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exchange interaction

M. V. Gvozdikova

Kharkov State University, 310077 Kharkov, Ukraine

A. S. Kovalev

B. Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering,

National Academy of Sciences of the Ukraine, 310164 Kharkov, Ukraine*

Yuri S. Kivshar

Optical Sciences Center, Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering,

Australian National University, ACT 0200, Canberra, Australia**

Submitted February 13, 1998; revised March 16, 1998

Fiz. Nizk. Temp. 24, 635640 July 1998

The spin dynamics of a domain wall is studied in an innite ferromagnetic chain with an easy-

axis anisotropy as well as in a chain of nite size. The dependence of the intrinsic mode

frequency of the domain wall on the exchange interaction is studied for all admissible values of

the latter. It is shown that this dependence is considerably modied in the region of

transition of the domain wall from collinear structure to canted form. 1998 American

Institute of Physics. S1063-777X9800507-6

In this communication, we report on the investigation of

nonlinear dynamics of spin systems. Magnetic solitons were

rst studied in Kharkov more than 25 years ago, and Prof.

A. M. Kosevich was one of the pioneers in this eld. The

authors are indebted to him for introducing them to this in-

teresting eld of physical research at different times.

Nonlinear excitations of magnetically ordered media

domain walls, magnetic solitons have been studied exten-

sively for traditional magnets both from theoretical and ex-

perimental points of view.

1,2

As a rule, the theoretical studies

of these objects are carried out by using differential equa-

tions in the longwave approximation. However, it has been

reported in a number of recent publications

35

that magnets

with a weak exchange interaction in which the exchange

integral J becomes of the order of, or smaller than, the

single-ion anisotropy constant undergo qualitative varia-

tions in structure and domain wall dynamics, and the results

obtained from a longwave description of such systems be-

come inapplicable.

This problem has attained signicance in recent years

following the synthesis of new magnetic materials which sat-

isfy the condition J. Examples of such materials are the

quasi-one-dimensional magnets CH

3

3

NHNiCl

3

2H

2

O,

C

9

H

7

NHNiCl

3

1,5H

2

O,

6

and layered antiferromagnets

with a ratio J/10

2

, e.g., (CH

2

)

n

(NH

3

2

MnCl

4

,

(C

n

H

2n1

NH

3

)

2

MnCl

4

,

711

and most of the high-temperature

superconductors and their isostructural analogs. Signi-

cantly, it is possible to change in the above layered antifer-

romagnets the number n of organic molecules intercalating

the magnetic layers, thus opening the possibility of experi-

mental investigation of the dependence of the structure and

dynamic properties of such magnets on the value of the ex-

change integral J.

Van den Broek and Zijlstra

3

were the rst to show that

for comparable values of the exchange interaction constant

and the anisotropy constant, a domain wall collapses into

a collinear structure of the size of atomic spacing with par-

allel and antiparallel spin orientations. Stepanov and

Yablonskii

12

studied experimentally the resonance properties

of layered antiferromagnets and observed an additional ab-

sorption band in the magnon spectral gap. The authors attrib-

uted this band to the emergence of an intrinsic mode in do-

main walls. Since such modes do not exist in the longwave

description of a magnet, their emergence is associated with

the discreetness of the magnetic medium and the transforma-

tion of domain walls to collinear form. Goncharuk et al.

4

actually established theoretically the existence of an intrinsic

mode in a domain wall for values of the exchange integral J

below the critical value corresponding to collapse of the

wall.

In the present work, we demonstrate the existence of an

intrinsic mode in a noncollinear domain wall for exchange

interaction exceeding the critical value, and describe the

variation of this mode in the vicinity of the critical value of

J. This question is of importance not only for the investiga-

tion of magnetically ordered media, but also for the general

development of nonlinear physics where the interest has

been shifting in recent years towards essentially discrete sys-

tems.

The magnetization dynamics is studied in the framework

of Heisenbergs classical one-dimensional discrete model for

an easy-axis ferromagnet, i.e., by using the LandauLifshitz

discrete equation without damping. The total energy of a

spin chain can be represented in the form

LOW TEMPERATURE PHYSICS VOLUME 24, NUMBER 7 JULY 1998

479 1063-777X/98/24(7)/5/$15.00 1998 American Institute of Physics

E

J

a

2

S

n

S

n1

2

S

n

e

z

, 1

where S

n

is the spin of a lattice site (S

n

2

1), J is the

exchange interaction constant (J0 for a ferromagnet, and

the single-ion anisotropy constant (0 for an easy-axis

ferromagnet with the easy axis along the e

z

-axis. In this case,

the LandauLifshitz equation can be written in the form

2

1

0

dS

n

dt

l

0

a

2

S

n

, S

n1

S

n1

S

n

e

z

S

n

e

z

0,

2

where

0

2

0

S

0

/ is the frequency of a uniform ferro-

magnetic resonance (

0

is the Bohr magneton, S

0

the nomi-

nal magnetization, and l

0

J/ the characteristic scale of

spatial inhomogeneity of magnetization in a domain wall

magnetic length. It is convenient to go over to the com-

plex quantity

n

S

n

x

iS

n

y

the classical analog of the mag-

non creation operator and spin projection onto the z-axis

(S

n

z

m

n

). In this case, if we measure time in units of

0

1

and introduce the parameter (l

0

/a)

2

, we can write

Eq. 2 in the form

i

d

n

dt

n

m

n1

n1

m

n

n

m

n1

n1

m

n

n

m

n

0. 3

It was shown in Refs. 3 and 4 that this equation has a

static solution for a collinear domain wall with the following

spin orientation:

m

n

1 n0, m

n

1 n0 4

the domain wall is located between spins with numbers 0

and 1 for values of the parameter smaller than the critical

value

*

3/4. Substituting into Eq. 3 the solution 4 and

the function

n

in the form

n

n

exp(it), we can easily

obtain the intrinsic mode

4

of the domain wall for

*

:

1

6

64

2

48

2

. 5

Curve 1 in Fig. 1 shows the dependence . For

*

, we obtain 1/2, while (8/39)(

*

)

1/2

near the critical point.

Let us consider the possibility of the existence of an

intrinsic mode in a domain wall for exchange interactions

exceeding the critical value (

*

). In this range of values

of , the collinear structure corresponding to the solution 4

becomes unstable and the spin distribution in the domain

wall becomes noncollinear (m

n

1). Using the smallness

of the parameter (

*

), we can nd this distribution in

the vicinity of the critical value

*

. For a noncollinear

structure, it is convenient to represent Eq. 3 in terms of the

components S

n

i

:

dS

n

x

dt

S

n

y

m

n1

z

m

n

z

S

n1

y

S

n

y

m

n1

z

m

n

z

S

n1

y

S

n

y

m

n

z

0,

6

dS

n

y

dt

m

n

z

S

n1

x

S

n

x

m

n1

z

m

n

z

S

n1

x

S

n

x

m

n1

z

S

n

x

m

n

z

0,

7

where m

n

z

1(S

n

x

)

2

(S

n

y

)

2

1/2

.

To begin with, let us determine the static conguration

of the domain wall by putting S

n

y

0 for the sake of denite-

ness. It follows from symmetry consideration that m

n

z

m

1n

z

and S

n

x

S

1n

x

(n0). In the main linear approxi-

mation, the system of equations 6 and 7 can be reduced to

the system

1S

1

x

S

2

x

0, n1,

21S

n

x

S

n1

x

S

n1

x

0, n1, 8

whose solution has the simple form

S

n

x

A

3

n1

,

3

4

, n1, 9

where the constant A is determined from the next approxi-

mation in perturbation theory. We introduce the small pa-

rameter of expansion

*

10

and present the approximate solution in the form

S

n

x

A

3

n1

Z

n

, 11

where A and Z

n

3/2

A. Retaining terms of the order

of

3/2

in the static equations 6 and 7, we obtain the

following system of difference equations:

4

3

A

1

4

Z

1

3

4

Z

1

1

3

A

3

0, n1,

4

9

A

5

2

Z

2

3

4

Z

1

Z

3

8

81

A

3

0, n2, 12

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4

3

n

A

5

2

Z

n

3

4

Z

n1

Z

n1

8

3

2n2

A

3

0.

It can be shown easily that the solution of this system

can be chosen in the form Z

1

Z

2

0, Z

n

(n3)0. This

corresponds to the following expression for the constant A:

A2 13

FIG. 1. Dependence of the intrinsic mode frequency of a domain wall on

the discreetness parameter J/(a

2

) of an innite ferromagnetic chain

for collinear curve 1 and canted curve 2 forms of the DW.

480 Low Temp. Phys. 24 (7), July 1998 Gvozdikova et al.

a different choice of the sequence Z

n

leads only to an addi-

tional expansion of the approximate solution with a different

value of the small parameter of the expansion. The rst

terms in the sequence Z

n

and the asymptotic form for large

values of n are given by

Z

1

Z

2

0, Z

3

32

3

5

3/2

0.126

3/2

,

Z

4

1432

3

7

3/2

0.644

3/2

, . . . 14

. . . Z

n

2n

3

n

3/2

, n1.

Thus, in the main approximation in the small parameter ,

the solution for the static conguration of a domain wall has

the form

S

n

y 0

0, S

n

x 0

S

1n

x 0

2

3

n1

, n1. 15

It can be easily veried that this solution satises the

system of static equations in which the nonlinear terms cu-

bic in S

1

x

, S

0

x

, S

2

x

, S

1

x

are considered only in two equations

for spins in the vicinity of the center of the domain wall,

while all the remaining equations are linearized in spin de-

viations S

n

x

:

1

4

S

1

x

3

4

S

2

x

1

4

S

1

x

3

8

S

1

x

2

S

2

x

3

8

S

1

x

S

2

x

2

0, n1, 16

5

2

S

n

x

3

4

S

n1

x

S

n1

x

0, n1.

Solving the dynamic problem in the same approximation

and with the same accuracy, we retain nonlinear terms only

with numbers n0,1 in the dynamic equations 6 and 7,

and linearize them subsequently in small corrections to the

static solution 15:

S

n

x

S

n

x 0

&W

n

t , S

n

y

&V

n

t , 17

where W

n

, V

n

S

n

x(0)

.

Substituting a solution in the form

V

n

v

n

cos t, W

n

w

n

sin t 18

into the obtained system of equations, we arrive at the nal

form of the system of linear differential equations for v

n

and w

n

:

5

2

w

n

3

4

w

n1

w

n1

v

n

0, 19

5

2

v

n

3

4

v

n1

v

n1

w

n

0 20

and

1

2

3

w

1

3

4

1

14

3

w

0

3

4

1

2

3

w

2

v

1

0,

1

2

3

w

0

3

4

1

14

3

w

1

3

4

1

2

3

w

1

v

0

0, 21

1

2

3

v

1

3

4

1

2

3

v

0

3

4

1

2

3

v

2

w

1

0,

1

2

3

v

0

3

4

1

2

3

v

1

3

4

1

2

3

v

1

w

0

0,

where the signs plus and minus in Eqs. 19 and 20

correspond to numbers n1 and n0, respectively, and

Eqs. 21 describe the dynamics of spins with numbers n

1 and 0 adjoining the center of the domain wall. The in-

trinsic mode of the domain wall localized near its center

corresponds to the following solutions of Eqs. 1921:

w

n

A exp

1

n1B exp

2

n1, n1,

v

n

A exp

1

n1B exp

2

n1, n1,

22

w

n

C exp

1

nD exp

2

n, n0,

v

n

C exp

1

nD exp

2

n, n0,

where

exp

1,2

1

3

524

1

5

4

2

4

1/2

. 23

Substituting the solutions 22 and 23 into the system

of equations 21, we arrive at the nal expression for the

dependence of the intrinsic mode frequency on the discrete-

ness parameter of the spin chain. In the main approxima-

tion in the small parameter , this dependence has the form

32

339

*. 24

Segment 2 of the dependence in Fig. 2 shows this

dependence. Segment 3 of the same dependence shows the

asymptotic form of the frequency dependence of the intrinsic

mode obtained numerically by Bogdan et al.

13

for large val-

ues of the parameter .

Thus, we have shown that the domain wall in an easy-

axis ferromagnet has an intrinsic mode over the entire range

of values of the discreteness parameter J/, and the fre-

quency dependence of this mode changes sharply in the vi-

cinity of the critical value of this parameter corresponding to

a transition of the domain wall from collinear to canted

structure.

Unfortunately, the domain wall dynamics in an innite

spin chain with exchange interaction exceeding the critical

481 Low Temp. Phys. 24 (7), July 1998 Gvozdikova et al.

value can be studied only in a narrow range of values of J

near the critical value by making a number of simplifying

assumptions. Hence it should be interesting to study the spin

dynamics of such a system by using a simplied model con-

taining a nite number of spins. Since the width of a domain-

wall for small values of the exchange integral is close to the

atomic spacing and the value of spin deviation decreases

rapidly with increasing distance from its center, the intrinsic

dynamics of the wall is determined actually by a small num-

ber of spins near the center.

Let us consider a chain formed by four spins in the do-

main wall conguration. In other words, we shall assume

that, for small values of the exchange integral, the spin sys-

tem has a collinear structure of the type 4: m

1

m

2

1,

m

0

m

1

1. In the collinear phase, the system of equations

3 can be split into four linear equations for solutions of the

type

n

n

exp(it):

1

1

2

0

0,

1

0

1

1

0,

25

1

2

1

0,

1

1

0

0.

These equations describe the frequency spectrum of the

given system with a nite number of degrees of freedom and

its dependence on the discreteness parameter , as well as

the critical value

*

at which the domain wall goes over

from collinear to canted form. The eigenfrequency spectrum

is symmetric in the sign of and contains four values. The

dependence has the form

2

1

2

65, 26

where the minus sign corresponds to the intrinsic mode of

the domain wall. By putting its frequency equal to zero, we

get the value of the critical parameter

*

1/&0.71 which

is quite close to the corresponding value of the parameter

*

0.75 for an innite chain. Curve 1 in Fig. 2 shows the

dependence 26 for the intrinsic mode. This dependence is

identical to the function 5 for an innite spin chain. The

plus sign in formula 26 corresponds to a nonlocalized mode

with

2

1.6

1

. In the limit of an innite chain, this state

passes into antiphase spin vibrations of the upper boundary

of the spin wave spectrum. Curve 3 in Fig. 2 shows the

dependence for this mode.

In the region

*

, the problem for a four-spin com-

plex is solved exactly in contrast to an innite chain even

for a domain wall of canted form. It can be shown that its

static conguration is described by the following solutions of

the system of equations 6 and 7:

m

1

m

0

11/21z/ 21

2

1/2

,

S

1

x

S

0

x

11/21z/ 21

2

1/2

,

27

m

2

m

1

11/2

1z

1/2

,

S

2

x

S

1

x

1

1z

1/2

,

where

z

4

2

2

2

1 2

2

41

21 4

2

21

. 28

In the above formulas, we must take the upper signs for

the region

*

1

, upper for n2, 1 and lower

signs for n0,1 in the interval

1

2

, and lower

signs for all n in the interval

2

, where

1

0.84 is

the root of the equation z()(21)

2

1, while

2

1.24 is the root of the equation z()10. The points

1

and

2

are not critical points, and all dependences at these

points are smooth. At these points, the rotation angles for

spins with n1 and 2 pass through the value /4. At the

second critical point

type conguration disappears, and all spins turn in a direc-

tion perpendicular to the easy axis. In this unstable congu-

ration, the intrinsic mode frequency again becomes equal to

zero and the spin complex goes over to the homogeneous

ground state. However, the description of a domain wall in

the framework of a four-spin complex becomes physically

invalid for values of the parameter close to

.

In order to describe the transformation of a spectrum in

the region

*

, we linearize the dynamic equations 6

and 7 in the vicinity of the static conguration 27 for the

system with a nite number of spins under consideration, we

must put in Eqs. 6 and 7 S

n

x

S

n

y

m

n

0 for all n3 and

n2:

S

n

x

S

n

x 0

W

n

t , S

n

y

V

n

t ,

m

n

m

n

0

S

n

x 0

W

n

/m

n

0

, 29

where the quantities m

n

(0)

and S

n

x(0)

are dened by 27 and

W

n

, V

n

m

n

(0)

and S

n

x(0)

. As in the case of an innite chain,

we seek the solution of the linearized equations in the form

W

n

w

n

sin t, V

n

v

n

cos t and obtain a system of eight

linear equations for the quantities w

n

and v

n

. Putting the

determinant of this system equal to zero, we arrive at the

nal equation for determining the dependence of frequencies

for modes in the canted phase of the domain wall.

FIG. 2. Eigenfrequency spectrum of a nite spin chain containing a DW.

482 Low Temp. Phys. 24 (7), July 1998 Gvozdikova et al.

Nontrivial solutions for

2

() with 0 satisfy cubic

equations with a complex dependence of the coefcients on

the parameter . We shall not write this equation here sinceit

is quite cumbersome. However, we calculated the asymptotic

dependences near the critical values

*

and

tire admissible range of values of curves 2 and 4 in Fig.

2. The functions have a root dependence near

*

. This is the bifurcation point for the high-frequency

mode whose degeneracy is removed due to violation of sym-

metry in the domain wall. For the intrinsic mode, curve 2

in Fig. 2 is quite close to the corresponding dependence for

an innite chain:

2

3.09(

*

). For an innite chain, it

follows from 24 that

2

2.92(

*

). For not too large

values of , curve 2 in Fig. 2 is also quite close to the cor-

responding dependence 2 in Fig. 1.

Thus, it can be seen that the model of spin chains of

nite length can correctly describe the dynamics of a domain

wall in the region of its transition from collinear to canted

conguration. This is also conrmed by the correctness of all

assumptions and approximations used in the analysis of an

innite spin chain containing a domain wall.

Two of the authors A. S. Kovalev and Yu. S. Kivshar

thank the Australian Ministry of Industry, Science and Tour-

ism for awarding a grant to support this research.

*

E-mail: kovalev@ilt.kharkov.ua

**E-mail: ysk124@rsphysse.anu.edu.au

1

A. Hubert, Theorie der Domanenwande in Geordneten Medien, Springer,

Heidelberg 1974.

2

A. M. Kosevich, B. A. Ivanov, and A. S. Kovalev, Nonlinear Magnetiza-

tion Waves. Dynamic and Topological Solitons in Russian, Naukova

Dumka, Kiev 1988.

3

J. J. Van den Broek and H. Zijlstra, IEEE Trans. Magn. V. Mag.-7, 226

1971

4

A. N. Goncharuk, A. A. Stepanov, and D. A. Yablonskii, Fiz. Tverd. Tela

Leningrad 31, 132 1989 Sov. Phys. Solid State 31, 2099 1989.

5

B. Rumpf, Phys. Lett. A 221, 197 1996

6

A. A. Anders, V. G. Borisenko, and S. V. Volotskii, Fiz. Nizk. Temp. 15,

39 1989 Sov. J. Low Temp. Phys. 15, 21 1989.

7

M. I. Kobets, A. A. Stepanov, and A. I. Zvyagin, Fiz. Nizk. Temp. 7, 1473

1981 Sov. J. Low Temp. Phys. 7, 716 1981.

8

A. I. Zvyagin, M. I. Kobets, V. N. Krivoruchko et al., Zh. E

89, 2298 1985 Sov. Phys. JETP 62, 1328 1985.

9

A. I. Zvyagin, V. N. Krivoruchko, V. A. Pashchenko et al., Zh. Eksp.

Teor. Fiz. 92, 311 1987 Sov. Phys. JETP 65, 177 1987.

10

A. A. Stepanov, V. A. Pashchenko, and N. M. Kobets, Fiz. Nizk. Temp.

14, 550 1988 Sov. J. Low Temp. Phys. 14, 304 1988.

11

A. A. Stepanov, V. A. Pashchenko, and N. M. Kobets, Fiz. Nizk. Temp.

14, 1212 1988 Sov. J. Low Temp. Phys. 14, 669 1988.

12

A. A. Stepanov and D. A. Yablonskii, Fiz. Nizk. Temp. 15, 215 1989

Sov. J. Low Temp. Phys. 15, 122 1989.

13

M. M. Bogdan, A. M. Kosevich, and V. P. Voronov, in Solitons and

Applications, World Scientic, Singapore 1990.

Translated by R. S. Wadhwa

483 Low Temp. Phys. 24 (7), July 1998 Gvozdikova et al.

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