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TSL 3105 Teaching of Listening and Speaking Skills

in the Primary ESL classroom


TOPIC 1 PI!CIPLES O" TE#C$I!% LISTE!I!% #!&
SPE#'I!% S'ILLS
1(0 S)!OPSIS
Topic 1 introduces you to the Principles of Teaching Listening and Speaking
Skills. It provides an overview of the important principles that a teacher has
to bear in mind when teaching listening and speaking skills. It also aims to help
you develop a better and deeper understanding of the communication process
that we most often take for granted such as the listening process, the
conventions of spoken language and the factors that affect listening and
speaking skills.
1(1 LE#!I!% O*TCO+ES
y the end of Topic 1, you will be able to!
"ifferentiate between listening and spoken language
Identify the components of the listening process
"evelop a clearer understanding of the conventions of spoken
language
Identify the elements of the communication process
#nderstand better the factors affecting listening and speaking skills
1(, CO!TE!T
T$E I+POT#!CE O" LISTE!I!%
Listening is arguably the most important skill re$uired for obtaining
comprehensible input in one%s first and any subse$uent languages. It is a
pervasive communicative event! we listen considerably more than we
read, write, or speak &"ecker, '(()* +maggio ,adley, '((1* -ilt, 1./(,
cited in ,ysop 0 Tone, 1.112. 3iven the importance of listening, the
natural assumption is that listening skills are actively taught to both first
&L12 and second &L'2 language learners.
,owever, this is not necessarily so in L1 instruction &,ysop 0 Tone, 1.112.
The situation is slightly more sanguine in L' instruction, but only in recent
years. 4or some time, listening was regarded as a 5passive6 or 5receptive6
skill and, conse$uently, not particularly crucial as a skill area to be taught.
TSL 3105 Teaching of Listening and Speaking Skills
in the Primary ESL classroom
7esearchers began to recogni8e the importance of listening and its role in
comprehensible input &9rashen, 1.1'2, and attention to and adoption of
newer comprehension:based methodologies brought the issue to the fore.
Listening became a skill to be reckoned with and its key position in
communication recogni8ed &4eyten, 1..1* +maggio ,adley, '((12.
Listening is a skill to be taught, with concomitant strategies to help L'
learners be successful &erne, '(()2.
Listening is a comple; process<an integral part of the total
communication process, albeit a part often ignored. This neglect results
largely from two factors.
4irst, speaking and writing &the sending parts of the communication
process =productive skills2 are highly visible, and are more easily
assessed than listening and reading &the receiving parts = receptive
skills2. >nd reading behaviour is assessed much more fre$uently than
listening behaviour* that is, we are more often tested on what we read
than on what we hear. >nd when we are tested on material presented
in a lecture, generally the lecture has been supplemented by readings.
Second, many of us aren%t willing to improve our listening skills. ?uch
of this unwillingness results from our incomplete understanding of the
process<and understanding the process could help show us how to
improve. To understand the listening process, we must first define it.
-$#T IS LISTE!I!%.
Through the years, numerous definitions of listening have been proposed.
Perhaps the most useful one defines listening as the process of receiving,
attending, and understanding auditory messages* that is, messages
transmitted through the medium of sound. +ften, the steps of responding and
remembering are also included. The process might be diagrammed as shown
in figure 1.
TSL 3105 Teaching of Listening and Speaking Skills
in the Primary ESL classroom
The process moves through the first three steps<receiving, attending,
understanding<in se$uence. 7esponding and@or remembering may or may
not follow. 4or e;ample, it may be desirable for the listener to respond
immediately or to remember the message in order to respond at a later time.
>t times, of course, no
response &at least no verbal
response2 is re$uired. >nd
the act of remembering may
or may not be necessary.
4or e;ample, if someone
tells you to 5watch your
step,6 you have no need to
remember the message
after you have completed
that step.

"ig/re 1( The Listening Process
Let%s look at the parts<the three necessary ones and the two additional ones
<one at a time. Aonsider the following analogy between the listening process
and the electronic mail &B:mail2 system. Suppose that you are the sender of a
message and I am the intended recipient.
a( ecei0ing
This step is easily understood. Cou may send a message to me by B:mail. It
may be wonderfully composed and clear. Cou may have used effective
techni$ues to organi8e and support your message. The subDect may be one of
great interest to me. Imagine further that I both admire and respect you, and
that I like to receive B:mail from you.
In short, you have done a good Dob and I want to
receive the message. ut if I don%t turn on my
computer, I won%t receive it. The message remains
somewhere between your computer and mine<
between sender and receiver.
?uch human listening fails for the same reason.
7eceivers simply are not connected or 5tuned in6 to
the senders. Sometimes, the problem is a
physiological one* for e;ample, the receiver has a
TSL 3105 Teaching of Listening and Speaking Skills
in the Primary ESL classroom
hearing deficiency due to a congenital or inherited weakness. +r perhaps the
deficiency resulted from an accident, a disease, or prolonged e;posure to
loud noises.
Sometimes the problem can be corrected through the use of mechanical
devices that restore hearing loss, or through hearing aids that amplify sound.
Scientists and engineers are constantly developing new products designed to
correct and help specific types of hearing loss.
Remember that hearing and listening are not the same. Hearing is the
reception of sound; listening is the attachment of meaning. Hearing is,
however, a necessary prerequisite for listening and an important component
of the listening process.
1( #ttending
Let%s continue with the B:mail analogy. -hen I turn my computer on, it will
receive the message that you sent. ut I must do more! I must attend to the
message if the process is to continue. Perhaps I received a phone call Dust
after I turned my computer on and had to move away from my desk* I do not
know that you have sent a message. +r maybe I don%t have an opportunity to
read my B:mail that day.
Suppose that I am working on something else when the message arrives. ?y
computer signals that I have mail from you. I want to read it, but I decide that I
will do it later. I continue to stay busy on another task, however, and forget to
read the message. Later, I may mistakenly 5trash it6 without ever reading it.
-hatever the case, I don%t attend to the message.
,uman listening is often ineffective<or does not occur<for similar reasons.
7eceiving occurs, but attending does not.
>t any given time, numerous messages compete for our attention. The stimuli
may be e;ternal, such as words spoken by a lecturer or printed on paper, or
events occurring around us. +r the stimuli may be internal, such as a deadline
we must meet tomorrow, a backache we developed by sitting too long at the
computer, or the hunger pangs we e;perience because we didn%t take time to
eat lunch. -hatever the source of the stimuli, we simply can%t focus on all of
them at the same time. -e therefore must choose, whether consciously or
unconsciously, to attend to some stimuli and reDect others. Three factors
determine ho2 these choices are made(
Selectivity of attention. -e direct attention to certain things to prevent an
information overload. > common e;ample makes the point. Suppose you
TSL 3105 Teaching of Listening and Speaking Skills
in the Primary ESL classroom
are attempting to read a book and watch TE at the same time. >lthough
some people claim they can do this, actually both activities suffer<and
usually one more than the other. The material that is most engaging or
interesting will attract your attention. >t other times, something may
interrupt or disturb your attention.
Selectivity of attention e;plains why you 5perk up6 or pay attention when
something familiar to you, such as your hometown or your favorite hobby,
is mentioned. In fact, you may have been listening intently to a
conversation when someone in a different conversation mentions your
name. Immediately, the focus of your attention shifts to the conversation in
which your name was mentioned.
Strength of attention. >ttention is not only selective* it possesses energy,
or strength. >ttention re$uires effort and desire. In the e;ample of reading
a book and watching TE, the receiver &reader@watcher2 directed his or her
primary attention toward either the book or the TE. Aomplete attention can
be given to only one stimulus at a time, and necessary attention to only a
limited number of stimuli at the same time. If we spend too much energy
on too many stimuli, we soon will not be paying attention to any of them.
-e are all familiar with aircraft accidents that were caused at least in part
by controllers in the tower having to process too much information.
Aonsider also how we can be so attentive to a newspaper, a TE program,
a personal computer, a sports event, or another individual that we are
oblivious to things around us. -atch a young couple in love sometime!
Cou%ll see a good e;ample of intensity, or strength of attention.
Sustainment of attention. Fust as attention is determined by selectivity
and strength, it is affected by time of sustainment. +ur attention wanes,
and this fact is important to an understanding of listening.
4or e;ample, we can listen to some public speakers far longer than we
can listen to others. "uration may depend on the subDect, the setting, the
way the speech is packaged, and on the speaker%s delivery. ut no matter
how articulate and skilled the speaker, or how interesting the content, our
attention finally ends. If for no other reason, the human body re$uires
sleep or attention to other bodily needs. The mind can only pay attention
for as long as the body can sit still.
Selectivity, strength, and sustainment determine attention. 7eceiving and
attending are prere$uisites to the rest of the listening process. The third
step in that process is understanding.
TSL 3105 Teaching of Listening and Speaking Skills
in the Primary ESL classroom
c( *nderstanding
Someone has said, 5Aommunication begins with understanding.6
,ow trueG > message may have been sent and received, and the
receiver may have attended to the message<yet, there has been no
effective communication. Bffective communication depends on
understanding* that is, effective communication does not take place until
the receiver understands the message. #nderstanding must result for
communication to be effective.
Let%s return to the B:mail analogy. Suppose I received the B:mail
message, 5opened6 it, and read it. ,as effective communication
occurredH Iot necessarily. Bven though I read every word of your
message, I may not have understood what you meant.
There are several possible reasons for the misunderstanding.
Perhaps I e;pected the message to say something that it didn%t say* my
understanding of it may therefore be more in line with my own
e;pectations than what it actually said. -e often hear or read what we
e;pect rather than what was actually said or written.
+r perhaps the real point of the message was 5tucked away,6
obscured by several other tidbits of information. >nd I missed the point.
In listening, the key point is sometimes missed. > worker may tell a
supervisor several things that happened while the supervisor was out of
the office. -hile relating all the events, the worker mentions that the
boss asked that the supervisor call upon his return. The supervisor
missed this important piece of information because he was not 5ready6
for it* that is, he was trying to understand the other parts of the message.
Later, he asks the worker why he had failed to tell him that his boss
wanted to see him. ut the worker had told him* he Dust didn%t
understand.
+ur e;pectations and@or our failure to get the point often lead to
misunderstanding. ut the maDor reason for my not understanding the B:
mail I received from you was probably something else! the words you
used and the manner in which you arranged them. Ieither of us was
necessarily 5at fault6* we simply attached different meanings to the
words. Cou attached one meaning to those words, I attached another.
-e communicate effectively with each other only insofar as we share
meanings for the symbols<verbal or nonverbal<that we are using.
TSL 3105 Teaching of Listening and Speaking Skills
in the Primary ESL classroom
-ith B:mail, the message is limited to words or other visual
symbols that represent words. In listening, both verbal and nonverbal
symbols are crucial to understanding. Aonsider the roles they play.
Verbal symbols. Eerbal communication means communicating through
the use of words, whether spoken or written. Two barriers obstruct our
understanding of verbal communication.
3arrier 415 The same words mean different things to different people. This
barrier is a common one, and it may be e;perienced whenever any two
people attempt to communicate.
I may tell my colleague that the temperature in the office is $uite comfortable.
?y 5$uite comfortable,6 however, is her 5uncomfortable6! J/ degrees is
comfortable for me* J( degrees is comfortable for her. The same word can
mean different things to different people. > friend tells me he will be over in
five minutes. To him, five minutes means 5soon6<perhaps any time in the
ne;t half hour. I, on the other hand, attach a literal meaning! 4ive minutes
means five minutes.
-hen the same words mean different things to different people,
misunderstanding occurs. ut there is another barrier to effective verbal
communication that can cause Dust as much trouble.
3arrier 4,5 "ifferent words sometimes mean the same thing. ?any things are
called by more than one name. Soft drink, soda, and pop all mean the same
thing when used in the same conte;t. The name used depends on who is
doing the talking. ,ow many things in the Bnglish language are called by
more than one nameH 4or a starter, consider that the /(( most commonly
used words in our language have a total of about 1/,((( definitions<an
average of K( per word. The following sentence will serve to illustrate the
point.
4red has been crestfallen since he fell out of favor with the "all 4estival
Aommittee last fall after he had a falling out with Foe because Foe had fallen
in with a new crowd of people rather than falling in love with 4red%s sister,
4allina.
Iot a great sentence, but it illustrates a few of the more than /( meanings of
5fall.6 +ur language is marked by its multiusage. If you doubt it, describe some
obDect or animal in detail to several talented artists and ask them to draw what
you describe. Ahances are that each one will draw a distinctively different
picture.
TSL 3105 Teaching of Listening and Speaking Skills
in the Primary ESL classroom
These two barriers<same words meaning different things and different words
meaning the same thing<can be overcome if you reali8e the following
fact! Meanings are not in words, meanings are in people. -e listen more
effectively when we consider the message in relation to its source. 3ood
listeners always consider who the sender of the message is. 9nowing
something about the sender pays big dividends when it comes to
understanding the message.
Nonverbal symbols. -e use nonverbal symbols to transmit many times
more information than our verbal symbols carry. -e communicate
nonverbally through action factors, nonaction factors, and vocal factors.
Bach suggests a barrier to listening.
3arrier 415 Misinterpretation of the action. Bye contact, gestures, and facial
e;pression are action factors that affect the meaning we attach to a message.
4or that matter, any movement or action carries meaning.
-hen someone walks $uickly away from a conversation or taps a pencil on
the desk during a conversation, we may conclude that the person is in a hurry
or is bored. +ur conclusions may or may not be correct, however. -e may
conclude that speakers who twitch, or otherwise seem to us unsure, are
nervous when, in fact, they may not be.
3arrier 4,5 Misinterpretation of nonaction symbols. The clothes I wear, the
automobile I drive, and the obDects in my office<all these things communicate
something about me. In addition, my respect of your needs for time and space
affects how you interpret my messages. 4or e;ample, if I am to see you at
noon but arrive 1/ minutes late, my tardiness may affect how you interpret
what I say to you. +r if I 5crowd6 you<get too 5close6 to you emotionally<
when speaking, you may 5tune me out6* that is, you may 5hear6 but not 5listen
to6 my message.
3arrier 435 Misinterpretation of the voice. The $uality, intelligibility, and variety
of the voice affect the listener%s understanding. Luality refers to the overall
impression the voice makes on others. Listeners often infer from the voice
whether the speaker is happy or sad, fearful or confident, e;cited or bored.
Intelligibility &or understandability2 depends on such things as articulation,
pronunciation, and grammatical correctness. ut variety is the spice of
speaking. Eariations in rate, volume, force, pitch, and emphasis are some of
the factors that influence our understanding of the speaker%s message.
7eceiving, attending, and understanding are all crucial if effective listening is
to occur, for communication can accurately be defined as the sharing or
understanding of meaning. +ften, however, the steps of responding and
TSL 3105 Teaching of Listening and Speaking Skills
in the Primary ESL classroom
remembering are part of the listening process. 7esponding and remembering
are indicators of listening accuracy.
d( esponding
The listening process may end with understanding, since effective
communication and effective listening may be defined as the accurate sharing
or understanding of meaning. ut a response may be needed<or at least
helpful. >nd there are different types of responses.
Direct verbal responses. These may be spoken or written. Let%s continue
with the B:mail analogy. >fter I have received, attended to, and understood
the message you sent, I may respond verbally. If your message asked a
$uestion or sought my coordination, I might type a response on my
computer and reply to you. Perhaps you re$uested that I call you or come
to see you, in which case I do so. +r you might have asked me to write a
position paper or think about an issue and give you some advice, in which
case I might send a $uick B:mail response indicating that I will get back to
you later.
Responses that seek clarification. I may use B:mail to ask for additional
information, or I may talk to you either on the telephone or face:to:face. I
may be very direct in my re$uest, or I may Dust say, 5tell me more about it.6
Responses that paraphrase. I may say something like, 5in other words,
what you are saying is. . . .6 > paraphrase gives the sender a chance to
agree, or to provide information to clarify the message.
Nonverbal responses. ?any times, a nonverbal response is all that is
needed* indeed, it may even be the preferred type of response. The
knowing nod of the head, an understanding smile, or a 5thumbs up6 may
communicate that the message is understood.
7esponding, then, is a form of feedback that completes the communication
transaction. It lets the sender know that the message was received, attended
to, and understood.
e( emem1ering
?emori8ation of facts is not the key to good listening. Cet memory is often a
necessary and integral part of the listening process. Some would go so far as
to say, 5if you can%t remember it, you weren%t listening.6
This statement is often untrue. Think for e;ample, of the times you heard a
good Doke but can%t remember it long enough to get home and tell it* or the
TSL 3105 Teaching of Listening and Speaking Skills
in the Primary ESL classroom
number of times you have gone to the grocery store and couldn%t remember
what you were asked to buy. >nd the most frustrating situation of all<you
were introduced to someone and can%t recall the name five minutes later. -e
often say, 5I can remember faces, but I can%t remember names.6 >t times,
something will 5Dog6 our memory, such as hearing another Doke, seeing a
similar product on the grocery store shelf, or meeting someone else with the
same first name.
-hat is the relationship between memory and listeningH #nderstanding the
differences between short:term memory and long:term memory will help
e;plain the relationship.
-ith short:term memory, information is used immediately<within a few
seconds, for e;ample, as with a phone number that we look up. Short:term
memory has a rapid forgetting rate and is very susceptible to interruption. >nd
the amount of information that can be retained is $uite limited, though it varies
somewhat with variations in the material to be retained. 4or e;ample, most of
us can remember only very few random numbers &), 1K, ., /K, 'J), M, ).1,
J1K, '11(, 1, J///, 1112. ut if there is a pattern &1, ', ), 1, 1M, K', M), 1'1,
'/M, /1', 1('), '()12, the task is much easier.
Long:term memory allows us to recall information and events hours, days,
weeks<even years<later. Cou remember, for e;ample, things that happened
to you when you were growing up, songs you learned, people you knew. Cou
may have been unaware of those memories for long periods of time, and then
the right stimulus caused you to recall them. Perhaps the aroma of a freshly
baked pie called to mind your grandmother, who used to make great apple
pies years ago.
L! State t2o factors that contribute to the neglect of listening skills
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L. -hat are the fi0e components of the listening processH
i.
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ii.
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TSL 3105 Teaching of Listening and Speaking Skills
in the Primary ESL classroom
iii.
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iv.
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v.
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L. ,ow is hearing different from listeningH
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C$##CTEISTICS O" SPO'E! L#!%*#%E
It is both time:bound, and dynamic. It is part of an interaction in which
both participants are usually present, and the speaker has a particular
addressee or addressees in mind.
The comple;ity and speed of most speech acts make it difficult to
engage in comple; advance planning. The pressure to think whilst
speaking promotes looser construction, repetition, redundancies! fillers,
hesitations and rephrasings and.
Sentence boundaries are at best unclear though intonation and pause
divide long discourse into more manageable chunks.
Participants are usually face:to:face and so can rely on feedback
&e;tra:linguistic cues to aid meaning2. The le;icon of speech is usually
characteristically vague using words which refer specifically to the
situation. "eictic &see! dei;is2 e;pressions are very commonly used, for
e;ample! that one, in here, right now.
Spoken language makes greater use of shared knowledge than written
language.
?any words and constructions are characteristic of, especially informal,
speech. Lengthy co:ordinate sentences &Doining sentences with co:
ordinates such as 5and6 are normal and are often of considerable
comple;ity. Ionsense vocabulary is often not written and may have no
standard spelling &whatchamacallit2. +bscenity may be replaced with
graphic euphemism &S* *!2.
TSL 3105 Teaching of Listening and Speaking Skills
in the Primary ESL classroom
Speech is very suited to social &phatic = i.e. 5chewing the fat62
functions, such as passing the time of day or 5creating an atmosphere6
or any situation where unplanned and casual discourse is desirable. It is
also good at e;pressing social relationships, opinions, and attitudes in
part due to the vast range of nuances, which can be e;pressed by
prosody and accompanying non:verbal features.
There is an opportunity to rethink an utterance whilst it is in progress.
,owever, errors once spoken cannot be undone. >s such, the
interlocutor must live with the conse$uences.
Iegotiation of meaning is common and often a large part of any
conversation.
Interruptions and overlapping are normal and are generally very
common.
4re$uently displays ellipsis.
Speech makes use of many formulaic e;pressions.
Iegotiation of topic is also very important! yes butO, anywayO, right
thenO,
Interlocutors give and receive immediate feedback.
It has many routines and this can make it very predictable. 4or
e;ample you never say, 53ive me a banana6 in a bread shop. ut, each
situation has its own discourse which have been historically and socially
defined.
L. ,ow is spoken language different from written languageH Identify fi0e
differences.
i.
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L. -hat are some of the difficulties faced by students when they are
participatig in speaking activitiesH Identify three difficulties.
TSL 3105 Teaching of Listening and Speaking Skills
in the Primary ESL classroom
i.
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Some important differences 1et2een listening and spoken lang/age
Listening Spoken Lang/age
P 7eceptive skill@ Passive skillH P Productive skill@ >ctive skillH
P The listener wants to listen to
Qsomething%
P The speaker wants to say
something
P ,e@ she is interested in the
communicative purpose of what is
being said
P ,e@ she has some communicative
purpose
P ,e@ she processes a variety of
language items
P ,e@ she selects from his@ her
language store
L. Is listening a passi0e activityH "iscuss and provide reasons to support
your answer.
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The Comm/nication Process
Aommunication is a dynamic process involving a series of actions and
reactions with a view to achieving a goal. Aommunication is, therefore, a two
way process, that is, the ability to receive is as important as the ability to
send. 4or successful communication, feedback is crucial because it tells how
your message is being interpreted. It can make or break the communication
process.
TSL 3105 Teaching of Listening and Speaking Skills
in the Primary ESL classroom
TSL 3105 Teaching of Listening and Speaking Skills
in the Primary ESL classroom
Comm/nicator &sender or encoder2 is the one who initiates the
communication process.
Encoding is the formulation of messages in the communicator%s mind, that
is, the communicator not only translates his purpose &ideas, thoughts or
information2 into a message but also decides on the medium to
communicate his planned message.
# channel is the vehicle through which a message is carried from the
communicator to the receiver.
The recei0er, at the other end of the communication, is the recipient of the
message and must possess the same orientation as the communicator.
&ecoding is the interpretation of the message by the receiver.
"eed1ack is the response or acknowledgement of receiver to the
communicator%s message. The e;change is possible only if the receiver
responds.
!oise is any kind of interruption that can creep in at any point of the
communication process and make it ineffective.
-hy Listening !eeds to 1e Ta/ght.
P Eery important skill in daily life* -ilga 7ivers &1.112! we listen twice as
much as we speak, four times as much as we read and five times as
much as we write
P It has uni$ue aspects that make it different from other language skills
P Eery important for developing speaking skills. Iida &1./J2! 5Learning to
speak a language is very largely a task of learning to hear it6.
TSL 3105 Teaching of Listening and Speaking Skills
in the Primary ESL classroom
-hat &oes Learning to Speak In0ol0e.
P "/nctions = speakers do a number of things with language* certain
functions go together &ygate, 1.1J! Qroutines%2
P Ling/istic forms = speakers use different words and structures to do
the things they have to do
P #/tomaticity of responses = thinking, listening and speaking go on
almost simultaneously
P Social appropriacy = highly sensitive to conte;t, degree of formality,
politeness
P Topics = speakers speak about something, use words and structures
that pertain to the topic
The "/nctions of Lang/age
P Transactional function = conveying information* message:oriented*
P Interactional function = gives importance to the listener as a person*
main purpose to maintain good social relationships
Con0entions of Spoken Lang/age
P Putting words, phrases and sentences together
P Eocali8ing what they want to say = pronunciation and intonation
P Possessing the ability to be reasonably fluent
P Stretching the language they know to cope with new situations
P Interaction is more than Dust putting a message together responding
to what other people say
P Ahoosing language that is appropriate for the person you are talking to
P Taking turns in a conversation
P 9nowing how to interrupt
P 9nowing how to disagree politely
P Bncouraging others to speak
P B;pressing interest
P Ahanging the topic
P >sking one to repeat or e;plain what they are saying
"actors #ffecting Listening and Speaking Skills
T#S'5 6Pair 2ork7
P Think of two real:life situations in which you were involved in = one
in which communication was successful and the other when
communication was unsuccessful.
TSL 3105 Teaching of Listening and Speaking Skills
in the Primary ESL classroom
P Identify the factors that contributed to the success@ failure of the
communication that took place
-hen we teach Bnglish we need to be sure that our students can be
understood when they speak. They need to be able to say what they want to
say. There are numerous factors that affect listening and speaking skills.
Pronuniciation = the sounds in the language
Suprasegmental features of the language = intonation, stress and
rhythm
9nowledge of subDect matter or topic of conversation
Language ability of the speakers = grammatical competence
Eocabulary
Intercultural awareness
7ole relationship and appropriacy = sociolingusitic competence
>wareness of the conventions of speaking = turn taking,
interrupting etc.
>wareness of the varieties of language
"iscourse competence = awareness of the differentways
language is used in different situations
9nowing the difference between formal and informal language use
L. Aan you think of other factors that affect listening and speaking skillsH
T#S'
P -ork in groups of K@)
P Identify ' situations where L0S takes place!
= Lecture
= 4riends chatting at the canteen
= 7adio show
= TE talk show etc
P -hat kind of language was used = formal@ informal
P -hat is the relationship between the speakersH
P ,ow many times did the speakers change topicH
P 7eport any other interesting observations that you may have made.
P "o you think the teaching of L0S is important for learners of BnglishH
P ,ow much L0S did your teachers do while you were in schoolH
P -hy do you think L0S is being neglected in schoolsH
P -hat do you think teachers and administrators should do to make
listening and speaking an important part of language learningH
P Prepare a Powerpoint presentation complete with pictures and other
relevant materials.