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# II Ñ-Ø√-úø’ Â£j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ -Ç-C¢√®Ωç 21 -¢Ë’ 2006

Chandan: Have you seen Pradhan, by any 1) I saw him driving an hour ago =
chance? í∫çô éÀçü¿ô Åûªúø’ car ™ ¢Á∞¡xôç ØË†’ îª÷¨»†’.
†’ îª÷¨»¢√? 2) In fact I see him drive down the road at this
By any chance = à¢Á’i-Ø√/- à-´’Ø√o îª÷úøôç time every day=
ûªô-Æœnç-*çü∆ ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ. ÅÆæ©’ v°æA ®ÓW ÉüË time èπ◊ Ñ ®ÓúÓx car ™
Nandan: I think yes. I saw him driving some ¢Á∞¡xôç ØË†’ îª÷≤ƒh†’.
where an hour ago. I could have 3) I heard Pradhan say that he would go at that
stopped him, but I didn't like to. time every day... =
(Å´¤-†-†’-èπ◊çö«. í∫çô éÀçü¿ô car ™ ûª†’ ÅüË time èπ◊ Å™« ¢Á∞«h-†E Pradhan îÁ°æpí¬
áéπ\-úÕéÓ ¢Á∞¡xôç îª÷¨»†’. ÅûªúÕE Ç°œ NØ√o†’.
4) ... that's why. I find Pradhan becoming more 4) find:
ÖçúÌ-îª’a -é¬F É≠ædç ™‰éπ-§Ú-®·çC.) É™« Ñ see, hear, find, observe, notice,
(driving = car ™ ¢Á∞¡xôç) and more active nowadays= a) The teacher found him working hard =
watch ™«çöÀ verbs °æéπ\-†-™«x '-ing' form/ 1st
Chandan: Is that so? He said he would see me active Åûªúø’ éπ≠d-°æ æúÕ °æE-îË-ßª’ôç (îªü¿-´ôç) teacher
ÅD. É°æ¤púø’ v°æüµ∆Ø˛ í¬ Öçúøôç í∫´’- RDW/ that clauses (éÌEoîÓôx) ´≤ƒh®·. Å®·ûË
today. îª÷¨»úø’.
E-Ææ’h-Ø√o†’.
b) We always find him sleeping =
OöÀ ûª®√yûª ≤ƒ´÷-†uçí¬ 'that' clause ¢√úø-èπ◊çú≈
(Å™«í¬? †Fo-®ÓV éπ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊ç-ö«-†-Ø√oúø’.) 5) He observed his nephew losing weight... Öçúøôç better. '-ing form'/ I RDW effective í¬
Nandan: Not just today. In fact I see him drive (ÅûªúÕ nephew •®Ω’´¤ ûªí∫_ôç Åûªúø’ í∫´’-Eç-î√úø’) ¢Ë’ç á°æ¤púø÷ Åûªúø’ Evü¿-§Ú-ûª’ç-úøí¬ îª÷≤ƒhç. Öçô’çC.
down our road everyday at that time. 6) I have noticed you having a dig at him= c) The engineer has found the machine going
(Ñ ®Óñ‰ é¬ü¿’. ÅÆæ©’ v°æA-®ÓW ÅüË time †’´y-ûª-úÕE Çô °æöÀdç-îªúøç ØË†’ í∫´’-Eç-î√†’. out of order often= NOW PRACTISE THE FOLLOWING
èπ◊ car ™ ÅüË ¢Áj°æ¤ ¢Á∞¡⁄h éπE-°œ-≤ƒhúø’ Look at the verbs in the sentences ûª®Ωîª÷ Ç machine îÁúÕ§Ú-´ôç Ç engineer ALOUD IN ENGLISH:
Ø√èπ◊/ car ™ ¢Á∞¡xúøç îª÷≤ƒh†’ ØË†’.) above: 1 & 2. saw 3. heard 4. find îª÷¨»úø’. Namratha: Ææ’F-ûÁ-°æ¤púø÷ äÍé-®Ωéπç •ôd©’ ¢ËÆæ’-éÓ-´úøç
Chandan: You are right. I heard Pradhan say 5. observed 6. have noticed. Ñ find °æéπ\† 1st RDW ®√ü¿’. That clause ØË†’ îª÷≤ƒh†’. ûª† •ôd© fashion ™
that he would go at that time every- í∫´’-Eç-îªçúÕ: Â°j† verbs ÅFo πÿú≈ îª÷úøôç/ ®√´îª’a.
éπE°œç-îªôç, N†ôç, í∫´’-Eç-îªôç, °æJ-Q-Lç-
day to attend yoga classes. 5) observe:
´÷Í®pç Öçúøü¿’.
îªôç ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ ÖØ√o®· éπü∆.
Charitha: ÅüËç ™‰ü¿’. ûª†’ ûËú≈í¬ ÖçúË •ôd©’
(†’´¤y îÁ°œpçC Eï¢Ë’. v°æA-®ÓW Ç a) The invigilator has
time èπ◊ ßÁ÷í¬ ûª®Ω-í∫-ûª’-©èπ◊ ¢Á∞¡-û√-†E observed the student
¢ËÆæ’-éÓ-´úøç ØË†’ äéπöÀ È®çúø’≤ƒ®Ω’x
Åûªúø’ îÁ°æpí¬ NØ√o†’.) taking/ take a slip out í∫´’-Eç-î√†’.
Nandan: O... perhaps that's why I find him of his pocket= Namratha: OK, ûª† N≠æßª’ç áçü¿’-èπ◊™‰.
becoming more and more active Åûªúø’ ñ‰•’-™ç* slip †’¢Áy-°æ¤-úøØ√o Ææ’v°œßª’ §ƒúøí¬ NØ√o¢√?
(ÅD Ææçí∫A. Åçü¿’-éπØË Åûªúø’ Ñ ´’üµ¿u -Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 159 •ßª’-ôèπ◊ Bßª’úøç invig-
ilator í∫´’-Eç-î √úø’. M. SURESAN
Charitha: áçü¿’-éπ-úø’-í∫’-ûª’-Ø√o´¤?

## active é¬´ôç í∫´’-E-Ææ’hØ√o.)

Chandan: He observed his nephew losing
weight after attending the yoga
classes. So he thought, 'why should-
n't I as well?' and joined the classes.
But I notice him gaining weight. He
is more active as you have said, but
I noticed her humming
has he lost any weight?
(ÅûªúÕ nephew (= son of a brother or Åçõ‰ É´Fo éπ∞¡Ÿx, îÁ´¤©’ ™«çöÀ ñ«cØËçvCßª÷-©èπ◊ (Invigilator= °æKéπ~ rooms ™ é¬°‘-™«ç-öÀN Namratha:
î√™« ¶«í¬ §ƒúø’-ûª’çC. í∫ûª ¨¡E-¢√®Ωç
a sister) yoga classes èπ◊ ¢Á∞¡xôç ûª®√yûª Ææç•ç-Cµç-*-†N. ï®Ω-í∫-èπ◊çú≈ îª÷ÊÆ teachers) cinema music director Ç¢Á’ §ƒúøôç
•®Ω’´¤ ûªí∫_ôç í∫´’-Eç-î√úø’. Åûª-†-†’- OöÀ ûª®√yûª á°æ¤púø÷ '-ing' form é¬F, 1st Observe ûª®√yûª 'that' clause ´Ææ’hçC= í∫´’-Eç-î√úø’. Ç¢Á’èπ◊ ÆœE-´÷™x §ƒúË
èπ◊-Ø√oúø’, 'ØË†÷ áçü¿’èπ◊ ûªí∫_-èπÿ-úøü¿÷?— Regular doing word (go, come, etc) é¬F, The invigilator observed that the student Å´-é¬¨¡ç ®√´îª’a.
ÅE. Yoga classes ™ îË®√úø’. é¬F that clause é¬F ´Ææ’hçC. àüÓ °æE-îË-Ææ’hç-úøôç/ was taking out a slip from his pocket. Charitha: ûª †’ èπÿE-®√-í¬©’ §ƒúøôç ØË†’ í∫´’-Eç-
ØË†’ í∫´’-Eç-*ç-ü¿-ûª†’ •®Ω’´¤ Â°®Ω-í∫ôç. îËÆæ’hç-úøí¬ îª÷úøúøç, í∫´’-Eç-îªúøç, °æJ-Q-Lç-îªúøç b) I have observed him bunk/ bunking classes î√†’. é¬F Åçûª íÌ°æp í¬ßª’-èπ◊-®√-©-†’-éÓ-
†’´y-†oô’d îª’®Ω’í¬_ Å®·ûË Åßª÷uúø’ é¬F, ïJ-Tç-ü¿ØÓ, àüÓ Åçô’ç-úøí¬/ Åçô’-çúøôç N†ôç quite often: ™‰ ü ¿ ’ .
•®Ω’-¢Ë-´’Ø√o ûªí¬_-úøç-ö«¢√?) ïJ-Tç-ü¿-ØÓ Å®Ωnç ´Ææ’hçC.
Nandan: Come now Chandan; Yoga might (Ñ see, hear, find, observe, notice- Oö-Eoç- ûª®Ωîª÷ Åûªúø’ classes áíÌ_-ôdúøç ØË†’ í∫´’-Eç-î√†’. Namratha: Ç¢Á’ ÆœE-´÷-©èπ◊ §ƒúøôç ûªy®Ω-™ ØË
not have slimmed down, but he has- öÀE verbs of sense perception Åçö«ç.) c) She observed him looking/look at her = Nçö«ç.
n't certainly put on weight. Be fair to (´’† ñ«cØËçvCßª÷©’– sense organs- eyes, Åûªúø’ ûª†-¢Áj°æ¤ îª÷úøôç Ç¢Á’ í∫´’-Eç-*çC. Charitha: ûª †’ ¨»Æ‘Yßª’ ÆæçUûªç CD ©’ N†ôç
him. nose, ear, tongue, skin – OöÀéÀ Ææç•ç- 6) notice: í∫´’-Eç-îª-úøç/- ü¿%-≠œd™  °æúøôç ØË † ’ í∫´’-Eç-î√†’. (watch ¢√úøçúÕ)
(Chandan, Ééπ Ç°æ¤. ßÁ÷í¬ ÅûªúÕE ûªT_ç- Cµç-*-†N.) a) Suddenly I noticed them going/ go out Namratha: ûª † èπ◊ Åü¿%≠ædç éπ-LÆœ ®√¢√-©-E ÇPü∆lç.
îª-™‰-üË¢Á÷ é¬F, ™«´¤ ´÷vûªç Â°®Ω-í∫-™‰ü¿’. 1&2) saw: a) I see him always watching / together= ANSWER
ÅûªúÕ N≠æ-ßª’ç™ é¬Ææh Ø√ußª’çí¬ Öçúø’.) watch the TV / I see that he
¢√∞¡Ÿx éπLÆœ •ßª’-öÀéÀ ¢Á∞¡xôç -Ø√ -éπçô °æúÕçC. Namratha: I see Sunitha wear/ wearing the
come now = Informal conversation ™ always watch the TV =
b) I often notice her talking / talk to him= same style of dress/ dress of the
come now= Ééπ Ç°æ¤. Åûª-ØÁ-°æ¤púø÷ TV îª÷úøôç/ îª÷Ææ’hç-úøí¬ îª÷≤ƒh-ØËo†’/
fair= äéπ-J-°æôx Ø√ußª’çí¬ Öçúøôç Åûª-ØÁ-°æ¤púø÷ TV îª÷Ææ÷h éπE-°œç-îË-¢√úø’ Ø√èπ◊. Ç¢Á’ Åûª-úÕûÓ ´÷ö«x-úøôç ØË†’ ûª®Ωîª÷ same cut always. No change in the
Chandan: Do you mean he hasn't put on b) Åûªúø’ 11 í∫çô© Ææ´’-ßª’ç™ •ßª’-öÀéÀ ®√´ôç/
í∫´’-E-≤ƒh†’./ Ç¢Á’ ûª®Ωîª÷ Åûª-EûÓ ´÷ö«x-úø’ûª÷ fashion of her clothes.
weight? police ©’ î√™«-≤ƒ®Ω’x îª÷¨»®Ω’/ Åûªúø’ 11 í∫çô© Ø√ éπçô °æúÕçC. Charitha: No. I have observed her wear dress-
(Å®·ûË ¢√úø’ ™«´´™‰ü¿ç-ö«¢√?) Ææ´’-ßª’ç™ •ßª’-ôéÀ ´Ææ÷h éπE-°œç-î√úø’ police ©èπ◊= c) The police have noticed him visiting/ visit one es of different style once or twice.
put on weight= ™«´¤/ -•-®Ω’-¢Á-éπ\ôç The police saw him coming out/ come out at house in the old town at midnight= Namratha: OK. Why talk of her now?/ Let's not
Nandan: No, certainly not. I have noticed you 11 a number of times. A number of times the Ç ´uéÀh Å®Ωl¥-®√vA¢Ë∞¡ old town ™ äéπ ÉçöÀéÀ talk of her now. Have you ever
having a dig at him whenever you police saw that he was coming out at 11. ¢Á∞¡xôç í∫´’-Eç-î√®Ω’/ ¢√∞¡x éπçô-°æ-úÕçC. heard Sunitha sing/ singing?
find a chance. c) Ç restaurant Åçõ‰ Åûª-E-éÀ-≠dçæ í¬ Ö†o-ô’xçC. É™«çöÀ verb ÉçéÓöÀ 'watch' (í∫´’-Eç-îªôç) Charitha: Why do you ask?
(-à-´÷-vûªç -™‰-ü¿’. Å´-é¬¨¡ç üÌJ-éÀ-†-°æ¤p-úø™«x Åéπ\úø A†ôç î√™«-≤ƒ®Ω’x îª÷¨»†’= a) She watched him water / watering the garden Namratha: She sings very well. A film music
ÅûªúÕE Çô-°æ-öÀd-≤ƒh-´E ØËØÁ-°æ¤púÓ í∫´’-Eç-î√†’.) He seems to like the restaurant a lot. I saw patiently = director observed her sing/ singing.
have a dig at= Çô °æöÀdç-îª-úøç/- ÍíL îËßª’ôç him eat/ eating there quite often. Very soon she may get an opportu-
Åûªúø’ ã°œí¬_ ûÓôèπ◊ F®Ω’-Â°-ôdúøç Ç¢Á’ í∫´’-Eç-*çC. nity to sing for movies.
Chandan: Nothing of the sort. I like him a lot. Å™«Íí hear ûª®√yûª èπÿú≈ '-ing' form / I RDW b) They have watched her dancing/ dance for
´≤ƒh®·. äéÌ\-éπ\-°æ¤púø’ that clause ®√´îª’a. Charitha: I noticed her hum/ humming (èπÿE-
(ÅüËç ™‰ü¿’. ¢√úøçõ‰ Ø√èπ◊ î√™« É≠ædç.) an hour=
3) heard: a) I heard her sing / singing = but I
Nothing of the sort = ÅüËç ™‰ü¿’