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1 TRIGONOMETRY

Objectives

After studying this chapter you should

trigonometric identities;

any of the forms Rsin( ) or R cos( ) ;

associated calculus.

1.0

Introduction

In the first Pure Mathematics book in this series, you will have

encountered many of the elementary results concerning the

trigonometric functions. These will, by and large, be taken as

read in this chapter. However, in the first few sections there is

some degree of overlap between the two books: this will be good

revision for you.

1.1

sin( A + B) = sin A cos B + cos Asin B

sin( A B) = sin A cos B cos Asin B

Adding these two equations gives

sin( A + B) + sin( A B) = 2 sin A cos B

(1)

Let C = A + B and D = A B,

then C + D = 2 A and C D = 2B. Hence

A=

C+D

2

, B=

CD

2

Chapter 1 Trigonometry

2

2

This is more easily remembered as

'sine plus sine = twice sine( half the sum ) cos( half the difference)'

Activity 1

In a similar way to above, derive the formulae for

(a) sin C sin D (b) cos C + cos D (c) cos C cos D

By reversing these formulae, write down further formulae for

(a) 2 sin E cos F

Example

Show that cos 59 +sin 59 = 2 cos14 .

Solution

Firstly,

So

LHS = cos 59 + cos 31

59 + 31

59 31

= 2 cos

cos

2

2

= 2 cos 45 cos14

=2

2

2

cos14

= 2 cos14

= RHS

Example

Prove that sin x + sin 2x + sin 3x = sin 2x (1 + 2 cos x ).

Solution

LHS = sin 2x + (sin x + sin 3x )

3x + x

3x x

cos

2

2

= sin 2x + 2 sin 2x cos x

= sin 2x + 2 sin

= sin 2x (1 + 2 cos x )

Chapter 1 Trigonometry

Example

Write cos 4x cos x sin 6x sin 3x as a product of terms.

Solution

1

{cos( 4x + x ) + cos( 4x x )}

2

1

1

= cos 5x + cos 3x

2

2

Now

cos 4x cos x =

and

sin 6x sin 3x =

Thus,

LHS =

=

=

1

{cos(6x 3x ) cos(6x + 3x )}

2

1

1

cos 3x cos 9x

2

2

1

1

1

1

cos 5x + cos 3x cos 3x + cos 9x

2

2

2

2

1

2

1

5x + 9x

5x 9x

2 cos

cos

2

2

2

= cos 7x cos 2x

The sum formulae are given by

A + B

A B

cos

2

2

A + B

A B

sin

2

2

A + B

A B

cos

2

2

A + B

A B

sin

2

2

1

(sin( A + B) + sin( A B))

2

1

cos A cos B = (cos( A + B) + cos( A B))

2

1

sin Asin B = (cos( A B) cos( A + B))

2

sin A cos B =

Chapter 1 Trigonometry

Exercise 1A

1. Write the following expressions as products:

(e) cos

14

4

8

2

+ cos

+ cos

+ cos

15

15

15

15

(c)

(d)

2. Evaluate in rational/surd form

sin75 + sin15

3. Write the following expressions as sums or

differences:

(a) 2 cos 7x cos5x

5x

1

(b) 2 cos x cos

2

2

(e)

2sin 4 A sin 6 A sin 2 A

sin ( A + B ) + sin ( A B )

= tan A

cos( A + B ) + cos( A B )

cos( + 30 ) + cos( + 60 )

sin ( + 30 ) + sin ( + 60 )

1 tan

1 + tan

terms.

(d) 2sin165cos105

and cos

involve two trig functions which, on the surface, makes them

difficult to handle. After working through the following

activity, however, you should be able to see that such

expressions (called linear combinations of sin and cos linear

since they involve no squared terms or higher powers) can be

written as a single trig function. By re-writing them in this way

you can deduce many results from the elementary properties of

the sine or cosine function, and solve equations, without having

to resort to more complicated techniques.

For this next activity you will find it very useful to have a graph

plotting facility. Remember, you will be working in radians.

Activity 2

Sketch the graph of a function of the form

y = a sin x + b cos x

(where a and b are constants) in the range x .

4

of terms.

4

1.2

= cot 2 A

Chapter 1 Trigonometry

From the graph, you must identify the amplitude of the function

and the x-coordinates of

(i)

as accurately as you can.

y

R

An example has been done for you; for y = sin x + cos x , you can

see that amplitude R 1. 4

crossing point nearest to the origin O at x = =

4

maximum occurs at x = =

4

Try these for yourself :

(a) y = 3sin x + 4 cos x

-1

R, the amplitude;

, the crossing point nearest to O;

In each example above, you should have noticed that the curve is

itself a sine/cosine 'wave'. These can be obtained from the curves

of either y = sin x or y = cos x by means of two simple

transformations (taken in any order).

1. A stretch parallel to the y-axis by a factor of R,

the amplitude, and

2. A translation parallel to the x-axis by either

or (depending on whether you wish to start

with sin x or cos x as the original function).

Consider, for example y = sin x + cos x. This can be written in the

form y = Rsin ( x + ), since

Rsin(x + ) = R{sin x cos + cos x sin }

= R cos sin x + Rsin cos x

same as sin x + cos x.

5

Chapter 1 Trigonometry

Thus

Dividing these terms gives

tan = 1 =

R2 cos2 + R2 sin2 = 12 + 12

R2( cos2 + sin2 ) = 2

Since cos2 + sin2 = 1,

R2 = 2 R = 2

Thus

Activity 3

Express the function sin x + cos x in the form

sin x + cos x = R cos(x )

Find suitable values for R and using the method shown above.

sin = cos

2

so that

= 2 cos x +

4

2

= 2 cos x

4

= 2 cos x

4

since cos( ) = cos .

Chapter 1 Trigonometry

Example

Write 7sin x 4 cos x in the form Rsin( x )

where R > 0 and 0 < < 2 .

Solution

Assuming the form of the result,

7sin x 4 cos x = Rsin(x )

= Rsin x cos Rcos x sin

R cos = 7

Rsin = 4

Squaring and adding, as before, gives

2

R = 7 + 4 = 65

Thus

7

4

4

, sin =

or tan =

65

65

7

= 0.519 radians, to 3 sig. figs.

cos =

so

Exercise 1B

Write (in each case, R > 0 and 0 < < 2 )

Chapter 1 Trigonometry

1.3

Linear trigonometric

equations

a cos x + b sin x = c

for given constants a, b and c.

Example

Solve 3cos x + sin x = 2 for 0 x 360 .

Solution

Method 1

Note that cos2 x and sin2 x are very simply linked using

would seem in order.

3cos x = 2 sin x

Rearranging:

Squaring:

0 = 10 sin 2 x 4 sin x 5

4 216

20

and

giving

Method 2

Write 3cos x + sin x as R cos( x ) (or Rsin( x ) )

Firstly,

R = 32 + 12 = 10

so

1

3cos x + sin x = 10

cos x +

sin x

10

10

10 ( cos x cos + sin x sin )

Chapter 1 Trigonometry

Thus cos =

3

7

1

or tan = => = 18. 43

or sin =

10

10

3

10 cos( x 18. 43) = 2

2

10

2

x 18. 43 = cos 1

10

and

x = 50. 77 +18. 43 or 309.23 +18. 43

x = 69.2 or 327. 7 (1 d.p.)

The question now arises as to why one method yields four answers,

the other only two. If you check all four answers you will find that

the two additional solutions in Method 1 do not fit the equation

3cos x + sin x = 2 . They have arisen as extra solutions created by

the squaring process. (Think of the difference between the

equations x = 2 and x 2 = 4 : the second one has two solutions.) If

Method 1 is used, then the final answers always need to be checked

in order to discard the extraneous solutions.

Exercise 1C

1. By writing 7sin x + 6 cos x in the form

Rsin ( x + )( R > 0,0< < 90 ) solve the equation

7sin x + 6 cos x = 9 for values of x between

0 and 360 .

3. Write

2

(a) 4 cos + 3sin = 2

for 0 180

for 0 360 .

for 0 x 360

Chapter 1 Trigonometry

1.4

In this section you will need to keep in mind all of the identities

that you have encountered so far including the Addition

Formulae, the Sum and Product Formulae and the Multiple

Angle Identities in order to solve the given equations.

Example

Solve cos 5 + cos = cos 3 for 0 180

Solution

cos A + cos B = 2 cos

Using

A + B

A B

cos

2

2

2 cos 3 cos 2 = cos 3

Thus

cos 3 ( 2 cos 2 1) = 0

Then

(a) cos 3 = 0

or

(b) 2 cos 2 1 = 0

cos 2 =

1

2

2 = 60, 300

[Remember, for final solutions in range 0 180 , solutions

for 3 must be in range 0 3 180 = 540 .]

Exercise 1D

1. Solve for 0 180 :

(a) cos + cos3 = 0

(c) sin + sin 3 = sin 2 .

10

(b) sin 4 + sin 3 = 0

3

Chapter 1 Trigonometry

which sin 4 x + cos3x = 0 .

t and show that

powers of sin only.

Use these results to solve, for 0 360 ,

cos =

1 t2

1+ t2

terms of t.

(c) cos cos3 = tan 2

tan x + cot x = 8cos2 x for 0 x .

2t

1 3t 2

1 t4

of in the range 0< < 360 .

1.5

functions

be 11 ('one-to-one'). Now the three trigonometric functions

sine, cosine and tangent are each periodic. Thus the equation

sin x = k, for k 1, has infinitely many solutions x. A sketch of

the graph of y = sin x is shown opposite.

y

y = sin x

-2

-1

1

single answer is given, despite there being infinitely many to

choose from. In order to restrict a 'many-to-one' function of this

kind into a 11 function, so that the inverse function gives a

unique answer , the range of values is restricted. This can be

done in a number of ways, but the most sensible way is to

choose a range of values x which includes the acute angles. This

is shown on the diagram opposite.

y

1

Thus for 1 k 1,

sin x = k x = sin 1 k

x :

2

2

these are the principal values of the inverse-sine function.

will be assigned a unique value of x in the range

Activity 4

By drawing the graphs y = cos x and y = tan x , find the ranges of

principal values of the inverse-cosine and inverse-tangent

functions. (These should include the acute angles of x.)

11

Chapter 1 Trigonometry

sin 1 x, cos 1 , tan 1 x

(sin x )1 =

1

, etc.

sin x

functions as

1.6

General solutions

equations within certain ranges. For example:

Solve sin 3x =

1

2

or

Find the values of for which sin 2 + sin 2 = 0

with 0 2 .

At the same time, you will have been aware that even the simplest

trig equation can have infinitely many solutions: sin = 0

( radians) is true when = 0, , 2 ,3 , K and also for all

negative multiples of as well.

Overall, one could say that the equation sin = 0 has general

solution = n where n is an integer. Moreover, there are no

values of which satisfy this equation that do not take this form.

Thus, ' = n ' describes all the values of satisfying ' sin = 0 '

as n is allowed to take any integer value. This is what is meant by

a general solution.

For 900 x 900 (radians can come later), the graph of

y = cos x is shown below.

y

P. V.

-720

-1

12

y=k

-360

y = cos x

360

720

Chapter 1 Trigonometry

1 k 1, the actual value is immaterial) is also drawn on the

sketch.

The principal value of x for which x = cos 1 k (representing the

point when y = k and y = cos x intersect) is circled and labelled

'P.V.' Since the cosine function is periodic with period 360 , all

other solutions to the equation cos x = k corresponding to this

principal value are obtained by adding, or subtracting, a

multiple of 360 to it. The points of intersection of the two

graphs representing these solutions are circled also.

Now the cosine curve here is symmetric in the y-axis. So if is

the principal value of x for which cos x = k , then is also a

solution, and this is not obtained by adding, or subtracting, a

multiple of 360 to, or from, . All the remaining solutions of

the equation can be obtained by adding or subtracting a multiple

of 360 to or from .

The general solution of the equation

cos x = k

( 1 k 1)

x = 360n

is then

= cos 1 k

where

integer.

In radians, using 360 2 radians, the general solution looks

like

x = 2n , n an integer.

Activity 5

Use the graphs of y = tan x and y = sin x to find the general

solutions of the equations (in degrees) of the equations

tan x = k

( < k < )

sin x = k

( 1 k 1) .

and

integer, and express the general solutions in terms of radians

once the results have been found in terms of degrees.

13

Chapter 1 Trigonometry

In radians

In degrees

= n + ( 1)

n

= 180n + ( 1)n

= 2n

= 360n

= n +

= 180n +

The AEB's Booklet of Formulae gives only the set of results for

, in radians, but you should be able to convert the results into

degrees without any difficulty by remembering that

180 radians, etc.

Example

Find the general solution, in degrees, of the equation

tan 3 = 3

Solution

tan 3 = 3

tan 3 = tan 60

3 = 180n + 60 quoting the above result

= (60n + 20 )

Sometimes, you may have to do some work first.

Example

Find the general solution, in radians, of the equation

8sin + 15 cos = 6 .

14

Chapter 1 Trigonometry

Solution

Rewriting the LHS of this equation in the form Rsin( + ) , for

instance, gives R = 82 + 152 = 17 and cos =

8

15

or sin =

17

17

15

so that 1.081 radians. [Check this working

8

through to make sure you can see where it comes from.]

or tan =

17sin( + 1.081) = 6

sin( + 1.081) =

6

= sin 0.3607

17

6

)

17

considering the cases n even and n odd separately, but there is

little else to be gained by proceeding in this way.

Note on accuracy: although final, non-exact numerical answers

are usually required to three significant places, the 0.3607 and

1.081 in the answer above are really intermediate answers and

hence are given to 4 significant figure accuracy. However,

unless a specific value of n is to be substituted in order to

determine an individual value of , you will not be penalised

for premature rounding provided your working is clear and the

answers correspond appropriately.

This final example illustrates the sort of ingenuity you might

have to employ in finding a general solution of some equation.

Example

Find the values of x for which cos x sin 4x = 0 .

Solution

2

written as

cos x = cos 4x

2

whence

x = 2n 4x

2

15

Chapter 1 Trigonometry

i.e.

4x or

2

x = 2n +

5x = 2n +

x = 2n

+

5 10

or

x = 2n

+ 4x

2

3x = 2n +

or

x = 2n

+

3 6

merely an indicator of some integer; positive, negative or zero. It

is immaterial then, whether it is denoted as positive or negative:

you could write this solution as x = 2k +

( k = n) for some

3 6

integer k, or alternatively, as x = 2n + .

3 6

In this case, the general solution takes two forms. An alternative

approach could have re-written the equation as

sin 4x = sin x

2

n

4x = n + ( 1) x

2

When n is odd

4x = n

+x

2

3x = n

x=n

= ( 2n 1)

3 6

6

(n odd)

16

4x = n +

x

2

5x = n +

x=n

+

= ( 2n + 1)

5 10

10

(n even)

Chapter 1 Trigonometry

general solution for cos is less clumsy than that for sin.

This example also highlights another important point: two

equivalent sets of answers may look very different from each

other and yet still both be correct.

Exercise 1E

1. Find the general solutions, in degrees, of the

equations

(e)

6 sin 2 cos = 2

1

(b) tan ( 45) =

3

(d) cot ( 60 2 ) = 3

2

(h) tan 2 4 x = 3

2. Find the general solutions, in radians, of the

equations

(a) tan x = 2

(b) cos 2 x + = 1

1

(d) sec x + = 2

2

4

1.7

(h) tan x + cot 2 x = 0

3. Prove the identity cos 4 x + 4 cos2 x = 8cos 4 x 3 .

Hence find the general solution, in radians, of

the equation 2 cos 4 + 8cos2 = 3 .

trigonometric functions

may seem rather daunting. However, we can write y = sin 1 x as

y

2

2

ensures that this can be done.) Then, using the Chain Rule for

differentiation,

sin y = x . (Taking the principal range values

d

dy

d

dy

(sin y ) = (sin y ) = cos y

dx

dx

dy

dx

so that sin y = x differentiates to give

cos y

dy

=1

dx

dy

1

=

dx cos y

17

Chapter 1 Trigonometry

Now, using

cos 2 y = 1 sin 2 y ,

cos 2 y = 1 sin 2 y = 1 x 2

so that

dy

1

=

dx

1 x2

the inverse-sine curve is always positive (technically speaking,

infinitely so at x = 1 ) and so y = sin 1 x differentiates to

dy

1

=

dx

1 x2

Activity 6

Use the above approach to find

dy

when y = tan 1 x .

dx

necessary to learn this result as well as the result for the

derivative of sin 1 x when reversing the process and integrating.

The results

d

1

sin 1 x =

dx

1 x2

d

( tan1 x ) = 1 +1x2

dx

and the corresponding integrations

1

dx = sin1 x + C

2

1 x

1 + x dx = tan

1

x+C

18

(C constant)

Chapter 1 Trigonometry

x

= sin 1 + C

a

a x

dx

a +x

dx

1 1 x

tan

+ C for constant C.

a

a

Formulae, and may be quoted when needed.

Activity 7

(a) Use the substitution x = a sin to prove the result

x

= sin 1 + C .

a

a x

dx

dx

x

1

= tan 1 + C .

a

+ x2 a

Example

Evaluate

1

4

dx

1 4x 2

Solution

Now

so that

1 4x 2 = 4

1

4

1

1

x2 = 2

x2

4

4

1

dx

=

2

2

1 4x

1

4

dx

1

x2

4

1

format, with a = )

2

x4

1

= sin 1 1

2

2

0

1

4

0

1

sin 1 2x

2

1 1 1

sin

sin 1 0

2

2

1

0

26

12

19

Chapter 1 Trigonometry

Example

Evaluate

3dx

,

2 + x2

Solution

3dx

=3

2 + x2

( 2)

1

dx

2

[so a = 2 here]

+ x2

2

1

x

= 3

tan 1

2 1

2

=

1

3 1

2 tan 1

tan

2

2

3

(0.95532 0.615 48)

2

= 0. 7209

(4 d.p.)

Exercise 1F

Evaluate the following integrals, giving your

answers to four significant figures. [Remember to

work in radians.]

1

8

1.

2.

8+ x

dx

1 8x

1

4

3.

4.

dx

dx

5 + 9x 2

7

7 x2

6.

7.

8.

dx

9.

3

2

6

5

2

5.

20

3

dx

6 + 2x2

*10.

dx

6 + x2

dx

5 2x2

dx

3 x2

2dx

4 3x 2

1 x2

2 dx

1 1 + x

Chapter 1 Trigonometry

1.8

tan 2 =

2 tan

1 tan 2

tan ( A + B) =

Setting =

tan A + tan B

1 tan A tan B

1

A then yields the result

2

tan A =

2t

1

where t = tan A

1 t2

2

2t

, and the

1 t2

hypotenuse, h, is given by Pythagoras' theorem:

h = 1 t

2

) + (2t )

2t

A

1t2

= 1 2t 2 + t 4 + 4t 2

= 1 + 2t 2 + t 4

= 1 + t2

So h = 1 + t 2 and

sin A =

2t

1 t2

and

cos

A

=

1 + t2

1 + t2

trigonometry manipulation, but these results (which are given in

the AEB's Booklet of Formulae) have their uses, particularly in

handling some otherwise tricky trigonometric integrations.

Incidentally, the above working pre-supposes that angle A is

acute, and this is generally the case in practice. The identities

are valid, however, for all values of A in the range 0 A 2

(and hence all values of A).

1

1

A = , 3 , K tan A is not defined, the

2 2

2

2

limiting values of sin A, cos A and tan A are still correct.

Although, when

21

Chapter 1 Trigonometry

Example

Use the substitution t = tan

1

x to show that the indefinite

2

1

integral of sec x is ln tan + x .

4 2

Solution

t = tan

1

x

2

dt 1 2 1

= sec x

dx 2

2

1

2dt = sec2 x dx

1

2dt = 1 + tan 2 x dx

2dt

= dx

1 + t2

Also, sec x =

1

1 + t2

, using one of the above results.

=

cos x 1 t 2

Then

sec x dx =

1 + t 2 2dt

.

1 t2 1 + t2

1 t

(1 t )(1 + t ) dt

dt

1

1

=

+

dt by partial fractions

1 + t 1 t

= ln 1 + t ln 1 t

= ln

Now

1+ t

1 t

1

tan + tan x

1

1+ t

2

4

tan

+ x =

=

1

4 2

1 tan tan x 1 t

2

4

so that

sec x dx = ln tan 4 + 2 x

22

(since tan

= 1)

4

Chapter 1 Trigonometry

Activity 8

Use the above identities for cos x and tan x to prove that

1

x

2

sec x + tan x =

1

1 tan x

2

1 + tan

1

The results sec x dx = ln sec x + tan x = ln tan + x are

4 2

given in the AEB's Booklet of Formulae, as is the result

cosec x dx = ln tan 2 x

1

Since this latter result is much easier to establish, it has been set

as an exercise below.

Example

1

Use the substitution t = tan to evaluate exactly

2

d

4 cos + 3sin

Solution

1

1

dt 1

2dt

t = tan

= sec 2

= d

2

2

d 2

1 + t2

Also,

2t

1 t2

and sin =

1 + t2

1 + t2

Changing the limits:

cos =

= 0 t = 0 and =

t = tan = 1

2

4

so

, 0,1

( )

2

Thus

1

2dt

d

2

=

.

1 + t2

0

2

2

1+ t

1+ t

1

23

Chapter 1 Trigonometry

4 4t

2dt

2

+ 6t

dt

2 + 3t 2t 2

2

1

5

=

+ 5 dt

2 t 1 + 2t

1

1

= ln 2 t + ln 1 + t

5

5

0

1

1

1

1

= ln1 + ln 3 ln 2 ln1

5

5

5

5

=

1

ln 6

5

In the following exercise, you may have to use the tan 1 or sin 1

integrals from the previous section.

Exercise 1G

1

1. Use the substitution t = tan x to evaluate

2

dx

, giving your answer to 4 decimal

1 + sin 2 x

places.

2. By writing t = tan

1

x , show that

2

(a)

cosec x dx = ln tan 2 x + C

(b)

(c)

cos 1 x

1

d

3 + 5sin

2t

where

1 t2

1

t = tan A , and setting A = , show that

6

2

tan

=2 3

12

dx

1

= tan x + C

1 + cos x

2

dx

(c)

1

= 2sin 1 tan x + C

2

cos x

d

2 + cos

5. By setting t = tan

sec 2 x

1

1

3. Use the t = tan substitution to evaluate exactly

2

the integrals

(a)

2

3

24

d

5 + 4 cos

(b)

1

tan

2

d

5 + 4 cos

1

x , find the indefinite integral

2

1 cos x dx

Chapter 1 Trigonometry

1.9

Harder integrations

the standard results for sin1 and tan1, but you may have to do

some work to get them into the appropriate form.

Before you start, here are a few reminders of the algebraic

techniques which you will need, and also one or two calculus

results. To give you a clear idea of how they work out in

practice, they are incorporated into the following set of

examples.

Example

By writing

x 2 + 7x + 2

in terms of partial fractions, show that

1 + x 2 (2 x )

x 2 + 7x + 2

dx = ln 2

2

2

4

1 + x (2 x )

(

0

Solution

x 2 + 7x + 2

Ax + B

C

2 +

2

2x

1 + x (2 x ) 1 + x

x 2 + 7x + 2 ( Ax + B)( 2 x ) + C 1 + x 2

Substituting x = 2 gives

20 = 5C

C=4

Substituting x = 0 gives

2 = 2B + 4

B = 1

Comparing x2 coefficients:

1 = A + 4

x 2 + 7x + 2

3x 1

4

2 +

2

1

+

x

2

x

1 + x (2 x )

Thus

1 3x

1 1

1 1

x2 + 7x + 2

dx =

dx

dx + 4

dx

2

2

2

0 (1 + x )( 2 x )

01 + x

01 + x

02 x

1

Then

A=3

25

Chapter 1 Trigonometry

separate the directly integrable bits. Note that

f ( x )

dx = ln f ( x ) + constant

f ( x)

i.e. when the 'top' is exactly the differential of the 'bottom', the

d

integral is natural log of the 'bottom'. Now

1 + x 2 = 2x and

dx

d

(2 x ) = 1 , so the constants in the numerators need jiggling

dx

but, apart from this, you should see that the three integrals are

log, tan1 and log respectively:

1+ x

2x

3

2

3

ln x 2 + 1

2

dx

[ (

1+ x

1

dx 4

)] [tan x ]

1

1

0

1

dx

0 2x

4[ ln ( 2 x )]0

1

2 x , but 1 + x 2 is always positive and 2 x is positive for x

between

0 and 1.]

3

( ln 2 ln1) tan 1 1 tan 1 0 4( ln1 ln 2 )

2

3

ln 2 + 4 ln 2

4

2

11

ln 2

4

2

Example

Evaluate

1

3

3x + 1

1 3x 2

significant figures.

Solution

1

3

3x + 1

1 3x

dx =

1

3

3x

1 3x

dx +

1

3

1

1 3x 2

dx

What about the first one?

26

Chapter 1 Trigonometry

You might just recognise where the x in the numerator comes from

if you think about it long enough. To save time: try calling

u = 1 3x 2 = 1 3x 2

1

2;

du 1

= (1 3x2 ) 2 ( 6x ) using the Chain Rule

dx 2

then

3x

So

3x

1 3x

1 3x 2

dx = 1 3x 2

'integration by recognition']

and

1

3

3x + 1

1 3x

dx =

1

3

3x

1

dx +

2

3

1 3x

= 1 3x

1

2 3

0

1

3

dx

1

3

x2

1

3

1 1 x

sin 1

+

3

3 0

2

1 1 1

=

+ 1 +

sin1 0

sin

3

3

3

Example

Integrate exactly the integrals

(a)

dx

3x 6x + 4

(b)

3

2

dx

2 + 5x 2x 2

(a)

[Now x 2 2x + 43 = ( x 1) + 13

by completing the square: the

factor of 3 was taken out first

in order to make this easier to

cope with.]

2

Solution

dx

1

=

3x 6x + 4 3

2

1

=

3

dx

x 2 2x +

4

3

dx

1 + x 1 2

(

)

3

dx

1

2 with a =

+x

3

and 'x' = x 1 , which is allowed

when a single x is involved.]

[This is

27

Chapter 1 Trigonometry

x 1

1 1

= 1 tan 1 1

3 3

3 1

(b)

)]1

3

tan 1 [ x 1] 3

3

3

tan 1 3 tan 1 0

3

3

0

3 3

=

3

2

3

9

dx

1

=

2

2

2 + 5x 2x

3

2

dx

1 + 25 x x 2

1 +

5

5

x x 2 = x 2 x + 1 = x

2

2

2

5

25

+ 1

4

16

9

x

16

5

4

This gives

integral =

1

2

3

2

( ) (x )

dx

5 2

4

3 2

4

1 1 ( x

=

sin 3

2

4

5

4

) 2

1 1 ( 4x 5) 2

=

sin

3 1

2

=

1 1 1

1

sin 1

sin

3

3

2

1

1

2 sin 1

3

2

= 2 sin 1

28

1

3

Chapter 1 Trigonometry

Exercise 1H

3x + 10

(2 x ) 4 + x 2

1. By expressing

in terms of partial

6. Show that

3x + 10

(2 x )( 4 + x )dx

(1 + x )(2 + x )dx

2. Show that

2

3

4

3x + 2

dx = ln +

.

18

4 3

9 + 2x2

dy

and deduce that

dx

2x 3

4 x2

3

2

1

2

2x x

2

3

dx

(e)

4 + 3x x 2

dx

2 + x2

for which

f (x) =

C

x2 + 2x 4

2x 2

+

A + B 2

x 2x + 4 x2 2x + 4

x2 2x + 4

f (x).

1 + 2 x 3x

dx

xx

(b)

x

0

dx

x +1

(d) 2 x 2 2 x + 5

(f)

x

0

4x

3

dx = 2 ln .

2

5 + x2

4x + 2

dx ,

5 + x2

giving your answer correct to 3 decimal

places.

3x dx

1 + 6 x 3x 2

3

2

1+ x3

x2 + 2x + 7

dx = 3 1 + ln 2 +

2

1+ x2

dx

(b)

following cases, evaluate exactly the integrals:

5x + 4

dx

x2 + 4

Show that

(c)

Hence evaluate

x2 + 2x + 7

Bx

C

A+

+

1+ x2

1+ x2 1+ x2

(a)

dx

such that

(a)

dx = C 4 x 2

4 x2

for some constant C. Hence evaluate exactly

3

2

2 1

4 3x

dx =

ln13 .

4 + 3x 2

3 3 2

fractions, evaluate

1

[Hint:

x3

1 x2

1 x2

dx =

dx = x 2

1 .

3

1

(8 + 5) .

24

x

1 x2

dx ]

dx

+ 6 x + 10

29

Chapter 1 Trigonometry

1. Prove the identity tan + cot 2cosec2 . Find,

in radians, all the solutions of the equation

tan x + cot x = 8cos2 x in the interval 0 < x < .

(AEB)

12. Express f ( x ) =

3+ x

in partial

1 + x 2 (1 + 2 x )

enclosed by the curve with equation y = f ( x ) , the

equation 6 tan 2 = 4sin 2 + 1 .

(AEB)

find the values of , in the interval 0< < 180

for which 3( cot 2 + tan ) = 4 .

2

(AEB)

equation tan 4 x 4 tan 2 x + 3 = 0 .

(AEB)

(AEB)

solutions in the interval 0< < 360 .

where R > 0 and 0< < 90 . The function f is

defined by f ( ) = 6 5cos 2sin for

of f and the values of , correct to the nearest

0.1 , at which these occur.

1

the equation sin cos = k when

(a) k = 0 , and

(b) k = 1 .

(AEB)

(AEB)

9. Show that

sin 2 x + sin 4 x + sin 6 x sin 4 x (1 + 2 cos2 x )

Hence prove the identity

1

.

6+ 2

(AEB)

Hence solve the equation

3 sin 3

giving the general solution in degrees.

11. Given that 1 < x, y < 1 , prove that

x+y

tan 1 x + tan 1 y = tan 1

1 xy

Deduce the value of tan 1 12 + tan 1 15 + tan 1 18

(AEB)

30

1

ln 2 . Hence using

2

1

tan

x dx . (AEB)

16 x

( 2 x )(3 + x2 )

in partial fractions.

1

16 x

5

3

(2 x )(3 + x ) dx = ln 3 + 6

0

16

(AEB)

sin 3

in terms of cos . Hence show

sin

that if sin 3 = sin 2 , where is a constant,

16. Express

Determine the general solution, in degrees, of the

equation sin 3 = 3sin 2 .

(AEB)

17. Express 3cos x 4sin x in the form Acos( x + ) ,

12

x dx

15. Express

(AEB)

nearest 0.1 .

1+ x

0

the nearest 0.1 . Hence find the solutions of the

1 9

.

+ ln

4 2 2

(AEB)

to the nearest 0.1 .

(a) Given that f ( x ) =

24

:

3cos x 4sin x + 7

f(x) and the values of x to the nearest 0.1 in

the interval 180< x < 180 at which these

occur;

(ii) Find the general solution, in degrees, of the

16

.

equation f ( x ) =

3

(b) Solve the equation 3cos x 4sin x = 5cos3x ,

giving your answers to the nearest 0.1 in

the interval 0< x < 180 .

(Oxford)

Chapter 1 Trigonometry

2

value of tan .

(a) For each of the following equations, solve for

in the interval 0 2 and give your

answers in radians correct to one decimal

place:

(i) 3cos + 4sin = 2

A + B

A B

prove that cos A + cos B = 2 cos

.

cos

2

2

Hence find, in terms of , the general solution

of the equation cos5 + cos = cos3 .

corresponding identity for sin A sin B , show that

The triangle PQR has angle QPR = ( 0 ) , angle

(b) The curve with equation

10

y=

, between x = and

3cos x + 4sin x + 7

x = , cuts the y-axis at A, has a maximum

point at B and a minimum point at C. Find

the coordinates of A, B and C.

(AEB)

6

3

the formulae for sin ( A + B ) and cos( A + B ) to

express f(x) in the form C cos x + D 3 sin x , where

C and D are integers. Hence show that f(x) can

be written in the form 61 cos( x ) giving a

value for in radians to three significant figures.

(Oxford)

20. Prove the identity 1 + sin 2

(1 + tan )2

1 + tan

2

. By

the general solution, in radians, of the equation

(AEB)

prove the identity

cos2 2 cos 2 1 .

sin + tan cos2 = 0 , giving your answer in

radians in terms of .

sin 5 = 3sin and deduce that cos 4 + cos2 = 1 .

By solving a quadratic equation in cos2 , or

otherwise, find the value of , giving your

answer to the nearest 0.1 .

(AEB)

7x x 2

A

Bx + C

+

,

(2 x ) x 2 + 1 2 x x 2 + 1

equation y =

7x x 2

. Prove that the area

(2 x ) x 2 + 1

7

and the line x = 1 is ln 2 .

(AEB)

4

2

24. Use the substitution x = 1 + 2 tan to evaluate the

x

dx giving your answer

x2 2x + 5

correct to two decimal places.

(AEB)

integral

2

expressions as the difference of two sines, prove

the identity

7

( 2 cos3 + 2 cos2 + 2 cos + 1) sin sin .

2

2

deduce the identity

7

.

8cos 3 + 4 cos 2 4 cos 1 sin sin

2

2

Hence, or otherwise, show that cos

(d) By substituting =

5

2 1

= .

prove that cos cos

5

5 2

2

4

, cos

7

7

6

are the roots of the equation

7

3

2

8x + 4 x 4 x 1 = 0 .

and cos

(AEB)

5

cos3 4 cos 3 3cos

prove that

(AEB)

31

Chapter 1 Trigonometry

(b) Find the general solution, in radians, of the

(AEB)

equation cos x + 3cos3x + cos5x = 0 .

27. Express f ( ) = 4 cos + 3sin in the form

.

2

(a) A rectangle OABC is formed from the origin,

the point A( 4 cos , 0 ) , the point B, and the

Rcos( ) where R > 0 and 0 < <

and express the perimeter of the rectangle in

terms of f ( ) . Hence find the greatest

range 0

and state the coordinates of B

2

for which this greatest perimeter occurs.

(b) A curve has the equation

y=

1

0 x . Show that

2

( 4 cos x + 3sin x )2

1

has area

.

12

2

(AEB)

32

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