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UDBB1104 CELL BIOLOGY

FACULTY OF SCIENCE
UNIVERSITI TUNKU ABDUL RAHMAN
Jalan Universiti, Bandar Baru Barat, 31900 Kampar, Perak.
LABORATORY PRACTICAL REPORT
TITLE
Mitosis and Meiosis
PREPARED BY
NAME

DATE
LECTURER

1) Low Yue Chiao

1) 1205603

2) Ng Jia Li

2) 1307356

3) How Yee Xian

3) 1307452

th

8 August 2014
DR EE KAH YAW

CRITERIA
Introduction (10%)
Materials & Methods (15%)
Results (30%)
Discussion (30%)
Conclusion (10%)
References (5%)
TOTAL (100%)
Notes:

STUDENT ID.

SCORE

UDBB1104 CELL BIOLOGY


Title: Cell Division: Mitosis and Meiosis
Introduction:
Cell division is important in cell growth of living organisms where the product of one
cell gives rise to two new daughter cells. Cell division helps to increase the total number of
individuals in a population and increase the number of cells for growth of organisms or
replace cells that have died for unicellular and multicellular organisms respectively. A series
of stages known as cell cycle is important to ensure the genetic information distributed
accurately to the daughter cells.
Cell cycle begins when two new cells are formed by the division of a single parental
cell and is completed when one of these cells divides again into two cells. There are 2 major
phases in cell cycle which are the interphase and M phase. Interphase has included G1, S and
G2 phase whereas M phase involves the mitosis and cytokinesis.
Mitosis is the process to produce two genetically identical daughter nuclei from one
nucleus as the duplicated chromosomes of the parent cell divides in to separated nuclei and it
is usually continue by cell division. It can be divided into 5 stages which include prophase,
prometaphase or late prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase.
In this experiment for mitosis, we will prepare the onion root tip slide to learn the
preparation of temporary mount. Commercial slide of onion, Allium root tip mitosis also
provided to study the mitosis of plant cell in detail. From this experiment, we are expected to
identify and describe the stages of the cell cycles.
Meiosis is the series of two cell division preceded by a single round of DNA
replication which converts a single haploid cell into four haploid cells or nuclei. Meiosis
involved 2 types of division which are the meiosis I and Meiosis II. Meiosis I is the first
meiotic division, which produces two haploid cells with chromosomes composed of sister
chromatids. Meiosis II involves in the second meiotic division which separates the sister
chromatids of the haploid cell generated by the first meiotic division.
In the experiment for Meiosis, we will be observing the commercial slides of the Lily
anther pollen tetrads and slide of Lilium anthers 2nd division. The meiotic stages were
observed under the compound light microscope. From the experiment, we are expected to
determine the difference of meiosis and mitosis.

UDBB1104 CELL BIOLOGY


Materials:
For mitosis:
- Prepared slide of onion, Allium, root tip mitosis, Light compound microscope, Cover slip,
Distilled water, Slides, Acetocarmine, Onion with roots, Forceps and scalpel
For Meiosis:
-Light compound microscope, Prepared slide of lily anther pollen tetrads , Prepared slide of
Lilium anthers 2nd division
Methods:
For Mitosis:
Preparation of slide of onion cells
1) A few onion root tips were obtained using scalpel and forceps.
2) A small piece of onion root tip was squashed between two glass slides.
3) A few drops of acetocarmine were added to the squashed specimen to stain for at least
5 minutes.
4) After staining, the specimen was washed with distilled water to rinse off the dye.
5) A few drops distilled water were added on the specimen and a cover slip was put on
top of the specimen.
6) The temporary mount slide was observed under the microscope.
Observation of commercial slide of onion, Allium, root tip mitosis
1) The prepared slide of onion, Allium, root tip mitosis was observed with light
compound microscope.
2) The stages of mitosis division were observed.
3) The results were drawn with labels.
For meiosis:
Observation of prepared slide for Lily, Lilium
1)
2)
3)
4)

The prepared slide of Lily anther pollen tetrads was examined.


The stages of meiotic division were observed.
The steps were repeated for the slide of Lilium anthers 2nd division.
The results obtained were drawn.

Result: Stages
Prophase

Description
The chromatin fibers become more tightly coiled,
condensing into more discrete chromosomes. The
UDBB1104 CELL BIOLOGY
nucleoli disappear. Each duplicated chromosomes
will appear as sister chromatids joined at the
centromeres. The mitotic spindle begins to form.

Prometaphase

The microtubules extending from each


centromeres can enter the nuclear area. The
chromosomes became more condensed compared
to prophase stage. Each of the two chromatids of
each have kinetochore. Some of the microtubules
attach to the kinetochores become kinetochore
microtubules.

Metaphase

The centrosomes are at the opposite poles of the


cell. The chromosomes line along the metaphase
plate, a plane that is the same distant between the
spindles two poles. The chromosomes
centromeres located at the metaphase plate.

Anaphase

The two daughter chromosomes begin moving


toward the opposite ends of the cell. These
microtubules are attached to the centromere
region. The cell elongates as the as the
nonkinetochore microtubules lengthen.

UDBB1104 CELL BIOLOGY

Stages in Meoisis I
Phases

Descriptions

Prophase I

The chromosomes became more condense and the


homologs loosely pair along their lengths. The close
pairing between homologous chromosomes is
known as synapsis. Synapsis can be seen from the
cell. Crossing over begins during pairing and
synaptonemal complex formation and is completed
while homologs in synapsis. Chiasmata can be seen
from prophase. In late prophase I, microtubules
from one pole or the other attach to the two
kinetochores.

Metaphase I

Pairs of homologous chromosomes are now


arranged at the metaphase plate, with one
chromosome in each pair facing each pole. Both
chromatids of one homolog are attached to
kinetochore microtubules from one pole, those of
the other homolog are attached to microtubules from
the opposite pole.

UDBB1104 CELL BIOLOGY


Anaphase I

Breakdown of proteins responsible for sister


chromatid cohesion along chromatid arms allows
homologs to separate. The homologs move toward
opposite poles, guided by the spindle apparatus.

Telophase I

At early telophase I, each half of the cell has a


complete haploid set of duplicated chromosomes.
Each chromosome is composed of two sister
chromatids; one or both chromatids include regions
of non-sister chromatids DNA. No chromosome
duplication occurs between meiosis I and meiosis II.

States in Meiosis II
Phases

Description

Prophase II

A spindle apparatus forms. In late prophase II


(not shown here), chromosomes, each still
composed of two chromatids associated at the
centromere, move toward the metaphase II plate.

Metaphase II

The chromosomes are positioned at the


metaphase plate as in mitosis. Due to the
crossing over in meiosis I, the two sister
chromatids of each chromosome are not
genetically identical. The kinetochores of sister
chromatids are attached to microtubules
extending from opposite poles.

UDBB1104 CELL BIOLOGY


Anaphase II

Breakdown of proteins holding the sister


chromatids together at the centromere allows the
chromatids to separate. The chromatids move
toward
opposite
poles
as
individual
chromosomes.

Telophase

Nuclei form, the chromosomes begin to decondense and cytokinesis occurs. The meiotic
division of one parent cell produces four
daughter cells, each with a haploid set of
(unduplicated) chromosomes. The four daughter
cells are genetically distinct from one another
and from the parent cell.

Discussion:
In this experiment, roop tips is used to observed under microscope. This is because
cell on root tips have faster growing rate compared to other part of onion. Beside that, the
onion root tips cell is easier to stain.
We use acetocarmine to stain chromosomes. The stained the chromosomes help to
distinguish from the other organelles and materials. The dye gives the chromosomes a red
color so that, we can observe the nucleus, duplication of DNA, and movement in cell cycle.
Staining is a simple preparatory technique that allows us to observe the otherwise
difficult to see nucleus of onion cells. There is no need to employ, possibly harmful, DNA
staining chemical.When you look at a stained cell you can easily see the components of the
cell. You should be able to see the cell wall, chromosomes, nucleus and mitochondria. In an
unstained cell, it would be very difficult to differentiate the components of the cell. For the
unstained cell, the nucleus was not stained. But when I got it stained we even saw the
ribosome and some other organelles. My results for observe the cell were more accurate and I
learn to try staining the slide whenever I can to see the cell and other things better on the
microscope. I think that when there is stain around the cell, then our eye can focus more on
the brighter side of the slide. This staining of onion cell makes a difference which allows us

UDBB1104 CELL BIOLOGY


to see the cell better.
The cells are stained too blue and too dark is due to cells were insufficiently washed.
Prolong the washing times or introduce another washing cycle. The problem is the nuclei are
not stained, or not stained enough. There could be several reasons for this, such as, onion was
not placed into the alcohol. Therefore the water inside the cell was not removed and the ink
could not enter the cell. The onion was not submerged long enough in the ink or the onion
was not fully covered by ink on all sides The onion was washed too intensively. This is the
most probable cause. If the onion was washed twice, then the washing step should be
conducted only once. It could also be that the washing times were too long. If the nuclei are
stained lightly blue, then this indicates that the staining procedure is in principle working, but
that too much of the ink was removed.
Mitosis is the phase of the cell cycle where chromosomes in the nucleus are evenly
divided between two cells. When the cell division process is complete, two daughter cells
with identical genetic material are produced.Before a dividing cell enters mitosis, it
undergoes a period of growth called interphase. Some 90% of a cell's time in the normal
cellular cycle may be spent in interphase. Interphase that contain 4 phases which is: G1 phase: The period prior to the synthesis of DNA. In this phase, the cell increases in
mass in preparation for cell division. Note that the G in G1 represents gap and the 1
represents first, so the G1 phase is the first gap phase.
S phase: The period during which DNA is synthesized. In most cells, there is a narrow
window of time during which DNA is synthesized. Note that the S represents synthesis.
G2 phase: The period after DNA synthesis has occurred but prior to the start of prophase.
The cell synthesizes proteins and continues to increase in size. Note that the G in G2
represents gap and the 2 represents second, so the G2 phase is the second gap phase.
In the latter part of interphase, the cell still has nucleoli present.The nucleus is
bounded by a nuclear envelope and the cell's chromosomes have duplicated but are in the
form of chromatin.In animal cells, two pair of centrioles formed from the replication of one
pair are located outside of the nucleus.
Differences and Comparison between meiosis and mitosis:
Definition

Meiosis
A type of cellular

Mitosis
A process of asexual reproduction

reproduction in which the

in which the cell divides in two

number of chromosomes are

producing a replica, with an equal

UDBB1104 CELL BIOLOGY


reduced by half through the

number of chromosomes in each

separation of homologous

resulting diploid cell.

chromosomes, producing two


Function

haploid cells.
Genetic diversity through

Cellular reproduction and general

Type of Reproduction
Occurs in

sexual reproduction.
Sexual
Human, animals, plants,

growth and repair of the body.


Asexual
All organisms.

Genetically
Crossing Over

fungi.
Different
Yes, mixing of chromosomes

Identical
No, crossing over cannot occur.

Pairing of Homologs
Number of Divisions
Number of Daughter

can occur.
Yes
2
4 haploid cells

No
1
2 diploid cells

cells produced
Chromosome Number
Steps

Reduced by half
Meiosis I:

Remain same
Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase,

-Prophase I, Metaphase I,

Telophase.

Anaphase I, Telophase I
Meiosis II:
-Prophase II, Metaphase II,
Cytokinesis

Anaphase II and Telophase II.


Occur in Telophase I and in

Occurs in Telophase

Centromeres Split

Telophase II
The centromeres do not

The centromeres split during

separate during anaphase I,

anaphase.

but during anaphase II.


Sex cells only: female egg

Makes everything other than sex

cells or male sperm cells.

cells.

Creates

Questions:
1. Interphase has sometimes been called a resting stage. Why is this inaccurate?
Interphase in the cell life cycle is a period where the cell carries out its typical
functions in preparation for cell division. It is inaccurate to say called a resting stage
because it is undergoing all of its life biochemical reactions except cell division which still
producing energy and using DNA replication to prepare for Mitosis. It is making proteins,

UDBB1104 CELL BIOLOGY


running biochemical reactions and in general doing whatever an active cell does. Then, the
cell is prepares to divide. Interphase is divided into three parts, G1, S, and G2. During these
parts the cells is more metabolically active than during the M phase. In G 1 the cell undergoes
extensive growth and development which is most active stage for cell. In S the DNA is
replicated in preparation for mitosis. In G2 the cell prepares for mitosis by synthesizing
specific proteins that are used in mitosis.The cell is not resting at all during interphase, rather
it is actually very active.

2. Some specialized cells such as neurons and red blood cells lose their ability to replicate
when they mature. Which phase of the cells cycle do you suspect is terminal for these cells?
Why?
In G1 the cell is just growing, and doing all the normal cell things. After being
checked a few times, it enters S phase, where the DNA is replicated. After that, and a few
more checkpoints, it moves to G2 phase, where it keeps growing and doing all the cell
processes normally. Finally, there is another checkpoint and then the cell jumps into M phase
which known as mitosis. The mitosis consists five part which is prophase, metaphase,
anaphase, telophase and cytokinesis. Then cytokinesis is the stage that cause the cell splits,
then will making two new ones both starting at G1.
Moreover, G0 is a special phase for specialized cells. The Cells enter G0 after
prompting from hormones and environmental factors, and before entering the S phase. Think
of it as an alternate route for the cell to follow other than the cell cycle circle. Once in G 0, the
cell ceases to divide. A vast majority of cells are in G 0, but can easily slip into G1 when they
need to replicated. When one cell dies, another slips back into the cell cycle to replicate and
then they both go into G0.
There are cells that won't ever divide again because they lack the ability to go back
into G1. For example, neurons and blood cells. Basically, they were divided specially from a
stem cell. One of the half kept most of everything that is needed to replicate again, and the
other went of and did its thing. When they die, they are dead. Blood cells themselves do not
replicated, but are continually made from adult stem cells in bone marrow. Neurons, on the
other hand, were made from embryonic stem cells and once dead are gone forever.
3. Why do you suppose cytokinesis generally occurs in the cells midplane?

UDBB1104 CELL BIOLOGY


During cytokinesis process, the cell will be divided to form two new cells. In animal
cell, a cell membrane is formed at the middle of cell and pinches the cell. In plant cell, a cell
plate will be formed at the cell's midplane that gradually change into cell membrane and then
surrounded with cell wall. After a cell underwent the telophase, the content in the cell such a
nucleus and chromosome will we duplicated. Two nucleoles and two set of chromosomes will
be formed at the opposite pole of the cell and cytokinesis process started to take place. Hence,
the cytokinesis had to occur in the cell's midplane, right between both poles, so that the cell's
content can be equally divided into two distinct daughter cells. Cytokinesis that takes place at
the midplane ensures that both daughter cells end up with same size and consist of evenly
distributed cellular components.
4. What would happen if a cell underwent mitosis but not cytokinesis?
If the cell underwent mitosis but not cytokinesis, the cell would have a double set of
chromosomes in it. This is because it wouldn't have split and given the copy to the new cell.
Additionally, it will have a multinucleated cell which do exist in nature and one is called
Langhans cell. In another way, two genetically identical cells is produced. Mitosis is the
process in which cells divide. The two resulting daughter cells each have a nucleus containing
the same number and kind of chromosomes as the mother cell. The cell would have two
nuclei which the cell would not be able to function properly.
Conclusion:
For mitosis:
We have learned to prepare the temporary mount of onion root tip cells and studied
the mitosis of plant cell in detail. We have identified and described the stages of the cell
cycles.
For meiosis:
We have viewed the commercial slides of the Lily anther pollen tetrads and Lilium
anthers 2nd division to observe the meiotic stages under the compound light microscope. We
have also determined the difference of meiosis and mitosis.
References:
Alkhaliq, M. (2011, February 5). Observing onion cells. Retrieved Ogos 2, 2014, from
Wordpress: http://mohtadialkhaliq.wordpress.com/2011/02/05/observing-onion-cells/

UDBB1104 CELL BIOLOGY

Becker, W. M. (2009). The World of the Cell Seventh Edition. San Francisco: Pearson
Benjamin Cummings.
Kim, O. (2008). Staining of Onion Cell Nuclei. Retrieved August 2, 2014, from
MicrobeHunter Microscopy Magazine: http://www.microbehunter.com/staining-of-onioncell-nuclei/
Reece, J.B., Taylor, M.R., Simon, E.J., & Dickey, J.L. (2011). Campbell biology: concepts &
connections (7th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson/Benjamin-Cummings.