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Experiment 3
Title: Cell Structure
1. To prepare specimens for staining
2. To identify unique and standard structures of the microscopic orld
!. To identify and use different stains for the different types of organelles
The epidermis is the outermost cellular layer hich covers the hole plant structure. "t is
composed of a single layer of living cells# although there are e$ceptions. %pidermis is usually
closely pac&ed# ithout intercellular spaces or chloroplasts. The outer alls# hich are e$posed
to the atmosphere and usually thic&ened# and may be covered by a a$y# aterproof cuticle
hich are made up of cutin. 'part from the normal epidermal cells there are also stomata in the
epidermis of leaves and stem. ' stoma is an opening (pore) hich is bounded by to bean
shaped cells called guard cells . The guard cells differ from normal epidermal cells in that they
have chloroplasts and the cell alls are thic&ening unevenly* the outer all is thin and the inner
all (nearest the opening) is thic&. The thin+alled epidermal cells of roots give rise to root
hairs. ,air+ li&e outgroths may also be found in the epidermis of leaves and stems.
Saccharomyces is a genus in the &ingdom of fungi that includes many species of
yeast.Saccharomyces is from -ree& and means sugar fungus. .any members of this genus are
considered very important in food production. "t is &non as the breer/s yeast or ba&er/s yeast.
They are unicellular and saprophytic fungi. One e$ample is Saccharomyces cerevisiae# hich is
used in ma&ing ine# bread# and beer.
The average human adult has more than 0 liters (1 quarts) of blood in his or her body. 2lood
carries o$ygen and nutrients to living cells and ta&es aay their aste products. "t also delivers
immune cells to fight infections and contains platelets that can form a plug in a damaged blood
vessel to prevent blood loss. Through the circulatory system# blood adapts to the body/s needs.
3hen you are e$ercising# your heart pumps harder and faster to provide more blood and hence
o$ygen to your muscles. 4uring an infection# the blood delivers more immune cells to the site of
infection# here they accumulate to ard off harmful invaders.
Spirogyra are a free+floating filamentous form of green algae# commonly seen as bright
green masses on the surfaces of freshater ponds and ditches. "t belongs to a genus of green
algae# of the order 5ygnematales. The name of this algae is derived from the spiral arrangement
of chloroplast in its filament+li&e body. This feature is unique to this genus# hich has almost
677 species. This algae loo& li&e green filaments moving ith the ater current and is very slimy
to touch. This helps the spirogyra prevent other ater organisms from attaching themselves to it.
.eaning of flagellum in biology is long# slender# threadli&e# hipli&e e$tension of certain
cells or unicellular organisms used mainly for movements (others for signal transduction)."n
bacteria# the flagella are helical filaments made up of the protein# flagellin# and rotate li&e
scres. "neu&aryotes# such as in cells of animals# plants and protists# they are made up of
microtubules surrounded by the plasma membrane and enable the cells to move in a hip+li&e
fashion.Some flagella are not used for movement but in sensation and signal transduction by
various cell types# e.g. rod photoreceptor cells of the eye# olfactory receptor neurons of the nose#
&inocilium in cochlea of the ear.
9rof .ar& -ibbons. (2771). %pidermis. 'vailable:;a:sci<ed:grade17:plant<tissues:epidermis.htm. =ast accessed
21st >une 2716.
.ichael ,ar&in# ,eather ?athryn 8os# %rin 9etersen. (2770). 3hat is Saccharomyces
boulardii@. 'vailable:
boulardii. =ast accessed 21st >une 2716.
4ean =. 2ethesda (.4). (2770). 2lood -roups and 8ed Cell 'ntigens A"nternetB.
'vailable:!:. =ast accessed 21st >une 2716.
Sonia Cair. (>une 17# 277D). 3hat is Spirogyra. 'vailable:
http:::.bu;; =ast accessed 21st >une 2716.