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Culture (Latin: cultura, lit. "cultivation") is a modern concept based on a term first used
in classical antiquity by the Roman orator Cicero: "cultura animi" (cultivation of the soul).
This non-agricultural use of the term "culture" re-appeared in modern Europe in the 17th
century referring to the betterment or refinement of individuals, especially through
education. During the 18th and 19th century it came to refer more frequently to the
common reference points of whole peoples, and discussion of the term was often
connected to national aspirations or ideals. Some scientists such as Edward Tylor used
the term "culture" to refer to a universal human capacity.
In the 20th century, "culture" emerged as a central concept in anthropology,
encompassing the range of human phenomena that cannot be directly attributed to
genetic inheritance. Specifically, the term "culture" in American anthropology had two
1. the evolved human capacity to classify and represent experiences with symbols,
and to act imaginatively and creatively; and
2. the distinct ways that people, who live differently, classified and represented their
experiences, and acted creatively.
Hoebel describes culture as an integrated system of learned behavior patterns which
are characteristic of the members of a society and which are not a result of biological
Distinctions are currently made between the physical artifacts created by a society, its
so-called material culture, and everything else, the intangibles such as language,
customs, etc. that are the main referent of the term "culture".

Today, groups of people live and work together in communities throughout the
world. But if we could travel far back in time we would see a very different way of
life. Many thousands of years ago, people moved from place to place to find
food. They stayed in small family groups, finding or building simple shelters so they
could move easily. There were no cities, towns, or even villages. During this time,
there were no civilizations.
A civilization is a group of people living in an area who have improved their way
of life over time. The people who make up a civilization are members of a
society (so-sy-it-ee). When people learn and work together as a society, a
civilization grows.
As a civilization develops over time, it becomes more advanced, and provides a
better life for its people. There are many things we need, in order to have a
civilization. First, a civilization must have communities, towns or cities.
Working together is also important in a civilization. People in our society have
special jobs in which they produce certain goods or provide services. Different
jobs are needed to make a society work, and to meet the needs of a
civilization. Some people make clothes or build houses, while others grow or
prepare food. When everybody works together, people can do more, and live
better lives.
A civilization also needs written language. If people can read and write, then
they are able to learn more about themselves and their society. If people write
down and share what they have learned, then they can pass that knowledge on
to others. Knowledge is very important for a civilization to develop.
A civilization must also have a government to make laws, and lead the people.
For a society to survive, the people must follow rules. It is the job of the leaders
to decide these rules, and to make sure they are followed. A governments job is
to protect its people, and allow a society to grow and develop.
Civilizations around the world have changed throughout time. Many have had
very different societies. As civilizations grow, and become more advanced they
develop their own special way of life.
Culture and Civilization
What is the relation between Culture and Civilization?
Are they the same meaning? Or what?
I think there is a difference between Culture and Civilization.
Civilization is more wideness than Culture, it is the comprehensive result of the
complementary efforts of the human communities throughout the history.
In one word, it is a cumulative fruit of the continuous action throughout of the
succession of the human generations.
Civilization is founded generally, on tow pillars, cultural pillar and material pillar.
From the material side, I believe there is only one building of the human
So, I believe that we are in front of a cumulative civilization; consist of a divers civilized
unites, every unite belongs a certain nation in the course of the human history.
But what is the difference between the civilized unites?
Are they similar? Or what?
I think they are not similar, they are certainly, different. But the question that imposes
itself is, How can we differentiate between the civilized unites? What is the doctrine of
differentiation between it?
I think that the culture is the only standard to distinguish between the civilizations.
So, any nation is progressed in its culture, undoubtedly, it is progressed in its
In one word, the cultural progress means progress of the civilization, because the
culture is the soul of the civilization; So, any nation is underdeveloped in its
culture it is certainly, is retreating in its civilization.
On other hand, collapsing of culture means collapsing of civilization; this is a truth
that the contemporary and the human history ratify and assure it.
Culture Vs Civilization
Firstly, civilization in theory is bigger than culture in which an entire civilization can
encompass one single unit of culture. Civilization is a bigger unit than culture because it
is a complex aggregate of the society that dwells within a certain area, along with its
forms of government, norms, and even culture. Thus, culture is just a spec or a portion
of an entire civilization. For example, the Egyptian civilization has an Egyptian culture in
the same way as the Greek civilization has their Greek culture.
A culture ordinarily exists within a civilization. In this regard, each civilization can contain
not only one but several cultures. Comparing culture and civilization is like showing the
difference between language and the country to which it is being used.
Culture can exist in itself whereas civilization cannot be called a civilization if it does not
possess a certain culture. Its just like asking how a nation can exist on its own without
the use of a medium of communication. Hence, a civilization will become empty if it
does not have its culture, no matter how little it is.
Culture can be something that is tangible and it can also be something that isnt. Culture
can become a physical material if it is a product of the beliefs, customs and practices of
a certain people with a definite culture. But a civilization is something that can be seen
as a whole and it is more or less tangible although its basic components, like culture,
can be immaterial.
Culture can be learned and in the same manner it can also be transmitted from one
generation to the next. Using a medium of speech and communication, it is possible for
a certain type of culture to evolve and even be inherited by another group of people. On
the other hand, civilization cannot be transferred by mere language alone. Because of
its complexity and magnitude, you need to transfer all of the raw aggregates of a
civilization for it to be entirely passed on. It just grows, degrades and may eventually
end if all its subunits will fail.
Summary :
1.Culture is by definition smaller than a civilization.
2.Culture can grow and exist without residing in a formal civilization whereas a
civilization will never grow and exist without the element of culture.
3.Culture can be tangible or intangible whereas civilization is something that is more
tangible because it is what you see as a whole
4.Culture can be transmitted through symbols in the form of language whereas an entire
civilization cannot be transmitted by mere language alone.