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Forest reserve:

Forest reserve is a complex, self-regenerating ecological system with a wide


variety of plant and animals in mutual relation.
Harvesting of wood product as for commercial purposes in the forest
reserve is prohibited. Examples of the localized resources such as fragile soil
types and habitats of rare species are intended to be conserved. Trees are an
important part of the water cycle by helping slow runof and allowing water to
flter into the soil. They can preserve groundwater supplies that are important
both to people as drinking water and to fsh and other auatic life in nearby
streams. Trees also help hold soil in place! reducing erosion by both water
and wind. "or example! #hina has embarked on an ambitious reforestation
efort in part to alleviate these problems.
Recently, a lot of forest reserve are cleared and replaced by plantation.
Consequences of plantation over forest reserve include two-fold impact globally through
loss of biodiversity. It may cause disturbance of the soil and directly degrade the previous
ecosystem. nce a forest is not there to absorb the water from the rain, this creates floods
and provo!es soil erosion. "ost of the nutrients and the elements needed to maintain life
are then washed away. In the tropics, deforestation can lead to desertification, where the
area becomes a desert and loses most of its life.
2.0 Plantation
#lantation is a !ind of forest , or estate that are artificially established. $he plants
that grow by plantation are usually fast-growing trees, for example coffee, sugar cane and
others.
%owever, dilemma have rose results of conversion of forest reserve places to
plantation state. #lants that are grown by plantation are mostly monoculture. $he species
are exotic or indigenous. &s compare to deforestation, plantation have less variety of
species rather than diverse range of species.
'esides that, all of the plant exist in forest reserve are naturally grown without
ad(usted by any factors. In the other hand, plantation may include unconventional types
of hybrids and genetically modified trees. $he plants used for plantation are often
genetically altered for desired traits such as growth and resistance to pest and specific
traits. $his cataly)e the widespread of resistance and affects the balance of ecosystem.
#lantation gives a lot of advantages for industrial applications. #lants are planted far
beyond their range because of their fast growth rate. "any high value foods and plants
can be produced in a short time of period. *espite that, the plant growth are usually
survive for (ust a short period, due to the competition between same species as they grew
up.
"any experts claim that the established of plantation will reduce or eliminate the
need to exploit natural forest for wood production. $he mutualistic relationship between
species in plantation decreases .
Forest Differences Plantation
+atural resources Formation &rtificial or man made
%igh diversity Species diversity /
abundance
,ow diversity
,onger time needed Time Few years needed
%igh competition among
species
%igh mutualistic
relationship
Interspecific competition
Competition ,ow competition among
species
,ow mutualistic
relationship
Intraspecific competition
Reserve natural habitat
-resources
"aintain ecosystem
Benefits Commercially benefits
%igh values food and
plant produced in short
period