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Hindustan Aeronautics Limited

Lucknow, U.P.
( Duration: 30
may 2013 to 30
june 2013)

Submitted for partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the
degree of
Bachelor of Technology



Department of Electronics & communication engineering.



With deep sense of gratitude, first & foremost I express my profound
thanks to Mr. S.P singh , Sr. Manager- Training for giving me this very
opportunity to do my summer training in the Instrument factory of
H.A.L. Lucknow during the summer session- 2011. I would like to
express my gratitude to Mr. Ram Awtar, Head of Instrument factory,
our training guide for the valuable guidance inspiration &
enouragenment. Last but not the least, I also wish to acknowledge my
indebtedness to the staff of H.A.L. without whose co-operation, this
training would not have not been successful. The training at H.A.L.
Lucknow was full of responsiveness & it gave me the rare opportunity
to correlate the theoretical knowledge with the practical one. Being
well known company of India & abroad, it gave me the opportunity to
learn the work carried out here, got a glimpse of newenvironment &
hard work of industrial unit.



2. About H.A.L.

3. Mission of HAL.

4. Our Product

5. Airplane parts definitions

6. Major products of the H.A.L. Division

7. H.A.L. Accessories Division Lucknow

8. Instrument Factory

Clean room

Assembly and test shop 2 & 3

Electromagnetic rotating shop (E.R.M)

Ground land navigation system shop (G.L.N.S)


10. Flight Data Recorder

11. Advanced Light Helicopter (ALH)15.

12. Conclusion


Last few years have witnessed major changes in economic environment
of our country. The industrial and economical policies have been
liberalized .Indian industries have become globally competitive, giving
boost to the young and small enterprises and thus arises the need of an
efficient research and development department. I had done my part of
project I had worked on ALH department, SU30 department. There I had
learned a lot of things about Helicopter and Fighter plane. This all, for
me, was a memorable experience.


H.A.L was establised on 1 october 1964 by Seth Walchand hirachand
with primary motive of production of Defence and civil aircraft.
H.A.L lucknow , an accessories division was establised in 1970 with the
primary objective of manufacturing systems and accessories for various
aircraft and engines .


Whole factory divided into following section .
Fuel factory
Mechanical factory
Instrument factory


This factory is called so because all accessories related from fuel tank to
engine are manufactured in this factory .
Fuel factory also divided into following section
Machine Shop
Precise Machine Shop
Lapping Section


Here rough shape is given to raw materials .
Machines available in machine shop are:
Simple Lathe machine
Electric discharge machining
Wire cut EDM
Milling Machine


A lathe is a machine tool which rotates the workpiece on its axis to
perform various operations such as cutting , drilling or deformation with
tools that are applied to the workpiece to create an object which has
symmetry about an axis of rotation .
Important Parts of lathe machine are
1. Headstock
2. tailstock
3. spindle
4. tool rest
5. Bed


To become a globally competitive aerospace industry while working as
an instrument for achieving self reliance in design, manufacture and
maintenance of aerospace defence equipment.

HAL has substantial progress in its current projects-
Dhruv, which is advanced light helicopter.
IJT(intermediate jet trainer)

Twin seater, multi role, long run fighter.
MIG-27 M
Single seater tactical fighter.
The injection seat is installed to provide safe escape to the pilot
from the aircraft while catapulting is affected with the help of a
combined enjection gun.

Sukhoi Su-30 MKI

The Sukhoi Su-30MKI has been jointly-developed by Russia's Sukhoi
Corporation and India's Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) for the
Indian Air Force (IAF).
It is a heavy class, long-range air superiority fighter aircraft.The Su-30
MKI is more advanced than the basic Su-30MK, the Chinese Su-30
MKK, and the Malaysian Su-30 MKM.
The aircraft features state of the art avionics developed by Russia, India ,
Israel , France and South Africa which includes display,
navigation,targeting and electronic warfare systems.
MKI stands for "Modernizirovannyi Kommercheskiy Indiski" meaning
"Modernized Commercial India".

General Features of Sukhoi 30 MKI

Sukhoi 30 MKI is a 4.5 generation fighter aircraft . Fifth generation planes
are yet to come. Cost of single Su-30 MKI is $ 35 million or Rs 1.61 billion
As per deal between Russias Sukhoi Corporation and Indias HAL , in the
first phase, components will be imported from Russia and only assembling
will be done in India.
In the second phase , there will be transfer of technology from Russia to
India , and then both manufacturing & assembling will be done in India.
Various independent sources have claimed Su-30 MKI to be the most
superior fighter plane in present World.

Fuel Flow And Metering System In Sukhoi 30 MKI

Fuel capacity of Sukhoi 30 MKI: 12 ton or 12000Kg.There are 5 fuel tanks
of which one is service tank or main tank. Service tank is centrally located
is the most important one .Fuel from all other tanks pass through service
tank before consumption. So in the end fuel remains only in the service
All the 5 tanks are so placed that the aircraft is aerodynamically balanced.


Fuel quantity & flow metering system can be subdivided into:
Fuel Flow Metering
It computes the total quantity of fuel available in aircraft.
Uses impeller type of sensors.
2. Fuel Quantity Gauging
It computes the quantity of fuel in the service tank.
Uses capacitance type electronic sensors.
3. Automatic Control
It manages the sequence of fuel flow to/from various tanks during refueling
and consumption.


Computes the quantity of fuel left in service tank. It is an electronic system
based on the principle of variation o f capacitance with change in dielectric
medium .It consists of uniform cylindrical shaped capacitor with the
fuel acting as the dielectric.
As the fuel gets consumed , the fuel is replaced by air as
dielectric and there is a change in capacitance.
So , the remaining fuel in the service tank can be calculated
on the basis of variation in capacitance.
Fuel quantity gauge is of utmost importance when
1. Only service tank is left with fuel.
2. Flow metering system fails.


Automatic control manages sequence of fuel flow to/from various tanks
during refueling as well as consumption. The fuel from all the five tanks is
taken in such a way that the aerodynamic balance of the plane is not
disturbed. This is done with the help of automatic control system.
Fuel from a certain tank is not taken all at once. After taking a certain
quantity of fuel from one tank, the valve is closed and then fuel is drawn
from another tank. So, the sequence of fuel flow from various tanks is
decided by automatic control system.

Digital Light Indicator

It is an electronic display device in cockpit.
It continuously displays fuel quantity of service tank.
Semiconductor Relay Control Unit. It is a part of automatic control portion.
It works as an amplifier and a switching device for the signals required for
opening and closing of valves of various tanks in aircraft.


This page shows the parts of an airplane and their functions. Airplanes
are transportation devices which are designed to move people and cargo
from one place to another.
Airplanes come in many different shapes and sizes depending on
The mission of the aircraft. The airplane shown on this slide is a
turbine-power edairliner which has been chosen as a representative
aircraft .For any airplane to fly, you must lift the weight of the airplane
itself, the fuel, the passengers, and the cargo. The wings generate most
of the lift to hold the plane in the air. To generate lift, the airplane must
be pushed through the air. The jet engines, which are located beneath the
wings, provide the thrust to push the airplane forward through the air.
The air resists the motion in the form of aerodynamic drag. Some
airplanes use propellers for the propulsion system inst To control and
maneuver the aircraft, smaller wings are located at the tail of the plane.
The tail usually has a fixed horizontal piece (called the horizontal
lstabilizer) and a fixed vertical piece (called the vertical stabilizer). The
stabilizers' job is to provide stability for the aircraft, to keep it flying
straight. The vertical stabilizer keeps the nose of the plane from
swinging from side to side, while the horizontal stabilizer prevents an
up-and-down motion of the nose. (On the Wright brother's first aircraft,
the horizontal stabilizer was placed in front of the wings. Such a
configuration is called a canard after the French word for "duck").At the
rear of the wings and stabilizers are small.
At the rear of the wings and stabilizers are small moving sections that
are attached to the fixed sections by hinges. In the figure, these moving
sections are colored brown. Changing the rear portion of a wing will
change the amount of force that the wing produces. The ability to change
forces gives us a means of controlling and maneuvering the airplane.
The hinged part of the vertical stabilizer is called the rudder; it is used to
deflect the tail to the left and right as viewed from the front of the
fuselage. The hinged part of the horizontal stabilizer is called the
elevator; it is used to deflect the tail up and down. The outboard hinged
part of the wing is called the aileron; it is used to roll the wings from side to
side. Most airliners can also be rolled from side to side by using the
spoilers. Spoilers are small plates that are used to disrupt the flow over
the wing and to change the amount of force by decreasing the lift when the
spoiler is deployed.


Inflight, any aircraft will rotate about its center of gravity, a point
which is the average location of the mass of the aircraft. We can define
a three dimensional coordinate system through the center of gravity
with each axis of this coordinate system perpendicular to the other two
axes. We can then define the orientation of the aircraft by the amount
of rotation of the parts of the aircraft along these principal axes. The
yaw axis is perpendicular to the wings and lies in the plane of the
aircraft centerline. A yaw motion is a side to side movement of the nose
of the aircraft as shown in the animation. The yawing motion is being
caused by the deflection of the rudder of this aircraft. The rudder is
a hinged section at the rear of the vertical stabilizer.


In flight, any aircraft will rotate about its center of gravity, a point
which is the average location of the mass of the aircraft. We can define
a three dimensional coordinate system through the center of gravity
with each axis of this coordinate system perpendicular to the other two
axes. We can then define the orientation of the aircraft by the amount
of rotation of the parts of the aircraft along the principal axes. The roll
axis lies along the aircraft centerline. A roll motion is an up and down
movement of the wings of the aircraft as shown in the animation .The
rolling motion is being caused by the deflection of the ailerons of this
aircraft. The aileron is a hinged section at the rear of each wing. The
ailerons work in opposition; when the right aileron goes up, the left aileron goes
Their wings were wired together in such a way that the outer panels of
each wing could be twisted relative to the inner panel. The twisting
changed the local angle of attack of sections of the wing which changed
the lift being generated by that section. Unequal forces on the wings
caused the aircraft to roll. Many modern airliners use a spoiler to roll
the aircraft. A spoiler is a plate that is raised between the leading and
trailing edges of the wing. The spoiler effectively changes the shape of
the airfoil, disrupts the flow over the wing, and causes a section of the
wing to decrease its lift. This produces an unbalanced force with the
other wing, which causes the roll. Airliners use spoilers because
spoilers can react more quickly than ailerons and require less.
Force to activate, but they always decrease the total amount of lift for
the aircraft. It's an interesting trade! You can tell whether an airliner is
using spoilers or
Ailerons by noticing where the moving part is located. At the
trailingedge, it's an aileron; between the leading and trailing edges, it's a
spoiler.(Now you can dazzle the person sitting next to you on the plane!


The major products of the Division are:

Undercarriage systems

Wheels and Brake systems

Hydraulic Systems

Aircraft and Engine Fuel Systems

Panel Instruments (Barometric and gyroscopic)

Electric Power Generation and Control systems

Environmental control systems.

Flight Control Actuators

Ground Support Equipment and test Rigs.

Main Customers:

I .Indian Air Force, Army, Navy, Coast Guard, BSF
ii. Defence R&D Laboratories and Deptt of Space;
iii .Civil Aviation, State Govt., Ordnance Factories, Corporate Sectors;
iv. Flying Academies & Educational Institutions;
v. Airlines, Air Taxi, Air Cargo;
vi. Overseas customers for civil and military applications.
vii. Collaborators and Licensors.


Hindustan Aeronautics Limited
Accessories Division Lucknow 226 016India
The Division was established in 1970 with the primary objective of
manufacturing systems and accessories for various aircraft, helicopters
and engines with a view to attain self-sufficiency in this field in the
country. The Division started with the manufacture of hydro-mechanical
accessories and instruments under license for Marut and Kiran aircraft.
This was followed by license manufacture of accessories for MiG-21
aircraft, Cheetah/Chetak helicopters, Dornier and other defense
applications. Additionally repair and overhaul of Lucknow
manufacture d accessories as well as those fitted on directly purchased
aircraft, such as Mirage and Sea Harrier was undertaken. At present, it is
manufacturing, repairing and overhauling more than 800 different types
of systems and accessories under license. The range of items cover units
for hydraulics, engine fuel system, environment control system,
pressurization system, gyroscopic instruments, barometric instruments,
electrical system items, undercarriages, and electronicitems. The number
of licensors exceeds twenty.
H.A.L. accessory division, Luknow is divided into three main factories
1. Mechanical Factory
2. Instrument Factory
3. FuelFactory
This factory deals with the testing and assembly of electronics
instruments used in aircraft e.g. Altimeter, RMI, Gyro-magnetic
compass , black box etc. This INSTRUMENT FACTORY is further
divided into four units which are as follows:





Clean room

In Clean room those subunits are assembled and tested that are sensitive
to dust, temperature and humidity. All these parameters are kept under
control because these can have adverse effect on their functional
efficiency. The required specification for the instruments assembled and
tested are different .so Clean room is further subdivided into three units.

Assembly and test shop 2 & 3

The major products of H.A.L. are fighter aircrafts. An aircraft comprises
of many small units or accessories, which play significant role in their
successful flight. any fault, may lead to an catastrophic end. Here comes
the role of assembly and test unit .it forms an integral part of any
manufacturing unit. The main instrument were KCN-2 compass system,
flight data recorder, gyro magnetic compass, fuel gauging system, radio
magnetic indicator, millivoltmeter temperature indicator.

Electromagnetic rotating shop (E.R.M)

In the E.R.M department of the instrument factory the assembly and
testing of the dc Starter Generators, AC Generator system,
Constant speed alternator, Regulators, Inverter, of the Russian and
French origin. These products are basically those products which takes
the principle of the electromagnetic rotating which can be elaborated as
follows i.e., electrical energy is converted into mechanical energy or
vice versa. These products are of mig-21 & mig-27 aircrafts which is of
Russian origin and jaguar aircraft is of France origin.


A gyroscope is a device for measuring or maintaining orientation, based
on the principles of momentum. The device is a spinning wheel or disk
whose axle is free to take any orientation. This orientation changes much
less in response to a given external torque than it would without the
large angular momentum associated with the gyroscope's high rate of
spin. Since external torque is minimized by mounting the device in
gimbals, its orientation remains nearly fixed, regardless of any motion of
the platform on which it is mounted. Gyroscope works in situations
when using magnetic compass is not possible at all (as in Hubble
telescope). Due to higher precision it is used to maintain direction in tunnel mining.


Within mechanical systems or devices, a conventional gyroscope is a
mechanism comprising a rotor journal to spin about one axis, the
journals of the rotor being mounted in an inner gimbals or ring, the inner
gimbals being journal for oscillation in an outer gimbals which in turn is
journal for oscillation relative to a support. The outer gimbals or ring is
mounted so as to pivot about an axis in its own plane determined by the
support. The outer gimbals possesses one degree of rotational freedom
and its axis possesses none. The inner gimbals are mounted in the outer
gimbals so as to pivot about an axis in its own plane that is always perpendicular
to the pivotal axis of the outer gimbals.The axle of the spinning wheel
defines the spin axis. The inner gimbals possess two degrees of
rotational freedom and its axis possesses one. The rotor is journal to spin
about an axis which is always perpendicular to the axis of the
inner gimbals. So, the rotor possesses three degrees of rotational
freedom and its axis possesses two. The wheel responds to a force
applied about the input axis by are action force about the output axis.The
behavior of a gyroscope can be most easily appreciated by consideration
of the front wheel of a bicycle. If the wheel is leaned away from the
vertical so that the top of the wheel moves to the left, the forward rim of
the wheel also turns to the left. In other words, rotation on one axis of
the turning wheel produces rotation of the third axis. A gyroscope
flywheel will roll or resist about the output axis depending upon whether
the output gimbals are of a free- or fixed- configuration.


Advanced Light Helicopter is a multirole, multimission helicopter
designed& developed by HAL. The design of this 5.5-ton class, twin-
engine helicopter incorporates several state of the art technologies.
Extensive use of composites high cruise speed, long range & endurance,
excellent high altitude performance and capability to operate in hot &
humid environment are the key design features.


After four week of my training ,I found that H.A.L is a leading manufacturer
of fighter planes and they also work with new technology .
H.A.L lucknow accessories division makes different product which are
needed in planes .
For better performance ,the formed product are sent to quality control
department .the product are properly checked then they are sent for