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Shellah Zafirah E.

Abantas
Introduction

Measles- a.k.a. Rubeola

an infection of the respiratory system caused


by measles virus belonging to paramyxovirus
group.

s an endemic disease.

Muhammad ibn Zakariya ar-Ra!i "#$%-&'()

a *ersian physician+ kno,n to the ,est as


-Rha!es.

the one ,ho discover the first scientific


description of measles and its distinction from
smallpo/ and chickenpo/ in his book entitled
The Book of Smallpox and Measles "in Arabic0
Kitab fi al-jadari wa-al-hasbah).
Measles Virus
Etiologic Agent
Measles is caused by paramy/ovirus roup of the
genus Morbillivirus.
Paramyxovirus
1rom 2reek para-+ beyond+ -my/o-+ mucus or
slime+ plus virus+ from 3atin poison+ slime.
t is a spherical virus+ 4(%-(5% nm in diameter+
surrounded by a lipoprotein envelope having
haemagglutinin spikes only.
*hysical structure 6irions are enveloped and can
be spherical+ filamentous or pleomorphic. 1usion
proteins and attachment proteins appear as spikes
on the virion surface. Matri/ proteins inside the
envelope stabilise virus structure. 7he
nucleocapsid core is composed of the genomic
R8A+ nucleocapsid proteins+ phosphoproteins and
polymerase proteins.
Incubation

7he infection has an average incubation


period of 49 days "range $:4& days) and
infectivity lasts from (:9 days prior to (:5
days follo,ing the onset of the rash.
"maculopopular rash)
Mode of Transmission

Measles is spread through respiration "contact


,ith fluids from an infected person;s nose and
mouth+ either directly or through aerosol
transmission). 7he measles virus is a highly
contagious airborne pathogen ,hich spreads
primarily via the respiratory system. 7he virus
is transmitted in respiratory secretions+ and
can be passed from person to person via
aerosol droplets containing virus particles+
such as those produced by a coughing patient.
<nce transmission occurs+ the virus infects
and replicates in the lymphatic system+ urinary
tract+ con=unctivae+ blood vessels and central
nervous system of its ne, host.
Disease
Process/Pathophysiology

Measles is highly infectious childhood


disease transmitted by inhalation of virus
present in respiratory secretion of patient.

After multiplication in respiratory tract+


invades bloodstream and spreads to
reticuloendothlial system ,here it
multiplies further and via blood transported
to skin+ mouth+ respiratory tract and
con=unctiva.
Clinical Manifestation
Measles include four day fevers. "fever may reach
up to 9%> ?elsius "4%9> 1ahrenheit)
@oplik;s spots : small bluish ,hite dots surrounded
by a reddish !one that appear on the mucous
membrane of the cheeks and lips before the
appearance of the skin eruption.
7he three ?sA?ough+ ?ory!a "runny nose) and
?on=unctivitis "red eyes).
7he characteristic measles rash is classically
described as a generali!ed+ maculopapular+
erythematous rash that begins several days after
the fever starts. t starts on the head before
spreading to cover most of the body+ often causing
itching. 7he rash is said to BstainB+ changing color
from red to dark bro,n+ before disappearing.
Early Sign
7his child sho,s a day-9 rash
,ith measles.
Medical Management

Avoid e/posing children to any person ,ith


fever or ,ith acute catarrhal symptoms.

solation of cases from diagnosis until 5-C days


after onset of rash.

Disinfection of all articles soiled ,ith secretion


of nose and throat.

Encouragement by health department and by


private physician of administration of measles
immune globulin to susceptible infants and
children under 'yrs. <f age in families or
institutions ,here measles occurs.

3ive attenuated and inactivated measles virus


vaccines have been tested and are available
foe use in children ,ith no history of measles
at & months of age or soon thereafter.
Nursing Management

*rotect eyes patients from glare of strong


light as they are apt to be inflamed.

@eep the patient in an adeEuately


ventilated room but free from drafts and
chilling to avoid complications of
pneumonia.

7each+ guide and supervise correct


techniEue of giving sponge bath for
comfort of patient.

?heck for correction of medication and


treatment prescribed by physician.