US History – Review Sheet – World War II Names Franklin D.

Roosevelt - the thirty-second President of the United States. Elected to four terms in office, he served from 1933 to 1945, and is the only U.S. president to have served more than two terms of office. He was a central figure of the 20th century during a time of worldwide economic crisis and world war. After 1938, Roosevelt championed re-armament and led the nation away from isolationism as the world headed into World War II. He provided extensive support to Winston Churchill and the British war effort before the attack on Pearl Harbor pulled the U.S. into the fighting. Harry S. Truman - the thirty-third President of the United States (1945–1953). As vice president, he succeeded Franklin D. Roosevelt, who died less than three months after he began his fourth term. Husband Kimmel - a Rear Admiral in the United States Navy. He was the commander of the Pacific Fleet at the time of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. Walter Short - a Lieutenant General in the United States Army and the U.S. military Commander responsible for the defense of U.S. military installations in Hawaii at the time of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941. Chester Nimitz - the Commander-in-Chief of Pacific Naval Forces for the United States and Allied forces during World War II. He was the United States' leading authority on submarines, as well as Chief of the Navy's Bureau of Navigation in 1939. He was his country's last surviving Fleet Admiral. Douglas MacArthur - an American general and Field Marshal of the Philippine Army. He was a Chief of Staff of the United States Army during the 1930s and later played a prominent role in the Pacific theater of World War II. He was designated to command the proposed invasion of Japan in November 1945, and when that was no longer necessary he officially accepted their surrender on September 2, 1945. Dwight Eisenhower - nicknamed "Ike", was a General of the Army (five star general) in the United States Army and U.S. politician, who served as the thirtyfourth President of the United States (1953–1961). During the Second World War, he served as Supreme Commander of the Allied forces in Europe, with responsibility for planning and supervising the successful invasion of France and Germany in 194445. George S. Patton - a leading U.S. Army general in World War II in campaigns in North Africa, Sicily, France, and Germany, 1943–1945. In World War II he commanded both corps and armies in North Africa, Sicily, and the European Theater of Operations.

Omar Bradley - one of the main U.S. Army field commanders in North Africa and Europe during World War II and a General of the Army in the United States Army. He was the last surviving five-star commissioned officer of the United States. Bernard Montgomery - an Anglo-Irish British Army officer. He successfully commanded Allied forces at the Battle of El Alamein, a major turning point in the Western Desert Campaign during World War II, and troops under his command were partially responsible for the expulsion of Axis forces from North Africa. Erwin Rommel - commander of the Deutsches Afrika Korps and also became known by the nickname "The Desert Fox” for the skilful military campaigns he waged on behalf of the German Army in North Africa. He was later in command of the German forces opposing the Allied cross-channel invasion at Normandy. He is thought by many to have been the most skilled commander of desert warfare in World War II. Adolf Hitler - an Austrian-born politician who led the National Socialist German Workers Party. He became Chancellor of Germany on January 30, 1933 and Führer in 1934. He ruled until 1945. Joseph Stalin - was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union's Central Committee from 1922 until his death in 1953. During that time he established the regime now known as Stalinism. As one of several Central Committee Secretariats, Stalin's formal position was originally limited in scope, but he gradually consolidated power and became the de facto party leader and ruler of the Soviet Union Albert Einstein - a German-born theoretical physicist. He is best known for his theory of relativity and specifically mass-energy equivalence, E = mc2. Einstein received the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics "for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect." J. Robert Oppehheimer – DATES December 7, 1941 – Japanese raid on Pearl Harbor June 6, 1944 – Invasion of Normandy May 8, 1945 – The Day of Victory August 6, 1945 – B-29 bomber Enola Gay hits Hiroshima with an Atomic Bomb September 2, 1945 – Surrender of Japan PLACES

Pearl Harbor - a harbor on the island of Oʻahu, Hawaii, west of Honolulu. It is also the headquarters of the U.S. Pacific Fleet. The attack on Pearl Harbor by the Empire of Japan on December 7, 1941 brought the United States into World War II. Sicily - an autonomous region of Italy in Europe. El Alamein - played a major role in the outcome of World War II. Two extended battles were fought in that area of Egypt. Stalingrad - a city and the administrative center of Volgograd Oblast, Russia. Midway - a low-lying coral atoll in the Pacific ocean. Place of the Battle of Midway Guadacanal - The island was the scene of the important Guadalcanal Campaign during World War II. Iwo Jima-Okinawa – Normandy - situated along the coast of France south of the English Channel between Brittany (to the west) and Picardy (to the east) and comprises territory in northern France and the Channel Islands. The territory is divided between French and British sovereignty. Hiroshima - most known throughout the world as the first city in history subjected to nuclear warfare with the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in World War II by the United States of America. Nagasaki - During World War II, the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki made Nagasaki the second city in the world to be subject to nuclear warfare. Yalta - a city in Crimea, southern Ukraine, on the north coast of the Black Sea. Potsdam - the capital city of the federal state of Brandenburg in Germany. It is situated on the Havel River, southwest of Berlin. It is a part of the Metropolitan area Berlin/Brandenburg. IDENTIFY Neutrality Acts - a series of laws that were passed by the United States Congress in the 1930s, in response to the growing turmoil going on in Europe and Asia that eventually led to World War II. They were spurred by the growth in isolationism in the US following its costly involvement in World War I, and sought to ensure that the US would not become entangled again in foreign conflicts, especially in Europe. Lend-Lease Act - the name of the program under which the United States of America supplied the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, China, France and other Allied nations with vast amounts of war materiel between 1941 and 1945 in return for, in the case of Britain, military bases in Newfoundland, Bermuda and the British

West Indies. It began in March 1941, nine months before the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. Atlantic Charter - negotiated at the Atlantic Conference (codenamed Riviera) by British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, aboard warships in a secure anchorage at Naval Station Argentia, Newfoundland, and was issued as a joint declaration on August 14, 1941. Blitzkrieg - a popular name for an offensive operational-level military doctrine which involves an initial bombardment followed by the employment of motorized mobile forces attacking with speed and surprise to prevent an enemy from implementing a coherent defense. Kamikaze - a word of Japanese origin, which in English usually refers to the suicide attacks by military aviators from the Empire of Japan, against Allied shipping, in the closing stages of the Pacific campaign of World War II. Island-hopping - refers to the means of crossing an ocean by a series of shorter journeys between islands, as opposed to a single journey directly across the ocean to the destination. Used by US to skip unimportant islands and save lives. Operation Torch - the British-American invasion of French North Africa in World War II during the North African Campaign, started 8 November 1942. Operation Barbarosa - the codename for Nazi Germany and Axis powers invasion of the Soviet Union during World War II that commenced on June 22, 1941. It remains the largest military operation in history. Operation Overlord - the phase in the Western front of World War II that was fought in 1944 between German forces and the invading Allied forces. The campaign began with Normandy Landings on June 6, 1944 (commonly known as DDay), among the largest amphibious assaults ever conducted when nearly three million troops crossed the English Channel and ended on August 25, 1944, with the liberation of Paris. Operation Downfall - the overall Allied plan for the invasion of Japan near the end of World War II. The operation was cancelled when Japan surrendered following the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and the Soviet Union's declaration of war against Japan. Rationing - the controlled distribution of resources and scarce goods or services. Meat was heavily rationed in WWII, as were other things like oil, etc. ESSAYS 1. Pearl Harbor

2. Development of the Atomic Bomb

3. Life on the Home Front in WWII

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