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Performance Engineering

Class Outline
Please call us to discuss any
coal related issues at:
114 South Main Street, Versailles, KY 40383 Phone: (859) 873-0188 a!: (859) 873-0"5"
Please #isit our $e%site at $$$&'oal'o(%ustion&'o(
)oal Per*or(an'e +n,ineerin, )lass
%- .o/ 0att
1n the 'lass $e $ill e!a(ine in /etail t$o areas that are 2arti'ularl- har/ to (ana,e, ash
/e2osits an/ o2a'it-& 3s an in/e2en/ent, results orientate/, 'o(%ustion en,ineer, our
instru'tor has $or4e/ $ith /o5ens o* 2o$er 'o(2anies an/ 'oal 2ro/u'ers o#er the last
""6 -ears& .o/ has %een a%le to (ini(i5e the e'ono(i' i(2a't an/ i(2ro#e
o2erations %- 2ro#i/in, his 'usto(ers $ith a %etter un/erstan/in, o* the root 'ause an/
2otential o2tions a#aila%le& 7hese o2tions 'o#er the ran,e o* 2lant e8ui2(ent,
o2erations, an/ *uel sele'tion& Please a''e2t our in#itation to atten/ this a/#an'e )oal
Per*or(an'e +n,ineerin, )lass&
)lass 9utline
1ntro/u'tion o* 3tten/ees an/ 1nstru'tors
.e#ie$ o* :asi' )oal ;ualit-
1t is i(2ortant to un/erstan/ the results an/ (eanin, o* the *ollo$in, 'oal tests&
7hese are all 'o#ere/ in our <:asi' )oal ;ualit- an/ )o(%ustion )lass=
or(s o* Sul*ur
)alori*i' Value
3sh usion 7e(2eratures
Ma?or an/ Minor 3sh )he(istr-
0ar/,ro#e @rin/a%ilit- 1n/e!
)o(%ustion 7une-u2 Pro'e/ures
3ir lo$ an/ :alan'in,
9!-,en (9") .ea/in,s
Veri*-in, 9" .ea/in,s
)o(2arin, 9" to air *lo$ (easure(ents
3ir 0eater Aea4a,e
9ther Aea4a,e
Pul#eri5er Per*or(an'e
)oal Si5in,
3ir an/ uel lo$
)lean an/ Birt- )oal Pi2e Measure(ents
P-rite .e?e'ts
Pri(ar- 3ir lo$
A91 7estin, an/ )o(%ustion Veri*i'ation
A91 7est
)ar%on in 3sh
Sa(2lin, Ao'ation
Sa(2lin, Metho/s
92erator ee/%a'4
)9 3nal-ses
C9! 3nal-ses
.esults +n,ineerin,
:oiler +**i'ien'- 7estin,
0eat Aoss Metho/
Pro%le( areas
1(2ro#in, :oiler +**i'ien'-
1(2ro#in, )o(%ustion
92ti(i5in, )o(%ustion
92ti(i5in, C9!
>nit 0eat .ate
)on'erns an/ 922ortunities
)oal Sa(2lin, an/ 7estin, .esults are )riti'al
Per*or(an'e Bia,ra(s
3sh Be2osits E Sla,,in, #erse oulin,
Sla, is Molten, oulin, is Sul*ate Salts
73:A+ 1 - Ma?or )auses o* 3sh Be2osits
uel .elate/ Aar,e 2-rite 2arti'les that i(2a't the *urna'e
$all %e*ore the- 'o(2letel- 'o(%ust
)la- (inerals that 'ontain si,ni*i'ant a(ounts o* iron, 'al'iu(,
so/iu( or 2otassiu( 'ausin, the( to ha#e lo$ (eltin,
1ntera'tion o* 2-rite, 'la-s an/ al4alis $ith alu(ino sili'ates to
*or( lo$ #is'osit- (elts
+!tre(el- *ine or or,ani'all- %oun/ al4alis
+8ui2(ent .elate/ Soot %lo$ers not in o2eration or use/
Poor 2ul#eri5ation o* *uel
1(2ro2er air to *uel ratio
:urners /a(a,e/ or i(2ro2erl- a/?uste/
)han,es in o2eration o* %oiler or other e8ui2(ent
Besi,n .elate/ urna'e si5e too s(all *or *uel
7u%e (aterial an/Dor s2a'in, ina/e8uate
Soot %lo$in, 'o#era,e ina/e8uate
Co (eans 2ro#i/e/ to o%ser#e sla, %uil/u2
Most Sla, %e,ins on the urna'e $alls an/ the 2ro'ee/s u2 the *urna'e
:asi' 3nal-ti'al Pro'e/ures
3sh usion 7e(2eratures
S2rea/ %et$een 1B an/ 7
S2rea/ %et$een 9!i/i5in, an/ .e/u'in,
S2rea/ :et$een Aa%oratories
1(2a't o* )o(%ustion
)ross Plottin, %et$een other )oal )hara'teristi's
Ma?or an/ Minor 3sh +le(ents
3S7M /esi,nates the re2ortin, o* ash ele(ents in their *ull- o!i/i5e
*or(& 7his is /ue to the assu(2tion that the ele(ents are *oun/ in the
ash, an/ ash is 2ro/u'e/ in an o!i/i5in, at(os2here at hi,h
te(2erature& 7hese ele(ents (a- or (a- not %e in the *ull- o!i/i5es
*or( in a'tual 2o$er 2lant ash, an/ 'ertainl- not all in the o!i/i5e/
*or( in the ori,inal 'oal& 7he 'hallen,e in inter2retin, ash anal-ses is
to un/erstan/ the a'tual (inerals in the 'oal an/ the (ineral
trans*or(ations& 3n a//itional 'o(2li'ation is that so(e ele(ents
'an %e %oun/ to the a'tual 'oal (aterial an/ are not in a (ineral *or(&
7his is 2arti'ularl- true *or 'al'iu( an/ so/iu( in lo$ ran4 'oals& 7he
hi,h o!-,en 'ontent o* these 'oals 2ro#i/es 2la'es *or these ele(ents
to sli'4 to the 'oal /ue to ,roun/ $ater (o#e(ent&
9ne other ele(ent that 'auses 'on*usion in 3S7M anal-ses is sul*ur&
1t is re2orte/ as S93 E sul*ur trio!i/e E $hi'h is a ,as 'o((onl- *oun/
in *lue ,as& 7he S93 re2orte/ in 3S7M anal-ses is trul- sul*ur in the
sul*ite or sul*ate *or(& 3 rea'tion ta4es 2la'e /urin, the ashin, o* the
'oal %et$een the 'al'iu( an/ the sul*ur ,ases *or(in, 'al'iu(
sul*ate& 7his rea'tion ta4es 2la'e at te(2eratures in the 1500
& ran,e& 7he sa(e rea'tion is use/ in *lui/i5e/ %e/
'o(%ustors to 'a2ture sul*ur usin, li(estone& 7he la%orator- ashin,
*urna'e has a te(2erature o* 1300
- 1400
an/ o* 'ourse the
%urnin, 'oal raises this lo'all-& 7he S93 re2orte/ in 'oal ash
anal-ses is usuall- (u'h hi,her than that *oun/ in the *l- an/ %otto(
ash, /ue to their *or(ation at (u'h hi,her te(2eratures $here the
'al'iu( an/ sul*ur ,ases 'an not rea't& 7he (ain *oulin, rea'tion is
this sa(e rea'tion an/ $ill %e /is'usse/ in /etail in a *ollo$in,
3'i/ 9!i/es or @lass or(ers
Si9" E Sili'on /io!i/e - Sili'a E .e2resents ele(ental sili'on *oun/ in
the (ineral ;uart5, an/ the alu(inosili'ate ro'4s Shale, Slate, an/
3l"93 E3lu(inu( o!i/e - 3lu(ina E .e2resents the alu(inu( *oun/
in the alu(inosili'ate ro'4s an/ (inerals, not the (ineral 'orun/u(
(3l"93) $hi'h is an in/ustrial a%rasi#e an/ also the ,e(s ru%ies an/
7i9" E 7itaniu( /io!i/e E 7itania E Sea(s to al$a-s %e a%out one to
t$o 2er'ent
:asi' 9!i/es or lu!in, a,ents or @luin, +le(ents
e"93 E 1ron o!i/e E he(atite E .e2resents the ele(ental iron in its
*ull- o!i/i5e/ *or(& 1ron in 'oal is in 2-riti' an/ 'ar%onate *or(s, iron
in ash 'an %e in ele(ental, re/u'e/ an/ o!i/i5e/ *or(& 7his ele(ent
is one o* the (ost i(2ortant in in*luen'in, sla,,in, %eha#ior
)a9 E )al'iu( o!i/e E li(e E re2resents %oth (ineral ('al'ite,
li(estone) an/ or,ani'all- %oun/ 'al'iu(& 7he o!i/ation state o* this
ele(ent is %asi'all- *i!e/ to )a9& 7here is less i(2a't o* the o!i/i5in,
'on/itions on the *usion te(2eratures o* hi,h 'al'iu( 'oal ash& 7his
ele(ent is also one o* the (ost i(2ortant in sla, an/ *oulin, /e2osits
M,9 E Ma,nesiu( o!i/e E ,enerall- lo$er, (less than si! 2er'ent)
than the 'al'iu(, %ut *ollo$s 'al'iu( le#els as the (ineral /olo(ite&
K"9 E Potassiu( o!i/e E t-2i'all- *oun/ in 'la-s an/ other
Ca"9 E So/iu( o!i/e E *oun/ in se#eral *or(s /e2en/in, on 'oal
ran4 an/ /e2ositional en#iron(ent, 9r,ani'all- %oun/ *or( 'o((on
in lo$ ran4 'oals an/ Ca)l *oun/ in 'oals saturate/ $ith sea or %rin-
$ater& So/iu( is also one o* the three i(2ortant ele(ents in sla, an/
*oulin, /e2osits&
S93 E Sul*ur trio!i/e E a'tuall- in the soli/ *or( o* sul*ates 'o(%ine/
$ith 'al'iu( an/ other %asi' ele(ents& Cot 'o((onl- *oun/ in hi,h
le#els in *l- an/ %otto( ash& 1t is *oun/ in *oulin, /e2osits hel/
to,ether %- 'al'iu( sul*ate&
:asi' Sla,,in, *a'tors
:D3 E :ase to a'i/ ratio, su( o* total %ases /i#i/e/ %- su( o* all a'i/
:D3 F e"93 6)a96M,96K"96Ca"9
Sin'e (ost o* the %asi' ele(ents are trou%leso(e the :D3 is an
in/i'ation o* the le#el o* *lu!in, a,ents&
Sla,,in, a'tor E Br- sul*ur ti(es the :D3 2ro#i/es a result that is
si(ilar to an iron s8uare/ ter( (e"93)
, this is /ue to e"93 %ein, a
%ase an/ a si,ni*i'ant 2ortion o* the sul*ur %ein, in the 2-riti' *or(,
3sh an/ +le(ental Aoa/in, E ash an/ i(2ortant ele(ents re2orte/ in
2oun/s 2er (illion :tus& Ge all rea/- use HDM:tu to e#aluate the
2ri'e o* 'oal an/ re2ort sul*ur /io!i/e S9" le#els in A%s&DM:tu& 7hese
'al'ulations re2ort the ash an/ ele(ental
A%& 3shDM:tu F I3shD(:tuDl%&D10,000)
+le(ental loa/in, F 3sh Aoa/ ! +le(ent ID100
+!a(2le E Ghi'h 'oal has (ore ironJ
)oal 1 )oal "
3sh F9&0I 14&0I
:tuDl% F1",300 11,"00
e"93 F1"&0I 9&0I
)oal 1
A%& 3shDM:tu F 9D(1",300D10,000) F 9D1&"3 F 7&3
A%s e"93 F 7&3 ! 1"&0D100 F 7&3 ! 0&1" F 0&88
)oal "
A%& 3shDM:tu F 14D(11,"00D10,000) F 14D1&1" F 1"&5
A%s e"93 F 1"&5 ! 9&0D100 F 7&3 ! 0&09 F 1&13
Per'ent iron that )oal " has (ore than )oal1 F
1&13D&88 F "8 I (ore iron in )oal "
7his e!a(2le illustrates the i(2ortan'e o* /ata (ani2ulation rather
than ?ust usin, the strai,ht 3S7M le#els re2orte/ %- the la%oratories&
3/#an'e/ Metho/s *or Sla,
Mineral an/ +le(ental 3nal-ses o* )oal
)o(2uter )ontrolle/ S'annin, +le'tron Mi'ros'o2- ())S+M)
>ses +ner,- Bis2ersi#e K-ra- 3nal-ses (+B3K) to si5e an/ 8uanti*-
ele(ental 'o(2osition&
Ao$ 7e(2erature 3shin,
Mi'ros'o2i'all- i/enti*- (inerals 2resent
)he(i'al ra'tionation
Pro#i/es in*or(ation on 9r,ani'all- :oun/ ele(ents
+le(ental 3nal-ses o* *loat sin4 an/Dor si5e *ra'tions
)an %e 2er*or(e/ %- 3S7M 'oal la%oratories
Poun/s o* iron 2er (illion :tu
Poun/s 'al'iu(, so/iu(, an/ other ele(ents
3sh Be2osit 3nal-ses
Sa(2lin, Pro'e/ure *or 3sh Be2osits
Polari5e/ Ai,ht an/ S'annin, +le'tron Mi'ros'o2-
Aoo4 *or the ,lue hol/in, the (aterial to,ether
Aoo4 *or si,ns o* 'o(%ustion 'on/itions
or(s o* 1ron %- 'he(i'al *ra'tionation
Moss%auer s2e'tros'o2-
oulin, Be2osit or(ation
9r,ani' 'al'iu( an/ so/iu( ele(ents #a2ori5e /urin, 'o(%ustion
Organically Bound Alkalis
Sodium Condnss
on Sur!ac
7he 'al'iu( rea'ts $ith sul*ur ,ases to *or( 'al'iu( sul*ate&
So/iu( 'an 'on/ense onto alu(inosili'ate *l-ash 2arti'les an/ (elt the sur*a'e
+le'trostati' Pre'i2itators
:asi' 92eration Prin'i2les
0i,h Volta,e B) E 7rans*or(er .e'ti*ier Sets
Volta,e )ontrol E )ontrollin, the $a#e *ro( an/ s2ar4in, rate
Si5in, +SP E Plate area (*i!e/) an/ lue ,as #olu(e (o2erational
Mi,ration Velo'it- or $h- the 2arti'le ,oes to the 2late
3sh .esisti#it- 'on'erns
@as Velo'it- E i(2a'ts +SP si5e an/ treat(ent ti(e
.a22in, E i(2ortant e8ui2(ent that 'an %e hi,h (aintenan'e
0o22er +#a'uation E use*ul *or /eter(inin, ash 2artitionin,
Bust )olle'tion an/ Stora,e
3/#an'e/ +SP Metho/s an/ 7une-u2
)o(%ustion 1n*luen'es
+SP is (eant to 'olle't ash, not 'ar%on *ro( in'o(2lete 'o(%ustion
.esisti#it-, #olu(e o* (aterial, an/ 2otential *ires all 2oint to$ar/s s2en/in,
ti(e on 'o(%ustion
3ir in lea4a,e an/ air heater lea4a,e 'an si,ni*i'antl- i(2a't +SP
:alan'in, *urna'e an/ *lue ,as *lo$s
Ghat /o -ou %alan'e, *lo$, te(2erature, e!'ess airJ
)al'ulatin, an/ Measurin, l- 3sh .esisti#it-
)al'ulation Metho/s
Aa%orator- Measure(ents
1n situ Measure(ents
)u2 )olle'tion Metho/
Point to Plane .esisti#it- Pro%e
)orrelatin, an/ (a4in, sense o* resisti#it- /ata
3/?ust(ent an/ /i**erent thou,hts on ra22in, se8uen'in,
1ns2e'tions an/ Maintenan'e
Measurin, ra22er *or'e
0i,h Volta,e 'ontrols
S2ar4 rate theories
.a(2 rate, hol/ an/ set%a'4 settin,s
Measurin, ,as *lo$s an/ 2arti'ular loa/in,s
+P3 Metho/s 5 an/ 17
0ot$ire ane(o(eter
+SP 1ns2e'tions
Aearn *or( -our ins2e'tor
Me'hani'al an/ +le'tri'al
7une-u2 Pro'e/ures
@oo/ )o(%ustion
urna'e 'on/itions an/ te(2eratures
3ir Aea4a,e
.a22er Per*or(an'e
Volta,e 'ontrols
Slagging and "ouling
:ase/ on /i**erent (e'hanis(s in#ol#e/ in ash /e2osit on the heat sur*a'e, t$o ,eneral t-2es o* ash
/e2osition ha#e %een /e*ine/ as sla,,in, an/ *oulin,& Sla,,in, is the *or(ation o* (olten or 2artiall-
*use/ /e2osits on *urna'e $alls or 'on#e'tion sur*a'es e!2ose/ to ra/iant heat& oulin, is /e*ine/
as the *or(ation o* /e2osit on 'on#e'tion heat sur*a'es su'h as su2erheater an/ reheaters&
Sla, *or(e/ $hen (elt or so*ten ash 2arti'les is not 'oole/ /o$n to soli/ state $hen the- rea'h the
heat sur*a'e& 7-2i'al initial /e*or(ation te(2eratures (or so 'alle/ <ash *usion= te(2eratures) are
"100 to ""00 & Gith *urna'e ,as te(2eratures in e!'ess o* "500 , $e ha#e se(i-(olten ash that
(a- sti'4 to the relati#el- 'ooler $alls& Most ash ten/ to %e resoli/i*ie/ /ue to the raltai#el- lo$er
te(2erature at the tu%e sur*a'e an/ the 2arti'les *a'tures on i(2a't an/ 2artiall- %oun'e %a'4 into
the ,as strea(& 0o$e#er, i* the *urna'e is too s(all, the e!it ,as te(2erature is too hi,h or the
(eltin, 2oint o* ash is relati#el- lo$, (olten ash (a- not ha#e enou,h ti(e to %e resoli/i*ie/ $hen
the- hit the heat sur*a'e, there*ore the- are eas- to sti'4 to the sur*a'e an/ 'ause the a''u(ulation
o* /e2osits lea/in, to sla,,in,& Be2en/in, on the stren,th an/ 2h-si'al 'hara'teristi' o* the /e2osit,
stea( or air soot%lo$er (a- %e a%le to re(o#e (ost o* the(& 0o$e#er, the %ase /e2osit ,enerall-
re(ains atta'he/ to the tu%e, allo$in, su%se8uent /e2osits to a''u(ulate (u'h (ore ra2i/l-&
oulin, is ,enerall- 'ause/ %- the #a2ori5ation o* #olatile inor,ani' ele(ents in the 'oal /urin,
'o(%ustion& Ghen heat is a%or%e/ an/ te(2eratures /e'rease in the 'on#e'tion area o* the %oiler,
'o(2oun/s *or(e/ %- these ele(ents 'on/ense on ash 2arti'les an/ heatin, sur*a'e, *or(in, a
,lue $hi'h initiate /e2osition&
"ac#ors $n!luncing Slagging and "ouling
7he 2ro'esses o* sla,,in, an/ *oulin, an/ the stru'ture o* /e2osits are #arial%e /ue to a nu(%er
*a'tors& urna'e /esi,n, ash 'ontent, ash *usi%ilit-, ash 'o(2onents, 2arti'le si5e, *lo$ 2attern an/
other *a'tors in*luen'e the e!tent an/ nature o* ash /e2osition&
"urnac %sign
7o a#oi/ sla,,in, on the *urna'e $all, the *urna'e shoul/ %e a%le to 4ee2 ash 2arti'les in
sus2ension an/ a$a- *ro( *urna'e sur*a'e, /istri%ute heat e#enl- to a#oi/ lo'ali5e/ te(2eratures,
an/ re(o#e enou,h heat to a'hie#e a22ro2riate te(2eratures at the *urna'e e!it that $ill (ini(i5e
/e2osition on 'on#e'tion sur*a'e& 7he *urna'e shoul/ ha#e su**i'ient $all sur*a'e to 'ool the *urna'e
,as an/ ash 2arti'le to the /esire/ te(2erature %e*ore the- rea'he/ an- su2erheater sur*a'e&
1n a//ition, the *urna'e also (ust %e 'orre'tl- 2ro2ortionate/ $ith res2e't to $i/th, /e2th an/ hei,ht
to li(it the 2otential *or ash 2arti'le i(2a'tin, on *urna'e sur*a'es& 1n ,eneral, *urna'es %urnin,
%itu(inous are s(aller than those %urnin, su%%itu(inous an/ li,nite %e'ause %iti(inous 'oals ha#e
lo$er sla,,in, 2otential& 0o$e#er, $hen the *uel s$it'hes *ro( %itu(inous to su%%itu(inous or
li,nites, the *urna'e %e'o(es too s(all to re/u'e the ,as an/ 2arti'les to the /esire/ te(2eratures&
7his is $h- se#ere sla,,in, 2ro%le(s o''urs $hen s$it'hin, 'oals&
As& "usi'ili#y
usion te(2eratures 2ro#i/e an in/i'ation o* the te(2erature ran,e o#er $hi'h 2ortions o* the ash
$ill %e a (olten *lui/ or se(i-(olten, 2lasti' state& 0i,h *usion te(2eratures in/i'ate that ash
release/ in the *urna'e $ill 'ool 8ui'4l- to a nonsti'4- state resultin, (ini(al 2otential *or sla,,in,&
)on#ersel-, lo$ *usion te(2erature in/i'ate that ash $ill re(ain in a (olten or 2lasti' state lon,er,
e!2osin, (ore o* the *urna'e to 2otential /e2osition&
As& (lmn#s
Ai,niti' ash, $hi'h is /e*ine/ as ha#in, (ore )a9 6 M,9 than e"93, is easier to /e2osit than
%itu(inous ash, $hi'h is /e*ine/ as ha#ein, (ore e"93 than the su( o* )a9 an/ M,9& Ai,niti'
ash is ,enerall- 'hara'teristi' o* lo$ ran4 'oals *ro( $esten >&S an/ is re*erre/ $estern ash&
Si(ilarl-, %itu(inous ash is re*erre/ as eastern ash&
7he al4ali (etals, so/iu( an/ 2otassiu(, ha#e lon, %een asso'iate/ $ith the *oulin, ten/en'ies o*
'oal ash& Volatile *or(s o* these ele(ents are #a2ori5e/ in the *urna'e at 'o(%ustion te(2erature
an/ rea't $ith sul*ur in the *lue ,as an/ other ele(ents in the ash *or( 'o(2oun/s that /e2osit on
'on#e'tion sur*a'es&
7he %ase to a'i/ ratio o* ash also a**e't the sla,,in, 2otential& 7he %asi' 'onstituents are iron, the
al4aline earth (etals 'al'iu( an/ (a,nesiu(, an/ the al4ali (etals so/iu( an/ 2otassiu(& 3'i/i'
'onstituents are sili'on, alu(inu( an/ titaniu(& 3sh that is $ith either hi,h or lo$ %ase to a'i/ ratio
,enerall- has hi,h ash *usion an/ (eltin, te(2eratures& 0o$e#er, ash $ith (e/iu( %ase to a'i/
ration ten/ to ha#e lo$ *usion an/ (eltin, te(2eratures&
Boilr Claning )c&nologis
Soot%lo$ers are use/ to 'lean %oiler ash an/ sla, /e2osits& 7he 'leanin, (e/ia use/ in soot%lo$ers
(a- %e saturate/ stea(, su2erheate/ stea(, 'o(2resse/ air or $ater& 1n (ost 'ases, su2erheate/
stea( has %e'o(e the 2re*erre/ 'leanin, (e/ia %e'ause it has a ,reater 'leanin, 2otential /ue
2artiall- to teh hi,her soni' #elo'it- throu,h the no55les an/ it has less erosion than saturate/
stea(& 9n lar,er %oilers, 'o(2resse/ air is o*tern use/ as the 'leanin, (e/ia& Gater (a- also %e
use/ as a 'leanin, (e/iu( either alone or in 'o(%ination $ith stea( or air& or 'ertain hi,h
te(2erature ran,es in $hi'h the 2lasti' is 2lasti' or $here the /e2osit stron,l- sinters to the tu%e
($hen %urnin, so(e Gestern lo$ sul*ur 'oals), neither air nor stea( is e**e'ti#e& 1n these 'ases,
$ater is re8uire/ as a 'leanin, (e/iu( to re(o#e the /e2osit&
:oiler 'leanin, te'hnolo,- has /e#elo2e/ si,ni*i'antl- in the last se#eral /e'a/es, es2e'iall- in the
*urna'e 'leanin, area& 7he tra/itional (etho/ o* *urna'e 'leanin, is the retra'ta%le $all %lo$er, a
'on'e2t $hi'h e!ists in its 2resent *or( *ro( the 1940s& 7his /e#i'e is inserte/ into the *urna'e $all
throu,h an o2enin,& 7he %lo$er tu%e rotates $hile a ?et o* stea( or air is s2ra-e/ on the *urna'e $all
to 'lean o** /e2osits& 3 %lo$er t-2i'all- 'an 'o#er an ei,ht to ten *oot /ia(eter area, or a%out *i*t-
s8uare *eet&Gall %lo$ers are o*ten not a/e8uate *or 'lean %oilers that are %urnin, P.:, li,nite, or
other 'oals that *or( *urna'e /e2osits as tests sho$ & .easons *or this are su,,este/ to %e the
i(2a't an,le o* the 'leanin, (e/ia u2on the sla, as $ell as the relati#el- lo$ (ass *lo$ o* the
'leanin, (e/ia&
*a#r Lancs
0en'e $ater lan'es $ere /e#elo2e/ to 'lean lar,er areas an/ use a $ater ?et as the 'leanin,
(e/iu(& 7his /e#i'e is a (o/i*i'ation o* the retra'ta%le soot%lo$er& 1t s2ra-s a ?et o* $ater %a'4 on to
the $all it is (ounte/ on in a s2iral 2attern as it is inserte/ into the *urna'e&
Gater lan'es 'o#er a%out a "0-*oot /ia(eter area an/ 'lean a s2iral sha2e/ area $here the $ater
i(2in,e(ent area tra#erses the tu%e $ater $all& 7hus, a 500 M$ si5e %oiler (a- %e out*itte/ $ith 40
or (ore in an atte(2t to 4ee2 the *urna'e 'lean& 7he- ha#e s(all no55le area (t-2i'all- "D1L= $ith
1D3"= satellite no55les /ia(eter) an/ re8uire hi,h 2urit- $ater& Aan'es 'an %e %ent i* the- are hit %-
*allin, sla, $hile inserte/ into the %oiler&
Ghile ,enerall- e**e'ti#e on (ost *uels, $ater lan'es ha#e %een li(ite/ %- se#eral *a'tors:
7heir relati#el- hi,h installe/ 'ost 2er unit area 'leane/ (t-2i'all- in the ran,e o* H100 2er
s8uare *oot)& 3s a result o* this, their i(2le(entation is usuall- 2ie'e(eal, onl- a//ressin, a
s(all 2ro2ortion o* the i/eal 'leane/ area& Po$er 2lant o2erators ha/ to 'o(2ro(ise on less
/e#i'es than $oul/ %e i/eal, an/ a'hie#e less than o2ti(al 'leanin, 'a2a'it-, li(itin, unit
7he lo$ in'i/ent an,le o* i(2a't o* the $ater on the $all, M, /i'tates the use o* hi,h intensit-
$ater ?ets, as note/ %- the use o* #er- s(all no55les& 7his hi,h #elo'it- is re8uire/ in or/er to
'o(2ensate *or the shallo$ i(2a't an,le o* the $ater on the $all& 7-2i'all- <%a'4 ra4e= an,les
o* 15 or "0 /e,rees are use/ on $ater lan'es, (eanin, that the $ater i(2a'ts the %oiler $all
at 75 o* 70 /e,rees, res2e'ti#el-, o** a nor(al or /ire't $all i(2in,e(ent&
7his lo$ an,le on in'i/en'e is res2onsi%le *or (ulti2le 'oolin, i(2a'ts 2er 'leanin, '-'le&
7he relati#el- s(all no55les use/ on the( (1D8= to 3D1L=) are 2rone to %lo'4a,e& 7he lan'e
then *ails, (eltin, or /e*or(in, in the *urna'e, /ue to la'4 o* 'oolin, $hen inserte/&
*a#r Cannons
3s a (a?or /e#elo2(ent *ro( $ater lan'es ori,inatin, in the 1980s, $ater 'annons s2ra- a tar,ete/
an/ 2re'isel- 'ontrolle/ ?et o* $ater *ro( an o2enin, in the *urna'e $all to the o22osite $all& .o%oti'
'ontrol (e'hanis(s are use/ to a'hie#e 2in2oint a''ura'- in 2ositionin, an/ 'leanin,& See the
i(a,e %elo$ *or an illustration o* this 2ro'ess&
1n (an- installations a 'annon 'an 'lean *ro( the nose ar'h to the %otto( slo2e tu%es an/ *ro( one
si/e to the other& 7hus 4 'annons, one on ea'h $all, 'an 'lean an entire *urna'e& More 'o(2le!
,eo(etries, *or e!a(2le $in, $alls, 'enter /i#ision $alls 3 'on'entrate/ $ater ?et, $hi'h is 2ro/u'e/
%- a s2e'ial no55le, 'rosses the %oiler insi/e an/ i(2a'ts on the sla,,e/ $all sur*a'e& 7he 'leanin,
e**e't is %ase/ on the *a't that the i(2a'tin, $ater $hi'h 2enetrates the to2(ost la-er an/ e!2an/s
into stea(& 1n this $a- the sla, is %ro4en u2 an/ re(o#e/ *ro( the sur*a'e&
Gater 'annons o**er a nu(%er o* a/#anta,es o#er 'on#entional $all %lo$ers an/ $ater lan'es& 3
sele'tion o* the (ost o%#ious are ,i#en here:
7he lar,e nu(%er o* $all %lo$ers an/Dor $ater lan'es re8uires an e!traor/inaril- hi,h
(aintenan'e e!2ense&
7he use o* stea(, air, or hi,h 2urit- $ater as 'leanin, a,ents results in hi,h o2eratin, 'osts&
Gater 'annons 'an use ser#i'e $ater $ith a 'lear re/u'tion in 'ost&
7he $ater 'annons also allo$ areas to %e 'leane/ that 'annot %e out*itte/ $ith $all %lo$ers
an/ $ater lan'es& Bi#ision $alls, nose ar'hes, an/ lo$er slo2e tu%es are e!a(2les o* areas
routinel- 'leane/ %- $ater 'annons&
Bra(ati' 'leanin, area 'o#era,e: 1n a t-2i'al *urna'e the area 'leane/ 'an o*ten %e (ore
than /ou%le/& 7his in'rease in 'leanin, has se#eral 2ositi#e e**e'ts:
o .e/u'in, *urna'e e!it ,as te(2erature (+@7) %- in'reasin, the a(ount o* heat
a%sor%e/ in the *urna'e& 0en'e unit e**i'ien'- is i(2ro#e/& Aoa/ 'an %e in'rease/ as
+@7 re/u'tions 2er(it an in'rease in 'oal *lo$ (,i#en a/e8uate (aterials an/ air
han/lin, 'a2a'it-)&
o 1(2ro#in, the /istri%ution o* heat trans*er throu,hout the *urna'e& 3s $ater lan'es an/
$all %lo$ers ha#e 'a2a%ilit- to 'lean onl- a s(all se'tion o* the $all, the heat trans*er
(ust %e N*or'e/O throu,h this s(all area& :- %ein, a%le to 'lean a lar,er area, the
'leanin, Nloa/O *or these areas 'an %e re/u'e/ an/ (ore e#enl- /istri%ute/ o#er other,
2re#iousl- un'leane/, areas&
o 3n a//itional %ene*it is the re/u'tion in ther(al C9! 2ro/u'tion& .e/u'tions o* 100 in
+@7 are 'o((on an/ C9! re/u'tions o* 10I or (ore ha#e %een /o'u(ente/&
+c&anism o! *a#r Claning
3s note/ a%o#e, $ater 'leanin, /i#er,es si,ni*i'antl- *ro(
stea( or air 'leanin, in the 'ore (e'hanis( $hi'h
*a'ilitates the su''ess*ul re(o#al o* /e2osits *ro( the tu%e
sur*a'e& 7he t-2i'al (e'hanis( $ith 'on#entional air or
stea( %lo$ers is that o* 4ineti' i(2a't or usin, the %rute
*or'e o* the 'leanin, (e/ia i(2a't to s'our or s'ra2e the
/e2osits *ro( the $all& 7-2i'al (e/ia s2ee/s are 'lose to
Ma'h one, or a%out 300 (eters 2er se'on/&
3ll $ater 'leanin, /e#i'es (%ar $ater 'uttin, tools o2eratin,
in the tens o* thousan/s o* 2oun/s 2er s8uare in'h ran,e)
e(2lo- a t$o ste2 2ro'ess:
7he *irst ste2 is *or the 'leanin, /e#i'e (lan'e,
'annon, e#en *ire hose) to /eli#er $ater /ro2lets into
the 'ra'4s or 2ores o* the /e2osit on the tu%e
sur*a'e& 7he $ater /ro2lets (ust %e /eli#ere/ $ith
su**i'ient resi/ual (o(entu( to 2enetrate the
7he se'on/ ste2 is the auto(ati' an/ al(ost
i((e/iate e!2ansion o* the $ater into stea(& 1t is this
e!2losion ta4in, 2la'e /urin, the 2hase 'han,e o*
$ater to its #a2or *or( that 2ro#i/es the ne'essar-
i(2etus *or the 'leanin, e**e't&
)onsi/eration o* this 2ro'ess 2ro#i/es the reasons *or the
ar,u(ent note/ a%o#e that the i(2a't an,le /eter(ines the
'leanin, e**e't& 7his 2er(its the 8uantit- o* $ater use/ *or
$ater 'annon o2erations, $hi'h i(2a't the $ater $all (ore
/ire'tl-, to t-2i'all- %e *ar less than e8ui#alent $ater lan'es,
$hi'h e(2lo- a (ore tan,ential i(2a't on the $all&

Sla,,in, an/ oulin,
a'tors 1n*luen'in, Sla,,in,
an/ oulin,
:oiler )leanin, 7e'hnolo,ies
Me'hanis( o* Gater
Me'hanis( o* 7her(al 7u%e

)leanin, e**e't 'an %e (o/i*ie/ an/ 'ontrolle/ a''or/in, to
lo'al nee/s an/ re8uire(ents, %- 'han,in, the s-ste(Os
2ressure an/ s2ee/s& 7his 2ro'ess o* o2ti(i5ation an/
<tunin,= is 4e- to a'hie#in, o2ti(al s-ste( 2er*or(an'e,
an/ in %alan'in, the t$o ,oals o* (ini(i5in, ther(al i(2a't
an/ e**e'ti#e 'leanin,&
+c&anism o! )&rmal )u' $m,ac#
3lthou,h e!tensi#el- resear'he/ an/ strai,ht*or$ar/ to 2re/i't, the e**e't that relati#el- 'ol/ $ater
i(2a'tin, on hot (etal *urna'e tu%es still raises 'on'erns a(on,st %oiler o$ners an/ o2erators *or a
#ariet- o* reasons& or this reason, this issue is ,i#en /etaile/ /is'ussion here, $ith *re8uent
re*eren'e to institutional, in/e2en/ent an/ )l-/e :er,e(ann te!ts on the su%?e't& 7he )l-/e
:er,e(ann S(art)annonsP $hen use/ as 2art o* the S(art)leanP 2ro'ess si,ni*i'antl- re/u'e
these 'on'erns&
7he 2i'ture a%o#e sho$s a h-2otheti'al (o/el o* a 'ra'4 $ith /e2th <a= ,ro$in, throu,h a tu%e o*
$all thi'4ness <S=& +a'h ti(e the (aterial aroun/ the 'ra'4 is su%?e'te/ to stress throu,h the
i(2in,e(ent o* 'oolin, $ater& 3s the area o#er $hi'h the $ater i(2in,es on the tu%e (etal (*ro( the
'leanin, /e#i'e) (o#es o#er this 2oint, it e!2erien'es a 'oolin, 2erio/ *ro( its ori,inal stea/- state
te(2erature, t-2i'all- a%out 700-800 /e,rees ahrenheit *or a t-2i'al $ater $all tu%e& 3
ther(o'ou2le installe/ $ithin the (etal $all o* the tu%e $ill re'or/ a 'oolin, e**e't, /o$n to a lo$er
le#el, sa- 70 /e,rees lo$er& 7he (a,nitu/e o* this <ther(al e!'ursion= *ro( the ori,inal te(2erature
is the 4e- /eter(inant in 8uanti*-in, the a'tual in're(ental tu%e 'ra'4 ,ro$th /a D BC note/ a%o#e&
7he *un/a(ental relationshi2 un/erl-in, this $as set *or$ar/ in the ori,inal 19L3 h-2othesis %- Paris
an/ +r/o,an:
7he su%?e't o* ther(al 'ra'4 *ati,ue $as anal-5e/ %- the +le'tri'al Po$er .esear'h 1nstitute (+P.1)
'ul(inatin, in the 2u%li'ation o* a re2ort /ate/ 198L, re2ort )S-4914 2re2are/ %- :a%'o'4 an/
Gil'o!& 1n this re2ort the e(2iri'al relationshi2 note/ a%o#e $as a,ain asserte/ in 2ra'ti'e throu,h
the ,atherin, o* a'tual *iel/ /ata *ro( (an- hun/re/s o* installations& 7u%e 'ra'4 /e2ths $ere
(easure/, ther(al i(2a'ts (Belta 7) $ere re'or/e/ an/ the e(2iri'al relationshi2 $as /eter(ine/ to
hol/& 7he *inal 'on'lusions relate to the +P.1 (a4in, re'o((en/ations *or usin, $ater 'leanin,
/e#i'es as lon, as the 2ara(eters *or 'leanin, are 'orre'tl- a22lie/& Su'h 2ara(eters in'lu/e
2ressures, s2ee/s (re*erre/ to as 2ro,ression #elo'it-) an/ no55le si5es& +P.1Os re'o((en/ation
in/i'ate/ that sele'tion o* a site s2e'i*i' Belta 7 shoul/ %e /one to ensure an e!2e'te/ tu%e li*e o*
o#er 40 -ears (2resu(in, a 'ertain nu(%er o* 'leanin, '-'les 2er /a-)&
)o(2arisons o* the 'leanin, 2er*or(an'e an/ ther(al i(2a't o* $ater lan'es has %een 'on/u'te/&
3n e!a(2le o* this is in the testin, /one at a site in $est Kansas, >S3& So(e results o* this testin,
are sho$n %elo$& 1t 'an %e seen that *or ea'h -ear o* o2eration (,i#en a 'ertain total nu(%er o*
'leanin, '-'les 2er -ear), the e!2e'te/ tu%e 'ra'4 /e2th in'reases *or e#er- 'leanin, /e#i'e& 7his is
in the nature o* the a''u(ulation o* 'ra'4 /e2th $ith ti(e&
7he Gater Aan'e: 3lthou,h se#eral (o/els o* $ater lan'e are note/, the 'o((on (o/els t-2i'all-
a'hie#e ther(al i(2a'ts $hi'h in/u'e a 'ra'4 /e2th o* 31I to 51I $ithin 40 -ears&
7he Gater )annon: 7he $ater 'annon teste/ in/u'e/ a ther(al i(2a't in the tu%e to in/i'ate a
2re/i'te/ a#era,e 'ra'4 /e2th o* 1LI a*ter 40 -ears&
Bue to the shallo$ i(2a't an,le o* $ater on the $all $ith $ater lan'es, it has %een note/ at se#eral
installations, in'lu/in, /urin, the testin, note/ a%o#e, that t-2i'all- *our to *i#e 'oolin, '-'les are
i(2ose/ on the tu%e *or ea'h '-'le o* 'leanin,& 7his *a'tor is a si,ni*i'ant 'ontri%utor to the in'rease
in the tu%e 'ra'4 2ro2a,ation rate *or $ater lan'es& 0o$e#er, it 'an %e seen that these (ulti2le
i(2a'ts are not #isi%le *or the $ater 'annon te'hnolo,-& 3 se'on/ s(all /i2 is o%ser#a%le in/i'atin,
a 2ossi%le sli,ht ti,htness in the 'leanin, 2attern&

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