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Applied Soft Computing

j our nal homepage: www. el sevi er . com/ l ocat e/ asoc

Chemical reaction optimization with greedy strategy for the 01

knapsack problem

Tung Khac Truong

a,b

, Kenli Li

a,

, Yuming Xu

a

a

College of Information Science and Engineering, Hunan University, National Supercomputing Center in Changsha, 410082, China

b

Faculty of Information Technology, Industrial university of Hochiminh city, Hochiminh, Vietnam

a r t i c l e i n f o

Article history:

Received 28 March 2012

Received in revised form

27 November 2012

Accepted 29 November 2012

Available online 11 January 2013

Keywords:

Chemical reaction optimization

Greedy

01 Knapsack problem

a b s t r a c t

The 01 knapsack problem (KP01) is a well-known combinatorial optimization problem. It is an NP-hard

problem which plays important roles in computing theory and in many real life applications. Chemi-

cal reaction optimization (CRO) is a new optimization framework, inspired by the nature of chemical

reactions. CRO has demonstrated excellent performance in solving many engineering problems such as

the quadratic assignment problem, neural network training, multimodal continuous problems, etc. This

paper proposes a new chemical reaction optimization with greedy strategy algorithm (CROG) to solve

KP01. The paper also explains the operator design and parameter turning methods for CROG. Anew repair

function integrating a greedy strategy and random selection is used to repair the infeasible solutions. The

experimental results have proven the superior performance of CROG compared to genetic algorithm (GA),

ant colony optimization (ACO) and quantum-inspired evolutionary algorithm (QEA).

2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

1. Introduction

The 01 knapsack problem (KP01) is known to be a combina-

torial optimization problem. The knapsack problem has a variety

of practical applications such as cutting stock problems, portfolio

optimization, scheduling problems [20] and cryptography [1,9,3].

The knapsack appears as a sub-problem in many complex mathe-

matical models of real world problems. In a given set of n items,

each of themhas a weight q

i

and a prot p

i

. The problemis to select

a subset fromthe set of n items such that the overall prot is maxi-

mizedwithout exceedinga givenweight capacityC. It is anNP-Hard

problem and hence it does not have a polynomial time algorithm

unless P=NP [2]. The problemmay be mathematically modelled as

follows:

Maximize

n

i=1

x

i

p

i

(1)

Subject to

n

i=1

x

i

q

i

C, x

i

{0, 1}, i {1, 2, . . . , n}

where x

i

takes values either 1 or 0 which represents the selection

or rejection of the ith item.

Corresponding author.

E-mail address: LKL510@263.net (K. Li).

Over the last four decades, researchers have proposed many

approaches to solve KP01. We can classify the methods for this

problem into two classes namely, exact algorithms and approxi-

mate algorithms.

Exact approaches include dynamic programming proposed by

Bellman [20] and Branch and Bound proposed by Kolesar [8].

Recently, researchers, such as Kellerer et al. [7] have worked on

ways to exactly solve ever larger instances of the knapsack prob-

lem. Many of these involve solving some core of the problemand

then building this partial solution to a full solution. A parallel algo-

rithmbased on an EREW-SIMD machine with shared memory was

proposed by Li et al. [16].

Among the early heuristic approaches, a polynomial approx-

imation schemes was rst developed for the knapsack problem

by Sahni [22]. Such schemes may be thought of as solution meth-

ods in which one may specify a desired guarantee for the quality

of solution in advance of solving. As to be expected, the work

to solve increases quickly with the quality required. Immediately

afterwards, this was improved by Ibarra and Kim[6] to a fully poly-

nomial approximation scheme which makes the trade-off between

quality of solution and effort slightly more favorable. Specialized

solution techniques to solve the knapsack problemand its variants

were provided by Martello and Toth [20].

In recent years, many heuristic algorithms have been employed

to solve KP01 problems: Chou-Yuan [15] proposed an ant colony

optimization (ACO) for KP01; Shi [24] modied the parameters of

the ant colony optimization model to adapt itself to KP01 prob-

lems; Li [17] proposed a binary particle swarmoptimization based

1568-4946/$ see front matter 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asoc.2012.11.048

T.K. Truong et al. / Applied Soft Computing 13 (2013) 17741780 1775

on multi-mutation strategy (MMBPSO) to solve the knapsack prob-

lem; Han and Kim [4] proposed a quantum-inspired evolutionary

algorithm (QEA) for KP01; Liu and Liu [19] proposed a schema-

guiding evolutionary algorithm(SGEA) to solve KP01 problems and

Zou et al. [31] invented global harmony search algorithm to solve

KP01.

For the SGEA, there exists several improvements: Rattan [30]

proposed a genetic algorithm (GA) for KP01; Shen et al. [23]

improved GA with a dual population for KP01; Liu and Liu [19]

proposed a schema-modied operator to adjust the distribution

of the population; Liu and Liu constructed an elite-schema space

and utilizes the cluster-center schema to guide the direction of an

individuals evolution. Lin [18] used genetic algorithmto solve the

knapsack problemwith imprecise weights, and he investigated the

possibility of using genetic algorithms in solving the fuzzy knap-

sack problem without dening membership functions for each

imprecise weight coefcient. The approach proposed by Lin sim-

ulates a fuzzy number by distributing it into some partition points.

Lin used genetic algorithms to evolve the values in each partition

point so that the nal values represent the membership grade of a

fuzzy number. The MMBPSO can effectively escapes fromthe local

optima to avoid premature convergence due to the utilization of

multi-mutationstrategy. Althoughmany KP01problems have been

resolved, there are still a variety of real world problems that need

to be addressed. Many algorithms provide possible solutions for

some KP01 problems, but they may lose their efciency on solv-

ing these problems due to their own disadvantages. For example,

some methods proposed recently can only solve KP01 problems

with very low dimensions, but they may be unavailable to solve

KP01 problems with high dimensions.

Given the above consideration, we designed an algorithmbased

on the chemical reaction optimization (CRO) framework and a

greedy strategy to solve KP01. The CROhas a good searching ability

that shows excellent operation in two important features of opti-

mization metaheuristics: intensication and diversication. It also

enjoys the advantages of GAby using crossover operator and muta-

tionthat are usually usedinGA. The greedy strategy inthis research

is used in one phase of repair function, but in another phase a ran-

domly method was used in [4]. The repair function mentioned in

the paper adopts two advantages, the rst is to make the algorithm

have fast convergence by using a greedy strategy and the second

is to guarantee diversication by randomsearch. The experimental

results demonstrate it is superior to GA, ACO and QEA.

The rest of this paper is organized in sections: Section 2 briey

gives the original framework of CRO, ACO, GA and QEA. Section

3 explains the modication of the original CRO to adapt it to the

01 knapsack problem and the repair function is described. We

survey the behavior of chemical reaction optimization with greedy

strategy (CROG) and compare the simulated results of CROG with

GA, ACO and QEA in Section 4. We conclude this paper and suggest

potential future work in Section 5.

2. Related works

2.1. Chemical reaction optimization

CRO [10] is a metaheristic inspired by the chemical reaction

process. In CRO, one molecule (M) that has potential energy (PE),

kinetic energy (KE), hits number, and other characteristics rep-

resents a potential solution. It simulates four types of chemical

reactions including on-wall ineffective collision, decomposition,

inter-molecular ineffective collision and synthesis. In the chemi-

cal reaction process, the PE orientates towards to the minimum

at the balanced state. In the reaction process, the potential energy

goes towards the minimal state, similar to objective function in

optimizationproblems. PEis usuallyusedas the tness of the objec-

tive function.

The CRO, by outperforming many existing evolutionary algo-

rithms, it has successfully solved many problems in recent years.

CRO has been successfully applied to the quadratic assignment

problem [10], resource-constrained project scheduling problem

[10], channel assignment problemin wireless mesh networks [12],

population transition problemin peer-to-peer streaming [14], cog-

nitive radio spectrum allocation problem [11], grid scheduling

problem [26,27], standard continuous benchmark function [13],

stock portfolio selection problem [28], articial neural network

training [29], network coding optimization [21], and to many other

problems. The CROs owchart is shown in Fig. 1. The pseudocode

of CRO is described in Algorithm1.

Algorithm1 (CRO algorithm).

Input: Problem-specic information (the objective function f, constraints, and the

dimensions of the problem)

Assign parameter values to PopSize, KELossRate, MoleColl and InitialKE

Let Pop be the set of molecules {1, 2, . . ., PopSize}

foreach of the molecules do

Assign a randomsolution to the molecular structure

Calculate the PE by f()

Assign the KE with InitialKE

end for

Let the central energy buffer be buffer and assign buffer =0

while the stopping criteria not met do

Get t randomly in interval [0, 1]

if t >MoleColl then

Select a molecule MfromPop randomly

if decomposition criterion met then

(M

1

, M

2

, Success)=decompose(M, buffer)

if Success then

Remove MfromPop

Add M

1

and M

2

to Pop

end if

else

ineff-coll-on-wall(M, buffer)

end if

else

Select molecules M

1

and M

2

fromPop randomly

if synthesis criterion met then

(M

, Success)=synthesis(M

1

, M

2

)

if Success then

Remove M

1

and M

2

fromPop

Add M

to Pop

end if

else

inter-ineff-coll(M

1

, M

2

)

end if

end if

Check for any newminimumsolution

end while

Output: The overall minimumsolution and its function value

2.2. Quantum-inspired evolutionary algorithm

Quantum-inspired evolutionary algorithm [4] is based on the

concept and principles of quantum computing such as a quantum

bit and superposition of states. Like other evolutionary algorithms,

QEA is also characterized by the representation of the individual,

the evaluation function and the population dynamics. However,

instead of binary, numeric, or symbolic representation, QEA uses

a Q-bit, dened as the smallest unit of information for the proba-

bilistic representation and a Q-bit individual as a string of Q-bits.

2.3. Ant colony algorithm(ACO)

Ant colony optimization uses the natural metaphor of ants and

stigmergy to solve problems. Althoughants are blind, they navigate

complex environments and can nd food some distance fromtheir

nest and return to their nest successfully. They do this by laying

1776 T.K. Truong et al. / Applied Soft Computing 13 (2013) 17741780

Fig. 1. CROs owchart [10].

pheromones while they navigate their environment. This process,

knownas stigmergy, modies their environment topermit commu-

nication between the ants and the colony as well as memory for the

return trip to the nest. Evaporation of pheromones helps the ants

to not get stuck at local optima. We can obtain the best solution by

checking the route with the greatest amount of pheromone.

2.4. Genetic algorithm

Holland [5] created GAs based on the idea of natural selection,

whereby the chromosomes with a favorable tness have higher

probability to survive and the chromosomes with worse tness

have a higher probability to disappear. The GA replies on three

basic operators: mutation, crossover and selection. Through selec-

tion, and crossover, those chromosomes which are favored by the

objective functions, which satisfy the constraints, can survive and

reproduce the next generation of chromosomes with potentially

higher quality. Mutation additionally helps the algorithmto escape

from local optima. GA is one of the most popular evolutionary

algorithms with a huge number of applications in varying elds

of optimization.

3. Design CROG for KP01

CRO includes three phases: initial phase, iteration phase and

nal phase. The initial phase generates the initial population,

assigning initial values for parameters KElossRate, InitialKE, Pop-

Size, MoleColl and buffer. The iteration phase simulates the reaction

process. In this phase, there are four types of elementary reac-

tions occurring. According to the condition, uni-molecular or

inter-molecular collision will happen. In a uni-molecular reac-

tion, one molecule is selected, and two are designated to be

the inter-molecular ones. For the uni-molecular there are two

types of reactions, on-wall ineffective collision and decomposition.

The inter-molecular includes two reaction types that are inter-

molecular ineffective collision and synthesis. The reaction type is

T.K. Truong et al. / Applied Soft Computing 13 (2013) 17741780 1777

Fig. 2. Mutation operator.

designed to satisfy two important abilities of CRO: intensication

and diversication. Intensication and diversication are charac-

teristics effecting convergence and exploration of the algorithm. To

adapt toknapsackproblem, wedesignonemoleculewhichincludes

these characteristics: PE, KE, buffer, KElossRate, InitialKE, PopSize,

MoleColl, minHits, numHits. In the reaction, the PE is not negative

and the PE is decreasing in the reaction process. To adopt to PE, it

is set as follows:

PE = LargeNumber

n

i=1

x

i

p

i

(2)

where LargeNumber is a givenpositive constant bigger than

n

i=1

p

i

.

3.1. Solution representation

Abinarystringis usedtorepresent asolution. Theithbit receives

value 1 if the ith itemis chosen and 0 otherwise. The string length

is n corresponding to one solution for each of n items in the KP01.

3.2. Neighborhood search operator

KP01 can be simulated based on vectors, so we can apply the

neighborhood search operators based on the vector used in the

evolutionary algorithm. Those operators are designed to meet with

intensication and diversication of the algorithm. It searches a

neighbor solution near an old solution.

3.2.1. On-wall ineffective collision

This operator is used to search a neighbor of solution in search

space. The mutation operator (Fig. 2) which is very popular in evo-

lutionary algorithms is used here. One position i in solution will

be chosen and the value of w(i) is inverted. After that, the repair

function is used to correct the invalid solution. The detail of repair

function is explained at the end of this section. The pseudocode of

the on-wall ineffective collision operator is described in Algorithm

2.

Algorithm2 (Invert Bit()).

input: a solution

Duplicate to produce

Invert bit ith of

Repair(

)

Output:

3.2.2. Decomposition

This process produces two solutions from one original solu-

tion. This operator effects diversication and makes the algorithm

explorer the search space. The decomposition operator is designed

accordingtothehalf-total-exchange operator that is usedtosolve

the channel assignment problem in [10] combined with a repair

function. The operator creates two solutions

1

and

2

fromsolu-

tion . Firstly, is duplicated to generate

1

and

2

. After that,

perturbations for n/2 positions in solutions

1

and

2

are made

randomly. The repair function is incorporated to make sure that

the output solution is valid. The pseudocode of the decomposition

operator is described in Algorithm3.

Fig. 3. Crossover operator.

Algorithm3 (Gen 2 new Solutions()).

Input: a solution .

Duplicate to produce

1

and

2

for change 1 to n/2 do

Get i and j randomly in the set of {1,. . ., n}

Add randomperturbations to

1

(i) and

2

(j)

end for

Repair(

1

); Repair(

2

);

Output:

1

and

2

3.3. Other implementation

3.3.1. Synthesis operator

In this algorithm, the synthesis operator in [13] is used. The

operator combines two molecules with solutions

1

and

2

into

one molecule with solution

. For each

from

1

(i) or

2

(i). The repair function is also used to ensure

the constraint is met. The pseudocode of the synthesis operator

is described in Algorithm4.

Algorithm4 (synthesis(

1

,

2

)).

Input: solutions

1

and

2

for i 1 to n do

Get t randomly in [0, 1]

if (t >0.5) then

(i)

1

(i)

else

(i)

2

(i)

end if

end for

Repair(

);

Output:

Two solutions

1

and

2

are obtainedfromtwosolutions

1

and

2

. The two points crossover operator (Fig. 3) commonly used in

GA is adopted. In the procedure, two points k

1

, k

2

will be chosen to

separate eachof the solutions

1

and

2

tothree parts. The solution

1

is created from the even parts of

1

combined with the odd

parts of

2

. The solution

2

is created from the even parts of

2

combined with the odd parts of

1

. The pseudocode of the inter-

molecular ineffective collision operator is described in Algorithm

5.

Algorithm5 (Gen 2 Solutions(

1

,

2

)).

Input: two solutions

1

and

2

.

Get two points k

1

<k

2

randomly in {1, . . ., n}

if (i <k

1

or i >k

2

) then

1

(i)

1

(i)

2

(i)

2

(i)

end if

if (k

1

i k

2

) then

1

(i)

2

(i)

2

(i)

1

(i)

end if

Repair(

1

); Repair(

2

);

Output: two solutions

1

and

2

1778 T.K. Truong et al. / Applied Soft Computing 13 (2013) 17741780

3.3.3. Repair operator

The repair operator is based on repeated randomselection until

the knapsack constraints are met, although this may consume a

lot of CPU time in some cases. Conversely, the traditional greedy

strategy has some other drawbacks in the knapsack problem and

is analyzed in [30]. In this paper, a new repair operator is used

and it depends on both the greedy strategy and randomselection.

The advantage of this repair procedure is the balance between CPU

time cost and not getting stuck inlocal optima. The items are sorted

according to the value-to-weight ratio p

i

/q

i

(i =1, 2, . . ., n) so that

they are not increasing. It means that:

p

i

q

i

p

j

q

j

, for i <j

This repair operator consists of two phases. The rst phase

(called ADD) examines each variable in decreasing order of p

j

/q

j

and changes the variable from zero to one as long as feasibility is

not violated. The second phase (called DROP) examines randomly

one variable and changes the variable from one to zero if feasibil-

ity is violated. The aim of the DROP phase is to obtain a feasible

solution froman infeasible solution, whilst the ADD phase seeks to

improve the tness of a feasible solution. The pseudo-code for the

repair operator is given in Algorithm6.

Algorithm6 (Repair()).

Input: solutions .

gap

n

i=1

x

i

q

i

C /*ADD phase*/

i 1

while (gap>0 and i n) do if (gapq

i

) then

i

1

gapgapq

i

i i +1

end if

end while

over C

n

i=1

x

i

q

i

/*DROP phase*/

while (over >0) do

Select an ith itemfromknapsack randomly

i

0

over over q

i

end while

output: solution

4. Simulation results

To test the performance of CROG, it was compared with both

ACO, GA and QEA on the 01 knapsack problem. In all test cases,

strongly correlated sets of data were considered. The weights q

i

,

respective prots p

i

and the knapsack capacity C were calculated

as follows:

q

i

= rand[1, 10] (3)

p

i

= q

i

+5, i = 1, 2, . . . , n (4)

C =

1

2

n

i=1

q

i

(5)

where rand[1, 10] generates an integer in {1,2,. . .,10} uniformly at

random[4].

The GA proposed in [25] is used in the simulation. The popula-

tion size is POPSIZE=20, the crossover probability is set as P

c

=0.8,

the mutation probability is set as P

m

=0.1.

The ACOproposed in [15] is used in the experiment. The param-

eters are set as: =0.1, =0.1, qo =0.7, =2, Q=1.

For the QEA, the QEA is coded as describing in [4]. The param-

eters are set as: population size is 10,

3

=0.01,

5

=0.01 and

0 for the rest of

i

. Global migration period in generation of QEA

was 100. Local migration was implemented between each pair of

neighboring solutions in B(t) every generation.

For the CROG, parameter setting affects its performance. The

CROG has seven parameters (i.e. KElossRate, InitialKE, PopSize,

MoleColl, buffer, , ). A complete evaluation on all possible com-

binations of the parameters is impractical. Our goal is to assign

parameter values to CROG with relatively good performance for

the three test instances. For the rst ve parameters the set was

deduced from [10]: KElossRate =0.8, InitialKE=100, PopSize =20,

MoleColl =0.2, buffer =0. Two parameters and are tuned. The

and effect to the decomposition condition and synthesis condi-

tion, respectively. For each parameters [10, 500], [10, 500],

some values are selected for testing and we perform 50 runs for

each of the chosen values. The averages of the sets of 50 runs are

compared among the chosen values and the one with the biggest

average prot values is selected.

All the algorithms were implemented in C# 2008. The test envi-

ronment is set up on a personal computer with PentiumE6700 CPU

at 3.2 GHz CPU, 2G RAM, running on Windows XP.

We do experiment on three test instances with 100, 250 and

500 items. Fig. 4 shows the evolution of the mean of the best pro-

ts of CROG over 30 runs in the three instances. It indicates the

global search ability and the convergence ability of CROG. There

are several observations and they are given as follows:

(a) The best prot of 100items test instance is quickly increasing

andhits the approximately optimal prot at iteration200. (b) Inthe

250 items test instance, the best prot is quickly increasing for the

rst 200iterations. (c) For the large 500items probleminstance, the

best prot is also increasing very rapidly over the rst 300 iteration.

Table 1 shows the experimental results of the instances. For

all the proposed instances, CROG yields superior results compared

with ACO, GA and QEA. The series of experimental results demon-

strate the superiority and effectiveness of CROG. In comparison

with GA, ACO and QEA; CROG can get better results in shorter

Table 1

Comparisons of simulation.

# of items Algorithms Best solution Worst solution Average StdDev Time (s/run)

100 ACO 585 577 581.2 4.05 1.015

GA 585 575 582.9 3.91 1.102

QEA 587 578 583.2 3.72 0.906

CROG 590 578 584.1 3.50 0.814

250 ACO 1530 1515 1523.6 6.04 2.301

GA 1535 1515 1524.9 5.36 2.475

QEA 1537 1520 1526.8 5.28 2.502

CROG 1539 1525 1529.7 5.22 2.276

500 ACO 2930 2900 2917.4 7.44 4.650

GA 2935 2914 2921.3 7.51 4.968

QEA 2935 2918 2925.5 7.23 4.572

CROG 2940 2925 2928.9 7.05 4.386

T.K. Truong et al. / Applied Soft Computing 13 (2013) 17741780 1779

0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500

520

530

540

550

560

570

580

590

Iterations

P

r

o

f

i

t

s

(a) Best prots (100 items)

0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500

1400

1420

1440

1460

1480

1500

1520

1540

Iterations

P

r

o

f

i

t

s

(b) Best prots (250 items)

0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500

2650

2700

2750

2800

2850

2900

2950

Iterations

P

r

o

f

i

t

s

(c) Best prots (500 items)

Fig. 4. CRO behavior.

time. The smaller standard deviation (StdDev) shows that the new

algorithm is more robust than the other methods. We adopt the

same stopping criterion, that the function evaluation limit is set to

100,000, for all the test.

5. Conclusion

In this paper, the CROG algorithmhas been proposed based on

the CROframework and a greedy strategy to solve KP01 efciently.

Four problem-specic elementary reactions are carefully designed

to implement the local search and global search. Anewrepair func-

tionwhichhelps the algorithmto yieldfast convergence andavoids

local optima is proposed. The simulation results demonstrate that

the proposed algorithmhas superior performance when compared

with ACO, GA and QEA for all proposed test instances. The new

approach obtains better solutions in shorter time.

In the future, the authors plan to have a detailed study on the

parameter values to enhance the performance of the algorithm

and implementation method of elementary reactions will be stud-

ied. The proposed algorithm can also easily be designed for other

knapsack problems.

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank the helpful comments and sug-

gestions from the editors and the anonymous reviewers, which

have considerably enhanced the quality of paper. This research was

partially funded by the Key Program of National Natural Science

Foundation of China (Grant No. 61133005), and the National Natu-

ral Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61070057, 61202109,

61173013), the Cultivation Fund of the Key Scientic and Techni-

cal Innovation Project, Ministry of Education of China (Grant No.

708066), the Ph.D. Programs Foundation of Ministry of Education

of China (20100161110019), and the National Science Foundation

for Distinguished Young Scholars of Hunan (12JJ1011). T. K. Truong

was also partially supported by science research fund of Industrial

university of Hochiminh city, Vietnam.

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Impact of Soft Computing for the Progress of Articial Intelligence.

Tung Khac Truong received B.S. in Mathematic fromHue

Universitys college of education, Vietnam, in 2001. He

received M.S. in computer science from Hue University

of Sciences, Vietnam, in 2007. He is currently working

toward the Ph.D. degree in computer science at College of

Information Science and Engineering, Hunan University,

National Supercomputing Center in Changsha, 410082.

His research interests are soft computing and parallel

computing.

Kenli Li received the PhD in computer science from

Huazhong University of Science and Technology, China,

in 2003, and the MSc in mathematics fromCentral South

University, China, in2000. He was a visitingscholar at Uni-

versity of Illinois at Champaign and Urbana from 2004

to 2005. Now He is a professor of Computer science

and Technology at College of Information Science and

Engineering, Hunan University, National Supercomputing

Center in Changsha, 410082, a senior member of CCF.

His major research includes parallel computing, Grid and

Cloud computing, and DNA computer.

YumingXureceivedthe masters degree fromHunanUni-

versity, China, in2009. He is currently working towardthe

PhD degree College of Information Science and Engineer-

ing, Hunan University, National Supercomputing Center

in Changsha, 410082. His research interests include mod-

eling and scheduling for distributed computing systems,

Parallel algorithms, Grid and Cloud computing.

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