal participation. Three GNN development workshops have been held to date: Cancun, Mexico (2001) - 11 countries represented (Brazil, Canada, China, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, Singapore, Taiwan, and US) Yokohama, Japan (2003) - 15 countries represented (Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Ireland, Japan, Korea, New Zealand, Singapore, Taiwan, UK, US, and Uzbekistan) Saarbrucken, Germany (2005) - 25 countries plus the European Commission (Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, China, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Korea, Luxembourg, Netherlands, New Zealand, Romania, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, UK, and US.) These workshops defined four major project strands: Research, Education, Facilities Sharing and Database/Cyber-infrastructure.

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In November 2008, GNN members met in Washington, DC and agreed to further develop the network. A GNN implementation meeting is planned in Grenoble, France in May 2010. WORKSHOP GOALS This workshop was co-organized by Dr. Jesús González-Hernández, Director of the Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados in Mexico and Prof. R.P.H Chang, Director of the Materials Research Institute at Northwestern University in the United States to envisage and plan a Pan-American Nanotechnology Network (PNN), as part of the larger GNN. The 1-day program consisted of a) morning talks introducing nanotechnology-related programs and activities in the region; and b) afternoon working session designed to plan important aspects of the PNN.

WORKSHOP ATTENDANCE The morning Session was attended by approximately 100 persons representing academic, industrial, and governmental organizations from nine (9) Pan-American countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Columbia, Costa Rica, Mexico, United States, Uruguay, and Venezuela and two (2) countries outside the region: China and France. The afternoon Session was attended by a subset of about 30 participants who volunteered their time to help plan the PNN.

A list of workshop participants and their affiliations is available in Appendix 1 of this report.

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PROGRAM SUMMARY Part 1: Morning Presentations PowerPoint files are available at www.globalnanotechnologynetwork.org and in Appendix 3 of this report. Overview of the Global Nanotechnology Network and Workshop Goals: R.P.H. Chang of Northwestern University and General Secretary of the International Union of Materials Research Societies introduced the GNN and cast a vision for creating a PNN.

Reports on Regional Nanotechnology Activities and Initiatives Report 1: Brazil Jose d´Albuquerque e Castro, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) gave a presentation authored by Mario Baibich of the Brazilian Ministry of Science and Technology discussing the history and infrastructure of the Brazilian Nanotechnology Initiative, launched in 2004.

Report 2: Mexico Jesús González, Director of the Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV) and the Mexican national contact for Nanotechnology gave an overview of Mexico’s considerable investment in research equipment and emphasized the availability of these resources to be shared by the region. Report 3: Colombia and Andean Countries Pedro Prieto, Director of the Centro de Excelencia en Nuevos Materiales (CENM) described activities at his own research center in Colombia and gave an overview of development needs in the Andean countries (including several countries not represented at this workshop such as Bolivia, Ecuador, and Peru), where clear and longterm policies are needed to establish infrastructure and fund research.

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Report 4: Argentina Ernesto Calvo, Director of the Instituto de Química Física de los Materiales, Medio Ambiente y Energía (INQUIMAE) presented an overview of Argentina’s capabilities.

Report 5: Venezuela Gema Gonzalez, Head of the Engineering Department at the Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas (IVIC) introduced Venezelela’s activities in nano research and education.

Report 6: Chile Victor Fuenzalida, of the Laboratorio de Superficies y Nanomateriales, at the Universidad de Chile discussed Chile’s infrastructure and capabilities in nanotechnology research and development.

Report 7: Uruguay Eduardo Méndez of the Universidad de la República-Montevideo gave a presentation co-authored with his colleague, Helena Pardo, outlining Uruguay’s growing investment and activities in nano research.

Report 8: United States Prof. R.P.H. Chang gave an overview of the US National Nanotechnology Initiative, the multi-agency program to support all aspects of nanotechnology, from research and development, to education, technology transfer, and societal impact.

The above-mentioned PowerPoint presentations have been posted http://www.globalnanotechologynetwork.org and appear in Appendix 3 of this report.

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Part 2: Afternoon Working Sessions Everyone who attended the morning session was invited to join the working session in the afternoon. About 30 people accepted the invitation and spent the afternoon discussing key points of PNN development. Four working groups were formed, each with a leader and a scribe. Group 1 • Celso de Melo, Brazil (Leader) • Olivia Graeve, Alfred University, US (Scribe) • Raul Quijada, Universidad de Chile, Chile • Kenneth Gonsalves, Office of Naval Research Global Americas , US/ Chile • Helena Pardo, Universidad de la Republica-Montevideo, Uruguay • Luis Enrique Sansores, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), and Mexican Materials Research Society • Jose D’Albuquerque e Castro, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Group 2 • Ernesto Calvo, INQUIMAE, Argentina (Leader) • Victor Fuenzalida, Universidad de Chile (Scribe) • José Roberto Vega-Baudrit, LANOTEC-POLIUNA, Costa Rica • Jesús González-Hernández, CIMAV, México • Sonia Wolff, Office of Naval Research, US/Chile • Eduardo Méndez, Universidad de la Republica-Montevideo, Uruguay • Haroldo C.B. Paula, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Brasil Group 3 • Gerardo Trapaga, Cinvestav, Mexico (Leader) • Diana Farkas, Virginia Tech and US State Dept. (Jefferson Fellow), US (Scribe) • Regina de Paulo, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Brazil • Luis Fuentes-Cobas, CIMAV, Mexico • Alvaro Saavedra, Petrobras Research Center, Brazil • Gema Gonzalez IVIC Caracas, Venezuela • Kevin Pohl, Air Force Office of Scientific Research, US Group 4 • Pedro Prieto, CENM, Colombia (Leader) • Juan Muñoz Saldaña, CINESTAV, Mexico (Scribe) • Jim Fillerup, AFOSR/SOARD, US • Lelia M. Jimenes, Petrobras Research Center, Brazil • Abel Hurtado Macías, CIMAV, Mexico • R.P.H. (Bob) Chang. Northwestern University, US

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Session Goals • • Identify priority focus area(s) for PNN activity Identify research topical areas such as information/communication, energy and environment, health and safety, etc. Identify leaders, working groups, and existing networks in the region Determine PNN organization structure, programs, joint funding support, etc. events,

• • • • •

Discuss the need for joint actions by respective governments, industries, and private foundations. Identify potential funding sources to support PNN planning and operations. Write a GNN-Rio report to establish PNN and obtain funding support.

Part 3: Group Reporting At the end of the day, group leaders presented their reports, which were gathered for consolidation.

A summary of group discussions and recommendations can be found in Appendix 2 of this report.

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REPORT CONCLUSIONS Nanotechnology plays an essential role in strengthening industry and solving critical challenges in energy, environment, health and public safety. The researchers who attended this workshop unanimously agreed that robust investment in nanoscale science, engineering, education and technology development will help drive sustainable economic development in their respective countries and in the region as a whole. An improved economy in the western hemisphere offers the added benefits of improved health protection and regional security. Presentations describing activities in eight Pan-American countries made clear the large disparity in nanotechnology investment throughout the region. For example, the US spends roughly $1.5B per year, whereas smaller and developing countries spend virtually nothing. Although several countries in the region still lack national programs for nanotechnology, others have already recognized nanotechnology research and education as priority areas. Mexico, for example, has made considerable investments to expand its nanoscale research infrastructure, including nanomanfacturing facilities and a new nanotechnology-focused research park in Monterrey. Argentina and Chile continue to expand their capabilities, and developing countries such as Colombia, Ecuador, Uruguay and Venezuela have begun to increase their support for basic and applied nano research, and the transfer of nanotechnology to industry. An effort is being made in some countries to popularize nanotechnology in elementary schools and at the public level. This shared interest in nanotechnology development, together with the abovementioned disparities, is the main rationale for establishing a Pan-American Nanotechnology Network. A shared regional infrastructure will do much to enhance capabilities, build leadership, and distribute benefits across the region. The following key conclusions emerged from the one-day workshop:

Developed countries need to work with developing countries to help them establish science-and-technology-driven economies. The PNN should be jointly funded and operated by Pan-American partners. Key areas for cooperation include collaborative research and facilities sharing, programs for formal and informal education, regular networking events, and the development of a shared cyberinfrastructure to support these activities. Multi-sector support will be needed to establish a robust and effective PNN. Partners and funding should come from academic institutions, industry, government laboratories and research institutes, regional organizations, government funding agencies, etc. Launching the PNN will require a bottom-up and a top-down approach, with support from citizens, the research community, and the government alike. Once established, the PNN will also serve as a platform for global cooperation, via the larger GNN – Global Nanotechnology Network.

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RECOMMENDATIONS FOR IMPLEMENTATION Pan-American Organizing Committee The workshop has tentatively identified an ad-hoc committee with representatives from countries that were represented to lead the formulation for the establishment of the PNN: Bob Chang (US), Jesús González (Mexico), Ernesto Calvo (Argentina), Jose d´Albuquerque (Brazil), Gema Gonzalez (Venezuela), Eduardo Méndez (Uruguay), Victor Fuenzalida (Chile), Gary Albach (Canada, NanoAlberta). PNN Planning Meeting, Spring 2010 A PNN meeting is tentatively planned for the Spring of 2010 to address various aspects of network development, funding, and operation. Action Items Prior to the Next PNN Meeting 1. Committee members will solicit inputs from nanotechnology leaders in their respective countries. 2. Start developing an interactive PNN website (Chang will lead); and invite PNN members to create online research profiles for the PNN Directory. 3. Identify a host site and request funds for the spring 2010 PNN meeting (Jesus Gonzalez will lead.) 4. Formulate the best route to a workable network (R.P.H. (Bob) Chang and Jesus Gonzalez will lead the formulation.) 5. Formulate approaches to education programs and researcher mobility needs (Dr. Gema Gonzalez from Venezuela will lead the formulation.) This report will be used to apply for funding to support PNN development meetings, travel, and website development, etc. Action Items Following the Next PNN Meeting The PNN will serve as a platform for global cooperation as well as regional cooperation. A GNN workshop will be held in May 2010, following the Sixth International Nanotechnology Conference (INC6) in Grenoble, France. The PNN should identify a delegation to attend this event.

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APPENDIX 1: WORKSHOP ATTENDEES
Country Argentina Argentina Argentina Argentina Name Maria Jose Sanchez Adriana Serquis Ana Gabriela Layva Julio Guimpel Primary Affiliation Centro Atomico Bariloche (CNEA) Centro Atomico Bariloche (CNEA) Centro Atomico Bariloche (CNEA) Centro Atomico Bariloche (CNEA) Instituto de Química Física de los Materiales, Medio Ambiente y Energía (INQUIMAE Universidad Nacional del Comahue Universidad Nacional de Tucumán (UNT) Centro Brasilero de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF) Centro Brasilero de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF) CTA-IAE-AMR Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco (IAE) Institute of Physics, University of Sao Paulo Institute of Chemistry, University of Sao Paulo Petrobras Research Center Petrobras Research Center Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC) Universidade Federal do Parana Universidade Brasilia Universidade Federal do Parana Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC) Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC) Institute of Physics, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Southern Office of Aerospace Research and Development (AFOSR/SOARD) CEDENNA/USACH Nanobiotechnology Network INCT-Nano Universidad de Buenos Aires Secondary Affiliation Instituto Babeiro

Argentina Argentina Argentina Brazil Brazil

Ernesto J. Calvo Susana Ramos Silvia Perez Celso Pinto de Melo Carlos Alberto Ospina

Brazil Brazil Brazil Brazil Brazil Brazil Brazil Brazil Brazil Brazil Brazil Brazil Brazil Brazil

Elisa Saitovich Francisco Piorino Daniel S. Almeida Antonio Domingues dos Santos Denise F.S. Petri Alvaro Saavedra Lelia Lowe Jimenes Judith PA Feitosa Jessica D. Bazzi Zulmira Guerrero Marquez Lacava Ana Sofia d'Oliveiro Haroldo C.B. Paula Regina C.M. de Paula Jose D'Albuquerque e Castro

Chile Chile

James Fillerup Juan Escrig

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Country

Name

Chile Chile Chile Chile Chile Chile Chile Chile Chile China

Fernando Lund Edward Johnson Kenneth E. Gonsalves Sonia Wolfe Walter Orelloma Raul Quijada Rodrigo Palma Victor Fuenzalida Vladimir Lavayen Yafang Han

Primary Affiliation Centro para la Investigación Interdisciplinaria Avanzada en Ciencias de los Materiales (CIMAT) U.S. Army International Technology Center for the Americas (ITC-Americas) Office of Naval Research Global (ONRG) Americas Office of Naval Research Global (ONRG) Americas Universidad Andres Bello Universidad de Chile Universidad de Chile Universidad de Chile Universidad Federico Santa Maria Chinese Materials Research Society (CMRS) University of Science and Technology Beijing Centro de Excelencia en Nuevos Materiales (CENM) EIA-UdeA Universidad Autonoma de Occidente

Secondary Affiliation

Universidad de Chile

China

Qiang Feng

Chinese Materials Research Society (CMRS)

Colombia Colombia Colombia

Pedro Prieto Ricardo Leon Resnepoa Nelly Cecilia Alba de Sancho

Costa Rica Costa Rica

José Roberto VegaBaudrit Ximena Matamao

Centro Nacional de Alta Tecnologia Laboratorio Nanotecnología (LANOTEC) UNAC Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV)

Laboratorio de Investigación y Tecnología de Polímeros (POLIUNA) European Materials Research Society (EMRS)

France México

Abdelilah Slaoui Abel Hurtado Macias

México México México México México México

Jesús GonzálezHernández Luis Fuentes Cobas David Torres Torres Gerardo Trapaga Juan Munoz Saldana Luis Enrique Sansores

Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV) Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV) CINESTAV CINESTAV CINESTAV Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM)

Mexican National Contact for Nanotechnology, Coordinator, PNN

MRS-Mexico

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Country Uruguay Uruguay US US US US US US US Venezuela Venezuela

Name Eduardo Méndez Helena Pardo Kevin Pohl Olivia Graeve Elton Kaufmann Jennifer Shanahan R.P.H. Chang Dan Finotello Diana Farkas Gema Gonzalez Juan Matos

Primary Affiliation Universidad de la Republica-Montevideo Universidad de la Republica-Montevideo Air Force Office of Scientific Research Alfred University Argonne National Laboratory Northwestern University Northwestern University National Science Foundation Virginia Technical Institute Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas (IVIC) Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas (IVIC)

Secondary Affiliation

Coordinator, GNN Co-coordinator, PNN Jefferson Fellow at US State Department

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APPENDIX 2: SUMMARY OF GROUP DISCUSSIONS The working groups were asked to a) assess regional needs with respect to collaborative research, sharing of facilities, education, cyberinfrastructure development, and policy, and b) establish priorities for PNN development based on these needs. The following discussion items and recommendations have been consolidated from their group reports. A) Status and Priorities for Collaborative Research • • Priority: Establish Multinational programs to build up collaborations identifying focused common interests. Priority Topical Areas (partial list) a. Energy b. Agriculture c. Environment / Water Quality d. Health / Pharmacology e. Animal Health / Veterinary Medicine f. Recycling of Products g. Drug Delivery Priority Technical Areas (partial list) a. Nanomaterials; Nanometrology (New center in Brazil) b. Bioapplications/ biomaterials. c. Multi-functional materials d. Structural materials, functional materials and devices (Petrobras, Brazil) e. Coatings, Mechanical properties, corrosion, environment (Petrobras, Brazil) f. Coatings for a broad range of temperatures and functions. (Cinvestav, Mexico) g. Characterization at the nanoscale. Years of experience on contact mechanics capabilities (AFM, and nanoindentation) (Cinvestav, Mexico) h. Hard coatings, magnetic materials, sensors (Colombia) i. Nanoelectronics, Compact power, fuel cells, Propulsion, multifunctional materials (AFOSR, US) Existing Nano Networks in the Region (partial list) a. Regina, NanoUNAM, and Red Nanociencias y Nanotecnología, México b. National Nanotechnology Initiative, USA c. Centro Interdisciplinario en Nanotecnología, Química de Materiales y Física, Uruguay d. Grantees of the Materials World Network / CIAM programs e. Redes de Nanotecnología de Brazil con Chile, México, y Argentina The role of industry should be emphasized; Strong in Brazil (Petrobras for example) but very weak in many other countries. Find a way to bridge the academia-industry gap. Create a better balance between experiment and theory.

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Status and Priorities for Facilities Sharing • Access to advanced facilities (ex: the latest generation of electron microscopes) is difficult in many countries. Facilities exchange and information about regional facilities is essential. Increase awareness of existing facilities and make sure that all laboratories in the region are aware that collaborations among different countries are welcome. For example, the national “nano” laboratories in Brazil are open for all scientists in Latin America, and many Mexican facilities are also open to regional users. Perform an inventory of available major facilities and access conditions. Establish multinational programs to share facilities.

• •

Status and Priorities for Education and Training • • Increase collaborative activities with common educational programs. Encourage and fund exchanges of students and postdocs among different countries in the region. Examples: CAPES/FIPSE program and REU for undergraduate; establish a PNN program for exchange and mobility of graduate students, with research visits 3-6 months and defined working plan. Organize special schools (like PASI or Global School for Advanced Studies) for young investigators (particularly students, but also beginning professors) on a range of nano-related topics. Provide training for postdocs in project planning and proposal writing to increase their chances of obtaining funding for their work (Global School for Advanced Studies.) Find a way to bridge the academia-industry gap Establish Nano program for high school students and training for high school teachers: High school modules (kits and books) (Materials World Modules) are available in English and Spanish and may be translated to Portuguese. Launch programs to educate the population, politicians, and industry (ex: museums); Bring nanotechnology research to elementary school classrooms and to the general population in simple language.

• •

Priorities for Cyberinfrastructure Development • • • • Cyberinfrastructure should focus on people finding people; construct a database of people from all countries involved in fields of nanotechnology. Post research highlights and information about regional events, courses, training opportunities, etc. Post information about regional facilities and how to access them; Remote instrumentation Post information about funding for joint projects. 14

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Potential events and joint programs to launch the PNN Organize another workshop similar to this one, but longer. Educational programs such as Research visits for graduate students; special schools on nano-related topics; and proposal writing workshops, etc. Outreach at Regional Events: Examples include: Nanotech conferences in Mexico (Dr. Elder de la Rosa); Latin American Workshop on Magnetism and Magnetic Materials; TAM / Dr. Marcela Beltrán / Summer 2010 / Mexico; Nanoclusters / Dr. Ignacio Garzon / Summer 2010 / Mexico; E-nano in Venezuela November 2009 (Choroni National Park)

Public Policy Needs / Actions by Government • • • Public policy work is essential Establish Nanotechnology as a priority area for national R&D investment. Many countries have already done this, but others have yet to do so. Recognize the importance of basic nanoscience research and nanotechnology development for solving national and global challenges such as health, energy, environment, security, and economic development.

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