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Ghost Cancellation

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PASSI VE POWER PRODUCTS PASSI VE POWER PRODUCTS
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Ghost Cancellation
TV Switchless Combiner
Systems
in
27 October 1997
by
Scott B Durgin
Editor: Technical Publications
Ghost Cancellation
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The advent of high power TV transmitter
systems that has lead to the development of
Switchless Combiners for parallel signal
amplification, has lead to potential problems
caused by ghosting signals that result from
antenna system VSWR. In a two-transmitter
parallel amplification TV system which
employs a switchless combiner, the method of
feeding the two transmitters in phase quadra-
ture, coupled with a corresponding RF system
configuration, can be an effective way of
eliminating the ghosting signals.
Abstract
Ghost Cancellation
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Schematic and Mode Table - Switchless Combiner
Figure 1
INPUT
B
INPUT
A
output
phase
shifters
H1
H2
0-90
to load
0-90
P1
P2
MODE P1 P2
A+B TO AIR
A TO AIR, B TO LOAD
B TO AIR, A TO LOAD
0
-90
-90
0
0
0
The requirement for parallel amplification
of TV transmitters can be satisfied in a few
different ways, the two most popular of which
are through the use of either a switched hybrid
combiner or a switchless combiner. From practi-
cal considerations, the latter of these is the more
desirable of the two due to the simple functional
advantage that the transmitters do not need to be
shut down during mode changing. (i.e.; 'Live
Mode Transfer).
1
Moreover, if proper phase
control of the signals is exercised, the use of the
Switchless Combiner can provide an effective
means of ghost cancellation. This paper dis-
cusses the operation of TV Switchless Combin-
ers which, together with the transmitters, are
configured to provide effective cancellation of
ghost signals originating through reflections at
the antenna system.
Figure 1 below shows two hybrid couplers
interconnected with two phase shifters (P1 and
P2), illustrating the basic operation of a TV
switchless combiner. High power applications
generally dictate waveguide construction (for the
UHF band) while lower power applications
allow for the use of coaxial construction. The
first coupler (H1) is a 90 hybrid coupler or
'short slot' hybrid, while the second (H2) is a
180 hybrid coupler or 'magic tee' hybrid . For
Introduction
Basic Operation
Ghost Cancellation
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high power UHF, the phase shifters employed
are the conventional waveguide phase shifters
with a movable interior dielectric slab that can
be translated from the sidewall (minimum phase
shift) to near the center of the guide (maximum
phase shift). Note that H2 could be a 90 hybrid
as well, in which case a corresponding additional
90 delay line would need to be employed in one
of the transmission lines connecting the hybrids
to ensure successful operation of the system.
The mode chart in Figure 1 indicates that
two phase values for each of the phase shifters
are required to accomplish all of the necessary
modes for parallel transmitter or single transmit-
ter configurations.
90. Therefore, an input signal at port 1 will
result in two half power signals exiting ports 3
and 4 (where the signal at port 3 leads the signal
at port 4 by 90in phase). Port 2 is isolated.
Since the hybrid is a reciprocal device, two
equal magnitude signals in phase quadrature will
combine at one of the opposing ports depending
on the relative phasing of the signals. This is
shown in Figure 2b.
The operation of the magic tee hybrid is
similar to that of the short slot hybrid except that
the critical phasing is 180 instead of 90. This is
illustrated in the right half of Figure 2b where it
is shown that two signals entering ports C and D
will combine at the sum port (port A) if the
signals have a phase difference of 0 upon
entrance, or they will combine at the difference
port (port D) if their initial relative phase differ-
ence is 180.
During the operation of the Switchless
Combiner, it is desired that unwanted signals be
directed to the difference port of the hybrid to
which is normally attached an RF absorbing
load. Therefore, some means of instituting a
180 phase shift to these unwanted signals must
be accomplished. Future paragraphs will be
dedicated to this situation.
A
D
C
B
difference
port
sum port
180 'Magic Tee' Folded Hybrid
Waveguide Hybrid Construction
Figure 2a
1
2
3
4
90 Riblet 'Short Slot' Hybrid
Hybrid Operation
Figure 2a below shows the typical construc-
tions for the hybrids used in the switchless
combiner. Figure 2b shows the phasing proper-
ties of each of the waveguide hybrids for differ-
ent situations that occur during operation of the
switchless combiner.
The Short Slot hybrid is a quadrature hybrid
in that an input signal at any port will be divided
between the two opposing ports equally in
magnitude but with a relative phase difference of
Ghost Cancellation
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Phasing - Waveguide Hybrid Operation
Figure 2b
Figures 3 a,b & c show RF schematics of the
three major modes of a Switchless Combiner
where Figure 3a illustrates the parallel transmitter
mode (Both TxA and TxB combined to antenna),
Figure 3b shows the TxA to antenna mode and
Figure 3c shows the TxB to antenna mode.
Refer to Figure 3b. Signal A gets split by the
input hybrid such that the signal opposite the input
for signal B receives a relative delay of 90 as
compared to the exiting signal opposite the input
for signal A. The phase shifter opposite the signal
A input then brings both half signals back into
phase by delaying the signal opposite input A by
90 so that the half signals will combine at the
sum port of the hybrid tee to which is attached
the antenna feedline.
For signal B the phase difference of the two
half signals will be 180 since the phase shifter
opposite the signal A input will give the [90
shifted] half signal B an additional 90 shift to
that already imposed by the input hybrid. There-
fore the full power of TxB will be directed to the
difference port to which is typically attached a
reject load.
A
B
=0
=-90
A+B
no signal
to load
to antenna
A
B
=0
=-180
A+B
no signal
A
B
=0
=0
A/2+B/2
A/2+B/2
to load
to antenna
A
B
=0
=0
A+B
no signal
180 MAGIC TEE 90 RIBLET HYBRID
Switchless Combiner Phasing
Ghost Cancellation
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B to Antenna Mode
Figure 3c
INPUT
B
INPUT
A
A+B
phase
shifters
H1
H2
0
to load
0
P1
P2
Figure 3a
A+B to Antenna Mode
INPUT
B
INPUT
A
B
phase
shifters
H1
H2
-90
to load
0
P1
P2
A
INPUT
B
INPUT
A
A
phase
shifters
H1 H2
0
to load
-90
P1
P2
B
Figure 3b
A to Antenna Mode
Figure 4a-b below illustrate how the
switchless combiner can be configured to elimi-
nate the phenomenon of ghosting which occurs
when a portion of the output signal reflects at the
antenna (labelled 'R' in Figure 4a) and heads
back toward the RF system. Since there is
nothing to impede the progress of this reflected
signal, it is directed right back toward the input
hybrid where the two in-phase half-signals are
each divided and added to one another in a
fashion as shown in the top left corner of Figure
2b.
These signals then are reflected at the
transmitters and are directed through the system
in exactly the same fashion (see Figure 4a) as the
original signal except that the new signal is time
delayed with reference to the original signal
ultimately resulting in a ghost image at the
receiving end.
The key, then, to ghost signal elimination
(ghost cancellation) is the implementation of the
90 section between TxA and the input hybrid as
shown in Figure 4b so that these reflected signals
possess a relative phase difference of 180 such
that the signals will combine through the magic
tee at the difference port and will summarily be
absorbed in the attached reject load.
Note that, in order to institute the extra 90
section, the transmitters must be fed in quadra-
ture so that the main input signals A & B are in
phase when they are directed into the input
hybrid.
Ghost Signals and Cancellation
Similar considerations pertain to the other
two modes of operation where either A is di-
rected to the load and B to the antenna or both A
and B are directed to the antenna.
Ghost Cancellation
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output
phase
shifters
H1
H2
0
to load
0
P1
P2
Tx1
Tx2
[ = -90]
-90
[ = 0]
[Tx's are fed in quadrature]
The 90 section between the first hybrid (H1) and Tx1 allows for reflections that originate
at the antenna and travel back through the system to reflect again off the transmitters
(thus creating a ghost signal) to have a relative phase difference of 180
and to be subsequently directed to the load through the magic tee (H2).
E1
E2
to antenna
Origination of Ghost Signals
Figure 4a
Cancellation of Ghost Signals
Figure 4b
output
phase
shifters
H1
H2
to load
Tx1
Tx2
to antenna
reflection
at antenna
Reflected signal at the antenna will be split by H2 and directed to the input hybrid.
Since the signals are in phase, they will be directed to the transmitters
which will reflect both half signals back toward the input hybrid.
These signals will then be directed through the system to the antenna along with the
main signals but will be time delayed with reference to the main signals A & B.
'R'
R1
R2
R1/2 + R2/2
R1/2 + R2/2
Ghost Cancellation
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In typical television applications the power
reflected at the antenna system is usually not
more than about 1-2% of the transmitter power.
(which corresponds to a VSWR at the antenna of
about 1.2-1.3:1, worst case). So for a combined
power of 120kW (peak of sync), the average
signal level of a ghosting signal would amount to
near 1kW of power. Depending on other param-
eters for the RF system, such as antenna HAAT
and proximity considerations, this level could be
significant.
The TV Switchless Combining system, as
part of a larger RF system designed for parallel
amplification of equal frequency transmitters,
can be configured to successfully implement
ghost signal cancellation by feeding the transmit-
ters in phase quadrature.
The construction of typical switchless
combiner systems has been in waveguide [with
either a 180 output magic tee or a 90 output
hybrid] or in coaxial form. High power UHF
systems dictate the use of waveguide.
Concluding Remarks