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Table of Contents
Introduction.......................................................................................2
Totally Integrated Automation........................................................4
Motion Control .................................................................................5
Mechanical Basics .........................................................................13
Servomotor Construction............................................................. 25
Servomotor Ratings ...................................................................... 33
Speed-Torque Characteristics ..................................................... 39
Siemens Servomotors.................................................................. 44
Servomotor Accessories.............................................................. 46
Encoders and Resolvers .............................................................. 49
Pulse Width Modulation .............................................................. 55
Siemens MASTERDRIVE MC Family........................................ 63
MASTERDRIVE MC Compact PLUS ......................................... 64
MASTERDRIVE MC Compact and Chassis .............................. 73
Technology Options ...................................................................... 78
Cables ............................................................................................. 87
Applications ................................................................................... 88
Selection ........................................................................................ 95
SIMODRIVE ................................................................................... 97
Review Answers ........................................................................... 99
Final Exam.................................................................................... 100
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Introduction
Welcome to another course in the STEP 2000 series, Siemens
Technical EducationProgram, designed to prepare our sales
personnel and distributors to sell Siemens Energy &
Automation products more effectively. This course covers
Basics of General Motion Control and related products.
Upon completion of Basics of General Motion Control you
should be able to:
Explain the concepts of force, inertia, speed, and torque
Explain the difference between work and power
Describe the construction of a servomotor
Identify the nameplate information of a servomotor
necessary for application to a MASTERDRIVE MC
Describe the operation of a three-phase rotating magnetic
field
Describe the relationship between V/Hz, torque, and
current
Describe the operation of an encoder
Describe the basic construction and operation of a PWM
type MASTERDRIVE MC
Describe features and operation of the Siemens
MASTERDRIVE MC
Describe basic motion control applications
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This knowledge will help you better understand customer
applications. In addition, you will be able to describe products to
customers and determine important differences between
products. You should complete Basics of Electricity and Basics
of AC Drives before attempting Basics of General Motion
Control. An understanding of many of the concepts covered in
Basics of Electricity and Basics of AC Drives is required for
Basics of General Motion Control.
If you are an employee of a Siemens Energy & Automation
authorized distributor, fill out the final exam tear-out card and
mail in the card. We will mail you a certificate of completion if
you score a passing grade. Good luck with your efforts.
SIMOVERT is a registered trademark of Siemens AG.
MASTERDRIVES is a trademark of Siemens AG.
Other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
National Electrical Manufacturers Association is located at 2101
L. Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20037. The abbreviation
NEMA is understood to mean National Electrical
Manufacturers Association.
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Totally Integrated Automation
Totally Integrated Automation (TIA) is more than a concept. TIA
is a strategy developed by Siemens that emphasizes the
seamless integration of automation products.
The TIA strategy incorporates a wide variety of automation
products such as programmable controllers, computer
numerical controls, Human Machine Interfaces (HMI), and
drives which are easily connected via open protocol networks.
This course focuses on the MASTERDRIVES MC which are
an important element of the TIA strategy. MASTERDRIVE MC
drives are designed for motion control applications that require
precise control. In addition, MASTERDRIVE MC drives can
easily communicate with other control devices such as
programmable logic controllers (PLCs) and personal computers
(PCs) through the PROFIBUS-DP communication system and
other various protocols.
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Motion Control
Motion control is an industry term used to describe a range of
applications that involve movement with varying degrees of
precision. Many motion control applications require only that an
object be moved from one place to another with limited concern
for acceleration, deceleration, or speed of motion. On the
opposite extreme are machine tool applications which require
the precise coordination of all aspects of motion, including a
high degree of coordination for multiple simultaneous
movements.
Axis Single-axis motion involves controlling one rotational axis. This
is typically a motor shaft that can be driven forward or reverse.
Mechanisms are often used to translate the rotational motion
into linear motion. Multi-axis control involves control of multiple
rotational axes, each of which could be converted into linear
motion. Some applications require the control of multiple axes,
with each axis operating independently. Other applications
require varying degrees of coordination for multiple axes ranging
from synchronizing the start of motion control for multiple axes
to the highly coordinated multiple-axis control required for
machine tool applications.
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Motion Control Examples The following illustration is an example of basic single-axis
motion. This illustration shows an object moving on a conveyor.
The conveyor is driven by a Siemens AC motor which turns in
one direction at a relatively constant speed. The sensing and
control circuit for this application consists of a Siemens limit
switch or sensor, a Siemens S7-200 PLC, and a Siemens Sirius
Type 3R full-voltage starter. Additional control and safety
circuits would be required, but are not important for this
explanation.
In this example, the motor will move the object along the
conveyor until the sensor is reached. At that point the sensor
will change the state of a PLC input. The PLC will respond to
this change of the input state by de-energizing the motor
starter, thereby stopping the motor.
This application did not require that the acceleration and
deceleration of the motor or the speed of the motor be
controlled. In addition, the control over the final position of the
object is not precise, but these conditions are often acceptable
in many applications.
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Another application might involve the use of an AC drive, such
as a Siemens MICROMASTER, MIDIMASTER, or
MASTERDRIVE. In this example a PLC is used to control a
trimming cycle for a continuous roll. A sensor, connected to a
PLC input, is used to detect a reference mark on the roll. An AC
drive, controlled by the PLC, is used to control the acceleration,
deceleration, and speed of an AC motor.
In this application the motor drives a belt which feeds the roll
through a cutter. When the sensor detects the mark it changes
the state of a PLC input. The PLC signals the drive to stop the
motor long enough for the cut to be made. The motor is then
restarted. This application involves control over motor
acceleration, deceleration, and speed, but only moderate
position control.
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Motion control applications are often more complex than those
described in the previous examples, involving precise
positioning and synchronized control of one or more axes. For
example, a four-color printing process is used when printing
color material such as brochures or magazine covers. In a four-
color process, a separate printing stage is used for each color. In
this example a continuous roll of paper is fed through a four-
color printing press. Four servomotors are connected to four MC
drives. The drives control the speed and position of each motor.
Each drive knows the exact speed and position of its associated
motor. Fine adjustments are made to ensure the images line up
exactly at each printing stage.
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Machine Tool Applications Before continuing with our discussion of motion control as it
relates to the MASTERDRIVE MC, it is worthwhile to briefly
describe machine tool motion control applications. This is
essential to highlight the differences with MASTERDRIVE MC
motion control.
Machine tools are designed to perform a series of specific tasks
such as milling, drilling, grinding, or turning that require a high
degree of coordination over multiple axes. For example, the in
and out movement of a cutting tool on a lathe must be
simultaneously coordinated with the side-to-side movement of
that tool. This is necessary to precisely machine the part being
turned. In more complex machine tool applications, many more
axes of motion may need to be controlled in a coordinated
fashion to machine a part quickly and precisely.
Essentially, it is this precise coordination of mulitple axes by a
control system, called a Computer Numerical Control (CNC),
that characterizes machine tool control applications. This course
does not focus on machine tool motion control applications, but
instead covers the single-axis or multiple axes applications
appropriate for MASTERDRIVE MC drives.
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Linear and Rotational Axes Motion control can operate on a linear or rotational axis. A
linear axis application, such as a traversing car, has a defined
traversing range with end stops. An item may simply be
moved from one station to the next, or it may make several
stops where different manufacturing process are performed.
A rotational axis application has an endless traversing range.
A rotary table, for example, travels along the shortest path
from one point to the next. A rotary table may also have
selectable or predefined directions of rotation to move from
one point to the next.
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Siemens MC Drives The range of applications in motion control is more specialized
than many other manufacturing applications. Motion control
drives, and their associated motors must be capable of:
Zero-speed holding torque
Quick start/stop cycles
High accelerating torque
Repeatable velocity and torque profiles
Synchronization
Positioning capabilities
Precise speed control
Controlling the starting, stopping, and speed of an AC motor in
a motion control system is the job of a variable speed drive, like
the Siemens SIMOVERT MASTERDRIVE MC. SIMOVERT is
a Siemens trade name which refers to SIemens AC MOtor
inVERTers. Although an inverter is only one part of an AC drive,
it is common practice to refer to an AC drive as an inverter. The
Siemens MASTERDRIVE MC (motion control) drive belongs to
the SIMOVERT MASTERDRIVES product family. Siemens also
manufactures a complete line of servomotors to compliment
the drive family.
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Review 1
1. The Siemens ____________ MC is specifically designed
for general motion control applications.
2. Motion control can operate on ____________ or
____________ axis.
3. Which of the following characteristics are required of a
motion control drive?
a. Zero-speed holding torque
b. Quick start/stop cycles
c. High accelerating torque
d. Repeatable velocity and torque profiles
e. Synchronization with other drives
f. Positioning capabilities
g. Precise speed control
h. All of the above
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Mechanical Basics
Before discussing Siemens MASTERDRIVE MC drives and
motors, it is necessary to understand some of the basic
terminology associated with the mechanics of motion control
and drive operation. Many of these terms are familiar to us in
some other context. Later in the course we will see how these
terms apply to motion control.
Units of Measurement There are two units of measurement commonly used. The
International System of Units, known as SI (Systme
Internationale dUnits), is used throughout the world. The SI
system is more recently used in the United States. The English
system, which most of us are more familiar with is used
primarily in the United States. Both systems of measurement
will be referenced throughout this course. To avoid confusion,
the SI system will be given first followed by the English system
in parenthesis. In some tables and charts both systems will be
shown side-by-side.
Force In simple terms, a force is a push or a pull. Force may be caused
by electromagnetism, gravity, or a combination of physical
means. The SI unit of measurement for force is Newtons (N).
The English unit of measurement for force is pounds (lb).
Net Force Net force is the vector sum of all forces that act on an object,
including friction and gravity. When forces are applied in the
same direction they are added. For example, if two 10 lb
44.482 N (10 lb) forces were applied in the same direction the
net force would be 88.964 N (20 lb).
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If 44.482 N (10 lb) of force were applied in one direction and
22.41 N (5 lb) of force applied in the opposite direction, the net
force would be 22.41 N (5 lb) and the object would move in the
direction of the greater force.
44.482 N (10 lb) of force were applied equally in both directions,
the net force would be zero and the object would not move.
Torque Torque is a twisting or turning force that tends to cause an
object to rotate. A force applied to the end of a lever, for
example, causes a turning effect or torque at the pivot point.
Torque () is the product of force and radius (lever distance).
Torque () = Force x Radius
The SI unit of measurement is Newton-meters (Nm). In the
English system torque is measured in pound-feet (lb-ft) or
pound-inches (lb-in).If 44.482 N (10 lbs) of force were applied to
a lever 0.3048 meters long (1 foot), for example, there would be
13.56 Nm (10 lb-ft) of torque.
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An increase in force or radius would result in a corresponding
increase in torque. Increasing the radius to 0.6096 meters
(2 feet), for example, results in 27.12 Nm (20 lb-ft) of torque.
Speed An object in motion travels a given distance in a given time.
Speed is the ratio of the distance traveled to the time it takes to
travel the distance.
Linear Motion The linear speed of an object is a measure of how long it takes
the object to get from point A to point B. Linear speed is usually
given in a form such as meters per second (m/s). For example,
if the distance between point A and point B were 10 meters,
and it took 2 seconds to travel the distance, the speed would be
5 m/s.
Rotational Motion The angular speed of a rotating object is a measurement of how
long it takes a given point on the object to make one complete
revolution from its starting point. Angular speed is of a rotating
object is an example where it is more common to use the
English system of revolutions per minute (RPM) versus the SI
unit of revolutions per second (RPS). An object that makes ten
complete revolutions in one minute, for example, has a speed
of 10 RPM.
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Acceleration An object can change speed. An increase in speed is called
acceleration. Acceleration only occurs only when there is a
change in the force acting upon the object. An object can also
change from a higher to a lower speed. This is known as
deceleration (negative acceleration). A rotating object, for
example, can accelerate from 10 RPM to 20 RPM, or decelerate
from 20 RPM to 10 RPM.
Law of Inertia Mechanical systems are subject to the law of inertia. The law of
inertia states that an object will tend to remain in its current
state of rest or motion unless acted upon by an external force.
This property of resistance to acceleration/deceleration is
referred to as the moment of inertia.
The SI unit for inertia is kilogram-meter squared (kgm
2
). The
English system of measurement is pound-feet squared (lb-ft
2
).
If we look at a continuous roll of paper, as it unwinds, we know
that when the roll is stopped, it would take a certain amount of
force to overcome the inertia of the roll to get it rolling. The force
required to overcome this inertia can come from a source of
energy such as a motor. Once rolling, the paper will continue
unwinding until another force acts on it to bring it to a stop.
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Friction Because friction removes energy from a mechanical system,
a continual force must be applied to keep an object in motion.
The law of inertia is still valid, however, since the force applied
is needed only to compensate for the energy lost. In the
following illustration a motor runs a conveyor. A large amount of
force is applied to overcome the inertia of the system at rest to
start it moving.
Once the system is in motion, only the energy required to
compensate for various losses need be applied to keep it in
motion.
These losses include:
Friction within motor and driven equipment bearings
Windage losses in the motor and driven equipment
Friction between conveyor belt and rollers
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Inertia Ratios One aspect of motion control systems which must be
considered is that the driven machine and the servo motor
driving the machine are physically interdependent. It is
important to ensure that the inertia of the servo motor is
matched to the inertia of the driven machine. Ideally it is
desirable to have a 1:1 inertia ratio between the load and the
motor. However, inertia ratios of 1:10 or greater are not
uncommon.
Typically, it is desirable to reach a new speed quickly when
changing speeds in a motion control system. When changing
from a lower speed to a higher speed, for example, the motor
accelerates the connected load quickly, resulting in a slight
overshoot before settling into the new speed. If there is too
great a mismatch between the motor and the load the system
can become unstable. Oscillations can occur which contribute
to system instability.
When the inertia of a system is properly matched the system
will settle into a new speed quickly. This provides a stable
system with quick response.
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Work Whenever a force of any kind causes motion, work is
accomplished. For example, work is accomplished when an
object on a conveyor is moved from one point to another.
Work is defined by the product of the net force (F) applied and
the distance (d) moved. If twice the force is applied, twice the
work is done. If an object moves twice the distance, twice the
work is done.
W = F x d
Power Power is the rate of doing work, or work divided by time.
In other words, power is the amount of work it takes to move
the package from one point to another point, divided by the
time.
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Power Power in an electrical circuit is measured in watts (W) or
kilowatts (kW). AC drives and motors manufactured in the
United States are generally rated in horsepower (HP), however,
it is becoming common practice to rate equipment using the SI
units of watts and kilowatts.
Torque vs Power When considering motors and drives for a given application we
typically think in terms of power. We have learned that power is
a function of speed. No work is accomplished unless there is
motion. Therefore, power is zero when the system and its
associated motor is at rest (zero speed).
On the other hand, a characteristic of motion control systems is
the ability to deliver full torque at zero speed. For this reason it
is more common to base motion control systems on torque
rather than power.
Acceleration Torque The torque required to accelerate a machine should be
determined first. The following information is needed:
Inertia of the m achinein kgm
2
(SI) or lb ft
2
(English) (J )
Amount of change of speed in RPM ( n)
Time taken to change speed in seconds ( t)
A simple formula can be used to determine the required
acceleration torque (a).
The torque required to accelerate a system with a total inertia of
0.005 kgm
2
(0.1187 lb ft
2
) from rest to 3000 RPM in 0.2 seconds
would be 7.85 Nm(5.78 lb ft).
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Effective (RMS) Torque Accelerating torque is usually required on an intermittent basis
only. Due to the cyclic nature of motion control applications,
servomotors have both continuous and intermittent ratings. To
select the correct continuous rating it is also necessary to know
the effective torque, also referred to as RMS (root-mean square)
torque.
The value of effective torque is actually a means of expressing
the equivalent of varying values of torque required during a
cycle of operation. Effective torque is determined by looking at
all the operating points of a torque-time curve during a
complete cycle.
Three operating points are used during a cycle in the following
example. The load requires 7.85 Nm (5.78 lb ft) of torque to
accelerate the load (T1) in 0.2 seconds. During constant state
run the load requires 1 Nm (.737 lb ft) of torque to overcome
losses due to friction and maintain speed (T2) for 1 second. To
decelerate the load and stop requires 2 Nm (1.474 lb ft) of torque
(T3) for 0.2 seconds. The system will remain stopped for 1
second before repeating the cycle. The total cycle time is
2.4 seconds (Tt).
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Calculating Effective Torque The following formula can be used to calculate effective torque
using either SIor English units. Effective torque (eff) is the
square root of the summation ( ) of the square of torque
required (
2
) by the motor at each increment (Mot i) and time
period ( ti) divided by the total cycle time (Tt).
Using the values for the three time periods in the previous
example, effective torque can be calculated.
Cycle
Increment
Torque
(Nm)
Torque
(lb ft)
Time
(seconds)
1 7.85 5.78 0.2
2 1 0.737 1
3 2 1.474 0.2
1
2.4
Time Between Cycles
Total Time
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SimoSize Calculating the correct torque for a motion control system is
complex, requiring a thorough understanding of the system
involved. SimoSize is a PC tool which allows the user to
accelerate the design process by providing the necessary tools
in a Windows 95/98/NT format. SimoSize is available through
your sales representative at no charge and may be freely copied
and distributed.
SimoSize allows the user to select components such as gear
boxes, rotary tables, and belt-pulleys. The user can also specify
the profile needs such as acceleration, run speed, and run time.
A report generator in SimoSize performs calculations for speed,
torque, and inertia to properly select a servomotor.
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Review 2
1. A ____________ is a push or a pull.
2. An object has 10 N of force applied in one direction and
5 N of force applied in the opposite direction. The net
force is ____________ .
3. A twisting or turning force that causes an object to
rotate is known as ____________ .
4. If 20 N of force were applied to a lever 0.3 meters long,
the torque would be ____________ Nm.
5. The law of ____________ states that an object will tend
to remain in its current state of rest or motion unless
acted upon by an external force.
6. Ideally it is desirable to have a ____________ inertia ratio
between the load and the motor.
7. ____________ is accomplished when force causes
motion.
8. A characteristic of motion control systems is the ability
to deliver full torque at zero speed. For this reason it is
more common to base motion control systems on
____________ rather than ____________ .
9. ____________ is a Siemens software program designed
to help calculate the speed, torque, and inertia of a
motion control system.
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Servomotor Construction
There are two types of AC servomotors used with motion
control drives: synchronous and induction. Induction motors are
also referred to as asynchronous motors. The two basic
elements of all AC motors are the stator and rotor. The principle
of operation of a stator is the same in asynchronous and
synchronous motors. There are, however, differences in rotor
construction.
Stator and a Rotating A rotating magnetic field must be developed in the stator of an
Magnetic Field AC motor in order to produce mechanical rotation of the rotor.
Wire is coiled into loops and placed in slots in the motor
housing. These loops of wire are referred to as the stator
windings. The following drawing illustrates a three-phase stator.
Phase windings (A, B, and C) are placed 120 apart. In this
example, a second set of three-phase windings is installed. The
number of poles is determined by how many times a phase
winding appears. In this example, each phase winding appears
two times. This is a two-pole stator. If each phase winding
appeared four times it would be a four-pole stator.
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Magnetic Field When AC voltage is applied to the stator, current flows through
the windings. The magnetic field developed in a phase winding
depends on the direction of current flow through that winding.
The following chart is used here for explanation only. It assumes
that a positive current flow in the A1, B1 and C1 windings result
in a north pole.
It is easier to visualize a magnetic field if a time is picked when
no current is flowing through one phase. In the following
illustration, for example, a time has been selected during which
phase A has no current flow, phase B has current flow in a
negative direction, and phase C has current flow in a positive
direction. Based on the above chart, B1 and C2 are south poles
and B2 and C1 are north poles. Magnetic lines of flux leave the
B2 north pole and enter the nearest south pole, C2. Magnetic
lines of flux also leave the C1 north pole and enter the nearest
south pole, B1. A magnetic field results as indicated by the
arrow.
Positive Negative
A1 North South
A2 South North
B1 North South
B2 South North
C1 North South
C2 South North
Winding Current Flow Direction
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The amount of flux lines ( ) the magnetic field produces is
approximately equal to the voltage (E) divided by the frequency
(F). Increasing the supply voltage increases the flux of the
magnetic field. Decreasing the frequency increases the flux.
If the field is evaluated at 60 intervals from the starting point, at
point 1 it can be seen that the field will rotate 60. At point 1
phase C has no current flow, phase A has current flow in a
positive direction and phase B has current flow in a negative
direction. Following the same logic as used for the starting
point, windings A1 and B2 are north poles and windings A2 and
B1 are south poles. At the end of six such intervals the
magnetic field will have rotated one full revolution or 360.
Synchronous Speed The speed of the rotating magnetic field is referred to as
synchronous speed (NS). Synchronous speed is equal to 120
times the frequency (F), divided by the number of poles (P). If
the applied frequency of the two-pole stator used in the
previous example is 60 hertz, synchronous speed is 3600 RPM.
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Synchronous Rotor Synchronous motors are not induction motors. They are called
synchronous because the rotor operates at the same speed
as the rotating magnetic field. There are different methods to
achieve synchronization between the rotor and the rotating
manetic field. The most common method in servomotor
applications is the use of a permanent magnet rotor. Permanent
rare-earth magnets are glued onto the rotor. This type of rotor is
found on smaller synchronous motors. A synchronous motor of
this design is relatively small with low rotor inertia. The smaller,
low inertia rotor provides fast acceleration and high overload
torque ratings.
When the stator windings are energized, a rotating magnetic
field is established. The permanent magnet rotor has its own
magnetic field that interacts with the rotating magnetic field of
the stator. The north pole of the rotating magnetic field attracts
the south pole of the permanent magnet rotor. As the rotating
magnetic field rotates, it pulls the permanent magnet rotor,
causing it to rotate.
DC Motor Comparison A permanent magnet synchronous motor can be compared to a
standard DC motor. A DC motor consists of a stator and rotor.
The rotor windings are made up conductors that terminate at a
commutator. DC voltage is applied to the rotor thru carbon
brushes which ride on the commutator.
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A permanent electromagnet with north and south poles is
established when DC voltage is applied to the stator. The
resultant magnetic field is static (non-rotational).
The DC voltage applied to the rotor conductors causes current
to flow. This current reverses direction twice per revolution.
Voltage polarity is such that during one half of a revolution
current flows through half the conductors in one direction and
half of the conductors in the opposite direction.
Current flow momentarily decreases to zero in a conductor
when a brush is in direct contact with it. Polarity of the applied
voltage is reversed. This is known as commutation. Current flow
through the conductor increases in the opposite direction. The
resultant magnetic field reverse polarity for the second half of a
revolution.
The resultant magnetic armature fields are of opposite polarity
to the main stator field. The north pole of the rotor is attracted to
the south pole of the stator and rotation results.
conductor..
There are weak points with this design. The commutator adds
significant weight to the rotor, increasing inertia and reducing
acceleration capability. The design of the commutator also limits
the maximum speed of the motor. Current flow through rotor
windings generates heat in the center of the motor that requires
some method of cooling, such as intenal ventilation. In addition,
there are added maintanance cost, such as brushes, which
must be checked and replaced regularly.
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Synchronous Servomotor Permanent magnet synchronous servomotors offer many
advantages over DC motors. The permanent magnetic field is
generated by the rotor instead of the stator. There is no current
flow to generate heat in the rotor. Instead, heat is generated in
the stator windings which are close to the surface of the motor.
In many applications natural convection cooling is all that is
required. In some more demanding applications an external
blower provides sufficient cooling. Since no internal ventilation
is required, servomotors can be built to higher degrees of
protection. Servomotors have a higher efficiency since there are
no losses in a rotor/armature winding.
In addition, there is no commutator to limit speed or
acceleration. Instead of switching rotor current mechanically to
establish the correct polarity of the rotors magnetic field, the
MASTERDRIVE MC commutates the magnetic field of the
stator electronically. In order to accomplish this the drive must
monitor the position of the permanent magnet rotor with
respect to the rotating magnetic field of the stator. This
information is provided to the drive by a feedback device known
as an enccoder. On permanent magnet type synchronous
motors, the encoder must give the absolute position of the rotor
within one revolution.
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Asynchronous Rotor Siemens also offers asynchronous (induction) servomotors. The
most common type of rotor used with asynchronous motors is
the squirrel cage rotor. The construction of the squirrel cage
rotor is reminiscent of the rotating exercise wheels found in
cages of pet rodents. The rotor consists of a stack of steel
laminations with evenly spaced conductor bars around the
circumference. The conductor bars are mechanically and
electrically connected with end rings. A slight skewing of the
bars helps to reduce audible hum. The shaft is an integral part of
the rotor construction.
There is no direct electrical connection between the stator and
the rotor or between the power supply and the rotor of an
asynchronous motor. When a conductor, such as a conductor
bar of the rotor, passes through a magnetic field, a voltage (emf)
is induced in it. The induced voltage causes current flow in the
conductor.
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Current flow in the conductor bars produces magnetic fields
around each rotor bar. The rotor becomes an electromagnet with
alternating north and south poles. It must be remembered that
current and magnetic fields of the stator and rotor are constantly
changing.The following drawing illustrates one instant in time
during which current flow through winding A1 produces a north
pole. The expanding field cuts across an adjacent rotor bar,
inducing a voltage. The resultant magnetic field in the rotor
tooth produces a south pole, which is attracted to the stators
north pole. As the stator magnetic field rotates the rotor follows.
Asynchronous Slip There must be a difference in speed between the rotor of an
asynchronous motor and the rotating magnetic field. This is
known as slip. If the rotor and the rotating magnetic field were
turning at the same speed, no relative motion would exist
between the two and no lines of flux would be cut. With no flux
lines cut no voltage would be induced in the rotor. The
difference in speed is called slip. Slip is necessary to produce
torque.
Slip is dependent on load. An increase in load will cause the
rotor to slow down, that is to increase the slip. A decrease in
load will cause the rotor to speed up or decrease slip. The
following formula is used to calculate slip. For example, a four-
pole motor operated at 60 Hz has a synchronous speed of 1800
RPM. If rotor speed at full load were 1765 RPM, slip is 1.9%.
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Servomotor Ratings
Siemens Servomotors Servomotors, like the Siemens servomotor shown below, are
high-performance motors specifically designed for use with the
high demand of variable speed drives and motion control
applications.
Nameplate The nameplate of a motor provides important information
necessary when applying a motor to an AC drive and motion
control application.
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Catalog and Serial Number The catalog number gives important information about the
motor. The first four digits of the catalog number are the model
number. In this case it is a 1FT6 synchronous servomotor. In
addition to the 1FT6 Siemens also manufactures a 1FK6
synchronous servomotor. There is also the 1PH7, 1PL6, and
1PH4 asynchronous servomotors.
1FT6082-8AF71-1AG1
The serial number (Nr) is used to identify the motor.
E J 899 1745 01 001 EN 60034
Voltage The example motor, like all 1FK6 and 1FT6 motors, is rated for
380 to 460 VAC, which correlates to an effective voltage in the
stator windings of 240 VAC. Induction motors are designed to
operate on a voltage source that supplies a smooth sinusoidal
sine wave, such as the one shown below.
AC variable speed drives, unfortunately, do not produce a
smooth sinusoidal waveform. Modern drives produce a PWM
(pulse width modulation) waveform. This technology produces
very rapid changes in voltage, resulting in high voltage spikes
that can shorten the life of a motor. In addition, motion control
applications typically incorporate quick starts and stops which
add further stress to a standard motor. Siemens servomotors
are specifically designed to operate with the PWM waveform
produced by modern AC variable-speed motion control drives.
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Speed and Torque Rated speed is the nameplate speed, given in RPM, where the
m otor develops rated torque (n) at rated voltage. This motor, for
example, is rated to develop 10.3 Nm of torque at 3000 RPM
with a supply voltage range of 380 to 460 VAC, which correlates
to an effective voltage in the stator windings of 240 VAC. The
nameplate of the 1F.6 motors also shows ratings when the
supply voltage is reduced 50%. At 50% supply voltage rated
speed is 1500 RPM, rated torque is 11.7 Nm, and the effective
stator winding voltage is 120 VAC. This information is put in
parenthesis because this supply voltage is outside the rated
voltage of the MASTERDRIVE MC drive.
The nameplate on this motor also gives a maximum speed of
4160 RPM. Maximum speed is the fastest speed the motor can
operate at and still develop enough torque to maintain that
speed with some amount of load. Variable speed drives are
capable of running a motor at various speeds. When a variable
speed drive is set to turn a motor faster than rated speed, the
motors ability to develop continuous and overload torque is
diminished. A variable speed drive should not be set to operate
a servomotor above its maximum speed.
Current Stall (Stand still) current is 8.2 amps at zero speed and stall
torque (o) with 60 K rise. The Current at stall is 10.7 amps with
a 100 K rise.
Stall Torque and Current Stall describes a condition where power is supplied to the
motor but the rotor is at zero speed. This condition occurs when
an AC drive is causing the motor to act as an electrical brake to
hold the connected load at a specific position.
Stall Current (Io) is the current drawn by the motor that is
required to produce the given stall torque (0).
Stall torque is also a thermal limiting torque when the motor is
at standstill, corresponding to 60 K or 100 K temperature rise.
Stall torque is available at zero speed for an unlimited time.
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Insulation Class In an electrical circuit, current causes heat. A certain amount of
current will flow in the windings of a motor as soon as it is
started. This will cause motor temperature to rise. DIN
(Deutsche Industrie Normenausschuss) is a set of German
standards now used in other countries. DIN VDE 0530 classifies
the accepted amount of temperature rise. The three most
commonly used classes are B, F, and H.
Before a motor is started its windings are at the temperature of
the surrounding air. This is known as ambient temperature. The
standard ambient temperature for electrical equipment is 40 C.
Each insulation class has a specific allowable temperature rise.
Ambient temperature and allowable temperature rise equals the
maximum winding temperature in a motor. In addition, a margin
is allowed to provide for a point at the center of the motors
windings where the temperature is higher. This is referred to as
the motors hot spot.
Temperature rise is always given in absolute values. The
absolute value of Celsius is the Kelvin (K). Kelvin is the SI unit of
temperature. The degree sign () is not used with Kelvin.
The insulation or thermal class (Th. CL. F.) of the example motor
is Class F. Class F insulation has a maximum temperature rise of
105 K. The maximum winding temperature is 145 C (40 C
ambient plus 105 K rise). The maximum steady-state
temperature of a motor with Class F insulation is 155 C.
The operating temperature of a motor is an important factor in
efficient operation and long life. Operating a motor above the
limits of the insulation class reduces the motors life
expectancy. A 10 K increase in the operating temperature can
decrease the life expectancy of a motor as much as 50%.
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Stall Torque, Current, There are two ratings for stall torque (o), stall current (Io), and
and Temperature Rise temperature rise given for this motor. These ratings are related.
o = 10.4/13.0 Nm
Io = 8.20/10.7 A
Temperature Rise = 60/100 K
The motor begins developing torque to turn the connected load.
If the load is such that it only requires 10.4 Nm of torque at stall,
current will be 8.20 A and the temperature rise will be 60 K. If
the load requires 13.0 Nm at stall, current will be 10.7 A and
temperature rise will be 100 K. This is well within Class F
temperature limitations.
IP Protection The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is an
organization that, among other things, defines the degree of
protection provided by enclosures. IEC is associated with
electrical equipment sold in many countries, including the
United States.
The IEC system of classification consists of the letters IP
followed by two numbers. The first number indicates the
degree of protection provided by the enclosure with respect
to persons and solid objects entering the enclosure. The
second number indicates the degree of protection against the
ingress of water. The motor indicated by the sample nameplate
is dust tight and protected against splashing water (IP 64).
1st Number Description
0 Not Protected
1 Protected Against Objects Greater than 50 mm
2 Protected Against Objects Greater than 12 mm
3 Protected Against Objects Greater than 2.5 mm
4 Protected Against Objects Greater than 1.0 mm
5 Protected Against Dust
6 Dust Tight
2nd Number
0 Not Protected
1 Protected Against Dripping Water
2 Protected Against Dripping Water when Tilted up to 15
3 Protected Against Spraying Water
4 Protected Against Splashing Water
5 Protected Against Water J ets
6 Protected Against Heavy Seas
7
Protected Against the Effects of Immersion for Specific
Time and Pressure
8
Protected Against Continuous Submersion Under
Conditions Specified by the Manufacturer
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Review 3
1. Two types of servomotors used in motion control drives
are ____________ and ____________ .
2. Phase windings in a 3-phase motor are located
____________ degrees apart.
3. The speed of the rotating magnetic field is known as
____________ speed.
4. The difference between rotor speed and synchronous
speed of an asynchronous motor is known as
____________ .
5. The output of a PWM type drive is ____________ .
a. sinusoidal
b. pulse width modulated
6. The temperature rise of insulation class F is
____________ K.
7. A motor that is dust tight and protected against
splashing water would have an IP rating of
____________ .
39
Speed-Torque Characteristics
Duty Cycle All motors are limited by the amount of heat that can develop in
the motor windings. Speed-torque curves are based on
standardized duty cycles which lead to the same temperature
rise. The number of possible duty cycle types is almost infinite.
To help promote a better understanding, duty cycles have been
divided into nine standardized categories, which cover most of
the applications encountered.
S1 Continuous Running Duty
S2 Short-Time Duty
S3 Intermittent Periodic Duty Without Starting
S4 Intermittent Periodic Duty With Starting
S5 Intermittent Periodic Duty with Starting and
Electric Braking
S6 Continuous Operation Periodic Duty
S7 Continuous Operation Periodic Duty with Starting
and Electric Braking
S8 Continuous Operation Periodic Duty with Related
Load/Speed Changes
S9 Continuous Operation Duty with Non-Periodic Load
and Speed Variations
Duty cycle profiles can become complex. S1, S3, and S6,
however, are three common duty cycles. Part 2 of the General
Motion Control Catalog provides speed/torque curves for S1
and intermittent/periodic duty cycles where applicable.
S1 Duty Each duty cycle is characterized by cycle times, cycle durations,
and load. S1 duty cycle, for example, characterizes a condition
where the motor operates under constant load of sufficient
duration for thermal equilibrium to be established. All motors
listed in the Siemens catalog are designed for continuous duty
type S1, unless otherwise indicated.
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S3 Duty S3 duty operation is comprised of a sequence of identical duty
cycles, each of which consists of a period of constant load
followed by an interval of no load. Starting current has no
marked effect on the temperature rise of the motor. Operating
time is given in minutes, such as 10 minutes, 30 minutes, or 60
minutes. If no time is given a 10 minute cycle time is assumed.
Cycle duty is given in a percent such as 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%,
or 40%. An S3 duty cycle of 40% for 10 minutes, for example,
would indicate a motor load would be constant for 40% of the
time (4 minutes). A no load condition would occur for 60% of
the time (6 minutes).
S6 Duty S6 duty operation is similar to S3 duty operation. The main
difference is that there arent any de-energized intervals. The
motor remains energized during the no load interval. Operating
time and cycle duration are given in the same manner as for S3
duty operation.
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Speed-Torque Curve A motor can be identified by its frame size, which is associated
of Synchronous with useful mounting information. The speed and torque
Servomotor characteristics for a given frame size depend upon the motor
windings available. A common approach for representing the
range of speed and torque characteristics available for a given
motor frame size is the speed-torque curve.
A speed-torque curve, like the one shown in the following
illustration, shows a motor frame which can be wound for
various speeds and duty cycles. A letter in the catalog number
is used to designate the speed of the motor. A speed-torque
curve will show the expected torque performance of a motor for
a specific duty cycle at a given speed. The motor frame for a
permanent magnet synchronous motor illustrated by the
following speed-torque curve is used on four different motor
windings: 2000, 3000, 4500, and 6000 RPM. Torque ratings in
this example are shown for S1 and S3 duty cycles.
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The speed-torque curve can be made less confusing by filtering
out information so that only the applicable winding and duty
cycles are shown. In the following illustration a motor with an F
winding (3000 RPM) is used. The rated stall torque (zero speed
torque) when operating the motor in S1 duty is about 1.1 Nm
(0.81 lb ft). As the motor accelerates to rated speed, torque
decreases to approximately 0.9 Nm (0.66 lb ft) due to friction
(bearings) and stator losses (mainly eddy currents). The
maximum torque that the motor can supply for a short period of
time at rated speed is called
limit
.
If the motor speed is increased beyond rated speed (3000 RPM)
continuously available torque, indicated by the S1 line,
continues to decrease. The maximum speed is defined by the
intersection of the S1 line with the voltage limiting curve. The
voltage limiting curve must be followed from that point on.
Higher speeds result in reduced available torque.
The maximum torque or current limiting curve indicates the
maximum available short-time torque of the motor. Exceeding
the limit results in a sudden demagnetizing of the permanent
magnets, destroying the synchronous motor.
The rated stall torque when operating the motor in S3 duty is
approximately 1.5 Nm (1.1 lb ft). Torque will remain constant until
about 2000 RPM. Torque will then decrease slightly to
approximately 1.4 Nm (1.0) at 3000 RPM. Torque will continue to
decrease as motor speed is increased above the rated speed of
3000 RPM.
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Speed-Torque Curve for Speed-torque curves can also be supplied for a specific motor.
Specific Motors Larger motors are rated in Newton meters (Nm) and pound-feet
(lb-ft). Smaller motors are rated in Newton meters (Nm) and
pound-inches (lb-in). The following speed-torque curve, for
example, shows the operating capabilities of a 1FT6082 motor.
The motor associated with this curve can deliver 13 Nm (115 lb-
in) at stall and 10.3 Nm (91.2 lb-in) at rated speed (3000 RPM)
continuously. The region in the light grey area of the graph
represents a continuous operating range (S1 duty cycle). The
area represented by the dark grey region of the graph
represents the intermittent operating region.
44
Siemens Servomotors
Siemens manufactures asynchronous and synchronous
servomotors for virtually every motion control application.
Selection and ordering information, as well as configuration aids
such as speed-torque curves for specific motors, can be found
in Part 2 of the General Motion Control Catalog. This is available
from your local Siemens sales representative.
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Motor Protection Cooling Power Range
kW (HP)
Rated Torque
Nm (lb-in)
1FK6 IP64 (IP65)* Natural 0.5 - 5.2
(0.7 -7.0)
0.8 - 16.5
(7 - 148)
1FT6 IP64 (IP65, IP67)* Natural 0.5 - 15.5
(0.7 - 20.7)
0.8 - 88
(7 - 779)
Blower Vent 6.9 - 34.6
(9.2 - 46.4)
17 - 160
(150 - 1416)
Water 11 - 27.6
(14.7 - 37)
34 - 78
(300 - 690)
* Optional
Synchronous Servomotors Siemens manufactures two models of permanent-magnet
synchronous servomotors. The 1FK6 is a standard servomotor.
The 1FT6 is a performance servomotor.
Asynchronous Siemens manufactures three models of squirrel-cage
Servomotors asynchronous servomotors: 1PH7, 1PL6, and 1PH4.
Motor Protection Cooling Power Range
kW (HP)
Rated Torque
Nm (lb-ft)
1PH7 IP 55 Blower Vent
Surface
3.7 - 215
(5 - 288)
22 - 1145
(16 - 844)
1PL6 IP23 Blower Vent 24.5 - 300
(32.8 - 400)
370 - 1720
(273 - 1268)
1PH4 IP65 Water 7.5 - 61
(10 - 81)
48 - 330
(35 - 243)
46
Servomotor Accessories
Holding brakes, built-on gears, and encoders are typical
accessories for use with servomotors and motion control
systems. Holding brakes and built-on gears will be covered in
this section. Encoders will be covered in a separate section.
Holding Brakes Many systems need a holding brake as part of an emergency-
stop function, or for other reasons related to safety. These
brakes are electromagnetic brakes. When voltage is applied to
the brake, the brake is released and the motor is free to be
turned by the AC drive. In the event of a power loss, such as a
power interruption caused by initiating an emergency stop, the
brake is engaged. This will bring the motor to a standstill.
Holding brakes are available for the 1FK6, 1FT6, and 1PH7
motors.
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Gear Reducer In drive systems servomotors are frequently combined with
planetary gear reducers. Planetary gears designed for use with
Siemens servomotors provide a compact unit with low torsional
play, high torsional rigidity, and low running noise.
Earlier in the course we discussed some basic mechanical
concepts which include power, torque, and speed. One way to
see the relationship of these concepts is through a gear
reducer. Power is a function of speed, and directly proportional
to both speed and torque. If torque and speed are increased,
power would also increase. However, if torque is increased and
speed is decreased by a proportionate amount, power remains
constant. This is exactly what happens in a gear reducer. The
following drawing illustrates a 30:1 gear reducer. The input is
driven by a servomotor with 4.068 Nm (3 lb-ft) of torque at 1750
RPM. Output speed is reduced by the gear reducer to 58.3
RPM. Output torque, however, increases to 103.73 Nm
(76.5 lb-ft) for use by the connected system.
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SPG, LP, and PG Series Siemens uses SPG and LP series planetary gears made by
Alpha Geardrives, Elk Grove Village, IL, for 1FK6, 1FT6, and
some 1PH7 motors. Siemens uses PG series planetary gears
manufactured by ZF Friedrichshafen, Florence, KY, for 1FK6 and
1FT6 motors.
Review 4
1. ____________ is the duty cycle designation for
continuous running duty.
2. If no time is given for a duty cycle a ____________
minute time is assumed.
3. The speed-torque curve for specific servomotors show
speed-torque ratings for ____________ and
____________ operating regions.
4. The maximum rated torque of a 1PH4 asynchronous
servomotor is ____________ HP.
5. 1PH7, 1PL6, and 1PH4 are examples of ____________
servomotors.
SPG Gears LP Gears PG Gears
Transmission
Ratios, single-stage
4, 5, 7, 10 5, 10 4, 5, 7, 10
Transmission
Ratios, 2-stage
16, 20, 28,
40, 50, 70,
100
25, 50, 100 16, 20, 25, 35,
40, 49, 50, 70,
100
Efficiency up to 97% >95% >95% single-
stage, >97%, 2-
stage
Torsional Play up to under
2 arc min
<10 arc min <6 arc min single-
stage, <10 arc
min 2-stage
49
Encoders and Resolvers
Siemens encoders and resolvers are designed for use with the
Siemens servomotors discussed in previous sections. Encoders
and resolvers allow the MASTERDRIVE MC to determine
speed, position, and direction of shaft rotation.
One type of encoder available for use with Siemens
servomotors is an incremental encoder. An incremental encoder
consists of a transparent disk marked with lines around the
radius. A photoelectric scanning device is located near the disk.
The output of an incremental encoder is either a series of
pulses or a series of sinusoidal waveforms.
50
Closed-Loop Control In a motion control system, precise control must be maintained
over acceleration, deceleration, velocity, and position. This
requires that the drive or other controlling device be provided
with commands associated with these items. The drive
determines the signal to provide to the servomotor by
comparing the actual values with the command values. The
actual values are calculated based upon feedback received from
the encoder. This is an example of closed-loop control.
In the following illustration an input reference signal, indicating
the position the load is to be moved to, is applied to a counter in
the motion control drive. As the motor is accelerated pulses
from an encoder are returned to the counter at an increasing
rate. Once the motor has reached the desired running speed the
pulses are returned at a constant rate. The drive can keep track
of the rotors position and number of rotations by counting these
pulses. When the load approaches the desired location the
drive slows the motor to a stop. The load is now in the desired
location.